Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

Part 10 out of 46

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 4.1 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

subject to typhoons (November to March)
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change; signed, but not ratified -
Law of the Sea

@Cook Islands, People

Population:
19,124 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.15% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
23.22 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-6.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.14 years
male:
69.2 years
female:
73.1 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.3 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Cook Islander(s)
adjective:
Cook Islander
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European 7.7%,
Polynesian and other 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%
Religions:
Christian (majority of populace members of Cook Islands Christian
Church)
Languages:
English (official), Maori
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
5,810
by occupation:
agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%, industry 15%, other 4%
(1981)

@Cook Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Cook Islands
Digraph:
CW
Type:
self-governing parliamentary government in free association with New
Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible for internal affairs; New
Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs, in consultation
with the Cook Islands
Capital:
Avarua
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
none (became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on 4
August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full independence
by unilateral action)
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 4 August
Constitution:
4 August 1965
Legal system:
NA
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Executive branch:
chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Representative of the
Queen Apenera SHORT (since NA); Representative of New Zealand Adrian
SINCOCK (since NA)
head of government:
Prime Minister Geoffrey HENRY (since 1 February 1989); Deputy Prime
Minister Inatio AKARURU (since 1 February 1989)
cabinet:
Cabinet; collectively responsible to the Parliament
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Parliament:
elections last held 24 March 1994 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (25 total) Cook Islands Party 20,
Democratic Party 3, Alliance Party 2
note:
the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters, but has
no legislative powers
Judicial branch:
High Court
Political parties and leaders:
Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY; Democratic Party, Sir Thomas
DAVIS; Cook Islands Labor Party, Rena JONASSEN; Cook Islands People's
Party, Sadaraka SADARAKA; Alliance, Norman GEORGE
Member of:
AsDB, ESCAP (associate), ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, INTELSAT (nonsignatory
user), IOC, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)
US diplomatic representation:
none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)
Flag:
blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a
large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island)
centered in the outer half of the flag

@Cook Islands, Economy

Overview:
Agriculture provides the economic base. The major export earners are
fruit, copra, and clothing. Manufacturing activities are limited to a
fruit-processing plant and several clothing factories. Economic
development is hindered by the isolation of the islands from foreign
markets and a lack of natural resources and good transportation links.
A large trade deficit is annually made up for by remittances from
emigrants and from foreign aid, largely from New Zealand. Current
economic development plans call for exploiting the tourism potential
and expanding the fishing industry.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $57 million (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$3,000 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.2% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$38 million
expenditures:
$34.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)
Exports:
$3.4 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
copra, fresh and canned fruit, clothing
partners:
NZ 80%, Japan
Imports:
$50 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber
partners:
NZ 49%, Japan, Australia, US
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
14,000 kW
production:
21 million kWh
consumption per capita:
1,170 kWh (1990)
Industries:
fruit processing, tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 12% of GDP, export crops - copra, citrus fruits,
pineapples, tomatoes, bananas; subsistence crops - yams, taro
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $128 million
Currency:
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.7771 (January 1994), 1.8495
(1993), 1.8584 (1992), 1.7265 (1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6708 (1989)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

@Cook Islands, Communications

Highways:
total:
187 km
paved:
35 km
unpaved:
gravel 35 km; improved earth 84 km; unimproved earth 33 km (1980)
Ports:
Avatiu
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 or over) totaling 1,464 GRT/2,181 DWT
Airports:
total:
7
usable:
7
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
5
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 11,000 radio receivers; 17,000
TV receivers (1989); 2,052 telephones; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

@Cook Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

@Coral Sea Islands

Header
Affiliation:
(territory of Australia)

@Coral Sea Islands, Geography

Location:
Southwestern Oceania, just off the northeast coast of Australia in the
Coral Sea
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
less than 3 sq km
land area:
less than 3 sq km
comparative area:
NA
note:
includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea area of
about 1 million sq km, with Willis Islets the most important
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
3,095 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (mostly grass or scrub cover)
Irrigated land:
0 sq km
Environment:
current issues:
no permanent fresh water resources
natural hazards:
subject to occasional tropical cyclones
international agreements:
NA
Note:
important nesting area for birds and turtles

@Coral Sea Islands, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are 3 meteorologists

@Coral Sea Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Coral Sea Islands Territory
conventional short form:
Coral Sea Islands
Digraph:
CR
Type:
territory of Australia administered by the Ministry for Environment,
Sport, and Territories
Capital:
none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Independence:
none (territory of Australia)
Flag:
the flag of Australia is used

@Coral Sea Islands, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

@Coral Sea Islands, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorages only

@Coral Sea Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly by the
Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities of
visitors

@Costa Rica, Geography

Location:
Middle America, between Nicaragua and Panama
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America
Area:
total area:
51,100 sq km
land area:
50,660 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
note:
includes Isla del Coco
Land boundaries:
total 639 km, Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km
Coastline:
1,290 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to
November)
Terrain:
coastal plains separated by rugged mountains
Natural resources:
hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land:
6%
permanent crops:
7%
meadows and pastures:
45%
forest and woodland:
34%
other:
8%
Irrigated land:
1,180 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation, largely a result of land clearing for cattle ranching;
soil erosion
natural hazards:
subject to occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast;
frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active
volcanoes
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Marine Life Conservation

@Costa Rica, People

Population:
3,342,154 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.31% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
25.48 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
3.52 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
11 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.8 years
male:
75.88 years
female:
79.81 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.06 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Costa Rican(s)
adjective:
Costa Rican
Ethnic divisions:
white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Indian 1%, Chinese 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
Spanish (official), English; spoken around Puerto Limon
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
93%
male:
93%
female:
93%
Labor force:
868,300
by occupation:
industry and commerce 35.1%, government and services 33%, agriculture
27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)

@Costa Rica, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Costa Rica
conventional short form:
Costa Rica
local long form:
Republica de Costa Rica
local short form:
Costa Rica
Digraph:
CS
Type:
democratic republic
Capital:
San Jose
Administrative divisions:
7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Alajuela, Cartago,
Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose
Independence:
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution:
9 November 1949
Legal system:
based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Jose Maria FIGUERES Olsen (since 8 May 1994); First Vice
President Rodrigo OREAMUNO Blanco (since 8 May 1994); Second Vice
President Rebeca GRYNSPAN Mayufis (since 8 May 1994); election last
held 6 February 1994 (next to be held February 1998); results -
President FIGUERES (PLN party) 49.7%, Miquel Angel RODRIGUEZ (PUSC
party) 47.5%
cabinet:
Cabinet; selected by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa):
elections last held 6 February 1994 (next to be held February 1998);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (61 total) PLN 28, PUSC
29, minority parties 4
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Political parties and leaders:
National Liberation Party (PLN), Manuel AGUILAR Bonilla; Social
Christian Unity Party (PUSC), Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier; Marxist
Popular Vanguard Party (PVP), Humberto VARGAS Carbonell; New Republic
Movement (MNR), Sergio Erick ARDON Ramirez; Progressive Party (PP),
Isaac Felipe AZOFEIFA Bolanos; People's Party of Costa Rica (PPC),
Lenin CHACON Vargas; Radical Democratic Party (PRD), Juan Jose
ECHEVERRIA Brealey
Other political or pressure groups:
Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers (CCTD; Liberation
Party affiliate); Confederated Union of Workers (CUT, Communist Party
affiliate); Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers (CATD,
Communist Party affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; National
Association for Economic Development (ANFE); Free Costa Rica Movement
(MCRL, rightwing militants); National Association of Educators (ANDE)
Member of:
AG (observer), BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Gonzalo FACIO Segreda
chancery:
2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 234-2945
FAX:
(202) 265-4795
consulate(s) general:
Albuquerque, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, Orlando, Philadelphia, San Antonio, San Diego,
San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s):
Austin and Raleigh
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d' Affaires Joseph BECELIA
embassy:
Pavas Road, San Jose
mailing address:
APO AA 34020
telephone:
[506] 20-39-39
FAX:
(506) 20-2305
Flag:
five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width), white,
and blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk on the hoist side of
the red band

@Costa Rica, Economy

Overview:
In 1993 the economy grew at an estimated 6.5%, compared with 7.7% in
1992 and 2.1% in 1991. Increases in agricultural production (coffee
and bananas), nontraditional exports, and tourism are responsible for
much of the growth. Inflation in 1993 dropped to 9% from 17% in 1992
and 25% in 1991, an indication of basic financial stability.
Unemployment is officially reported at 4.0%, but much underemployment
remains.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $19.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
6.5% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$5,900 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4% (1993); much underemployment
Budget:
revenues:
$1.1 billion
expenditures:
$1.34 billion, including capital expenditures of $110 million (1991
est.)
Exports:
$1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar
partners:
US, Germany, Italy, Guatemala, El Salvador, Netherlands, UK, France
Imports:
$2.9 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment, petroleum
partners:
US, Japan, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Germany
External debt:
$3.2 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 10.5% (1992); accounts for 22% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
927,000 kW
production:
3.612 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
1,130 kWh (1992)
Industries:
food processing, textiles and clothing, construction materials,
fertilizer, plastic products
Agriculture:
accounts for 19% of GDP and 70% of exports; cash commodities - coffee,
beef, bananas, sugar; other food crops include corn, rice, beans,
potatoes; normally self-sufficient in food except for grain; depletion
of forest resources resulting in lower timber output
Illicit drugs:
transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South America;
illicit production of cannabis on small scattered plots
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $935
million; Communist countries (1971-89), $27 million
Currency:
1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates:
Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1 - 150.67 (December 1993), 142.17
(1993), 134.51 (1992), 122.43 (1991), 91.58 (1990), 81.504 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Costa Rica, Communications

Railroads:
950 km total, all 1.067-meter gauge; 260 km electrified
Highways:
total:
35,536 km
paved:
5,600 km
unpaved:
gravel and earth 29,936 km (1991)
Inland waterways:
about 730 km, seasonally navigable
Pipelines:
petroleum products 176 km
Ports:
Puerto Limon, Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puntarenas
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,878 GRT/4,506 DWT
Airports:
total:
184
usable:
165
with permanent-surface runways:
27
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
9
Telecommunications:
very good domestic telephone service; 292,000 telephones; connection
into Central American Microwave System; broadcast stations - 71 AM, no
FM, 18 TV, 13 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Costa Rica, Defense Forces

Branches:
Civil Guard, Rural Assistance Guard
note:
constitution prohibits armed forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 873,987; fit for military service 588,223; reach
military age (18) annually 32,308 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $22 million, 0.5% of GDP (1989)

@Cote d'Ivoire

Header
Affiliation:
(also known as Ivory Coast)

@Cote d'Ivoire, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Ghana and
Liberia
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
322,460 sq km
land area:
318,000 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
total 3,110 km, Burkina 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km, Liberia
716 km, Mali 532 km
Coastline:
515 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and
dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June
to October)
Terrain:
mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
Natural resources:
petroleum, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper
Land use:
arable land:
9%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures:
9%
forest and woodland:
26%
other:
52%
Irrigated land:
620 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation; water pollution from sewage and industrial and
agricultural effluents
natural hazards:
coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors
international agreements:
party to - Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Tropical Timber

@Cote d'Ivoire, People

Population:
14,295,501 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.44% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
46.52 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
15.01 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
95 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
48.92 years
male:
46.75 years
female:
51.16 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.67 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Ivorian(s)
adjective:
Ivorian
Ethnic divisions:
Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%, Agni, foreign
Africans (mostly Burkinabe and Malians, about 3 million), non-Africans
130,000 to 330,000 (French 30,000 and Lebanese 100,000 to 300,000)
Religions:
indigenous 25%, Muslim 60%, Christian 12%
Languages:
French (official), 60 native dialects Dioula is the most widely spoken
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
54%
male:
67%
female:
40%
Labor force:
5.718 million
by occupation:
over 85% of population engaged in agriculture, forestry, livestock
raising; about 11% of labor force are wage earners, nearly half in
agriculture and the remainder in government, industry, commerce, and
professions
note:
54% of population of working age (1985)

@Cote d'Ivoire, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
conventional short form:
Cote d'Ivoire
local long form:
Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
local short form:
Cote d'Ivoire
former:
Ivory Coast
Digraph:
IV
Type:
republic multiparty presidential regime established 1960
Capital:
Yamoussoukro
note:
although Yamoussoukro has been the capital since 1983, Abidjan remains
the administrative center; foreign governments, including the United
States, maintain presence in Abidjan
Administrative divisions:
50 departments (departements, singular - departement); Abengourou,
Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville, Agnibilckrou, Bangolo, Beoumi,
Biankouma, Bondoukou, Bongouanou, Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali,
Dabakala, Daloa, Danane, Daoukro, Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue,
Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou, Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo,
Lakota, Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne, Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro,
Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou, Tanda, Tingrela, Tiassale,
Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula
Independence:
7 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
National Day, 7 December
Constitution:
3 November 1960; has been amended numerous times, last time November
1990
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review in
the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Henri Konan BEDIE (since 7 December 1993) constitutional
successor who will serve during the remainder of the term of former
President Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY who died in office after continuous
service from November 1960 (next election October 1995)
head of government:
Prime Minister Kablan Daniel DUNCAN (since 10 December 1993)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale):
elections last held 25 November 1990 (next to be held November 1995);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (175 total) PDCI 163,
FPI 9, PIT 1, independents 2
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party of the Cote d'Ivoire (PDCI), Henri Konan BEDIE;
Ivorian Popular Front (FPI), Laurent GBAGBO; Ivorian Worker's Party
(PIT), Francis WODIE; Ivorian Socialist Party (PSI), Morifere BAMBA;
over 20 smaller parties
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jean-Marie KACOU-GERVAIS
chancery:
2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 797-0300
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Hume A. HORAN
embassy:
5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan
mailing address:
01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan
telephone:
[225] 21-09-79 or 21-46-72
FAX:
[225] 22-32-59
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green;
similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors
reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the
flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was
based on the flag of France

@Cote d'Ivoire, Economy

Overview:
Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest producers and exporters of
coffee, cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil. Consequently, the economy is
highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for coffee
and cocoa and to weather conditions. Despite attempts by the
government to diversify, the economy is still largely dependent on
agriculture and related industries. The agricultural sector accounts
for over one-third of GDP and about 80% of export earnings and employs
about 85% of the labor force. A collapse of world cocoa and coffee
prices in 1986 threw the economy into a recession, from which the
country has yet to fully recover. Continuing weak prices for commodity
exports, a bloated public-sector wage bill, and a large foreign debt
will continue to constrain economic development, this despite the 50%
currency devaluation in January 1994 designed to restore international
price competitiveness. A large, non-competitive import-substitution
sector continues to thrive under steep tariff and import quota
barriers.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $21 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA
National product per capita:
$1,500 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
14% (1985)
Budget:
revenues:
$2.3 billion
expenditures:
$3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $274 million (1990
est.)
Exports:
$2.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
cocoa 30%, coffee 20%, tropical woods 11%, petroleum, cotton, bananas,
pineapples, palm oil, cotton
partners:
France, FRG, Netherlands, US, Belgium, Spain (1985)
Imports:
$1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
food, capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
partners:
France 29%, other EC 29%, Nigeria 16%, US 4%, Japan 3% (1989)
External debt:
$17.3 billion (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6% (1990); accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
1,210,000 kW
production:
1.97 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
150 kWh (1991)
Industries:
foodstuffs, wood processing, oil refinery, automobile assembly,
textiles, fertilizer, beverage
Agriculture:
most important sector, contributing one-third to GDP and 80% to
exports; cash crops include coffee, cocoa beans, timber, bananas, palm
kernels, rubber; food crops - corn, rice, manioc, sweet potatoes; not
self-sufficient in bread grain and dairy products
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis; mostly for local consumption; some
international drug trade; transshipment point for Southwest and
Southeast Asian heroin to Europe and occasionally to the US
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $356 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $5.2
billion
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05
(January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26
(1990), 319.01 (1989)
note:
beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per
French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Cote d'Ivoire, Communications

Railroads:
660 km (Burkina border to Abidjan, 1.00-meter gauge, single track,
except 25 km Abidjan-Anyama section is double track)
Highways:
total:
46,600 km
paved:
3,600 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, improved earth 32,000 km; unimproved earth
11,000 km
Inland waterways:
980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons
Ports:
Abidjan, San-Pedro
Merchant marine:
8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 92,828 GRT/ 134,606 DWT, bulk 1,
chemical tanker 1, container 2, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3
Airports:
total:
41
usable:
37
with permanent-surface runways:
7
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
15
Telecommunications:
well-developed by African standards but operating well below capacity;
consists of open-wire lines and radio relay microwave links; 87,700
telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 17 FM, 13 TV, 1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station; 2 coaxial submarine cables

@Cote d'Ivoire, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, Republican Guard,
Military Fire Group
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 3,224,673; fit for military service 1,674,127; reach
military age (18) annually 149,991 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $200 million, 2.3% of GDP (1988)

@Croatia, Geography

Location:
Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula, bordering
the Adriatic Sea, between Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Map references:
Africa, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones
of the World
Area:
total area:
56,538 sq km
land area:
56,410 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total 2,028 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia
and Montenegro 266 km (241 km with Serbia; 25 km with Montenego),
Slovenia 501 km
Coastline:
5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
12 nm
exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Serbs have occupied UN protected areas in eastern Croatia and along
the western Bosnia and Herzegovinian border; dispute with Slovenia
over fishing rights in Adriatic
Climate:
Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with
hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
Terrain:
geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low
mountains and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline, and islands
Natural resources:
oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural asphalt,
silica, mica, clays, salt
Land use:
arable land:
32%
permanent crops:
20%
meadows and pastures:
18%
forest and woodland:
15%
other:
15%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
current issues:
air pollution from metallurgical plants is damaging the forests;
coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; widespread
casualties and destruction of infrastructure in border areas affected
by civil strife
natural hazards:
subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change
Note:
controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and
Turkish Straits

@Croatia, People

Population:
4,697,614 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.07% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
11.27 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
10.54 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.6 years
male:
70.14 years
female:
77.26 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.65 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Croat(s)
adjective:
Croatian
Ethnic divisions:
Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%, Slovenian 0.5%,
others 8.1%
Religions:
Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%, Protestant 0.4%,
others and unknown 10.8%
Languages:
Serbo-Croatian 96%, other 4%
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
1,509,489
by occupation:
industry and mining 37%, agriculture 16% (1981 est.), government NA%,
other

@Croatia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Croatia
conventional short form:
Croatia
local long form:
Republika Hrvatska
local short form:
Hrvatska
Digraph:
HR
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Zagreb
Administrative divisions:
21 counties (zupanijas, zupanija - singular): Bjelovar-Bilogora, City
of Zagreb, Dubrovnik-Neretva, Istra, Karlovac, Koprivnica-Krizevci,
Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj, Medimurje, Osijek-Baranja,
Pozega-Slavonija, Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Sibenik, Sisak-Moslavina,
Slavonski Brod-Posavina, Split-Dalmatia, Varazdin,
Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem, Zadar-Knin, Zagreb
Independence:
NA June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)
Constitution:
adopted on 2 December 1990
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Franjo TUDJMAN (since 30 May 1990); election last held 4
August 1992 (next to be held NA 1995); Franjo TUDJMAN reelected with
about 56% of the vote; his opponent Dobroslav PARAGA got 5% of the
vote
head of government:
Prime Minister Nikica VALENTIC (since 3 April 1993); Deputy Prime
Ministers Mato GRANIC (since 8 September 1992), Ivica KOSTOVIC (since
NA), Vladimir SEKS (since September 1992), Borislav SKEGRO (since NA)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
bicameral parliament Assembly (Sabor)
House of Districts (Zupanije Dom):
elections last held 7 and 21 February 1993 (next to be held NA
February 1997); seats - (68 total; 63 elected, 5 presidentially
appointed) HDZ 37, HSLS 16, HSS 5, Istrian Democratic Assembly 3,
SPH-SDP 1, HNS 1
House of Representatives (Predstavnicke Dom):
elections last held 2 August 1992 (next to be held NA August 1996);
seats - (138 total) HDZ 85, HSLS 14, SPH-SDP 11, HNS 6, Dalmatian
Action/Istrian Democratic Assembly/ Rijeka Democratic Alliance
coalition 6, HSP 5, HSS 3, SNS 3, independents 5
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders:
Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), Stjepan MESIC, chairman of the
executive council; Croatian People's Party (HNS), Savka
DABCEVIC-KUCAR, president; Serbian People's Party (SNS), Milan DUKIC;
Croatian Party of Rights (HSP), leader NA; Croatian Social Liberal
Party (HSLS), Drazen BUDISA, president; Croatian Peasant Party (HSS),
leader NA; Dalmatian Action/Istrian Democratic Assembly/Rijecka
Democratic Alliance coalition; Social Democratic Party of
Croatia-Party of Democratic Changes (SPH-SDP), Ivica RACAN
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
CE (guest), CEI, CSCE, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM
(observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Petr A. SARCEVIC
chancery:
(temporary) 236 Massachusetts Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20002
telephone:
(202) 543-5580
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Peter W. GALBRAITH
embassy:
Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb
mailing address:
US Embassy, Zagreb, Unit 1345, APO AE 09213-1345
telephone:
[385] (41) 444-800
FAX:
[385] (41) 45 85 85
Flag:
red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms (red
and white checkered)

@Croatia, Economy

Overview:
Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic of Croatia, after
Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area, with a per
capita output roughly comparable to that of Portugal and perhaps
one-third above the Yugoslav average. At present, Croatian Serb
Nationalists control approximately one-third of the Croatian
territory, and one of the overriding determinants of Croatia's
long-term political and economic prospects will be the resolution of
this territorial dispute. Croatia faces monumental economic problems
stemming from: the legacy of longtime Communist mismanagement of the
economy; large foreign debt; damage during the fighting to bridges,
factories, power lines, buildings, and houses; the large refugee
population, both Croatian and Bosnian; and the disruption of economic
ties to Serbia and the other former Yugoslav republics, as well as
within its own territory. At the minimum, extensive Western aid and
investment, especially in the tourist and oil industries, would seem
necessary to salvage a desperate economic situation. However, peace
and political stability must come first; only then will recent
government moves toward a "market-friendly" economy reverse the sharp
drop in output. As of May 1994, fighting continues among Croats,
Serbs, and Muslims, and national boundaries and final political
arrangements are still in doubt.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $21.8 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-19% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$4,500 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
26% monthly average (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
21% (December 1993)
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$3.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 30%, other manufacturers 37%,
chemicals 11%, food and live animals 9%, raw materials 6.5%, fuels and
lubricants 5% (1990)
partners:
EC countries, Slovenia
Imports:
$4.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 21%, fuels and lubricants 19%, food
and live animals 16%, chemicals 14%, manufactured goods 13%,
miscellaneous manufactured articles 9%, raw materials 6.5%, beverages
and tobacco 1% (1990)
partners:
EC countries, Slovenia, FSU countries
External debt:
$2.6 billion (December 1993)
Industrial production:
growth rate -5.9% (1993 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
3,570,000 kW
production:
11.5 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
2,400 kWh (1992)
Industries:
chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics,
pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum reduction, paper, wood
products (including furniture), building materials (including cement),
textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food
processing and beverages
Agriculture:
Croatia normally produces a food surplus; most agricultural land in
private hands and concentrated in Croat-majority districts in Slavonia
and Istria; much of Slavonia's land has been put out of production by
fighting; wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflowers, alfalfa, and clover
are main crops in Slavonia; central Croatian highlands are less
fertile but support cereal production, orchards, vineyards, livestock
breeding, and dairy farming; coastal areas and offshore islands grow
olives, citrus fruits, and vegetables
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
1 Croatian dinar (CD) = 100 paras; a new currency, the kuna, replaced
the dinar on 30 May 1994
Exchange rates:
Croatian dinar per US $1 - 6,544 (January 1994), 3,637 (15 July 1993),
60.00 (April 1992)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Croatia, Communications

Railroads:
2,592 km of standard guage (1.435 m) of which 864 km are electrified
(1992); note - disrupted by territorial dispute
Highways:
total:
32,071 km
paved:
23,305 km
unpaved:
gravel 8,439 km; earth 327 km (1990)
Inland waterways:
785 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas 310 km (1992);
note - now disrupted because of territorial dispute
Ports:
coastal - Omisalj (oil), Ploce, Rijeka, Split; inland - Osijek,
Slavonski Samac, Vukovar, Zupanja
Merchant marine:
28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 108,194 GRT/131,880 DWT, cargo
18, container 1, oil tanker 1, passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 3
note:
also controlled by Croatian shipowners are 151 ships (1,000 GRT or
over) under flags of convenience - primarily Malta and St. Vincent -
totaling 2,221,931 GRT/3,488,263 DWT; includes cargo 60, roll-on/
roll-off 8, refrigerated cargo 4, container 12, multifunction large
load carriers 3, bulk 45, oil tanker 9, liquified gas 1, chemical
tanker 4, service vessel 5
Airports:
total:
75
usable:
70
with permanent-surface runways:
16
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
7
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
5
Telecommunications:
350,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 14 AM, 8 FM, 12 (2 repeaters)
TV; 1,100,000 radios; 1,027,000 TVs; satellite ground stations - none

@Croatia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,182,767; fit for military service 946,010; reach
military age (19) annually 33,166 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
337 billion-393 billion Croatian dinars, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note
- conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

@Cuba, Geography

Location:
Caribbean, in the northern Caribbean Sea, 145 km south of Key West
(Florida)
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones
of the World
Area:
total area:
110,860 sq km
land area:
110,860 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
total 29 km, US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km
note:
Guantanamo is leased and as such remains part of Cuba
Coastline:
3,735 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US and only mutual
agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease
Climate:
tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April);
rainy season (May to October)
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains in the
southeast
Natural resources:
cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica,
petroleum
Land use:
arable land:
23%
permanent crops:
6%
meadows and pastures:
23%
forest and woodland:
17%
other:
31%
Irrigated land:
8,960 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
overhunting threatens wildlife populations; deforestation
natural hazards:
averages one hurricane every other year
international agreements:
party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified -
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Note:
largest country in Caribbean

@Cuba, People

Population:
11,064,344 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.95% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
16.59 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.52 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
10.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.89 years
male:
74.72 years
female:
79.18 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.83 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Cuban(s)
adjective:
Cuban
Ethnic divisions:
mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%
Religions:
nominally Roman Catholic 85% prior to Castro assuming power
Languages:
Spanish
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
94%
male:
95%
female:
93%
Labor force:
4,620,800 economically active population (1988); 3,578,800 in state
sector
by occupation:
services and government 30%, industry 22%, agriculture 20%, commerce
11%, construction 10%, transportation and communications 7% (June
1990)

@Cuba, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Cuba
conventional short form:
Cuba
local long form:
Republica de Cuba
local short form:
Cuba
Digraph:
CU
Type:
Communist state
Capital:
Havana
Administrative divisions:
14 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special
municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila,
Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de
la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti
Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara
Independence:
20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from
1898 to 1902)
National holiday:
Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953)
Constitution:
24 February 1976
Legal system:
based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist
legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
16 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President of the Council of State and President of the Council of
Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (Prime Minister from February 1959 until 24
February 1976 when office was abolished; President since 2 December
1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice
President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2
December 1976)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; proposed by the president of the Council of
State, appointed by the National Assembly
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National Assembly of People's Power:
(Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular) elections last held February
1993; seats - 589 total, indirectly elected from slates approved by
special candidacy commissions
Judicial branch:
People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo Popular)
Political parties and leaders:
only party - Cuban Communist Party (PCC), Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first
secretary
Member of:
CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA
(observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since
1962), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Principal Officer Alfonso FRAGA Perez (since August 1992) represented
by the Cuban Interests Section of the Swiss Embassy in Washington, DC
chancery:
2630 and 2639 16th Street NW, US Interests Section, Swiss Embassy,
Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 797-8518 or 8519, 8520, 8609, 8610
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Principal Officer Joseph SULLIVAN
US Interests Section:
USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada Entre L y M, Vedado Seccion, Havana
mailing address:
use street address
telephone:
33-3351 or 33-3543
FAX:
no service available at this time
note:
protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland - US Interests Section, Swiss
Embassy
Flag:
five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with
white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a
white five-pointed star in the center

@Cuba, Economy

Overview:
Cuba's heavily statist economy remains in a severe depression as a
result of the loss of massive amounts of economic aid from the former
Soviet Bloc. In 1989-93, GDP declined by about 40% and import
capability fell by about 80%. Reduced imports of fuel, spare parts,
and chemicals combined with rainy weather to cut the production of
sugar - the country's top export - from 7 million tons in 1992 to 4.3
million tons in 1993, causing a loss of more than $400 million in
export revenue. The government implemented several measures designed
to stem the economic decline, e.g., legalizing the use of foreign
currency by Cuban citizens in August 1993 in an attempt to increase
remittances of foreign exchange from abroad. Authorities in September
1993 began permitting self-employment in over 100 mostly service
occupations. Also in September the government broke up many state
farms into smaller, more autonomous cooperative units in an attempt to
increase worker incentives and boost depressed food production levels.
Fuel shortages persisted throughout 1993; draft animals and bicycles
continued to replace motor-driven vehicles, and the use of electricity
by households and factories was cut from already low levels. With the
help of foreign investment, tourism has been one bright spot in the
economy, with arrivals and earnings reaching record highs in 1993.
Government officials have expressed guarded optimism for 1994, as the
country struggles to achieve sustainable economic growth at a
much-reduced standard of living.
National product:
GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $13.7 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-10% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,250 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$12.46 billion
expenditures:
$14.45 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
sugar, nickel, shellfish, tobacco, medical products, citrus, coffee
partners:
Russia 28%, Canada 9%, China 5%, Ukraine 5%, Japan 4%, Spain 4% (1993
est.)
Imports:
$1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
commodities:
petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals
partners:
Venezuela 20%, China 9%, Spain 9%, Mexico 7%, Italy 4%, Canada 7%,
France 8% (1993 est.)
External debt:
$6.8 billion (convertible currency, July 1989)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
3,889,000 kW
production:
16.248 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
1,500 kWh (1992)
Industries:
sugar milling and refining, petroleum refining, food and tobacco
processing, textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products, metals
(particularly nickel), cement, fertilizers, consumer goods,
agricultural machinery
Agriculture:
accounts for 11% of GNP (including fishing and forestry); key
commercial crops - sugarcane, tobacco, and citrus fruits; other
products - coffee, rice, potatoes, meat, beans; world's largest sugar
exporter; not self-sufficient in food (excluding sugar); sector hurt
by growing shortages of fuels and parts
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine bound for the US
Economic aid:
recipient:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $710 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $18.5 billion
Currency:
1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (non-convertible, official rate,
linked to the US dollar)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Cuba, Communications

Railroads:
12,795 km total; Cuban National Railways operates 5,053 km of
1.435-meter gauge track, including 151.7 km electrified; in addition,
sugar plantation lines consist of 7,742 km of 0.914-meter and
1.435-meter gauge track
Highways:
total:
26,477 km
paved:
14,477 km
unpaved:
gravel or earth 12,000 km (1989)
Inland waterways:
240 km
Ports:
Cienfuegos, La Habana, Mariel, Matanzas, Santiago de Cuba; 7
secondary, 35 minor
Merchant marine:
64 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 444,038 GRT/627,741 DWT, bulk 2,
cargo 36, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 4, oil tanker 10, passenger
cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 10
note:
Cuba beneficially owns an additional 34 ships (1,000 GRT and over)
totaling 529,090 DWT under the registry of Panama, Cyprus, and Malta
Airports:
total:
187
usable:
167
with permanent-surface runways:
73
with runways over 3,659 m:
3
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
12
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
19
Telecommunications:
among the world's least developed telephone systems; 229,000
telephones; telephone density - 20.7 per 1,000 persons; broadcast
stations - 150 AM, 5 FM, 58 TV; 1,530,000 TVs; 2,140,000 radios; 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

@Cuba, Defense Forces

Branches:
Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) - including ground forces,
Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR),
Territorial Militia Troops (MTT), Youth Labor Army (EJT), and Interior
Ministry Border Guard Troops
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 3,064,898; females age 15-49 3,088,810; males fit for
military service 1,907,396; females fit for military service
1,927,306; males reach military age (17) annually 81,536 (1994 est.);
females reach military age (17) annually 78,612 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - approx. $600 million, 4% of GSP (gross
social product) in 1993 was for defense
Note:
Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and supplier of Cuba,
cut off military aid by 1993

@Cyprus, Geography

Location:
Middle East, in the eastern Mediterreanean Sea, 97 km west of Syria
and 64 km west of Turkey
Map references:
Africa, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
9,250 sq km
land area:
9,240 sq km
comparative area:
about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
648 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto autonomous
areas, a Greek area controlled by the Cypriot Government (60% of the
island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (35% of the island),
that are separated by a narrow UN buffer zone; in addition, there are
two UK sovereign base areas (about 5% of the island's land area)
Climate:
temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters
Terrain:
central plain with mountains to north and south
Natural resources:
copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth
pigment
Land use:
arable land:
40%
permanent crops:
7%
meadows and pastures:
10%
forest and woodland:
18%
other:
25%
Irrigated land:
350 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal
disparity in rainfall, and most potable resources concentrated in the
Turkish Cypriot area); water pollution from sewage and industrial
wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from
urbanization
natural hazards:
moderate earthquake activity
international agreements:
party to - Air Pollution, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but
not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

@Cyprus, People

Population:
730,084 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.91% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
16.69 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
7.61 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
9 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.22 years
male:
73.97 years
female:
78.58 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.32 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Cypriot(s)
adjective:
Cypriot
Ethnic divisions:
Greek 78%, Turkish 18%, other 4%
Religions:
Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian, Apostolic, and
other 4%
Languages:
Greek, Turkish, English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1987 est.)
total population:
94%
male:
98%
female:
91%
Labor force:
Greek area:
285,500
by occupation:
services 57%, industry 29%, agriculture 14% (1992)
Turkish area:
75,000
by occupation:
services 52%, industry 22%, agriculture 26% (1992)

@Cyprus, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Cyprus
conventional short form:
Cyprus
Digraph:
CY
Type:
republic
note:
a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island
began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation
was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of the island in
July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the
north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized
government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot President Rauf
DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish
Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which has been recognized only by
Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of intercommunal
differences and creation of a new federal system of government
Capital:
Nicosia
Administrative divisions:
6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos
Independence:
16 August 1960 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 October (15 November (1983) is celebrated as
Independence Day in the Turkish area)
Constitution:
16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised
constitution to govern the island and to better relations between
Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975
Turkish Cypriots created their own Constitution and governing bodies
within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which was renamed the
"Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new Constitution for
the Turkish area passed by referendum in 5 May 1985
Legal system:
based on common law, with civil law modifications
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government:
President Glafkos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993); election last
held 14 February 1993 (next to be held February 1998); results -
Glafkos CLERIDES 50.3%, George VASSILIOU 49.7%
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed jointly by the president and
vice-president
note:
Rauf R. DENKTASH has been president of the Turkish area since 13
February 1975; Hakki ATUN has been prime minister of the Turkish area
since 1 January 1994; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the
Turkish area
Legislative branch:
unicameral
House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosopon):
elections last held 19 May 1991 (next to be held NA); results - DISY
35.8%, AKEL (Communist) 30.6%, DIKO 19.5%, EDEK 10.9%; others 3.2%;
seats - (56 total) DISY 20, AKEL (Communist) 18, DIKO 11, EDEK 7
Turkish Area: Assembly of the Republic (Cumhuriyet Meclisi):
elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (50 total) UBP (conservative) 17,
DP 15, CTP 13, TKP 5
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; note - there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish
area
Political parties and leaders:
Greek Cypriot:
Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL, Communist Party),
Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS; Democratic Rally (DISY), John MATSIS;
Democratic Party (DIKO), Spyros KYPRIANOU; United Democratic Union of
the Center (EDEK), Vassos LYSSARIDIS; Socialist Democratic Renewal
Movement (ADISOK), Mikhalis PAPAPETROU; Liberal Party, Nikos ROLANDIS;
Free Democrats, George VASSILIOU
Turkish area:
National Unity Party (UBP), Dervis EROGLU; Communal Liberation Party
(TKP), Mustafa AKINCI; Republican Turkish Party (CTP), Ozker OZGUR;
New Cyprus Party (YKP), Alpay DURDURAN; Social Democratic Party (SDP),
Ergun VEHBI; New Birth Party (YDP), Ali Ozkan ALTINISHIK; Free
Democratic Party (HDP), Ismet KOTAK; National Struggle Party (MSP),
Zorlu TORE; Unity and Sovereignty Party (USP), Arif Salih KIRDAG;
Democratic Party (DP), Hakki ATUN; Fatherland Party (VP), Orhan UCOK
note:
CTP, TKP, and YDP joined in the coalition Democratic Struggle Party
(DMP) for the 22 April 1990 legislative election; the CTP and TKP
boycotted the by-election of 13 October 1991, in which 12 seats were
at stake; the DMP was dissolved after the 1990 election
Other political or pressure groups:
United Democratic Youth Organization (EDON, Communist controlled);
Union of Cyprus Farmers (EKA, Communist controlled); Cyprus Farmers
Union (PEK, pro-West); Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation (PEO, Communist
controlled); Confederation of Cypriot Workers (SEK, pro-West);
Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions (Turk-Sen); Confederation
of Revolutionary Labor Unions (Dev-Is)
Member of:
C, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Andreas JACOVIDES
chancery:
2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 462-5772
consulate(s) general:
New York
note:
Representative of the Turkish area in the US is Namik KORMAN, office
at 1667 K Street NW, Washington DC, telephone (202) 887-6198
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard BOUCHER
embassy:
corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Nicosia
mailing address:
APO AE 09836
telephone:
[357] (2) 476100
FAX:
[357] (2) 465944
Flag:
white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus
is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed
olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the
hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish
communities

Book of the day: