Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

The 1994 Edition of the CIA World Factbook

Part 1 out of 46

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 4.1 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

Central Intelligence Agency

The World Factbook 1994

US Government officials should obtain copies of The World Factbook directly from
their own organization or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence
Agency. This publication is also available in microfiche, magnetic tape, or
diskettes for microcomputers.

This publication may be purchased by telephone (VISA or MasterCard) or mail
from:
Superintendent of Documents
P.O. Box 371954
Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
Telephone: (202) 783-3238

A subscription to this publication may be purchased from:
Document Expediting (DOCEX) Project
Exchange and Gift Division
Library of Congress
Washington, DC 20540
Telephone: (202) 707-9527

This publication may be purchased in printed form, photocopy, microfiche,
magnetic tape, or diskettes for microcomputers from:
National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, VA 22161
Telephone: (703) 487-4650

This publication may be purchased in photocopy or microform from:
Photoduplication Service Library of Congress
Washington, DC 20540-5234
Telephone: (202) 707-5640

The World Factbook is produced annually by the Central Intelligence Agency for
the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage, and content
are designed to meet their specific requirements. Information was provided by
the Bureau of the Census, Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence
Agency, Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of State, Maritime Administration,
National Science Foundation (Polar Information Program), Naval Maritime
Intelligence Center, Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Board
on Geographic Names, US Coast Guard, and others.

Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:
Central Intelligence Agency
Attn.: Office of Public and Agency Information
Washington, DC 20505
Telephone: (703) 351-2053

Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations

A
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan

B
Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina
Burma
Burundi

C
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China (also see separate Taiwan entry)
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic

D
Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic

E
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Island

F
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands

G
Gabon
Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana

H
Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary

I
Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries)
Italy

J
Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan (also see separate West Bank entry)
Juan de Nova Island

K
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan

L
Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg

M
Macau
Macedonia entry follows Thailand
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique

N
Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway

O
Oman

P
Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the
Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

Q
Qatar

R
Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda

S
Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia and Montenegro
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria

T
Taiwan
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu

U
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan

V
Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands

W
Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
Western Samoa
World

Y
Yemen

Z
Zaire
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Appendixes
A: The United Nations System
B: Abbreviations for International Organizations and Groups
C: International Organizations and Groups
D: Abbreviations for Selected International Environmental Agreements
E: Selected International Environmental Agreements
F: Weights and Measures
G: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names

Reference Maps
The World
North America
Central America and the Caribbean
South America
Europe
Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe
Middle East
Africa
Asia
Commonwealth of Independent States--European States
Commonwealth of Independent States--Central Asian States
Southeast Asia
Oceania
Arctic Region
Antarctic Region
Standard Time Zones of the World


There have been some significant changes in this edition. The format and content
of the former entries on the Environment have been changed, and two new
appendixes have been added--Appendix D: Abbreviations for Selected International
Environmental Agreements and Appendix E: Selected International Environmental
Agreements. The name of Macedonia was changed to The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia (FYROM). The gross domestic product (GDP) of most of the developing
countries is now presented on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis rather than
on an exchange rate basis. The electronic files used to produce the Factbook
have been restructured into a database. As a result, the formats of some entries
in this edition have been changed. Additional changes will occur in the 1995
Factbook.

Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for abbreviations for international organizations
and groups and Appendix D for abbreviations for international environmental
agreements)

avdp. -- avoirdupois

c.i.f. -- cost, insurance, and freight

CY -- calendar year

DWT -- deadweight ton

est. -- estimate

Ex-Im -- Export-Import Bank of the United States

f.o.b. -- free on board

FRG -- Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); used for information dated
before 3 October 1990 or CY91

FSU -- former Soviet Union

FY -- fiscal year

FYROM -- The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

GDP -- gross domestic product

GDR -- German Democratic Republic (East Germany); used for information dated
before 3 October 1990 or CY91

GNP -- gross national product

GRT -- gross register ton

GWP -- gross world product

km -- kilometer

kW -- kilowatt

kWh -- kilowatt hour

m -- meter

NA -- not available

NEGL -- negligible

nm -- nautical mile

NZ -- New Zealand

ODA -- official development assistance

OOF -- other official flows

PDRY -- People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen];
used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

sq km -- square kilometer

sq mi -- square mile

UAE -- United Arab Emirates

UK -- United Kingdom

US -- United States

USSR -- Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union); used for information
dated before 25 December 1991

YAR -- Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen]; used for information
dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and first-order
administrative divisions are generally those approved by the US Board on
Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by
BGN are noted.

Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by
international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all
surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding
inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Comparative areas are based on
total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of
the 50 states. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 sq km,
69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres).

Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year per 1,000
population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate.

Dates of information: In general, information available as of 1 January 1994 was
used in the preparation of this edition. Population figures are estimates for 1
July 1994, with population growth rates estimated for calendar year 1994. Major
political events have been updated through May 1994.

Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year per l,000
population at midyear; also known as crude death rate.

Digraphs: The digraph is a two-letter "country code" that precisely identifies
every entity without overlap, duplication, or omission. AF, for example, is the
digraph for Afghanistan. It is a standardized geopolitical data element
promulgated in the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication (FIPS)
10-3 by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (US Department of
Commerce) and maintained by the Office of the Geographer (US Department of
State). The digraph is used to eliminate confusion and incompatibility in the
collection, processing, and dissemination of area-specific data and is
particularly useful for interchanging data between databases.

Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations with 183
nations, including 177 of the 184 UN members (excluded UN members are Bhutan,
Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Vietnam, and former Yugoslavia). In addition, the
US has diplomatic relations with 6 nations that are not in the UN - Holy See,
Kiribati, Nauru, Switzerland, Tonga, and Tuvalu.

Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of official development
assistance (ODA) and other official flows (OOF). ODA is defined as financial
assistance which is concessional in character, has the main objective to promote
economic development and welfare of LDCs. and contains a grant element of at
least 25%. OOF transactions are also official government assistance, but with a
main objective other than development and with a grant element less than 25%.
OOF transactions include official export credits (such as Ex-Im Bank credits),
official equity and portfolio investment, and debt reorganization by the
official sector that does not meet concessional terms. Aid is considered to have
been committed when agreements are initialed by the parties involved and
constitute a formal declaration of intent.

Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special sovereignty,
and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are
not officially recognized by the US Government. "Nation" refers to a people
politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory.
"Dependent area" refers to a broad category of political entities that are
associated in some way with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually
the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. There are
266 entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

NATIONS

183 -- UN members (excluding both the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; membership status in the UN is still to
be determined)

7 -- nations that are not members of the UN--Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru, Serbia
and Montenegro, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu

OTHER

1 -- Taiwan

DEPENDENT AREAS

6 -- Australia--Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling)
Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island

2 -- Denmark--Faroe Islands, Greenland

16 -- France--Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Guiana,
French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands,
Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion,
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna

2 -- Netherlands--Aruba, Netherlands Antilles

3 -- New Zealand--Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

3 -- Norway--Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

1 -- Portugal--Macau

16 -- United Kingdom--Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British
Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong
Kong, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South
Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands

15 -- United States--American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis
Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern
Mariana Islands, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), Palmyra Atoll,
Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island

MISCELLANEOUS

6 -- Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank,
Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES

4 -- oceans--Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean

1 -- World

266 -- total

Exchange rate: The value of a nation's monetary unit at a given date or over a
given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and
as determined by international market forces or official fiat.

Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all final goods and services produced
within a nation in a given year.

Gross national product (GNP): The value of all final goods and services produced
within a nation in a given year, plus income earned abroad, minus income earned
by foreigners from domestic production.

Gross world product (GWP): The aggregate value of all goods and services
produced worldwide in a given year.

GNP/GDP methodology: In the "Economy" section, GNP/GDP dollar estimates for the
great majority of countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP)
calculations rather than from conversions at official currency exchange rates.
The PPP method normally involves the use of international dollar price weights,
which are applied to the quantities of goods and services produced in a given
economy. In addition to the lack of reliable data from the majority of
countries, the statistician faces a major difficulty in specifying, identifying,
and allowing for the quality of goods and services. The division of a GNP/GDP
estimate in local currency by the corresponding PPP estimate in dollars gives
the PPP conversion rate. On average, one thousand dollars will buy the same
market basket of goods in the US as one thousand dollars--converted to the local
currency at the PPP conversion rate--will buy in the other country. Whereas PPP
estimates for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing
countries are often rough approximations. The latter estimates are based on
extrapolation of numbers published by the UN International Comparison Program
and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan Heston of the University of
Pennsylvania and their colleagues. Because currency exchange rates depend on a
variety of international and domestic financial forces that often have little
relation to domestic output, use of these rates is less satisfactory for
calculating GNP/GDP than the PPP method. In developing countries with weak
currencies the exchange rate estimate of GNP/GDP in dollars is typically one-
fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Furthermore, exchange rates may suddenly
go up or down by 10% or more because of market forces or official fiat whereas
real output has remained unchanged. On 12 January 1994, for example, the 14
countries of the African Financial Community (whose currencies are tied to the
French franc) devalued their currencies by 50%. This move, of course, did not
cut the real output of these countries by half. One additional caution: the
proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a percent of GNP/GDP in local
currency accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GNP/GDP
accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer estimates
the dollar level of Russian or Japanese military expenditures;

Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the population, resulting
from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants
entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative.

Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit drugs--narcotics,
stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These
categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well
as those illegally produced and sold outside medical channels.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides
hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot,
Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish
(hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).

Coca (Erythroxylon coca) is a bush, and the leaves contain the stimulant
cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and
is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.

Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.

Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include
chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital),
benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide
(Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).

Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or
behavioral change in an individual.

Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in
physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.

Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and
emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc,
buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP,
angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others
(psilocybin, psilocyn).

Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.

Mandrax is a synthetic chemical depressant, the same as, or similar to Quaalude.

Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium,
opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium
(paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with
codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic
narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic
narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone
(Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil).

Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy.

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural and
semisynthetic narcotics.

Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature dried opium
poppy.

Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of catha edulis that is
chewed or drunk as tea.

Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and activity,
and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine),
phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert,
Sanorex, Tenuate).

Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one year old in a
given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same year.

International disputes: This category includes a wide variety of situations that
range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one
sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international boundaries
and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the Department of State. References
to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as
resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues. However,
inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by
the US Government.

Irrigated land: The figure refers to the land area that is artificially supplied
with water.

Land use: Human use of the land surface is categorized as arable land--land
cultivated for crops that are replanted after each harvest (wheat, maize, rice);
permanent crops--land cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each
harvest (citrus, coffee, rubber); meadows and pastures--land permanently used
for herbaceous forage crops; forest and woodland--under dense or open stands of
trees; and other--any land type not specifically mentioned above (urban areas,
roads, desert).

Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country who represents
the state at official and ceremonial functions but is not involved with the day-
to-day activities of the government. The head of government is the
administrative leader who manages the day-to-day activities of the government.
In the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the Prime Minister is the head
of government. In the US, the President is both the chief of state and the head
of government.

Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived by a group of
people all born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in
the future.

Literacy: There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless
otherwise noted, all rates are based on the most common definition--the ability
to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual
countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of
this publication.

Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent some national
claims from being extended the full distance.

Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All commercial
vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing
vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.; also, a grouping of merchant ships by
nationality or register.

Captive register--A register of ships maintained by a territory, possession, or
colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships owned in the parent
country; also referred to as an offshore register, the offshore equivalent of an
internal register. Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag as the
parent country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime
laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a
captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent
country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned abroad.
The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience register, except that it
is not the register of an independent state.

Flag of convenience register--A national register offering registration to a
merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major flags of convenience (FOC)
attract ships to their register by virtue of low fees, low or nonexistent
taxation of profits, and liberal manning requirements. True FOC registers are
characterized by having relatively few of the ships registered actually owned in
the flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a
given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority of the
merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an open register.

Flag state--The nation in which a ship is registered and which holds legal
jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or abroad. Differences
in flag state maritime legislation determine how a ship is manned and taxed and
whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the register.

Internal register--A register of ships maintained as a subset of a national
register. Ships on the internal register fly the national flag and have that
nationality but are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those on
the main national register. These differences usually include lower taxation of
profits, manning by foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the flag
state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International Ship
Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most notable examples of
an internal register. Both have been instrumental in stemming flight from the
national flag to flags of convenience and in attracting foreign owned ships to
the Norwegian and Danish flags.

Merchant ship--A vessel that carries goods against payment of freight; commonly
used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately restricted to commercial
vessels only.

Register--The record of a ship's ownership and nationality as listed with the
maritime authorities of a country; also, the compendium of such individual
ships' registrations. Registration of a ship provides it with a nationality and
makes it subject to the laws of the country in which registered (the flag state)
regardless of the nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.

Money figures: All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars
unless otherwise indicated.

National product: The total output of goods and services in a country in a given
year. See Gross domestic product (GDP), Gross national product (GNP), and
GNP/GDP methodology.

Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons entering and
leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear
population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net
immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the
country as net emigration (-9.26 migrants/1,000 population).

Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census based on
statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or
sample surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on assumptions about future
trends. Starting with the 1993 Factbook demographic estimates for some countries
(mostly African) have taken into account the effects of the growing incidence of
AIDS infections; in 1993 these countries were Burkina, Burundi, Central African
Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda,
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Thailand, and Brazil.

Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be born per
woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore
children according to a given fertility rate at each age.

Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as
fiscal year (FY).

Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from material in
the public domain and does not represent Intelligence Community estimates. The
Handbook of International Economic Statistics, published annually in September
by the Central Intelligence Agency, contains detailed economic information for
the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries,
Eastern Europe, the newly independent republics of the former nations of
Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, and selected other countries. The Handbook can
be obtained wherever The World Factbook is available.

***THE WORLD FACTBOOK 1994

@Afghanistan, Geography

Location:
Southern Asia, between Iran and Pakistan
Map references:
Asia, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
647,500 sq km
land area:
647,500 sq km
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
total 5,529 km, China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km,
Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights; Iran supports
clients in country, private Pakistani and Saudi sources also are
active; power struggles among various groups for control of Kabul,
regional rivalries among emerging warlords, traditional tribal
disputes continue; support to Islamic fighters in Tajikistan's civil
war; border dispute with Pakistan (Durand Line); support to Islamic
militants worldwide by some factions
Climate:
arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
Terrain:
mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest
Natural resources:
natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulphur, lead,
zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones
Land use:
arable land:
12%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
46%
forest and woodland:
3%
other:
39%
Irrigated land:
26,600 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining
forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials);
desertification
natural hazards:
damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains (one measured 6.8
on the Richter scale in 1991); flooding
international agreements:
party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life
Conservation
Note:
landlocked

@Afghanistan, People

Population:
16,903,400 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.45% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
43.46 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
18.94 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
155.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
44.89 years
male:
45.53 years
female:
44.21 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.27 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Afghan(s)
adjective:
Afghan
Ethnic divisions:
Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%, minor ethnic groups
(Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%
Languages:
Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily
Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and
Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
29%
male:
44%
female:
14%
Labor force:
4.98 million
by occupation:
agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%, construction
6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7% (1980 est.)

@Afghanistan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Islamic State of Afghanistan
conventional short form:
Afghanistan
local long form:
Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan
local short form:
Afghanestan
former:
Republic of Afghanistan
Digraph:
AF
Type:
transitional government
Capital:
Kabul
Administrative divisions:
30 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis,
Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat,
Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar,
Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e
Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol
note:
there may be a new province of Nurestan (Nuristan)
Independence:
19 August 1919 (from UK)
National holiday:
Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance Day for Martyrs
and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August
Constitution:
none
Legal system:
a new legal system has not been adopted but the transitional
government has declared it will follow Islamic law (Shari'a)
Suffrage:
undetermined; previously universal, male ages 15-50
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Burhanuddin RABBANI (Interim President July - December 1992;
President since 2 January 1993); First Vice President Mohammad NABI
Mohammadi (since NA); First Vice President Mohammad SHAH Fazli (since
NA); election last held NA December 1992 (next to be held NA December
1994); results - Burhanuddin RABBANI was elected to a two-year term by
a national shura, later amended by multi-party agreement to 18 months.
head of government:
Prime Minister Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR (since 17 March 1993); First Deputy
Prime Minister Qutbuddin HELAL (since 17 March 1993); Deputy Prime
Minister Arsala RAHMANI (since 17 March 1993)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
a unicameral parliament consisting of 205 members was chosen by the
shura in January 1993; non-functioning as of June 1993
Judicial branch:
an interim Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has been appointed, but
a new court system has not yet been organized
Political parties and leaders:
current political organizations include Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic
Society), Burhanuddin RABBANI, Ahmad Shah MASOOD; Hizbi
Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR faction; Hizbi
Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party), Yunis KHALIS faction; Ittihad-i-Islami
Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the Liberation of
Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic
Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad Nabi MOHAMMADI;
Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan National Liberation
Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI; Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic
Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI; Hizbi Wahdat (Islamic Unity Party),
Abdul Ali MAZARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement), Mohammed Asif
MOHSENI; Jumbesh-i-Milli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Rashid
DOSTUM
note:
the former ruling Watan Party has been disbanded
Other political or pressure groups:
the former resistance commanders are the major power brokers in the
countryside; shuras (councils) of commanders are now administering
most cities outside Kabul; ulema (religious scholars); tribal elders
Member of:
AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Abdul RAHIM
chancery:
2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 234-3770 or 3771
FAX:
(202) 328-3516
US diplomatic representation:
none; embassy was closed in January 1989
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black, with
the national coat of arms superimposed in the middle of the white band
and large Islamic lettering superimposed over the green and white
bands
Overview:
Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent
on farming (wheat especially) and livestock raising (sheep and goats).
Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and
military upheavals during more than 14 years of war, including the
nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February
1989). Over the past decade, one-third of the population fled the
country, with Pakistan sheltering more than 3 million refugees and
Iran about 3 million. About 1.4 million Afghan refugees remain in
Pakistan and about 2 million in Iran. Another 1 million probably moved
into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Although reliable data
are unavailable, gross domestic product is lower than 12 years ago
because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade
and transport.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues:
$NA
expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$243 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts,
precious and semi-precious gems
partners:
FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK, Belgium,
Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia
Imports:
$737 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
food and petroleum products; most consumer goods
partners:
FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India, South Korea,
Germany
External debt:
$2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.3% (FY91 est.); accounts for about 25% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
480,000 kW
production:
1 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
60 kWh (1992)
Industries:
small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes,
fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal,
copper
Agriculture:
largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal husbandry; cash
products - wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool, mutton
Illicit drugs:
an illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis for the
international drug trade; world's second-largest opium producer after
Burma (680 metric tons in 1993) and a major source of hashish
Economic aid:
recipient:
$450 million US assistance provided 1985-1993; USAID will stop all
programs by mid-1994; the UN provides assistance in the form of food
aid, immunization, land mine removal, and a wide range of aid to
refugees and displaced persons
Currency:
1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls
Exchange rates:
afghanis (Af) per US$1 - 1,900 (January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850
(1991), 700 (1989-90), 220 (1988-89); note - these rates reflect the
free market exchange rates rather than the official exchange rates
Fiscal year:
21 March - 20 March

@Afghanistan, Communications

Railroads:
9.6 km (single track) 1.524-meter gauge from Gushgy (formerly Kushka)
(Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi and 15.0 km from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to
Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya
Highways:
total:
21,000 km
paved:
2,800 km
unpaved:
gravel 1,650 km; earth 16,550 km (1984)
Inland waterways:
total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels
up to about 500 metric tons
Pipelines:
petroleum products - Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan to
Shindand; natural gas 180 km
Ports:
Shir Khan and Kheyrabad (river ports)
Airports:
total:
42
usable:
35
with permanent-surface runways:
9
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
10
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
17
Telecommunications:
limited telephone, telegraph, and radiobroadcast services; television
introduced in 1980; 31,200 telephones; numerous cellular telephones;
broadcast stations - 5 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station

@Afghanistan, Defense Forces

Branches:
the military still does not yet exist on a national scale; some
elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National
Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), and
tribal militias remain intact but are factionalized among the various
mujahedin and former regime leaders
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 4,188,036; fit for military service 2,245,196; reach
military age (22) annually 158,335 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
the new government has not yet adopted a defense budget

@Albania, Geography

Location:
Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula between
Serbia and Montenegro and Greece
Map references:
Africa, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones
of the World
Area:
total area:
28,750 sq km
land area:
27,400 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total 720 km, Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with
Montenegro)
Coastline:
362 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbia and
Montenegro, and the Albanian Government supports the Kosovo position
politically
Climate:
mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers;
interior is cooler and wetter
Terrain:
mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel
Land use:
arable land:
21%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures:
15%
forest and woodland:
38%
other:
22%
Irrigated land:
4,230 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
deforestation
natural hazards:
subject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern
coast
international agreements:
party to - Biodiversity
Note:
strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to
Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

@Albania, People

Population:
3,374,085 (July 1994 est.)
note:
IMF, working with Albanian government figures estimates the population
at 3,120,000 in 1993 and that the population has fallen since 1990
Population growth rate:
1.19% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
22.46 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
5.32 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-5.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
30 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.4 years
male:
70.42 years
female:
76.61 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.78 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Albanian(s)
adjective:
Albanian
Ethnic divisions:
Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and
Bulgarians) (1989 est.)
Religions:
Muslim 70%, Greek Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
note:
all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances
prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious
practice
Languages:
Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek
Literacy:
age 9 and over can read and write (1955)
total population:
72%
male:
80%
female:
63%
Labor force:
1.5 million (1987)
by occupation:
agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 40% (1986)

@Albania, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Albania
conventional short form:
Albania
local long form:
Republika e Shqiperise
local short form:
Shqiperia
former:
People's Socialist Republic of Albania
Digraph:
AL
Type:
nascent democracy
Capital:
Tirane
Administrative divisions:
26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth); Berat, Dibre, Durres,
Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Korce, Kruje, Kukes,
Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke,
Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore
Independence:
28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 28 November (1944; changed by decree on 12 November
1993)
Constitution:
an interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April
1991; a new constitution was to be drafted for adoption in 1992, but
is still in process
Legal system:
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age, universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April 1992)
head of government:
Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI
(since 10 April 1992)
Cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral
People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor):
elections last held 22 March 1992; results - DP 62.29%, ASP 25.57%,
SDP 4.33%, RP 3.15%, UHP 2.92%, other 1.74%; seats - (140 total) DP
92, ASP 38, SDP 7, RP 1, UHP 2
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
there are at least 18 political parties; most prominent are the
Albanian Socialist Party (ASP; formerly the Albania Workers Party),
Fatos NANO, first secretary; Democratic Party (DP), Eduard SELAMI,
chairman; Albanian Republican Party (RP), Sabri GODO; Omonia (Greek
minority party), leader NA (ran in 1992 election as Unity for Human
Rights Party (UHP)); Social Democratic Party (SDP), Skender GJINUSHI;
Democratic Alliance Party (DAP), Spartak NGJELA, chairman
Member of:
BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Lublin Hasan DILJA
chancery:
Suite 1010, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone:
(202) 223-4942, 8187
FAX:
(202) 628-7342
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador William E. RYERSON
embassy:
Rruga E. Elbansanit 103, Tirane
mailing address:
PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624
telephone:
355-42-32875, 33520
FAX:
355-42-32222
Flag:
red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

@Albania, Economy
Overview:
An extremely poor country by European standards, Albania is making the
difficult transition to a more open-market economy. The economy
rebounded in 1993 after a severe depression accompanying the collapse
of the previous centrally planned system in 1990 and 1991.
Stabilization policies, including public sector layoffs and reduced
social services, have improved the government's fiscal situation and
reduced inflation. The recovery was spurred by the remittances of some
5% of the population which works abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy.
Foreign assistance and humanitarian aid also supported the recovery.
Most agricultural land was privatized in 1992, substantially improving
peasant incomes. Albania's limited industrial sector, now less than
one-sixth of GDP, continued to decline in 1993. A sharp fall in
chromium prices reduced hard currency receipts from the mining sector.
Large segments of the population, especially those living in urban
areas, continue to depend on humanitarian aid to meet basic food
requirements. Unemployment remains a severe problem accounting for
approximately one-fifth of the work force. Growth is expected to
continue in 1994, but could falter if Albania becomes involved in the
conflict in the former Yugoslavia, workers' remittances from Greece
are reduced, or foreign assistance declines.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $3.3 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
11% (1993)
National product per capita:
$1,100 (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
31% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
18% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$1.1 billion
expenditures:
$1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $70 million (1991
est.)
Exports:
$70 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude oil, vegetables,
fruits, tobacco
partners:
Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany, Greece,
Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary
Imports:
$524 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
machinery, consumer goods, grains
partners:
Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany,
Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece
External debt:
$724 million (1993 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -10% (1993 est.); accounts for 16% of GDP (1993 est.)
Electricity:
capacity:
1,690,000 kW
production:
5 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
1,520 kWh (1992)
Industries:
food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement,
chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
Agriculture:
accounts for 55% of GDP; arable land per capita among lowest in
Europe; 80% of arable land now in private hands; one-half of work
force engaged in farming; produces wide range of temperate-zone crops
and livestock
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan
route; limited opium production
Economic aid:
recipient:
$190 million humanitarian aid; $94 million in loans/guarantees/credits
Currency:
1 lek (L) = 100 qintars
Exchange rates:
leke (L) per US$1 - 99 (January 1994), 97 (January 1993), 50 (January
1992), 25 (September 1991)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Albania, Communications

Railroads:
543 km total; 509 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track and 34
km narrow gauge, single track (1990); line connecting Titograd (Serbia
and Montenegro) and Shkoder (Albania) completed August 1986
Highways:
total:
16,700 km
paved:
6,700 km
unpaved:
earth 10,000 km (1990)
Inland waterways:
43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake
Prespa (1990)
Pipelines:
crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1991)
Ports:
Durres, Sarande, Vlore
Merchant marine:
11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,967 GRT/76,887 DWT
Airports:
total:
12
usable:
10
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
6
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
inadequate service; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 13 AM, 1
TV; 514,000 radios, 255,000 TVs (1987 est.)

@Albania, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 906,938; fit for military service 746,945; reach
military age (19) annually 33,184 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
215 million leke, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense
expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results

@Algeria, Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, along the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and
Tunisia
Map references:
Africa, Europe
Area:
total area:
2,381,740 sq km
land area:
2,381,740 sq km
comparative area:
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total 6,343 km, Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km
Coastline:
998 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Libya claims part of southeastern Algeria; land boundary dispute with
Tunisia settled in 1993
Climate:
arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast;
drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a
hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
Terrain:
mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous
coastal plain
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
13%
forest and woodland:
2%
other:
82%
Irrigated land:
3,360 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues:
soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices;
desertification; dumping of untreated sewage, petroleum refining
wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of
rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming
polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; limited
supply of potable water
natural hazards:
mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes
international agreements:
party to - Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands;
signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test
Ban
Note:
second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

@Algeria, People

Population:
27,895,068 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.29% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
29.71 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
6.22 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
52.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.68 years
male:
66.63 years
female:
68.77 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.83 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Algerian(s)
adjective:
Algerian
Ethnic divisions:
Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
Religions:
Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%
Languages:
Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population:
57%
male:
70%
female:
46%
Labor force:
6.2 million (1992 est.)
by occupation:
government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and public works
16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%, transportation and
communication 5.2% (1989)

@Algeria, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria
conventional short form:
Algeria
local long form:
Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah
local short form:
Al Jaza'ir
Digraph:
AG
Type:
republic
Capital:
Algiers
Administrative divisions:
48 provinces (wilayast, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain
Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj
Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El
Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela,
Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran,
Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes,
Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza,
Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Independence:
5 July 1962 (from France)
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)
Constitution:
19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988
and 23 February 1989
Legal system:
socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of
legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various
public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
President Lamine ZEROUAL (since 31 January 1994); next election to be
held after a three-year transition period which began on 31 January
1994
head of government:
Prime Minister Mokdad SIFI (since 11 April 1994)
cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral
National People's Assembly (Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani):
elections first round held on 26 December 1991 (second round canceled
by the military after President BENDJEDID resigned 11 January 1992,
effectively suspending the Assembly); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (281 total); the fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the
231 seats contested in the first round; note - elections (municipal
and wilaya) were held in June 1990, the first in Algerian history;
results - FIS 55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters
participating
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Political parties and leaders:
Islamic Salvation Front (FIS, outlawed April 1992), Ali BELHADJ, Dr.
Abassi MADANI, Abdelkader HACHANI (all under arrest), Rabeh KEBIR
(self-exile in Germany); National Liberation Front (FLN), Abdelhamid
MEHRI, Secretary General; Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait
AHMED, Secretary General
note:
the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and,
as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed
Member of:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer),
OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNTAC,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Nourredine Yazid ZERHOUNI
chancery:
2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 265-2800
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mary Ann CASEY
embassy:
4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers
mailing address:
B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers
telephone:
[213] (2) 601-425, 255, 186
FAX:
[213] (2) 603979
consulate(s):
Oran
Flag:
two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red
five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color
green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

@Algeria, Economy

Overview:
The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for
roughly 57% of government revenues, 25% of GDP, and almost all export
earnings; Algeria has the fifth largest reserves of natural gas in the
world and ranks fourteenth for oil. Algiers' efforts to reform one of
the most centrally planned economies in the Arab world began after the
1986 collapse of world oil prices plunged the country into a severe
recession. In 1989, the government launched a comprehensive,
IMF-supported program to achieve macroeconomic stabilization and to
introduce market mechanisms into the economy. Despite substantial
progress toward macroeconomic adjustment, in 1992 the reform drive
stalled as Algiers became embroiled in political turmoil. In September
1993, a new government was formed, one of whose priorities was the
resumption and acceleration of the structural adjustment process.
Buffeted by the slump in world oil prices and burdened with a heavy
foreign debt, Algiers in 1993 resumed negotiations with the IMF and is
on track to conclude a standby arrangement with the Fund in 1994.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $89 billion (1993 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1% (1993 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,300 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
22% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
22% (1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
$14.4 billion
expenditures:
$14.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.5 billion (1992
est.)
Exports:
$11.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
petroleum and natural gas 97%
partners:
Italy 21%, France 16%, US 14%, Germany 13%, Spain 9%
Imports:
$9 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities:
capital goods 39.7%, food and beverages 21.7%, consumer goods 11.8%
(1990)
partners:
France 29%, Italy 14%, Spain 9%, US 9%, Germany 7%
External debt:
$26 billion (1994)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
capacity:
6,380,000 kW
production:
16.384 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
630 kWh (1992)
Industries:
petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining, electrical,
petrochemical, food processing
Agriculture:
accounts for 12.8% of GDP (1993 est.) and employs 22% of labor force;
products- wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits, sheep,
cattle; net importer of food - grain, vegetable oil, sugar
Economic aid:
recipient:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $1.4 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $925
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.8 billion; Communist
countries (1970-89), $2.7 billion; net official disbursements
(1985-89), $375 million
Currency:
1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 36.008 (April 1994), 23.345 (1993),
21.836 (1992), 18.473 (1991), 8.958 (1990), 7.6086 (1989)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

@Algeria, Communications

Railroads:
4,060 km total; 2,616 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 1,188 km
1.055-meter gauge, 256 km 1.000-meter gauge; 300 km electrified; 215
km double track
Highways:
total:
90,031 km
paved:
concrete, bituminous 58,868 km
unpaved:
gravel, crushed stone, earth 31,163 km (1990)
Pipelines:
crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km
Ports:
Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mers el
Kebir, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda
Merchant marine:
75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179 GRT/1,064,211 DWT, bulk
9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas 9, oil tanker 5,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 12, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 1
Airports:
total:
140
usable:
124
with permanent-surface runways:
53
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
32
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
65
Telecommunications:
excellent domestic and international service in the north, sparse in
the south; 822,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 26 AM, no FM, 18
TV; 1,600,000 TV sets; 5,200,000 radios; 5 submarine cables; microwave
radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial
cable to Morocco and Tunisia; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, l ARABSAT,
and 12 domestic; 20 additional satellite earth stations are planned

@Algeria, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 6,863,378; fit for military service 4,215,767; reach
military age (19) annually 301,945 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.36 billion, 2.5% of GDP (1993 est.)

@American Samoa

Header

Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

@American Samoa, Geography

Location:
Oceania, Polynesia, in the South Pacific Ocean, 3,700 km
south-southwest of Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii and New
Zealand
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
199 sq km
land area:
199 sq km
comparative area:
slightly larger than Washington, DC
note:
includes Rose Island and Swains Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
116 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall
averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry season
from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains,
two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)
Natural resources:
pumice, pumicite
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
5%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
75%
other:
10%
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Environment:
rent issues:
NA
ural hazards:
typhoons common from December to March
ernational agreements:
NA
Note:
Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South
Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by
peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South
Pacific Ocean

@American Samoa, People

Population:
55,223 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.86% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
36.63 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
4.01 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
18.78 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Total population:
72.91 years
male:
71.03 years
female:
74.85 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.36 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:

Book of the day: