Part 5 out of 5
miserable half-a-boy outwitted them.
Being determined to be revenged on him, they waited until he began to
draw water from a well, where they stopped to drink, and then they
pushed him in.
'That is an end of little Half-a-son!' they said to themselves, and
ran away laughing.
Now in the well there lived a one-eyed demon, a pigeon, and a serpent,
and when it was dark these three returned home and began to talk
amongst themselves, while Prince Half-a-son, who clung to the wall
like a limpet, and took up no room at all, listened and held his
'What is your power, my friend?' asked the demon of the serpent.
Whereupon the serpent replied, 'I have the treasures of seven kings
underneath me! What is yours, my friend?'
Then the demon said conceitedly, 'The King's daughter is possessed of
me. She is always ill; some day I shall kill her.'
'Ah!' said the pigeon, 'I could cure her, for no matter what the
disease is, any one who eats my droppings will become well instantly.'
When dawn came, the demon, the serpent, and the pigeon each went off
to his own haunt without noticing Prince Half-a-son.
Soon afterwards, a camel-driver came to draw water from the well, and
let down the bucket; whereupon Prince Half-a-son caught hold of the
rope and held on.
The camel-driver, feeling a heavy weight, looked down to see what it
was, and when he beheld half-a-boy clinging to the rope he was so
frightened that he ran clean away. But all Half-a-son had to do was
to say, 'Pull, rope, pull!' and the rope wound itself up immediately.
No sooner had he reached the surface once more than he set off to the
neighbouring city, and proclaimed that he was a physician come to heal
the King's daughter of her dreadful disease.
'Have a care! have a care!' cried the watchmen at the gate. 'If you
fail, your head will be the forfeit. Many men have tried, and what
can _you_ do that are but half-a-man?'
Nevertheless, Prince Half-a-son, who had some of the pigeon's
droppings in his pocket, was not in the least afraid, but boldly
proclaimed he was ready to accept the terms; that is to say, if he
failed to cure the princess his head was to be cut off, but if he
succeeded, then her hand in marriage and half the kingdom should be
'Half the kingdom will just suit me,' he said,' seeing that I am but
And, sure enough, no sooner had the princess taken her first dose,
than she immediately became quite well--her cheeks grew rosy, her eyes
bright; and the King was so delighted that he gave immediate orders
for the marriage. Now amongst the wedding guests were Prince
Half-a-son's wicked brothers, who were ready to die of spite and envy
when they discovered that the happy bridegroom was none other than
their despised half-a-boy. So they went to the King, and said, 'We
know this lad: he is a sweeper's son, and quite unfit to be the
husband of so charming a princess!'
The king at first believed this wicked story, and ordered the poor
prince to be turned out of the kingdom; but Half-a-son asked for a
train of mules, and one day's respite, in order to prove who and what
he was. Then he went to the well, dug up the treasures of seven kings
during the serpent's absence, loaded the mules, and came back
glittering with gold and jewels. He laid the treasures at the King's
feet, and told the whole story,--how, through no fault of his own, he
was only half-a-son, and how unkindly his brothers had behaved to him.
Then the marriage festivities went on, and the wicked brothers crept
away in disgrace.
They went to the well, full of envy and covetousness. 'Half-a-son got
rich by falling in,' they said; 'let us try if we too cannot find some
treasure,' So they threw themselves into the well.
As soon as it was dark, the demon, the serpent, and the pigeon came
home together. 'Some thief has been here!' cried the pigeon, 'for my
droppings are gone! Let us feel round, and see if he is here still.'
So they felt round, and when they came upon the six brothers, the
demon ate them up one after another.
So that was an end of them, and Prince Half-a-son had the best of it,
in spite of his only being half-a-boy.
THE MOTHER AND DAUGHTER WHO WORSHIPPED THE SUN
Once upon a time there lived a mother and a daughter who worshipped
the Sun. Though they were very poor they never forgot to honour the
Sun, giving everything they earned to it except two meal cakes, one of
which the mother ate, while the other was the daughter's share, every
day one cake apiece; that was all.
Now it so happened that one day, when the mother was out at work, the
daughter grew hungry, and ate her cake before dinner-time. Just as
she had finished it a priest came by, and begged for some bread, but
there was none in the house save the mother's cake. So the daughter
broke off half of it and gave it to the priest in the name of the Sun.
By and by the mother returned, very hungry, to dinner, and, lo and
behold! there was only half a cake in the house.
'Where is the remainder of the bread?' she asked.
'I ate my share, because I was hungry,' said the daughter, 'and just
as I finished, a priest came a-begging, so I was obliged to give him
half your cake.'
'A pretty story!' quoth the mother, in a rage. 'It is easy to be
pious with other people's property! How am I to know you had eaten
your cake first? I believe you gave mine in order to save your own!'
In vain the daughter protested that she really had finished her cake
before the priest came a-begging,--in vain she promised to give the
mother half her share on the morrow,--in vain she pleaded for
forgiveness for the sake of the Sun, in whose honour she had given
alms. Words were of no avail; the mother sternly bade her go about
her business, saying, 'I will have no gluttons, who grudge their own
meal to the great Sun, in my house!'
So the daughter wandered away homeless into the wilds, sobbing
bitterly. When she had travelled a long long way, she became so tired
that she could walk no longer; therefore she climbed into a big
_pīpal_ tree, in order to be secure from wild beasts, and rested
amongst the branches.
After a time a handsome young prince, who had been chasing deer in the
forest, came to the big _pīpal_ tree, and, allured by its
tempting shade, lay down to sleep away his fatigues. Now, as he lay
there, with his face turned to the sky, he looked so beautiful that
the daughter could not choose but keep her eyes upon him, and so the
tears which flowed from them like a summer shower dropped soft and
warm upon the young man's face, waking him with a start. Thinking it
was raining, he rose to look at the sky, and see whence this sudden
storm had come; but far and near not a cloud was to be seen. Still,
when he returned to his place, the drops fell faster than before, and
one of them upon his lip tasted salt as tears. So he swung himself
into the tree, to see whence the salt rain came, and, lo and behold! a
beauteous maiden sat in the tree, weeping.
'Whence come you, fair stranger?' said he; and she, with tears, told
him she was homeless, houseless, motherless. Then he fell in love
with her sweet face and soft words; so he asked her to be his bride,
and she went with him to the palace, her heart full of gratitude to
the Sun, who had sent her such good luck.
Everything she could desire was hers; only when the other women talked
of their homes and their mothers she held her tongue, for she was
ashamed of hers.
Every one thought she must be some great princess, she was so lovely
and magnificent, but in her heart of hearts she knew she was nothing
of the kind; so every day she prayed to the Sun that her mother might
not find her out.
But one day, when she was sitting alone in her beautiful palace, her
mother appeared, ragged and poor as ever. She had heard of her
daughter's good fortune, and had come to share it.
'And you _shall_ share it,' pleaded her daughter; 'I will give
you back far more than I ever took from you, if only you will go away
and not disgrace me before my prince.'
'Ungrateful creature!' stormed the mother, 'do you forget how it was
through my act that your good fortune came to you? If I had not sent
you into the world, where would you have found so fine a husband?'
'I might have starved!' wept the daughter; 'and now you come to
destroy me again. O great Sun, help me now!'
Just then the prince came to the door, and the poor daughter was ready
to die of shame and vexation; but when she turned to where her mother
had sat, there was nothing to be seen but a golden stool, the like of
which had never been seen on earth before.
'My princess,' asked the prince, astonished, 'whence comes that golden
'From my mother's house,' replied the daughter, full of gratitude to
the great Sun, who had saved her from disgrace.
'Nay! if there are such wondrous things to be seen in your mother's
house,' quoth the prince gaily, 'I must needs go and see it.
To-morrow we will set out on our journey, and you shall show me all it
In vain the daughter put forward one pretext and another: the
prince's curiosity had been aroused by the sight of the marvellous
golden stool, and he was not to be gainsaid.
Then the daughter cried once more to the Sun, in her distress, saying,
'O gracious Sun, help me now!'
But no answer came, and with a heavy heart she set out next day to
show the prince her mother's house. A goodly procession they made,
with horsemen and footmen clothed in royal liveries surrounding the
bride's palanquin, where sat the daughter, her heart sinking at every
And when they came within sight of where her mother's hut used to
stand, lo! on the horizon showed a shining, flaming golden palace,
that glittered and glanced like solid sunshine. Within and without
all was gold,--golden servants and a golden mother!
There they stopped, admiring the countless marvels of the Sun palace,
for three days, and when the third was completed, the prince, more
enamoured of his bride than ever, set his face homewards; but when he
came to the spot where he had first seen the glittering golden palace
from afar, he thought he would just take one look more at the wondrous
sight, and, lo! there was nothing to be seen save a low thatched
Then he turned to his bride, full of wrath, and said, 'You are a
witch, and have deceived me by your detestable arts! Confess, if you
would not have me strike you dead!'
But the daughter fell on her knees, saying, 'My gracious prince, I
have done nothing! I am but a poor homeless girl. It was the Sun
that did it.'
Then she told the whole story from beginning to end, and the prince
was so well satisfied that from that day he too worshipped the Sun.
THE RUBY PRINCE
Once upon a time a poor Brāhman was walking along a dusty road, when
he saw something sparkling on the ground. On picking it up, it turned
out to be a small red stone, so, thinking it somewhat curious, the
Brāhman put it into his pocket and went on his way. By and by he came
to a corn-merchant's shop, at the side of the road, and being hungry
he bethought himself of the red stone, and taking it out, offered it
to the corn-dealer in exchange for a bite and sup, as he had no money
in his pocket.
Now, for a wonder, the shopkeeper was an honest man, so, after looking
at the stone, he bade the Brāhman take it to the king, for, said he,
'all the goods in my shop are not its equal in value!'
Then the Brāhman carried the stone to the king's palace, and asked to
be shown into his presence. But the prime minister refused at first
to admit him; nevertheless, when the Brāhman persisted that he had
something beyond price to show, he was allowed to see the king.
Now the snake-stone was just like a ruby, red and fiery; therefore,
when the king saw it he said, 'What dost thou want for this ruby, O
Then the Brāhman replied, 'Only a pound of meal to make a girdle cake,
for I am hungry!'
'Nay,' said the king, 'it is worth more than that!'
So he sent for a _lākh_ of rupees from his treasury, and counted
it over to the Brāhman, who went on his way rejoicing.
Then the king called his queen, and gave the jewel into her custody,
with many instructions for its safe keeping, for, said he, there was
not its like in the whole world. The queen, determined to be careful,
wrapped it in cotton-wool, and put it away in an empty chest, locking
the chest with double locks.
So there the ruby snake-stone lay for twelve long years. At the end
of that time the king sent for his queen, and said,' Bring me the
ruby; I wish to satisfy myself that it is safe,'
The queen took her keys, and going to her room, opened the chest, and,
lo! the ruby was gone, and in its place was a handsome stripling! She
shut down the box again in a great hurry, and thought and thought what
she had better do to break the news to the king.
Now as she thought, the king became impatient, and sent a servant to
ask what the delay was. Then the queen bade the servant carry the box
to the audience chamber, and going thither with her keys, she unlocked
the chest before the king.
Out stepped the handsome stripling, to everybody's astonishment.
'Who are you?' quoth the king, 'and where is my jewel?'
'I am Ruby Prince' returned the boy; 'more than that you cannot know.'
Then the king was angry, and drove him from the palace, but, being a
just man, he first gave the boy a horse and arms, so that he might
fight his way in the world.
Now, as Prince Ruby journeyed on his steed, he came to the outskirts
of the town, and saw an old woman making bread, and as she mixed the
flour she laughed, and as she kneaded it she cried.
'Why do you laugh and cry, mother?' quoth Prince Ruby.
'Because my son must die to-day.' returned the woman.' There is an
ogre in this town, which every day eats a young man. It is my son's
turn to provide the dinner, and that is why I weep.'
Then Prince Ruby laughed at her fears, and said he would kill the ogre
and set the town free; only the old woman must let him sleep a while
in her house, and promise to wake him when the time came to go forth
and meet the ogre.
'What good will that do to me?' quoth the old woman; 'you will only be
killed, and then my son will have to go to-morrow. Sleep on,
stranger, if you will, but I will not wake you!'
Then Prince Ruby laughed again. 'It is of no use, mother!' he said,
'fight the ogre I will; and as you will not wake me I must even go to
the place of meeting and sleep there.'
So he rode off on his steed beyond the gates of the city, and, tying
his horse to a tree he lay down to sleep peacefully. By and by the
ogre came for its dinner, but hearing no noise, and seeing no one, it
thought the townspeople had failed in their bargain, and prepared to
revenge itself. But Ruby Prince jumped up, refreshed by slumber, and
falling on the ogre, cut off its head and hands in a trice. These he
stuck on the gate of the town, and returning to the old woman's house,
told her he had killed the ogre, and lay down to sleep again.
Now when the townspeople saw the ogre's head and hands peering over
the city gate, they thought the dreadful creature had come to revenge
itself for some slight. Therefore they ran to the king in a great
fright, and he, thinking the old woman, whose son was to have formed
the ogre's dinner, must have played some trick, went with his officers
to the place where she lived, and found her laughing and singing.
'Why do you laugh?' he asked sternly.
'I laugh because the ogre is killed!' she replied, 'and because the
prince who killed it is sleeping in my house.'
Great was the astonishment at these words, yet, sure enough, when they
came to examine more closely, they saw that the ogre's head and hands
were those of a dead thing.
Then the king said, 'Show me this valiant prince who sleeps so
And when he saw the handsome young stripling, he recognised him as the
lad whom he had driven from the palace. Then he turned to his prime
minister, and said, 'What reward should this youth have?'
And the prime minister answered at once, 'Your daughter in marriage,
and half your kingdom, is not too high a reward for the service he has
So Ruby Prince was married in great state to the king's fair daughter,
and half the kingdom was given him to rule.
But the young bride, much as she loved her gallant husband, was vexed
because she knew not who he was, and because the other women in the
palace twitted her with having married a stranger, a man come from
No-man's-land, whom none called brother.
So, day after day, she would ask her husband to tell her who he was
and whence he came, and every day Ruby Prince would reply, 'Dear
heart, ask me anything but that; for that you must not know!'
Yet still the princess begged, and prayed, and wept, and coaxed, until
one day, when they were standing by the river side, she whispered, 'If
you love me, tell me of what race you are!'
Now Ruby Prince's foot touched the water as he replied, 'Dear heart,
anything but that; for that you must not know!'
Still the princess, imagining she saw signs of yielding in his face,
said again, 'If you love me, tell me of what race you are!'
Then Ruby Prince stood knee-deep in the water, and his face was sad as
he replied, 'Dear heart, anything but that; for that you must not
Once again the wilful bride put her question, and Ruby Prince was
waist-deep in the stream.
'Dear heart, anything but that!'
'Tell me! tell me!' cried the princess, and, lo! as she spoke, a
jewelled snake with a golden crown and ruby star reared itself from
the water, and with a sorrowful look towards her, disappeared beneath
Then the princess went home and wept bitterly, cursing her own
curiosity, which had driven away her handsome, gallant young husband.
She offered a reward of a bushel of gold to any one who would bring
her any information about him; yet day after day passed, and still no
news came, so that the princess grew pale with weeping salt tears. At
last a dancing-woman, one of those who attend the women's festivals,
came to the princess, and said, 'Last night I saw a strange thing.
When I was out gathering sticks, I lay down to rest under a tree, and
fell asleep. When I awoke it was light, neither daylight nor
moonlight; and while I wondered, a sweeper came out from a snake-hole
at the foot of the tree, and swept the ground with his broom; then
followed a water-carrier, who sprinkled the ground with water; and
after that two carpet-bearers, who spread costly rugs, and then
disappeared. Even as I wondered what these preparations meant, a
noise of music fell upon my ear, and from the snake-hole came forth a
goodly procession of young men, glittering with jewels, and one in the
midst, who seemed to be the king. Then, while the musicians played,
one by one the young men rose and danced before the king. But one,
who wore a red star on his forehead, danced but ill, and looked pale
and wan. That is all I have to say.'
So the next night the princess went with the dancing-girl to the tree,
where, hiding themselves behind the trunk, they waited to see what
Sure enough, after a while it became light that was neither sunlight
nor moonlight; then the sweeper came forth and swept the ground, the
water-carrier sprinkled it, the carpet-bearers placed the rugs, and
last of all, to the sound of music the glittering procession swept
out. How the princess's heart beat when, in the young prince with the
red star, she recognised her dearest husband; and how it ached when
she saw how pale he was, and how little he seemed to care to dance.
Then, when all had performed before the king, the light went out, and
the princess crept home. Every night she would go to the tree and
watch; but all day she would weep, because she seemed no nearer
getting back her lover.
At last, one day, the dancing-girl said to her, 'O princess, I have
hit upon a plan. The Snake-king is passionately fond of dancing, and
yet it is only men who dance before him. Now, if a woman were to do
so, who knows but he might be so pleased that he would grant her
anything she asked? Let me try!'
'Nay,' replied the princess, 'I will learn of you and try myself.'
So the princess learnt to dance, and in an incredibly short time she
far surpassed her teacher. Never before or since was such a graceful,
charming, elegant dancer seen. Everything about her was perfection.
Then she dressed herself in finest muslins and silver brocades, with
diamonds on her veil, till she shone and sparkled like a star.
With beating heart she hid behind the tree and waited. The sweeper,
the water-carrier, the carpet-bearers, came forth in turn, and then
the glittering procession. Ruby Prince looked paler and sadder than
ever, and when his turn came to dance, he hesitated, as if sick at
heart; but from behind the tree stepped a veiled woman, clad in white,
with jewels flashing, and danced before the king. Never was there
such a dance!--everybody held their breath till it was done, and then
the king cried aloud, 'O unknown dancer, ask what you will, and it
shall be yours!'
'Give me the man for whom I danced!' replied the princess.
The Snake-king looked very fierce, and his eyes glittered, as he said,
'You have asked something you had no right to ask, and I should kill
you were it not for my promise. Take him, and begone!'
Quick as thought, the princess seized Ruby Prince by the hand, dragged
him beyond the circle, and fled.
After that they lived very happily, and though the women still taunted
her, the princess held her tongue, and never again asked her husband
of what race he came.
[Illustration: The snake king]
NOTES TO TALES
_Sir Buzz_.--In the vernacular Mīyān Bhūngā, which is Pānjabī for
Sir Beetle or Sir Bee. The word is clearly connected with the common
Aryan roots _frem_, _bhran_, _bhah_, _bhin_, to
buzz as a bee or beetle.
_Tigress_.--Not otherwise described by the narrators than as a
_bhūt_, which is usually a malignant ghost, but here she is rather
a benevolent fairy.
_Span_.--The word in the vernacular was _hāth_, the arm
below the elbow, or conventionally half-a-yard, or 18 inches.
_Hundredweight_.--The word here is _man_, an Indian weight
of about 80 Ibs.
_Princess Blossom_.--Bādshāhzādi Phūlī, Princess Flower, or
_One-eyed Chief Constable_.--_Kotwįl_ is the word used in
the original; he is a very familiar figure in all oriental tales of
Musalmān origin, and must have been one in actual mediaeval oriental
life, as he was the chief police (if such a term can be used with
propriety) officer in all cities. The expression 'one-eyed' is
introduced to show his evil nature, according to the well-known saying
and universal belief--
_Kānā, kāchrā, hoch-gardanā: yeh tīnon kamsāt!
Jablag has apnā chale, to koī na pūchhe but. _
Wall-eyed, blear-eyed, wry-necked: these three are evil.
While his own resources last none asketh them for help.
_Vampire_.-The word used was the Arabic _ghūl_ (in English
usually ghowl or ghoul), the vampire, man-devouring demon, which
corresponds to the _bhūt_ and _pret_, the malignant ghosts
of the Hindus. It may be noted here that the Persian _ghol_ is
the _loup-garou_ of Europe, the man-devouring demon of the woods.
_King Indar or Indra_--Was originally the beneficent god of
heaven, giver of rain, _etc_., but in the later Hindu mythology
he took only second rank as ruler of the celestial beings who form the
Court of Indra (_Indar kā akhārā_ or _Indrāsan Sabhā_),
synonymous with gaiety of life and licentiousness.
THE RAT'S WEDDING
_Pipkin_--_Gharā_, the common round earthen pot of India,
known to Anglo-Indians as 'chatty' (_chātī_).
_Quarts of milk_--The vernacular word was _ser_, a weight of
2 lbs.; natives always measure liquids by weight, not by capacity.
_Wild plum-tree_--_Ber_, several trees go by this name, but
the species usually meant are (1) the _Zizyphus jujuba_, which is
generally a garden tree bearing large plum-like fruit: this is the
_Pomum adami_ of Marco Polo; (2) the _Zizyphus nummularia_,
often confounded with the camel-thorn, a valuable bush used for
hedges, bearing a small edible fruit. The former is probably meant
here.--See Stewart's _Punjab Plants_, pp. 43-44.
_Millet_--_Pennisetum italicum_, a very small grain.
_Green plums I sell_, _etc_.--The words are--
_Gaderī gader! gaderī gader!
Rājā dī betī chūhā le giā gher._
Green fruit! green fruit!
The rat has encompassed the Rājā's daughter.
_Stool_--Pīrhī, a small, low, square stool with a straight
upright back, used by native women.
_Stewpan-lid_--_Sarposh_, usually the iron or copper cover
used to cover _degchīs_ or cooking-pots.
THE FAITHFUL PRINCE
_Bahrāmgor_--This tale is a variant in a way of a popular story
published in the Panjāb in various forms in the vernacular, under the
title of the _Story of Bahrāmgor and the Fairy Hasan Bāno_. The
person meant is no doubt Bahrāmgor, the Sassanian King of Persia,
known to the Greeks as Varanes V., who reigned 420-438 A.D. The
modern stories, highly coloured with local folklore, represent the
well-known tale in India--through the Persian--of _Bahrāmgor and
Dilārām_. Bahrāmgor was said to have been killed while hunting the
wild ass (_gor_), by jumping into a pool after it, when both
quarry and huntsman disappeared for ever. He is said to be the father
of Persian poetry.
_Demons: Demonsland_.--The words used are _deo_ or _dev_
and _deostān_; here the _deo_ is a malicious spirit by
_Jasdrūl_.--It is difficult to say who this can be, unless the
name be a corruption of Jasrat Rāī, through Rāwal (_rūl_) = Rāo
= Rāī; thus Jasrat Rāī = Jasrat Rāwal = Jasad Rawal = Jasadrūl. If
this be the case, it stands for Dasaratha, the father of Rāma Chandra,
and so vicariously a great personage in Hindu story. It is obvious
that in giving names to demons or fairies the name of any legendary
or fabulous personage of fame will be brought under contribution.
_Shāhpasand_.--This is obviously a fancy name, like its prototype
Dilaram (Heart's Ease), and means King's Delight. The variant Hasan
Bano means the Lady of Beauty. In the Pushto version of probably the
original story the name is Gulandama = Rosa, a variant probably of the
Flower Princess. See Plowden's _Translation of the Kalid-i-Afghānķ_,
p. 209 ff.
_Chief Constable_.--See note to Sir Buzz, _ante_.
_Emerald Mountain_.--Koh-i-Zamurrad in the original. The whole
story of Bahrāmgor is mixed up with the 'King of China,' and so it is
possible that the legendary fame of the celebrated Green Mount in the
Winter Palace at Pekin is referred to here (see Yule's _Marco Polo_,
vol. i. pp. 326-327 and 330). It is much more probable, however, that
the legends which are echoed here are local variants or memories of
the tale of the Old Man of the Mountain and the Assassins, so famous
in many a story in Europe and Asia in the Middle Ages, _e.g. The
Romans of Bauduin de Sebourg_, where the lovely Ivorine is the
heroine of the Red Mountain, and which has a general family likeness
to this tale worth observing (see on this point generally Yule's
_Marco Polo_, vol. i. pp. cxliv-cli and 132-140, and the notes to
_Ind. Ant._ vol. xi. p. 285 ff.; which last, though treated as
superseded here, may serve to throw light on the subject). It is
evident that we are here treading on very interesting ground, alive
with many memories of the East, which it would be well worth while to
_Nūnak Chand_.--Judging by the analogy of the name Nānaksā (_sic_)
in _Indian Fairy Tales_, pp. 114 ff. and 276, where Nānaksā,
obviously Nānak Shāh or Bābā Nānak, the founder of the Sikh religion,
_ob_. 1538 A.D., is turned into a wonder-working _faqīr_ of the
ordinary sort, it is a fair guess to say that this name is meant for him
_Safed_.--On the whole it is worth while hazarding that this name
is a corruption, or rather, an adaptation to a common word--_safed_,
white--of the name Saifur for the demon in the older legends of
Bahrāmgor. If so, it occurs there in connection with the universal
oriental name Faghfūr, for the Emperor of China. Yule, _Marco Polo_,
vol. ii. p. 110, points out that Faghfūr = Baghbūr = Bagh Pūr, a Persian
translation of the Chinese title Tien-tse, Son of Heaven, just as the
name or title Shāh Pūr = the Son of the King. Perhaps this Saifūr in the
same way = Shāh Pūr. But see note in _Ind. Ant._ vol. xi. p. 288.
_Antimony_.--Black sulphuret of antimony, used for pencilling the
eyes and beautifying them. There are two preparations for darkening the
eyes--_surma_ and _kājal_. _Kājal_ is fine lamp-black, but
the difference between its use and that of _surma_ is that the former
is used for making a blot to avoid the evil eye (_na*ar_) and the
latter merely as a beautifier.
_Yech-cap_.--For a detailed account of the _yech_ or _yāch_
of Kashmīr see _Ind. Ant._ vol. xi. pp. 260-261 and footnotes.
Shortly, it is a humorous though powerful sprite in the shape of an
animal smaller than a cat, of a dark colour, with a white cap on its
head. The feet are so small as to be almost invisible. When in this
shape it has a peculiar cry--_chot, chot, chū-ū-ot, chot_. All this
probably refers to some night animal of the squirrel (? civet cat) tribe.
It can assume any shape, and, if its white cap can be got possession of,
it becomes the servant of the possessor. The cap renders the human wearer
invisible. Mythologically speaking, the _yech_ is the descendant of
the classical Hindu _yaksha_, usually described as an inoffensive,
harmless sprite, but also as a malignant imp.
_The farther you climb the higher it grows_.--This is evidently
borrowed from the common phenomenon of ridge beyond ridge, each in turn
deceiving the climber into the belief that he has reached the top.
THE BEAR'S BAD BARGAIN
_Khichrī_.--A dish of rice and pulse (_dāl_).
_The weights the bear carries._--These are palpable
exaggerations; thus in India the regulation camel-load is under 3
cwts., but they will carry up to 5 cwts. A strong hill-man in the
Himālayas will carry 1/2 cwt., and on occasion almost a whole cwt. up
_Lionheart_.--The full vernacular title of this Prince was Sherdil
Shahryār Shahrābād, Lionheart, the Friend and Restorer of the City.
All these names are common titles of oriental monarchs.
_Knifegrinder_, _Blacksmith_, _Carpenter_.--In the
vernacular _sānwālā_, _lohįr_, _tarkhān_. The first in
the East, like his brother in the West, is an itinerant journeyman, who
wanders about with a wheel for grinding.
_Demon_.--Here _bhūt_, a malignant ghost or vampire, but as
his doings in the tale correspond more to those of a _deo_, demon,
than of a _bhūt_, the word has been translated by 'demon.'
_Pīpal_.--Constantly occurring in folk-tales, is the _Ficus
religiosa_ of botanists, and a large fig-tree much valued for its
shade. It is sacred to Hindus, and never cut by them. One reason
perhaps may be that its shade is very valuable and its wood valueless.
Its leaves are used in divination to find out witches, thieves, liars,
_etc_., and it is the chosen haunt of ghosts and hobgoblins of all
sorts--hence its frequent appearance in folk-lore.
_Mannikin_.--The word used was the ordinary expression _maddhrā_,
Panjābī for a dwarf or pigmy.
_Ghost_.--_Churel_, properly the ghost of a woman who dies in
childbirth. The belief in these malignant spirits is universal, and a
source of much terror to natives by night. Their personal appearance is
fairly described in the text: very ugly and black, breastless,
protruding in stomach and navel, and feet turned back. This last is the
real test of a _churel_, even in her beautiful transformation. A
detailed account of the _churel_ and beliefs in her and the methods
of exorcism will be found in the _Calcutta Review_, No. cliii. p.
_Jinn_.--A Muhammadan spirit, properly neither man, angel, nor
devil, but superhuman. According to correct Muhammadan tradition, there
are five classes of _Jinns_ worth noting here for information--Jānn,
Jinn, Shaitān, 'Ifrīt, and Mārid. They are all mentioned in Musalmān
folk-tales, and but seldom distinguished in annotations. In genuine
Indian folk-tales, however, the character ascribed to the Jinn, as here,
has been borrowed from the Rakshasa, which is Hindu in origin, and an
ogre in every sense of the European word.
_Smell of a man_.--The expression used is always in the vernacular
_mānushgandh_, _i.e._ man-smell. The direct Sanskrit descent
of the compound is worthy of remark.
_Starling_.--_Mainā_: the _Gracula religiosa_, a talking
bird, much valued, and held sacred. It very frequently appears in folk-
tales, like the parrot, probably from being so often domesticated by
people of means and position for its talking qualities.
_Cup_.--_Donā_, a cup made of leaves, used by the very poor as
a receptacle for food.
_Wise woman_.--_Kutnī_ and _paphe-kutnī_ were the words
used, of which perhaps 'wise woman' is the best rendering. _Kutnī_
is always a term of abuse and reproach, and is used in the sense of witch
or wise woman, but the bearers do not seem to possess, as a rule, any
supernatural powers. Hag, harridan, or any similar term will usually
correctly render the word.
_Flying palanquin_.--The words used for this were indifferently
_dolā_, a bridal palanquin, and _burj_, a common word for a
_Lambikin_.--The words used were Panjābī, _lelā_, _lerā_,
_lekrā_, and _lelkarā_, a small or young lamb.
_Lambikin's Songs_.--Of the first the words were Panjābī--
_Nānī kol jāwāngū:
Motā tājā āwāngā
Pher tūn main nūn khāwāngā._
Of the second song--
_Wan piā lelkarā: wan pī tū.
Chal dhamkiriā! Dham! Kā! Dhū!_
These the rhymes render exactly. The words _dham_, _kā_,
_dhū_ are pronounced sharply, so as to imitate the beats on a
_Drumikin_.--The _dhamkīriā_ or _dhamkirī_ in Panjābī is
a small drum made by stretching leather across a wide-mouthed earthen cup
(_piyālā_). The Jatts make it of a piece of hollow wood, 6 inches
by 3 inches, with its ends covered with leather.
_Uncle: uncle-in-law_.--The words used were _māmū_, mother's
brother, and _patiauhrā_, husband's (or father-in-law's) younger
_Pedlar_.--_Wanjārā_ or _banjārā_ (from _wanaj_ or
_banaj_, a bargain), a class of wandering pedlars who sell spices,
_Robber_.--The word used was _thag_, _lit._ a deceiver.
The _Thags_ are a class but too well known in India as those who
make their living by deceiving and strangling travellers. Meadows
Taylor's somewhat sensational book, _The Confessions of a Thug_, has
made their doings familiar enough, too, in England. In the Indian Penal
Code a _thag_ is defined as a person habitually associated with
others for the purpose of committing robbery or child-stealing by means
_Crow's, etc., verses,_.--The original words were--
Thag nāl thagī gai._
You have lost your wits,
And have been deceived by a _thag_.
_Bridal scarlet_.--Every Panjābī bride, however poor, wears a
dress of scarlet and gold for six months, and if rich, for two years.
_Princess Aubergine,_--The vernacular name for the story is
_Baingan Bādshāhzādī._ The Baingan, baigan, begun, or bhāntā is
the _Solanum melongena,_ _i.e_. the egg-plant, or
_aubergine._ Europeans in India know it by the name of
_brinjāl;_ it is a very common and popular vegetable in the
_Exchanging veils,_--To exchange veils among women, and to
exchange turbans among men, is a common way of swearing friendship
among Panjābīs. The women also drink milk out of the same cup on such
_Nine-lakh necklace_,--The introduction of the _Nau-lakkhā
hār,_ or nine-_lākh_ necklace, is a favourite incident in
Indian folk-tales. _Nau-lakkhā_ means worth nine lākhs, or nine
hundred thousand rupees. Frequently magic powers are ascribed to this
necklace, but the term _nau-lakkhā_ has come also to be often
used conventionally for 'very valuable,' and so is applied to gardens,
palaces, _etc_. Probably all rich Rajas have a hankering to
really possess such a necklace, and the last Mahārājā of Patiālā,
about fifteen years ago, bought a real one of huge diamonds, including
the Sansy, for Rupees 900,000. It is on show always at the palace in
the fort at Patiālā.
_Valiant Vicky, the Brave Weaver,_--In the original the title is
'Fatteh Khān, the valiant weaver.' Victor Prince is a very fair
translation of the name Fatteh Khān. The original says his nickname
or familiar name was Fattū, which would answer exactly to Vicky for
Victor. Fattū is a familiar (diminutive form) of the full name Fatteh
Khān. See _Proper Names of Panjābīs, passim,_ for the
explanation of this.
THE SON OF SEVEN MOTHERS
For a long and interesting variant of this tale see _Indian
Antiquary,_ vol. x. p. 151 ff.
_Fakīr,_--Properly _faqīr_, is a Muhammadan devotee, but in
modern India the term is used for any kind of holy man, whatever be
his religion. For instance, the 'Salvation Army' were styled at
Lahore, at a meeting of natives, by a Sikh gentleman of standing, as
_Vilāyatī_ _fuqrā_, European _faqīrs_. The power of
granting children to barren women is ascribed in story to all saints
and holy personages of fame.
_Witch_--The word used was _dāyan_. In the Panjāb a woman
with the evil eye (which by the way is not necessarily in India
possessed by the wicked only, see _Panjāb Notes and Queries_,
1883-84, _passim_), who knows the _dāyan kā mantar_, or
charm for destroying life by taking out the heart. The word in its
various modern forms is derived from the classical _dākinī_, the
female demon attendant on Kali, the goddess of destruction.
_Jōgi's wonderful cow_--The _jōgi_ is a Hindu ascetic, but
like the word _faqīr_, _jōgi_ is often used for any kind of
holy man, as here. Supernatural powers are very commonly ascribed to
them, as well as the universal attribute of granting sons.
Classically the _yōgi_ is the devotee seeking _yoga_, the
union of the living with the sublime soul. The wonderful cow is the
modern fabulously productive cow _Kāmdhain_, representing the
classical _Kāmdhenu_, the cow of Indra that granted all desires.
Hence, probably, the dragging in here of Indra for the master of the
_jōgi_ of the tale. _Kāmdhain_ and _Kāmdhenu_ are both
common terms to the present day for cows that give a large quantity of
_Eighteen thousand demons_--No doubt the modern
representatives--the specific number given being, as is often the
case, merely conventionally--of the guards of Indra, who were in
ancient days the _Maruts_ or Winds, and are in modern times his
Court. See note.
THE SPARROW AND THE CROW
_The Song_.--The form of words in the original is important. The
following gives the variants and the strict translation--
_Tū Chhappar Dās, Main Kāng Dās, Deo paneriyā, Dhoven
chucheriyā, Khāwen khijeriyā, Dekh chiriyā kā chūchlā, Main
You are Mr. Tank,
I am Mr. Crow,
Give me water,
That I may wash my beak,
And eat my _khichrī_,
See the bird's playfulness,
I am a clean crow.
_Tū Lohār Dās, Main Kāng Dās, Tū deo pharwā, Main khodūn
ghasarwā, Khilāwen bhainsarwā, Chowen dūdharwā, Pilāwen
hirnarwā, Toren singarwā, Khōden chalarwā, Nikālen panarwā,
Dhoven chunjarwā, Khāwen khijarwā, Dehk chiriyā kā chūchlā,
Main kāng saparwā._
You are Mr. Blacksmith,
I am Mr. Crow,
You give me a spade,
And I will dig the grass,
That I may give it the buffalo to eat,
And take her milk,
And give it the deer to drink,
And break his horn,
And dig the hole,
And take out the water,
And wash my beak,
And eat my _khichrī_,
See the bird's playfulness,
I am a clean crow.
THE BRAHMAN AND THE TIGER
_The Tiger, the Brāhman, and the Jackal_. A very common and
popular Indian tale. Under various forms it is to be found in most
collections. Variants exist in the _Bhāgavata Purāna_ and the
_Gul Bakāolā_, and in the _Amvār-i-Suhelī_. A variant is
also given in the _Indian Antiquary_, vol. xii. p. 177.
_Buffalo's complaint_.--The work of the buffalo in the oil-press
is the synonym all India over--and with good reason--for hard and
thankless toil for another's benefit.
_As miserable as a fish out of water_.--In the original the
allusion is to a well-known proverb--_mandā hāl wāng Jatt jharī de_--
as miserable as a Jatt in a shower. Any one who has seen the
appearance of the Panjābī cultivator attempting to go to his fields on
a wet, bleak February morning, with his scant clothing sticking to his
limp and shivering figure, while the biting wind blows through him,
will well understand the force of the proverb.
THE KING OF THE CROCODILES
_King of the Crocodiles_--In the original the title is Bādshāh
_Lying amid the crops_--It is commonly said in the Panjāb that
crocodiles do so.
_Demons of crocodiles_.--The word used for _demon_ here was
_jinn_, which is remarkable in this connection.
_Henna_--_Mehndī_ or _hinā_ is the _Lawsonia
alba_, used for staining the finger and toe nails of the bride
red. The ceremony of _sanchit_, or conveying the _henna_ to
the bride by a party of the bride's friends, is the one alluded to.
_Little Anklebone_--This tale appears to be unique among Indian
folk-tales, and is comparable with Grimm's Singing Bone. It is
current in the _Bār_ or wilds of the Gujrānwālā District, among
the cattle-drovers' children. Wolves are very common there, and the
story seems to point to a belief in some invisible shepherd, a sort of
Spirit of the Bār, whose pipe may be heard. The word used for 'Little
Ankle-bone' was _Gīrī_, a diminutive form of the common word
_gittā_. In the course of the story in the original, Little
Anklebone calls himself Giteta Ram, an interesting instance of the
process of the formation of Panjābī proper names.
_Auntie_--Māsī, maternal aunt.
_Tree that weeps over yonder pond_--_Ban_, _i.e.
Salvadora oleoides_, a common tree of the Panjāb forests.
_Jackal howled_--A common evil omen.
_Marble basins_--The word used was _daurā_, a wide-mouthed
earthen vessel, and also in palaces a marble drinking-trough for
_The verses_,--The original and literal translation are as
_Kyūn garjāe badalā garkanāe?
Gaj karak sāre des;
Ohnān hirnīān de than pasmāe:
Gitetā Rām gīā pardes!_
Why echo, O thundering clouds?
Roar and echo through all the land;
The teats of the does yonder are full of milk:
Gitetā Rām has gone abroad!
THE CLOSE ALLIANCE
_Providence_--_Khudā_ and _Allah_ were the words for
Providence or God in this tale, it being a Muhammadan one.
_Kabābs_--Small pieces of meat roasted or fried on skewers with
onions and eggs: a favourite Muhammadan dish throughout the East.
_His own jackal_--From time immemorial the tiger has been
supposed to be accompanied by a jackal who shows him his game and gets
the leavings as his wages. Hence the Sanskrit title of
_vyāghra-nāyaka_ or tiger-leader for the jackal.
_Pigtail_--The Kashmīrī woman's hair is drawn to the back of the
head and finely braided. The braids are then gathered together and,
being mixed with coarse woollen thread, are worked into a very long
plait terminated by a thick tassel, which reaches almost down to the
ankles. It is highly suggestive of the Chinese pigtail, but it is far
THE TWO BROTHERS
_Barley meal instead of wheaten cakes_--_Jau kī roti_,
barley bread, is the poor man's food, as opposed to _gihūn kī
rotī_, wheaten bread, the rich man's food. Barley bread is apt to
_With empty stomachs, etc._--The saying is well known and runs
_Kahīn mat jāo khālī pet.
Hove māgh yā hove jeth._
Go nowhere on an empty stomach,
Be it winter or be it summer.
Very necessary and salutary advice in a feverish country like India.
_If any man eats me, etc._--Apparent allusion to the saying
rendered in the following verse--
_Jo nar totā mārkar khāve per ke heth, Kuchh sansā man na
dhare, woh hogā rājā jeth. Jo mainā ko mār khā, man men rakhe
dhīr; Kuchh chintā man na kare, woh sadā rahegā wazīr._
Who kills a parrot and eats him under a tree,
Should have no doubt in his mind, he will be a great king.
Who kills and eats a starling, let him be patient:
Let him not be troubled in his mind, he will be minister for life.
_Snake-demon_--The word was _isdār_, which represents the
Persian _izhdahā_, _izhdār_, or _izhdar_, a large
_Sacred elephant_.--The reference here is to the legend of the
_safed hāthī_ or _dhaulā gaj_, the white elephant. He is the
elephant-headed God Ganesa, and as such is, or rather was formerly,
kept by Rājās as a pet, and fed to surfeit every Tuesday (_Mangalwār_)
with sweet cakes (_chūrīs_). After which he was taught to go down
on his knees to the Rājā and swing his trunk to and fro, and this was
taken as sign that he acknowledged his royalty. He was never ridden
except occasionally by the Rājā himself. Two sayings, common to the
present day, illustrate these ideas--'_Woh to Mahārājā hai, dhaule gaj
par sowār_: he is indeed king, for he rides the white elephant.'
And '_Mahārājā dhaulā gajpati kidohāī_: (I claim the) protection
of the great king, the lord of the white elephant.' The idea appears to
be a very old one, for AElian (_Hist. Anim._ vol. iii. p. 46),
quoting Megasthenes, mentions the white elephant. See M'Crindle,
_India as described by Megasthenes and Arrian_, pp. 118, 119;
_Indian Antiquary_, vol. vi. p. 333 and footnote.
_Brass drinking bowl_.--The _lotā_, universal throughout India.
_Ogre_.--In the original _rākhas_ = the Sanskrit _rākhasa_,
translated ogre advisedly for the following reasons:--The _rākhasa_
(_rākhas_, an injury) is universal in Hindu mythology as a
superhuman malignant fiend inimical to man, on whom he preys, and that
is his character, too, throughout Indian folk-tales. He is elaborately
described in many an orthodox legend, but very little reading between
the lines in these shows him to have been an alien enemy on the borders
of Aryan tribes. The really human character of the _rākhasa_ is
abundantly evident from the stories about him and his doings. He
occupies almost exactly the position in Indian tales that the ogre does
in European story, and for the same reason, as he represents the memory
of the savage tribes along the old Aryan borders. The ogre, no doubt, is
the Uighur Tātar magnified by fear into a malignant demon. For the
_rākhasa_ see the _Dictionaries_ of Dowson, Garrett, and Monier
Williams, _in verbo_; Muir's _Sanskrit Texts_, vol. ii. p.
420, _etc_.: and for the ogre see _Panjāb Notes and Queries_,
vol. i., in verbo.
_Goat_.--The ogre's eating a goat is curious: _cf_. the
Sanskrit name _ajagara_, goat-eater, for the python (nowadays
_ajgar_), which corresponds to the _izhdahā_ or serpent-demon
on p. 131.
THE JACKAL AND THE LIZARD.
_The verses_.--In the original they are--
Chāndī dā merā chauntrā, koī sonā lipāī!
Kāne men merā gūkrū, shāhzādā baithā hai!
My platform is of silver, plastered with gold!
Jewels are in my ears, I sit here a prince!
_The verses_.--In the original they are--
_Hadī dā terā chauntrā, koī gobar lipaī!
Kāne men terī jūtī; koī gīdar baithā hai!_
Thy platform is of bones, plastered with cow-dung!
Shoes are in thy ears; some jackal sits there!
THE SPARROW'S MISFORTUNE
_Verses_.--In the original these are--
_Saukan rangan men charhī,
Main bhī rangan men parī,_
My co-wife got dyed,
I too fell into the vat.
_Verses_.--In the original--
_Ik sarī, ik balī;
Ik hinak mode charhī,_
One is vexed and one grieved;
And one is carried laughing on the shoulder.
The allusion here is to a common tale. The story goes that a man who
had two wives wanted to cross a river. Both wives wanted to go across
first with him, so in the end, leaving the elder to walk, he took the
younger on his shoulder, who mocked the elder with the words--
_Ik sarī, dūī balī;
Dūī jāī mūnde charhī._
First she was vexed, next she grieved;
While the other went across on the shoulder.
Hence the sting of the old sparrow's taunt.
_Verses_.--In the original--
_Ik chamkhat hūī;
Chirī rangan charhī;
Chirā bedan karī;
Pīpal patte jharī;
Mahīn sing jharī;
Naīn bahķ khārī;
Koļl hūī kānī;
Putr dholkī bajānī;
Rājā sargī bajānī;_
One hen painted,
And the other was dyed,
And the cock loved her,
So the _pīpal_ shed its leaves,
And the buffalo her horns,
So the river became salt,
And the cuckoo lost an eye,
So Bhagtū went mad,
And the maid took to swearing,
So the Queen took to dancing,
And the Prince took to drumming,
And the King took to thrumming.
THE PRINCESS PEPPERINA
_Princess Pepperina_.--In the original _Shāhzādī Mirchā_ or
_Filfil Shāhzādī: mirch_ is the _Capsicum annuum_ or common
chilli, green and red.
_Sheldrakes_.--The _chakwā_, male, and _chakwī_, female,
is the ruddy goose or sheldrake, known to Europeans as the Brāhmanī
duck, _Anas casarca_ or _Casarca rutila_. It is found all over
India in the winter, and its plaintive night cry has given rise to a
very pretty legend. Two lovers are said to have been for some
indiscretion turned into Brāhmanī ducks, and condemned to pass the
night apart from each other, on the opposite sides of a river. All
night long each asks the other in turn if it shall join its mate,
and the answer is always 'no.' The words supposed to be said are--
_Chakwā, main āwān? Nā, Chakwī!_
_Chakwī, main āwān? Nā, Chakwā!_
Chakwā, shall I come? No, Chakwī!
Chakwī, shall I come? No, Chakwā!
PEASIE AND BEANSIE
_Peasie and Beansie_, p. 167.--In the original Motho and Mūngo.
_Motho_ is a vetch, _Phaseolus aconitifolius_; and
_mūng_ is a variety of pulse, _Phaseolus mungo_. Peasie and
Beansie are very fair translations of the above.
_Plum-tree_, p. 167.--_Ber, Zizyphus jujuba._
_King 'Ali Mardān_--'Ali Mardān Khān belongs to modern history,
having been Governor (not King, as the tale has it) of Kashmīr, under
the Emperor Shāh Jahān, about A.D. 1650, and very famous in India in
many ways. He was one of the most magnificent governors Kashmīr ever
had, and is now the best-remembered.
_Snake-Woman_--In the original _Lamiā_, said in Kashmīr to
be a snake 200 years old, and to possess the power of becoming a
woman. In India, especially in the hill districts, it is called
_Yahawwā_. In this tale the _Lamiā_ is described as being a
_Wāsdeo_, a mythical serpent. _Wāsdeo_ is the same as
Vāsudeva, a descendant of Vasudeva. Vasudeva was the earthly father
of Krishna and of his elder brother Balarāma, so Balarāma was a
Vāsudeva. Balarāma in the classics is constantly mixed up with Sźsha
(now Sesh Nāg), a king of serpents, and with Vāsuki (Bāsak Nāg), also
a king of serpents; while Ananta, the infinite, the serpent whose
legend combines that of Vāsuki and Sźsha, is mixed not only with
Balarāma, but also with Krishna. Hence the name Wāsdeo for a
serpent. The Lamiā is not only known in India from ancient times to
the present day, but also in Tibet and Central Asia generally, and in
Europe from ancient to mediaeval times, and always as a malignant
supernatural being. For discussions on her, see notes to the above in
the _Indian Antiquary_, vol. xi. pp. 230-232, and the discussion
following, entitled 'Lamiā or [Greek] Lamia' pp. 232-235. Also
_Comparetti's Researches into the Book of Sindibād_, Folklore
Society's ed., _passim_.
_Dal Lake_--The celebrated lake at Srinagar in Kashmīr.
_Emperor of China's Handmaiden_--A common way of explaining the
origin of unknown girls in Musālman tales. Kashmīr is essentially a
_Shalimār gardens_.--At Srinagar, made by the Emperor Jahangir,
who preceded 'Ali Mardān Khān by a generation, for Nūr Mahal. Moore,
_Lalla Rookh_, transcribes in describing them the well-known
Persian verses in the Dīwān-i-Khās (Hall of Private Audience) at Delhi
'And oh! if there be an Elysium on earth,
It is this, it is this.'
The verses run really thus--
_Agar firdūs ba rū-e-zamīn ast,
Hamīn ast o hamīn ast o hamīn ast!_
If there be an Elysium on the face of the earth,
It is here, and it is here, and it is here!
Shāh Jahān built the Shālimār gardens at Lahor, in imitation of those
at Srinagar, and afterwards Ranjīt Singh restored them. They are on
the Amritsar Road.
_Gangābal_.--A holy lake on the top of Mount Harāmukh, 16,905 feet,
in the north of Kashmīr. It is one of the sources of the Jhelam River,
and the scene of an annual fair about 20th August.
_Khichrī_.--Sweet khichrī consists of rice, sugar, cocoa-nut,
raisins, cardamoms, and aniseed; salt khichrī of pulse and rice.
_The stone in the ashes_.--The _pāras_, in Sanskrit
_sparsamani_, the stone that turns what it touches into gold.
_Attock_.--In the original it is the Atak River (the Indus) near
Hoti Mardān, which place is near Atak or Attock. The similarity in
the names 'Ali Mardan and Hotī Mardān probably gave rise to this
statement. They have no connection whatever.
THE WONDERFUL RING
_The Wonderful Ring_.--In the vernacular _'ajab mundrā_: a
variant of the inexhaustible box.
_Holy place_.--_Chaunkā_, a square place plastered with
cow-dung, used by Hindus when cooking or worshipping. The cow-dung
sanctifies and purifies it.
_Aunt_.--_Māsī_, maternal aunt.
THE JACKAL AND THE PEA-HEN
_Plums_, p. 195.--_Ber, Zyziphus jujuba_.
THE GRAIN OF CORN
_The verses_.--In the original they were--
_Phir gīā billī ke pās,
'Billī, rī billī, mūsā khāogī'
Khātī khūnd pār nā!
Khūnd chanā de nā!
Rājā khātī dande nā!
Rājā rānī russe nā!
Sapnā rānī dase nā!
Lāthī sapnā māre nā!
Āg lāthī jalāve nā!
Samundar āg bujhāve nā!
Hāthī samundar sukhe nā!
Nāre hāthī bandhe nā!
Mūsā nāre kāte nā!
Lūngā phir chorūn? nā!'
He then went to the cat (saying),
'Cat, cat, eat mouse.
Woodman won't cut tree!
Tree won't give peas!
King won't beat woodman!
Queen won't storm at king!
Snake won't bite queen!
Stick won't beat snake!
Fire won't burn stick!
Sea won't quench fire!
Elephant won't drink up sea!
Thong won't bind elephant!
Mouse won't nip thong!
I'll take (the pea) yet, I won't let it go!'_
It will be seen that in the text the order has been transposed for
obvious literary convenience.
_Verses_.--In the original these are--
_Usne kahā, 'Lap, lap, khāūngī!'
Phir gīā mūsā ke pās, 'Mūsā, re mūsā, ab khā jāoge?' 'Ham bhī
Phir gīā nāre ke pās, 'Nāre, re nāre, ab kāte jāoge?' 'Ham bhī
Phir gīā hāthī ke pās, 'Hāthī, re hāthī, ab bandhe jāoge?' 'Ham
bhī samundar sūkhenge.'
Phir gīā samundar ke pās, 'Samundar, re samundar, ab sukhe
jāoge?' 'Ham bhī āg bujhāenge.'
Phir gīā āg ke pās, 'Āg, rī āg, ab bujhāī jāogi?' 'Ham bhī lāthī
Phir gīā lāthī ke pās, 'Lāthī, re lāthī, ab jal jāoge?' 'Ham bhī
Phir gīā samp ke pās, 'Sāmp, re sāmp, ab māre jāoge?' 'Ham bhī
Phir gīā rānī ke pās, 'Rānī, rī rānī, ab dasī jāoge?' 'Ham bhī
Phir gīā rājā ke pās, 'Rājā, re raja, ab rānī rus jāoge?' 'Ham
bhī khātī dāndenge.'
Phir gīā khātī ke pās, 'Khātī, re khātī, ab dande jāoge?' 'Ham
bhī khund kātenge.'
Phir gīā khund ke pās, 'Khund, re khund, ab kāte jāoge?' 'Ham
bhī chanā denge.'
Phir woh chanā lekar chalā gīā?_
The cat said, 'I will eat him up at once!'
(So) he went to the mouse, 'Mouse, mouse, will you be eaten?' 'I
will gnaw the thong.'
He went to the thong, 'Thong, thong, will you be gnawed?' 'I
will bind the elephant.'
He went to the elephant, 'Elephant, elephant, will you be bound?'
'I will drink up the ocean.'
He went to the ocean, 'Ocean, ocean, will you be drunk up?' 'I
will quench the fire.'
He went to the fire, 'Fire, fire, will you be quenched?' 'I will
burn the stick.'
He went to the stick, 'Stick, stick, will you be burnt?' 'I will
beat the snake.'
He went to the snake, 'Snake, snake, will you be beaten?' 'I will
bite the queen.'
He went to the queen, 'Queen, queen, will you be bitten?' 'I will
storm at the king.'
He went to the king, 'King, king, will you be stormed at by the
queen?' 'I will beat the woodman.'
He went to the woodman, 'Woodman, woodman, will you be
beaten?' 'I will cut down the trunk.'
He went to the trunk, 'Trunk, trunk, will you be cut down?' 'I
will give you the pea.'
So he got the pea and went away.
THE FARMER AND THE MONEY-LENDER
_Money-lender_--_Līdū_, a disreputable tradesman, a sharp
_Rām_--Rāma Chandra, now 'God' _par excellence_.
_Conch_--_Sankh_, the shell used in Hindu worship for
THE LORD OF DEATH
_Lord of Death_.--_Maliku'l-maut_ is the Muhammadan form of
the name, _Kāl_ is the Hindu form. The belief is that every
living being has attached to him a 'Lord of Death.' He is represented
in the 'passion plays' so common at the Dasahra and other festivals by
a hunchbacked dwarf, quite black, with scarlet lips, fastened to a
'keeper' by a black chain and twirling about a black wand. The idea
is that until this chain is loosened or broken the life which he is to
kill is safe. The notion is probably of Hindu origin. For a note on
the subject see _Indian Antiquary_, vol. x. pp. 289, 290.
_The Wrestlers_.--The story seems to be common all over India. In
the _Indian Antiquary_, vol. x. p. 230, it is suggested that it
represents some aboriginal account of the creation.
_Ten thousand pounds weight_.--In the original 160 _mans_,
which weigh over 13,000 lbs._
_Gwāshbrāri, etc_.--The Westarwān range is the longest spur into
the valley of Kashmīr. The remarkably clear tilt of the strata
probably suggested this fanciful and poetical legend. All the
mountains mentioned in the tale are prominent peaks in Kashmīr, and
belong to what Cunningham (_Ladāk_, 1854, ch. iii.) calls the Pīr
Panjāl and Mid-Himālayan Range. Nangā Parbat, 26,829 ft., is to the
N.W.; Harā Mukh, 16,905 ft., to the N.; Gwāshbrāri or Kolahoī, 17,839
ft., to the N.E. Westarwān is a long ridge running N.W. to S.E.,
between Khrū and Sotūr, right into the Kashmīr valley. Khru is not
far from Srinagar, to the S.E.
_Lay at Gwāshbrāri's feet, his head upon her heart_.--As a matter
of fact, Westarwān does not lay his head anywhere near Gwāshbrāri's
feet, though he would appear to do so from Khrū, at which place the
legend probably arose. An excellent account of the country between
Khrū and Sesh Nāg, traversing most of that lying between Westarwān and
Gwāshbrāri, by the late Colonel Cuppage, is to be found at pp. 206-221
of Ince's _Kashmīr Handbook_, 3rd ed., 1876.
THE BARBER'S CLEVER WIFE
_Hornets' nest_.--Properly speaking, bees. This species makes a
so-called nest, _i.e._ a honey-comb hanging from the branch of a
tree, usually a _pīpal_, over which the insects crawl and jostle
each other in myriads in the open air. When roused, and any accident
may do this, they become dangerous enemies, and will attack and sting
to death any animal near. They form a real danger in the Central
Indian jungles, and authentic cases in which they have killed horses
and men, even Europeans, are numerous.
_Fairy_.--_Parī_, fairy, peri: the story indicates a very
THE JACKAL AND THE CROCODILE
_Verses_.--In the original they are--
_Gādar, ghar kyā lāyā?
Kyā chīz kamāyā?
Ki merā khātir pāyā._
Jackal, what hast thou brought home?
What thing hast thou earned?
That I may obtain my wants.
The story has a parallel in most Indian collections, and two in
_Uncle Remus_, in the stories of 'The Rabbit and the Wolf' and of
'The Terrapin and the Rabbit.'
HOW RAJA RASĀLU WAS BORN
_Raja Rasālu_--The chief legendary hero of the Panjāb, and
probably a Scythian or non-Aryan king of great mark who fought both
the Aryans to the east and the invading tribes (? Arabs) to the
west. Popularly he is the son of the great Scythian hero Sālivāhana,
who established the Sāka or Scythian era in 78 A.D. Really he,
however, probably lived much later, and his date should be looked for
at any period between A.D. 300 and A.D. 900. He most probably
represented the typical Indian kings known to the Arab historians as
flourishing between 697 and 870 A.D. by the synonymous names Zentil,
Zenbil, Zenbyl, Zambil, Zantil, Ranbal, Ratbyl, Reteil, Retpeil,
Rantal, Ratpil, Ratteil, Ratbal, Ratbil, Ratsal, Rusal, Rasal, Rasil.
These are all meant for the same word, having arisen from the
uncertainty of the Arabic character and the ignorance of
transcribers. The particular king meant is most likely the opponent
of Hajjaj and Muhammad Qasim between 697 and 713 A.D. The whole
subject is involved in the greatest obscurity, and in the Panjāb his
story is almost hopelessly involved in pure folklore. It has often
been discussed in learned journals. See _Indian Antiquary_, vol.
xi. pp. 299 ff. 346-349, vol. xii. p. 303 ff., vol. xiii. p. 155 ff.;
_Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal_ for 1854, pp. 123-163,
_etc_.; Elliot's _History of India_, vol. i. pp. 167, 168,
vol. ii. pp. 178, 403-427.
_Lonan_--For a story of Lonān, see _Indian Antiquary_, vol.
ix. p. 290.
_Thrown into a deep well_--Still shown on the road between
Siālkot and Kallowāl.
_Gurū Gorakhnāth_--The ordinary _deux ex machinā_ of modern
folk-tales. He is now supposed to be the reliever of all troubles,
and possessed of most miraculous powers, especially over snakes. In
life he seems to have been the Brāhmanical opponent of the mediaeval
reformers of the fifteenth century A.D. By any computation Pūran
Bhagat must have lived centuries before him.
_Pūran Bhagat_.--Is in story Rājā Rasālū's elder brother. There
are numerous poems written about his story, which is essentially that
of Potiphar's wife. The parallel between the tales of Raja Rasālu and
Pūran Bhagat and those of the Southern Aryan conqueror Vikramāditya
and his (in legend) elder brother Bhatrihari, the saint and philosopher,
is worthy of remark.
HOW RAJA RASĀLU WENT OUT INTO THE WORLD
_Bhaunr' Irāqi_.--The name of Rasālu's horse; but the name
probably should be Bhaunri Rakhi, kept in the underground cellar.
'Irāqi means Arabian.
_Verses_.--In the original these are--
_Main āiā thā salām nūn, tūn baithā pīth maror!
Main nahīn terā rāj wandānundā; main nūn nahīn rāj te lor._
I came to salute thee, and thou hast turned thy back on me!
I have no wish to share thy kingdom! I have no desire for empire.
_Mahlān de vich baithīe, tūn ro ro na sunā! Je tūn merī mātā
hain, koī mat batlā! Matte dendī hai mān tain nūn, putar: gin
gin jholī ghat! Chāre Khūntān tūn rāj kare, par changā rakhīn
O sitting in the palace, let me not hear thee weeping!
If thou be my mother give me some advice!
Thy mother doth advise thee, son: stow it carefully away in thy
Thou wilt reign in the Four Quarters, but keep thyself good and
_Verses_.--In the original these are--
_Thorā thorā, betā, tūn disīn, aur bahotī disī dhūr:
Putr jinān de tur chale, aur māwān chiknā chūr._
It is little I see of thee, my son, but I see much dust.
The mother, whose son goes away on a journey, becomes as a powder
(reduced to great misery).
HOW RAJA RASĀLU'S FRIENDS FORSOOK HIM
_Agge sowen lef nihālīān, ajj sutā suthrā ghās!
Sukh wasse yeh des, jāhan āeajj dī rāt!_
Before thou didst sleep on quilts, to-day thou has slept on clean
Mayest thou live happy in this land whither thou hast come this
_Snake_--Most probably represents a man of the 'Serpent Race' a
Nāga, Taka, or Takshak.
_Unspeakable horror_--The undefined word _āfat_, horror,
terror, was used throughout.
_Sadā na phūlan torīān, nafrā: sadā na Sāwan hoe:
Sadā na joban thir rahe: sadā na jive koe:
Sadā na rājiān hākimī: sāda na rājiān des:
Sadā na hove ghar apnā, nafrā, bhath piā pardes_.
_Tcrīs_ (a mustard plant) do not always flower, my servant: it
is not always the rainy season (time of joy).
Youth does not always last: no one lives for ever:
Kings are not always rulers: kings have not always lands:
They have not always homes, my servant: they fall into great
troubles in strange lands.
These verses of rustic philosophy are universal favourites, and have
been thus rendered in the _Calcutta Review_, No. clvi. pp. 281,
Youth will not always stay with us:
We shall not always live:
Rain doth not always fall for us:
Nor flowers blossoms give.
Great kings not always rulers are:
They have not always lands:
Nor have they always homes, but know
Sharp grief at strangers' hands.
HOW RAJA RASĀLU KILLED THE GIANTS
_Giants_--_Rākshasa_, for which see previous notes.
_Nīlā city_--Most probably Bāgh Nīlāb on the Indus to the south
_Verses_--In the original these are--
_Na ro, mata bholīe: na aswān dhalkāe: Tere bete ki 'īvaz main
sir desān chāe. Nīle-ghorewālīd Rājā, munh dhārī, sir pag, Woh
jo dekhte āunde, jin khāiā sārā jag_.
Weep not, foolish mother, drop no tears:
I will give my head for thy son.
Gray-horsed Raja: bearded face and turban on head,
He whom you see coming is he who has destroyed my life!
_Nasso, bhajo, bhāīo! Dekho koī gali! Tehrī agg dhonkaī, so
sir te ān balī! Sūjhanhārī sūjh gae; hun laihndī charhdī jāe!
Jithe sānūn sūkh mile, so jhatpat kare upāe!
Fly, fly, brethren! look out for some road!
Such a fire is burning that it will come and burn our heads!
Our fate has come, we shall now be destroyed!
Make some plan at once for our relief._
_Gandgari Mountains_--Gandgarh Hills, to the north of Atak; for a
detailed account of this legend see _Journal Asiatic Society of
Bengal_ for 1854, p. 150 ff.
HOW RAJA RASĀLU BECAME A JOGI
_Hodīnagarī_--A veritable will-o'-the-wisp in the ancient Panjāb
geography: Hodīnagarī, Udenagar, Udaynagar, is the name of
innumerable ruins all over the northern Panjāb, from Siālkot to
Jalālābād in Afghānistān beyond the Khaibar Pass. Here it is more
than probably some place in the Rawāl Pindi or Hazārā Districts along
_Rānī Sundrān_--The daughter of Hari Chand.
_Alakh_--'In the Imperishable Name,' the cry of religious
mendicants when begging.
_Jāe būhe te kilkiā: līa nām Khudā:
Dūron chalke, Rānī Sundrān, terā nā:
Je, Rānī, tū sakhī hain, kharī faqīrān pā:_
Coming to the threshold I called out: I took the name of God:
Coming from afar, Rānī Sundrān, on account of thy name.
If thou art generous, Rānī, the beggar will obtain alms.
The _Musalmān_ word _Khudā_, God, here is noticeable, as
Rasālū was personating a _Hindu jōgi_.
_Kab kī pāī mundran? Kab kā hūā faqīr? Kis ghatā mānion? Kis
kā lāgā tīr! Kete māen mangiā? Mere ghar kī mangī bhīkh? Kal
kī pāī mundrān! Kal kā hūā faqīr! Na ghat, māīān, māniān: kal
kā lagā tīr. Kuchh nahīn munh mangī: Kewal tere ghar ke
When didst thou get thy earring? When wast thou made a _faqīr?_
What is thy pretence? Whose arrow of love hath struck thee?
From how many women hast thou begged? What alms dost thou beg from me?
Yesterday I got my earring: yesterday I became a _faqīr_.
I make no pretence, mother: yesterday the arrow struck me.
I begged nothing: only from thy house do I beg.
_Tarqas jariā tīr motīān; lālān jarī kumān; Pinde bhasham
lagāiā: yeh mainān aur rang; Jis bhikhiā kā lābhī hain tū wohī
bhikhiā mang. Tarqas jariā merā motīān: lālān jarī kumān. Lāl
na jānā bechke, motī be-wattī. Motī apne phir lai; sānūn pakkā
Thy quiver is full of pearly arrows: thy bow is set with rubies:
Thy body is covered with ashes: thy eyes and thy colour thus:
Ask for the alms thou dost desire.
My quiver is set with pearls: my bow is set with rubies.
I know not how to sell pearls and rubies without loss.
Take back thy pearls: give me some cooked food.
_Kahān tumhārī nagari? kahān tumhārā thāon? Kis rājā kā betrā
jōgī? kyā tumhārā nāon? Siālkot hamārī nagarī; wohī hamārā
thāon. Rājā Sālivāhan kā main betrā: Lonā parī merā māon.
Pinde bhasam lagāe, dekhan terī jāon. Tainūn dekhke chaliā: Rājā
Rasālu merā nāon._
Where is thy city? Where is thy home?
What king's son art thou, _jōgi?_ What is thy name?
Sialkot is my city: that is my home.
I am Rājā Sālivāhan's son: the fairy Lonā is my mother.
Ashes are on my body: (my desire was) to see thy abode.
Having seen thee I go away: Rājā Rasālū is my name.
_Sati_.--The rite by which widows burn themselves with their
HOW RAJA RASĀLU JOURNEYED TO THE CITY OF KING SARKAP
_Raja Sarkap_.--_Lit_. King Beheader is a universal hero of
fable, who has left many places behind him connected with his memory,
but who he was has not yet been ascertained.
_Bāre andar piā karanglā, na is sās, na pās. Je Maullā is nūn
zindā kare, do bātān kare hamāre sāth. Laihndion charhī badalī,
hāthān pāiā zor: Kehe 'amal kamāio, je jhaldi nahīn ghor?_
The corpse has fallen under the hedge, no breath in him, nor any one
If God grant him life he may talk a little with me.
The clouds rose in the west and the storm was very fierce;
What hast thou done that the grave doth not hold thee?
Asīn bhī kadīn duniyān te inhān the;
Rājā nal degrīān pagān banhde,
Turde pabhān bhār.
Āunde tara, nachāunde tara,
Zara na mitthī jhaldī Rājā
Hun sau manān dā bhār.
I, too, was once on the earth thus;
Fastening my turban like a king,
Coming proudly, taunting proudly,
I drove off the horsemen.
The grave does not hold me at all, Raja:
Now I am a great sinner.
_Chaupur_, p. 256.--_Chaupur_ is a game played by two
players with 8 men each on a board in the shape of a cross, 4 men to
each cross covered with squares. The moves of the men are decided by
the throws of a long form of dice. The object of the game is to see
which of the players can move all his men into the black centre square
of the cross first. A detailed description of the game is given in
_The Legends of the Panjāb_, vol. i. pp. 243, 245.
HOW RAJA RASĀLU SWUNG THE SEVENTY FAIR MAIDENS, DAUGHTERS OF THE KING
_The daughters of Raja Sarkap_.--The scene of this and the
following legend is probably meant to be Kot Bithaur on the Indus
_Nīle-ghorewāliā Rājā, niven neze āh!
Agge Rājā Sarkap hai, sir laisī ulāh!
Bhāla chāhen jo apnā, tān pichhe hī mur jāh!
Dūron bīrā chukiā ithe pahutā āh:
Sarkap dā sir katke tote kassān chār.
Tainūn banāsān wohtrī, main bansān mihrāj!_
Grey-horsed Rājā, come with lowered lance!
Before thee is Rājā Sarkap, he will take thy head!
If thou seek thy own good, then turn thee back!
I have come from afar under a vow of victory:
I will cut off Sarkap's head and cut it into four pieces.
I will make thee my little bride, and will become thy bridegroom!
_Hundredweight_--_Man_ in the original, or a little over 80
_Ik jo aia Rajpūt katdā māromār, Paske lārhān kapiān sittīā
sīne bhār. Dharīn dharin bheren bhanīān aur bhane ghariāl! Taīn
nūn, Rājā, marsī ate sānūn kharsī hāl._
A prince has come and is making havoc;
He cut the long strings and threw us out headlong.
The drums placed are broken and broken are the gongs.
He will kill thee, Raja, and take me with him!
_Chhotī nagarī dā waskīn, Rānī wadī karī pukār.
Jān main niklān bāhar, tān merī tan nachāve dhāl.
Fajre rotī tān khāsān, sir laisān utār._
Princess, thou hast brought a great complaint about a dweller in a
When I come out his shield will dance for fear of my valour.
In the morning I will eat my bread and cut off their heads.
HOW RAJA RASĀLU PLAYED _CHAUPUR_ WITH RAJA SARKAP
_Dhol Rājā_--It is not known why the rat was so called. The hero
of a well-known popular love-tale bears the same name. Dhol or Dhaul
(from Sanskrit _dhavala_, white) is in popular story the
_cow_ that supports the earth on its horns.
_Sakhī samundar jamiān, Rājā līo rud gar thāe: Āo to charho
merī pīth te, kot tudh kharān tarpāe. Urde pankhī main na desān,
jo dauran lakh karor. Je tudh, Rājā, pārā khelsiā, jeb hāth to
O my beloved, I was born in the ocean, and the Rājā
bought me with much gold.
Come and jump on my back and I will take thee off
with thousands of bounds.
Wings of birds shall not catch me, though they go
thousands of miles.
If thou wouldst gamble, Raja, keep thy hand on thy pocket.
_Na ro, Rājiā bholiā; nā main charsān ghāh,
Na main tursān rāh.
Dahnā dast uthāeke jeb de vich pāh!_
Weep not, foolish Rājā, I shall not eat their grass,
Nor shall I go away.
Take thy right hand and put it in thy pocket!
_Dhal, we pāsā dhalwin ithe basante lok! Sarān dharān han
bāziān, jehrī Sarkap kare so ho! Dhal, we pāsā dhalwen, ithe
basanlā lok! Sarān dharān te bāzian! Jehrī Allah kare so ho!_
O moulded pieces, favour me: a man is here!
Heads and bodies are at stake! as Sarkap does so let it be.
O moulded pieces, favour me: a man is here!
Heads and bodies are at stake! as God does so let it be!
_Hor rāje murghābīān, tu rājā shāhbāz!
Bandī bānān āe band khalās kar! umar terī drāz._
Other kings are wild-fowl, thou art a royal hawk!
Unbind the chains of the chain-bound and live for ever!
_Mūrtī Hills_.--Near Rāwal Pindī to the south-west.
_Kokilān_.--Means 'a darling': she was unfaithful and most
dreadfully punished by being made to eat her lover's heart.
THE KING WHO WAS FRIED
_The king who was fried_.--The story is told of the hill temple
(_marhī_) on the top of Pindī Point at the Murree (_Marhī_)
Hill Sanitarium. Full details of the surroundings are given in the
_Calcutta Review_, No. cl. p. 270 ff.
_King Karan,_.--This is for Karna, the half-brother of Pāndu, and
a great hero in the _Mahābhārata_ legends. Usually he appears in
the very different character of a typical tyrant, like Herod among
Christians, and for the same reason, _viz_. the slaughter of
_Hundredweight_.--A man and a quarter in the original, or about
_Mānsarobar Lake_.--The Mānasasarovara Lake (=Tsho-Māphan) in the
Kailāsa Range of the Himālayas, for ages a centre of Indian fable.
For descriptions see Cunningham's _Ladāk_, pp. 128-136.
_Swan_.--_Hansa_ in the original: a fabulous bird that lives
on pearls only. Swan translates it better than any other word.
_King Bikramājīt_.--The great Vikramāditya of Ujjayinī,
popularly the founder of the present Sarhvat era in B.C. 57. Bikrū is
a legitimately-formed diminutive of the name. Vikrāmaditya figures
constantly in folklore as Bikram, Vikram, and Vichram, and also by a
false analogy as Bik Rām and Vich Rām. He also goes by the name of
Bīr Bikramājīt or Vīr Vikram, i.e. Vikramāditya, the warrior. In
some tales, probably by the error of the translator, he then becomes
two brothers, Vir and Vikram. See Postans' _Cutch_, p. 18 ff.
_Half-a-son_--_Adhiā_ in the original form; _ādhā_, a
half. The natives, however, give the tale the title of '_Sat
Bachiān diān Māwān,_' _i.e_. the Mothers of Seven Sons.
THE MOTHER OF SEVEN SONS
_Broken-down old bed_.--This, with scratching the ground with the
fore-finger, is a recognised form of expressing grief in the Panjāb.
The object is to attract _faqīrs_ to help the sufferer.
THE RUBY PRINCE
_Prince Ruby_.--_La'ljī_, Mr. Ruby, a common name: it can
also mean 'beloved son' or 'cherished son.'
_Snake-stone_.--_Mani_ the fabulous jewel in the
cobra's hood, according to folklore all over India. See _Panjāb
Notes and Queries_, vol. i. for 1883-84.