Part 18 out of 18
and reward is the hope of raising the child to the dignity of man.
"I left Yverdon resolved to fulfill my promise made to Pestalozzi to
carry his method into geography.... Pestalozzi did not know as much
geography as a child in our Primary Schools, but, none the less, have
I learned that science from him, for it was in listening to him that I
felt awaken within me the instinct of the natural methods; he showed
me the way." (Guimps, Baron de, _Pestalozzi, his Aim and Work_,
 The young German student of geology and mineralogy, Karl George von
Raumer (1783-1865), was in Paris, in 1808. While there he read
Pestalozzi's _How Gertrude teaches her Children_, and what Fichte had said
of his work in his _Addresses to the German Nation_ (see chapter xxii).
These sent him to Yverdon to see for himself. He remained two years, and
returned to Germany as a teacher. In 1846 he published his four-volume
_Geschichte der Paedagogik_, the first important history of education to be
 In 1814 King Frederick William III himself visited Pestalozzi, at
Neufchatel. His queen, Louise, was deeply touched by reading the _Emile_,
and frequently spent hours in the Prussian schools witnessing work
conducted after the ideas of Pestalozzi.
 One of the first acts of the reign of Frederick the Great was to
recall Wolff from banishment. In doing so he said: "A man that seeks
truth, and loves it, must be reckoned precious in any human society."
 "It was a bold declaration, but one which exactly described the great
change which had taken place. The older university instruction was
everywhere based upon the assumption that the truth had already been
given, that instruction had to do with its transmission only, and that it
was the duty of the controlling authorities to see to it that no false
doctrines were taught. The new university instruction began with the
assumption that the truth must be discovered, and that it was the duty of
instruction to qualify and guide the student in this task. By assuming
this attitude the university was the first to accept the consequences of
the conditions which the Reformation had created." (Paulsen, Fr., _The
German Universities_, p. 46.)
 "He who reads the works of the ancients will enjoy the acquaintance of
the greatest men and the noblest souls who ever lived, and will get in
this way, as it happens in all refined conversation, beautiful thoughts
and expressive words.
"We thus receive, in early childhood, doctrines and philosophy and wisdom
of life from the wisest and best educated men of all ages; we thus learn
to recognize and understand clearness, dignity, charm, ingenuity,
delicacy, and elegance in language and action, and gradually accustom
ourselves to them." (Gesner, Johann Matthias.)
 The sacristan or custodian of the church was frequently also the
teacher of the elementary school, the two offices being combined in one
person. Out of this combination the elementary teacher was later evolved.
(See p. 446.)
 "When the schoolmaster had to pass an examination before the clergyman
of the place by order of the inspector, the local authorities, owing to
the lamentable life of a schoolmaster, were glad to find persons at all
who were willing to accept an engagement for such a position. In
consequence an otherwise intolerable indulgence in examining and employing
teachers took place, especially in districts where large landholders had
patriarchal sway." (Schmid, K. A., _Encydopaedie_, vol. VI, p. 287.)
 Austria at that time included not only the Austro-Hungarian Empire of
1914, but extended further into the German Empire and Italy, and included
Belgium and Luxemburg as well.
 Bassewitz, M. Fr. von, _Die Kurmark Brandenburg_, p. 342. (Leipzig,
 These lectures were listened to by Napoleon's police and passed to
print by his censor, not being regarded as containing anything seditious
 "He set all his hopes for Germany on a new national system of
education. One German State was to lead the way in establishing it, making
use of the same right of coercion to which it resorted in compelling its
subjects to serve in the army, and for the exercise of which certainly no
better justification could be found than the common good aimed at in
national education." (Paulsen, Fr., _German Education, Past and Present_,
 "Never have the souls of men been so deeply stirred by the idea of
raising the whole existence of mankind to a higher level. Something like
the enthusiasm which had taken hold of the minds at the outbreak of the
French Revolution was again at work, the only difference being that the
strong current of national feeling directed it toward an aim which, if
more limited, was, for that very reason, more practicable and more
defined." (Paulsen, Fr., _German Education, Past and Present_, p. 183.)
 As a result of the overthrow of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna
restored to Prussia and France substantially the boundaries they had at
the opening of the Napoleonic Wars. Still more important for the future
was the consolidation of some four hundred States and petty German
kingdoms into thirty-eight States.
 Friedrich Adolph Wilhelm Diesterweg became a pupil in one of the
earliest normal schools in Prussia, that at Frankfort; then a teacher; and
in 1820 became a director of a Teachers' Seminary at Moers. From 1833 to
1849 he was head of the normal school at Berlin. He has often been called
"der deutsche Pestalozzi."
 Made in a letter to Baron von Altenstein, Prussian Minister for
 "Herbart's seminar at the university of Koenigsberg was officially
recognized, in 1810; Gedike's seminar in Berlin was formally taken over by
the university, in 1812; the seminar in Stettin, founded in 1804, was
reorganized in 1816; Breslau began pedagogical work, in 1813; and in 1817
it was stated that the purpose of the reorganized seminar in Halle was
'the training of skilled teachers for the _Gymnasien_.'" (Russell, James
E., _German Higher Schools_, p. 97.)
 Gesner at Goettingen and Wolff at Halle laid down the lines for these
in the middle eighteenth century. The early nineteenth-century foundations
were at Koenigsberg, 1810; Berlin, 1812; Breslau, 1812; Bonn, 1819;
Griefswald, 1820; and Muenster, 1825.
 All prospective gymnasial teachers, whether graduates of the
universities or not, were now required to take examinations in philosophy,
pedagogy, theology, and the main gymnasial subjects, showing marked
proficiency in one of the following groups, and a reasonable knowledge of
the other two: namely, (1) Greek, Latin, German; (2) Mathematics and the
Natural Sciences; (3) History and Geography.
 See Russell, Jas. E., _German Higher Schools_, p. 101, for the
detailed "Gymnasial Program" promulgated in 1837.
 In 1840 there were six Prussian universities; by 1900 the number had
increased to eleven, and three technical universities in addition. In the
other German States eleven additional universities and six technical
universities were in existence, in 1900.
 Benjamin Franklin visited Goettingen, as early as 1766, but the first
American student to take a degree at a German university was Benjamin S.
Barton, of Philadelphia, who took his doctor's degree at Goettingen, in
1799. By 1825 ten American students had studied one or more semesters at
Goettingen. That year the first American student registered at Berlin, and
in 1827 the first at Leipzig. (See Hinsdale, B. A., in _Report, U.S.
Commissioner of Education_, 1897-98, vol. 1, pp. 603-16.)
 The remark attributed to Bismarck is interesting in this connection.
"Of the students who attend the German universities," he said, "one-third
die prematurely as the result of disease arising from too great poverty
and undernourishment while students; another one-third die prematurely or
amount to little due to bad habits and drinking and disease contracted
while students; the remaining third rule Europe."
 Barnard, Henry, _American Journal of Education_, vol. xx, p. 365.
 This was proposed by Czar Alexander I of Russia in 1815, and became a
personal alliance of the Czar of Russia, the Emperor of Austria, and the
King of Prussia, "to promote religion, peace, and order." Other princes
were asked to join this continental League to enforce peace and, under the
rule of Prince Metternich, chief minister of Austria, it dominated Europe
until after the political revolutions of 1848.
 As a young man Altenstein had been in charge of a subordinate
division of the Department of Public Instruction under Humboldt, and was a
man of somewhat liberal ideas. Now he was compelled to fall in with the
ideas of the political leaders and the wishes of the king, though he still
did something to hold back the reactionary forces and preserve much of
what had been gained.
 Paulsen, Fr., _German Education, Past and Present_, p. 246.
 It was this same Frederick William IV who had for a time refused to
grant constitutional government to Prussia, saying: "No written sheet of
paper shall ever thrust itself like a second providence between the Lord
God in heaven and this land." In 1850, however, he was forced to grant a
limited form of constitutional government to his people.
 "The motive which dictated the law of 1872 on school supervision
(namely, placing the State in complete control of the supervision of
religious as well as other instruction) was, as is well understood, to
strengthen the hands of the government in its struggle with the Catholic
hierarchy, which was then prominently before the public. The law affirmed
again the sovereign right of the State over the whole school system,
including the elementary or people's schools." (Nohle, Dr. E., _History of
the German School System_, p. 79.)
 Alexander, Thomas, _The Prussian Elementary Schools_, pp. 537-38.
 The commune in France was the smallest unit for local government, and
corresponded to the district, town, or township with us, or with the
Church parish under the old regime. There were approximately 37,000
communes in France. The Department was a much larger unit, France being
divided, for administrative purposes, into 82 Departments, these
corresponding to a rather large county.
 By this term what is known elsewhere as secondary school must be
understood. See footnote, page 272, for explanation of the term.
 The University had at its disposal approximately 2,500,000 francs a
year. This was derived from a state grant of 400,000 francs, the income
from the property still remaining from the old confiscated universities,
and the remainder largely from examination fees. In 1850 its property was
taken over by the State, and the University was changed into a state
 This type of administrative organization is at first not easy for the
American student to understand. The University of the State of New York--
virtually the department of public instruction for the State--is our
closest American analogy. On the banishment of Napoleon and the
restoration of the monarchy, in 1815, the Grand Master and Council were
replaced by a Commissioner of Public Instruction, with Assistant
Commissioners for the different divisions, and in 1820 this was further
changed into a Royal Council of Public Instruction.
 In 1909 a decree restored Greek and Latin to their old place of first
importance in the Lycees, thus destroying the strong interest in
scientific instruction, in so far as the higher secondary schools were
concerned, which had characterized the Revolution.
 _Report on the Condition of Public Instruction in Germany, and
particularly in Prussia_. Paris, 1831. Reprinted in London, 1834; New York
 Francois Pierre Guillaume Guizot was Minister for public Instruction
from 1832 to 1837, and head of the French government from 1840 to 1848. He
was throughout his entire political career a conservative, anxious to
preserve constitutional government under a monarchy and stem the tide of
 We see here the beginnings of education in agriculture, in which the
French were pioneers.
 The schools, though, were not very successful, because of social
reasons. Parents who could afford to do so sent their children to the much
higher-priced Communal Colleges or _Lycees_, where Latin was the main
study, in preference to sending them to a scientific, modern-type, middle-
class school, as conferring a better social distinction on both pupils and
 By 1838 there were 14,873 public schools the property of the
communes; by 1847 there were 23,761; and by 1851 but 2500 out of
approximately 37,000 communes were without schools. There were also over
six thousand religious schools by 1850. By 1834 the number of boys in the
communal schools was 1,656,828, and a decade later over two millions. The
thirteen normal schools of 1830 had grown to seventy-six by 1838, with
over 2500 young men then in training for teaching. In 1836 the Law of 1833
was extended to include, where possible, schools for girls as well, and
the creation of a new set of normal schools to train schoolmistresses was
begun. By 1848 over three and a half millions of children, of both sexes,
were receiving instruction in the primary schools. In 1835 primary
inspectors, those "sinews of public instruction," as Guizot termed them,
were established, one for every Department, by royal decree. By 1847 there
were two inspectors-general, and 13 inspectors and sub-inspectors at work
 This was in large part due to manufacturing and business needs, as
France was rapidly forging ahead during the period as a manufacturing and
 Prominent among these, perhaps most prominent, was Jules Ferry, Mayor
of Paris during the trying period of 1870-71, then member of the French
legislature and Minister of Public Instruction in a number of cabinets
between 1879 and 1885. Drawing his inspiration from Condorcet's _Plan of
Education_ (p. 514; R. 256) and Edgar Quinet's _Instruction of the People_
(R. 289), he brought about the enactment of a series of reform school laws
commonly known as the "Ferry Laws." These provided for free, compulsory,
elementary education, to be given by laymen; secondary education for
girls; the extension of normal schools; and enlarged aid by the State in
the building up of popular education.
 "The non-sectarian school is not the work of a few advanced thinkers
imposed upon a docile country. They would not have been able to create
anything enduring if the French conscience had not been ready to follow
them. This is what the adversaries of our schools do not wish to
understand, cannot understand, or are anxious to conceal from those whom
they direct. Certainly they have the right to attempt a reaction according
to their own preferences. They have no right to believe, nor even to allow
it to be believed, that the creation of the non-sectarian school was the
_coup de force_ of an audacious minority. The non-sectarian school has
come because the nation wished it. The program of moral instruction, long
prophesied, conceived, and hoped for, was in the traditions of France as
she marched forward toward her republican aspirations. This program is not
only the conscious effort of the men who gave the school a new mission--
that of laying the foundation of social peace through elementary
instruction; it is the expression of the republican conscience of 1882."
(Moulet, Alfred, _D'une education morale democratique_.)
 "To each man his proper sphere; to the minister of religion the
liberty of preaching the doctrine of the different churches, to teachers
who teach in the name of the State, that is, of society, the right of
limiting themselves to the field of universal human morals, together with
the duty of refraining from any attack on religious beliefs. Neutrality is
guaranteed by the secularization of the teaching body, and it must be
strictly observed." (Compayre, Gabriel.)
 "The most striking feature is that, in place of the one single and
uniform course for all pupils, several are provided for their selection.
Here is obvious the influence of the elective courses common in the United
States, whose existence and success were reported on to the Minister of
Public Instruction by the Commission to the World Exposition at Chicago,
in 1893. The courses last seven years. The school period is divided into
two cycles, first one of four years, and then one of three. In the first
cycle, the pupils have a choice of two sections, one emphasizing the
ancient and modern languages, the other the modern languages and science.
In the second cycle there are four sections, viz., Graeco-Latin; Latin-
modern languages; Latin-scientific; and scientific-modern languages."
(Compayre, Gabriel, _Education in France_.)
 Arnold, Matthew, _Schools and Universities on the Continent_, p. 115,
 For example, by the Peace of Luneville (1801), by which Napoleon took
from the Germans all territory west of the Rhine and consolidated it, he
extinguished 118 free cities, principalities, and petty states. In
addition, he extinguished the separate existence of 160 others east of the
Rhine. The importance of such consolidations for the future of Germany has
 Bologna, for example, had 166 professors in the early seventeenth
century, but by 1737 it had but 62. The universities came chiefly to be
places where young men obtained degrees but not learning. At Naples a
noble family by the name of Avellino came to have the power of virtually
selling degrees in law and medicine.
 Not only were schools built up, but commerce, roads, and in
particular scientific agriculture were subjects of deep interest to
Cavour. He saw, very clearly, that if Sardinia was to be the nucleus of a
future Italy, Sardinia must show unmistakably her worthiness to lead.
 By 1859 Sardinia had come to include Savoy and Lombardy, and was the
largest State in northern Italy. A year later all but Venetia and the
States of the Church had been added.
 The Law of 1877 fixed the instruction in the primary schools, for the
three compulsory years, as reading, writing, the Italian language,
elements of civics, arithmetic, and the metric system. The omission of
religious instruction excited much opposition from church authorities, but
 Prussia and Holland possibly form exceptions in the matter. Frederick
the Great (p. 474) was noted for his liberality in religious matters.
There different varieties of Protestants, Catholics, and Jews were all
tolerated, and there they mingled and intermarried. So well were the Jews
received that the type--German-Jew--is to-day familiar to the world.
 As early as 1670, in the celebrated Bates case, the English court held
that a teacher could not be dispossessed from his school for teaching
without the Bishop's license, if he were the nominee of the founder or
patron. This led (p. 438) to a great increase in endowed schools.
 In the Cox case (1700), another important legal decision, the English
court held that there was not and never had been any ecclesiastical
control over any schools other than grammar schools, and that teachers in
elementary schools did not need to have a license from the Bishop. The
year following, in the case of _Rex_ v. _Douse_, the same principle was
affirmed in even clearer language.
 It was not until 1779 that an Act (19 Geo. III, c. 44) granted full
freedom to Dissenters to teach. In 1791 a supplemental Act (31 Geo. III,
c. 32, s. 13-14) granted similar liberty to Roman Catholics.
 It was this second Society that did notable work in the Anglican
Colonies of America, and particularly in and about New York City (p. 369).
See Kemp, W. W., _Support of Schools in Colonial New York by the S.P.G._
(New York, 1913.)
 Begun, in 1704, in London, these were continued yearly there until
1877. They were also preached for more than a century in many other
places. To these sermons the children marched in procession, wearing their
uniforms, and a collection for the support of the schools was taken. Of
the first of these occasions in London, Strype; in his edition of Stow,
says: "It was a wondrous surprising, as well as a pleasing sight, that
happened June the 8th, 1704, when all the boys and girls maintained at
these schools, in their habits, walked two and two, with their Masters and
Mistresses, some from Westminster, and some through London; with many of
the Parish ministers going before them; and all meeting at Saint Andrews',
Holburn, Church, where a seasonable sermon was preached... upon Genesis
xviii, 19, _I know him that he will command his children_, etc., the
children (about 2000) being placed in the galleries."
 "The religious revival under Wesley owed, perhaps, more than is
generally suspected to the Christian teaching in these new and humble
elementary schools." (Montmorency, J. E. G. de, _The Progress of Education
in England_, p. 54.)
 He gathered together the children (90 at first) employed in the pin
factories of Gloucester, and paid four women a shilling each to spend
their Sundays in instructing these poor children "in reading and the
 Sunday being a day of rest and the mills and factories closed, the
children ran the streets and spent the day in mischief and vice. In the
agricultural districts of England farmers were forced to take special
precautions on Sundays to protect their places and crops from the
depredations of juvenile offenders.
 "In a very special way they met the sentiment of the times. They were
cheap--many were conducted by purely voluntary teachers--they did not
teach too much, and they had the further merit of not interfering with the
work of the week." (Birchenough, C., _History of Elementary Education in
England and Wales_, p. 40.)
 In a Manchester Sunday School, in 1834, there were 2700 scholars and
120 unsalaried teachers, all but two or three of whom were former pupils
in the Sunday Schools, now teaching others, free of charge, in return for
the advantages once given them.
 "The amount of instruction rarely, if ever, exceeds the first four
rules of arithmetic, with reading and writing. The class of children
instructed is presumed to be of the very poorest, living in the most
crowded districts. No doubt a large number come under this designation,
but not a few better-to-do persons are found ready to take advantage for
their children of the free instruction thus held out to them, and even at
times almost pressed upon them." (Bartley, George C. T., _The Schools for
the People_, p. 385.)
 The Reverend George Crabbe (1754-1832). "The schools of the Borough."
 French Revolutionary thought "represented an attack on over-
interference, vested interests, superstition, and tyranny of every form.
It showed a marked propensity to ignore history, and to judge everything
by its immediate reasonableness. It pictured a society free from all laws
and coercion, freed from all clerical influence and ruled by benevolence,
a society in which all men had equal rights and were able to attain the
fullest self-realization. In its strictly educational aspects, it demanded
the withdrawal of education from the Church and the setting up of a state
system of secular instruction." (Birchenough, C., _History of Elementary
Education in England and Wales_, p. 20.)
 The ideas of Malthus were especially offensive to his brother
clergymen, and created quite a furor. Many regarded him as an insane and
unorthodox fanatic. A prevailing idea of the time was that of a "beautiful
order Providentially arranged," and it was the custom to give everything a
rose-colored hue. The poor were thought to be contented in their poverty,
and the rich and the aristocratic considered themselves divinely appointed
to rule over them. Malthus saw the fallacy of such thinking, and stated
matters in the light of biologic and political truths.
 Foster, John, _An Essay on the Evils of Popular Ignorance_, p. 259.
 Bell, Reverend Dr. Andrew, _An Experiment in Education made at the
Male Asylum at Madras, Suggesting a System by which a School or a Family
may teach itself under the Superintendence of the Master or Parent_.
 Lancaster, Joseph, _Improvements in Education as it Respects the
Industrial Classes of the Community_. London, 1803; New York, 1807.
 Both Bell and Lancaster worked with great energy to organize schools
after their respective plans, and quarreled with equal energy as to who
originated the idea. While both probably did, the idea nevertheless is
older than either. In 1790 Chevalier Paulet organized a monitorial school
in Paris; while the English schoolmaster, John Brinsley (1587-1665), in
his _Ludus Literarius, or the Grammar Schooles_ (1612), laid down the
monitorial principle in explicit language.
 This Society adopted, as a fundamental principle, "that the national
religion should be made the foundation of national education, and
according to the excellent liturgy and catechism adopted by our Church for
 "When Lancaster had his famous interview with King George III, that
monarch was impressed, as he naturally might be, by the statement that one
master 'could teach five hundred children at the same time.' 'Good,' said
the King; 'Good,' echoed a number of wealthy subscribers to Lancaster's
projects." (Binns, H. B., _A Century of Education_, p. 299.)
 In 1807 Mr. Whitbread, an ardent supporter of schools, said, in an
address before the House of Commons: "I cannot help noticing that this is
a period particularly favorable for the institution of a national system
of education, because within a few years there has been discovered a plan
for the instruction of youth which is now brought to a state of great
perfection, happily combining rules by which the object of learning must
be infallibly attained with expedition and cheapness, and holding out the
fairest prospect of utility to mankind."
 When Lancaster first hired the large hall in Borough Road which later
became an important training-college, and opened it as a mutual-
instruction school, he announced: "All that will may send their children,
and have them educated freely, and those who do not wish to have education
for nothing, may pay for it if they please."
 In 1820, Brougham, in introducing his "Bill for the Better Education
of the Poor in England and Wales," gave statistics as to the progress of
education at that time in England. His estimate as to the numbers being
430,000 in endowed and privately managed schools;
220,000 in monitorial schools;
50,000 being educated at home;
100,000 educated only in Sunday Schools;
53,000 being educated in dame schools.
From these figures he argued that one in fifteen of the population of
England and one in twenty in Wales were attending some form of school, but
with only one in twenty-four in London. The usual period of school
attendance for the poorer classes was only one and a half to two years.
 Known as the Health and Morals of Apprentices Act. It limited the
working hours of apprentices to twelve; forbade night work; required day
instruction to be provided in reading, writing, and arithmetic; required
church attendance once a month; and provided for the registration and
inspection of factories. The Act was very laxly enforced, and its chief
value lay in the precedent of state interference which it established.
 Whitbread proposed a national system of rate-aided schools to provide
all children in England with two years of free schooling, between the ages
of seven and fourteen.
 See J. E. G. de Montmorency's _State Intervention in English
Education_, pp. 248-85, for Brougham's address to the Commons in 1820 on
"The Education of the Poor"; and pp. 285-324 for his address before the
House of Lords in 1835, on "The Education of the People." Both addresses
contain an abundance of data as to existing conditions and needs.
 So called because the House of Lords rejected the first two passed by
the Commons, and finally accepted the third only because the King had
agreed to create enough new Lords to pass the bill unless it was enacted
by the upper House.
 This was a development of the monitorial system of training, and was
virtually an apprenticeship form of teacher-training.
 In 1885 the same liberty was extended to rural laborers. This added
two million more voters, and gave England almost full manhood suffrage.
Finally, in 1918, some five million women were added to the voting
 Nearly two million children had been provided with school
accommodations, three fourths of which had been done by those associated
with the Church of England. In doing this the Church had spent some
L6,270,000 on school buildings, and had raised some L8,500,000 in
voluntary subscriptions for maintenance. The Government had also paid out
some L6,500,000 in grants, since 1833. In 1870 it was estimated that
1,450,000 children were on the registers of the state-aided schools, while
1,500,000 children, between the ages of six and twelve, were unprovided
 Speech before the House of Commons, July 23, 1870.
 "The clergy of the National Society exhibited amazing energy and
succeeded, according to their own account, in doing in twelve months what
in the normal course of events would have taken twenty years. By the end
of the year they had lodged claims for 2885 building grants, out of a
total of 3342. They also set to work, without any governmental assistance,
to enlarge their schools and so increased denominational accommodation
enormously. The voluntary contributions in aid of this work have been
estimated at over L3,000,000. At the same time the annual subscriptions
doubled.... By 1886, over 3,000,000 places had been added, one-half of
which were due to voluntary agencies, and Voluntary Schools were providing
rather more than two-thirds of the school places in the country. In 1897
the proportion had fallen to three-fifths." (Birchenough, C., _History of
Elementary Education_, pp. 138, 140.)
 These were the seven endowed secondary boarding schools--Winchester
(1382), Eton (1440), Shrewsbury (1552), Westminster (1560), Rugby (1567),
Harrow (1571), and Charterhouse (1611)--and the two endowed day schools,--
Saint Paul's (1510) and Merchant Taylors' (1561).
 At least one hundred towns, the Report showed, with a population of
five thousand or over had no endowed secondary school, and London, with a
population then (1867) of over three million, had but twenty-six schools
and less than three thousand pupils enrolled. All the new manufacturing
cities were in even worse condition than London.
 The University of London was originally founded in 1836, and
reorganized in 1900.
 The scientist Thomas Huxley was a London School Board member, and,
speaking as such, he expressed the views of many when he said: "I conceive
it to be our duty to make a ladder from the gutter to the university along
which any child may climb."
 Royal (Bryce) Commission on Secondary Education, vol. I, p. 299.
 Known as the "Education Act, 1918" (8 and 9 Geo. V, ch. 39). The Act
has been reprinted in full in the _Biennial Survey of Education_, 1916-18,
of the United States Commissioner of Education, in the chapter on
Education in Great Britain. It also has been reprinted as an appendix to
Moore, E. C., _What the War teaches about Education_, New York, 1919.
 "The Constitution," as John Quincy Adams expressed it, "was extorted
from the grinding necessities of a reluctant people" to escape anarchy and
the ultimate entire loss, of independence, and many had grave doubts as to
the permanence of the Union. It was not until after the close of the War
of 1812 that belief in the stability of the Union and in the capacity of
the people to govern themselves became the belief of the many rather than
the very few, and plans for education and national development began to
obtain a serious hearing.
 After the beginning of the national life a number of States founded
and endowed a state system of academies. Massachusetts, in 1797, granted
land endowments to approved academies. Georgia, in 1783, created a system
of county academies for the State. New York extended state aid to its
academies, in 1813, having put them under state inspection as early as
1787. Maryland chartered many academies between 1801 and 1817, and
authorized many lotteries to provide them with funds, as did also North
Carolina. The Rhode Island General Assembly chartered many academies, and
aided them by lotteries. Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana, among western
States, also provided for county systems of academies.
 The study of Latin and a little Greek had constituted the curriculum
of the old Latin grammar school, and its purpose had been almost
exclusively to prepare boys for admission to the colony colleges. In true
English style, Latin was made the language of the classroom, and even
attempted for the playground as well. As a concession, reading, writing,
and arithmetic were sometimes taught. The new academies, while retaining
the study of Latin, and usually Greek, though now taught through the
medium of the English, added a number of new studies adapted to the needs
of a new society. English grammar was introduced and soon rose to a place
of great importance, as did also oratory and declamation. Arithmetic,
algebra, geometry, geography, and astronomy were in time added, and
surveying, rhetoric (including some literature), natural and moral
philosophy, and Roman antiquities were frequently taught. Girls were
admitted rather freely to the new academies, whereas the grammar schools
had been exclusively for boys. For better instruction a "female
department" was frequently organized.
 Thomas Jefferson's name appears in the first subscription list as
giving $200, and he was elected a member of the first governing board. The
chief sources of support of the schools, which up to 1844 remained pauper
schools, were subscriptions, lotteries, a tax on slaves and dogs, certain
license fees, and a small appropriation ($1500) each year from the city
 This organization opened the first schools in Philadelphia for
children regardless of religious affiliation, and for thirty-seven years
rendered a useful service there.
 All at once, comparatively, a new system had been introduced which not
only improved but tremendously cheapened education. In 1822 it cost but
$1.22 per pupil per year to give instruction in New York City, though by
1844 the per-capita cost, due largely to the decreasing size of the
classes, had risen to $2.70, and by 1852 to $5.83. In Philadelphia, in
1817, the expense was $3, as against $12 in the private and church
schools. One finds many notices in the newspapers of the time as to the
value and low cost of the new system.
 The cotton-spinning industry illustrates the rapid growth of
manufacturing in the United States. The 15 cotton mills of 1807 had
increased to 801, by 1831; and to 1240, by 1840. The South owed its
prosperity chiefly to cotton-growing and shipping, and did not develop
factories and workshops until a much more recent period.
 Among many resolutions adopted by the laboring organizations the
following is typical: "At a General Meeting of Mechanics and Workingmen
held in New York City, in 1829, it was
"_Resolved_, that next to life and liberty, we consider education
the greatest blessing bestowed upon mankind.
"_Resolved_, that the public funds should be appropriated (to a
reasonable extent) to the purpose of education upon a regular system
that shall insure the opportunity to every individual of obtaining a
competent education before he shall have arrived at the age of
 Connecticut and New York both had set aside lands, before 1800, to
create such a fund, Connecticut's fund dating back to 1750. Delaware, in
1796, devoted the income from marriage and tavern licenses to the same
purpose, but made no use of the fund for twenty years. Connecticut, in
1795, sold its "Western Reserve" in Ohio for $1,200,000, and added this to
its school fund. New York, in 1805, similarly added the proceeds of the
sale of half a million acres of state lands, though the fund then formally
created accumulated unused until 1812. Tennessee began to build up a
permanent state school fund in 1806; Virginia in 1810; South Carolina in
1811; Maryland in 1812; New Jersey in 1816; Georgia in 1817; Maine, New
Hampshire, Kentucky, and Louisiana in 1821; Vermont and North Carolina in
1825; Pennsylvania in 1831; and Massachusetts in 1834. These were
established as permanent state funds, the annual income only to be used,
in some way to be determined later, for the support of some form of
 Now for the first time direct taxation for schools was likely to be
felt by the taxpayer, and the fight for and against the imposition of such
taxation was on in earnest. The course of the struggle and the results
were somewhat different in the different States, but, in a general way,
the progress of the conflict was somewhat as follows:
1. Permission granted to communities so desiring to organize a school
taxing district, and to tax for school support the property of those
consenting and residing therein.
2. Taxation of all property in the taxing district permitted.
3. State aid to such districts, at first from the income from
permanent endowment funds, and later from the proceeds of a small
state appropriation or a state or county tax.
4. Compulsory local taxation to supplement the state or county grant.
 Concerning the system, "The Philadelphia Society for the Establishment
and Support of Charity Schools," in an "Address to the Public," in 1818,
"In the United States the benevolence of the inhabitants has led to
the establishment of Charity Schools, which, though affording
individual advantages, are not likely to be followed by the political
benefits kindly contemplated by their founders. In the country a
parent will raise children in ignorance rather than place them in
charity schools. It is only in large cities that charity schools
succeed to any extent. These dispositions may be improved to the best
advantage, by the Legislature, in place of Charity Schools,
establishing Public Schools for the education of all children, the
offspring of the rich and the poor alike."
 In 1821 the counties of Dauphin (Harrisburg), Allegheny (Pittsburg),
Cumberland (Carlisle), and Lancaster (Lancaster) were also exempted from
the state pauper-school law, and allowed to organize schools for the
education of the children of their poor.
 Some 32,000 persons petitioned for a repeal of the law, 66 of whom
signed by making their mark, and "not more than five names in a hundred,"
reported a legislative committee which investigated the matter, "were
signed in English script." It was from among the parochial-school Germans
that the strongest opposition to the law came.
 For Stevens's speech in defense of the Law of 1834, see _Report of the
United States Commissioner of Education_, 1898-99, vol. I, pp. 516-24.
 By 1836 the new free-school law had been accepted by 75 per cent of
the districts in the State, by 1838 by 84 per cent, and by 1847 by 88 per
 This State had enacted an experimental school law, and made an annual
state grant for schools, from 1795 to 1800. Then, unable to reenact the
law, the system was allowed to lapse and was not reestablished until the
New England element gained control, in 1812.
 By his vigorous work in behalf of schools the first appointee, Gideon
Hawley, gave such offense to the politicians of the time that he was
removed from office, in 1821, and the legislature then abolished the
position and designated the Secretary of State to act, _ex officio_, as
Superintendent. This condition continued until 1854, when New York again
created the separate office of Superintendent of Public Instruction.
 When Connecticut sold its Western Reserve, in 1795, and added the sum
to the Connecticut school fund, it was stated to be for the aid of
"schools and the gospel." In the sales of the first national lands in Ohio
(1,500,000 acres to The Ohio Company, in 1787; and 1,000,000 acres in the
Symmes Purchase, near Cincinnati, in 1788), section 16 in each township
was reserved and given as an endowment for schools, and section 29 "for
the purposes of religion."
 The Public School Society continued to receive money grants, it being
regarded as a non-denominational organization, though chartered to teach
"the sublime truths of religion and morality contained in the Holy
Scriptures" in its schools. In 1828 the Society was even permitted to levy
a local tax to supplement its resources, it being estimated that at that
time there were 10,000 children in the city with no opportunities for
 The question may be regarded as a settled one in our American States.
Our people mean to keep the public-school system united as one state
school system, well realizing that any attempt to divide the schools among
the different religious denominations (the _World Almanac_ for 1917 lists
49 different denominations and 171 different sects in the United States)
could only lead to inefficiency and educational chaos.
 The movement gained a firm hold everywhere east of the Missouri
River, the States incorporating the largest number being New York with
887, Pennsylvania with 524, Massachusetts with 403, Kentucky with 330,
Virginia with 317, North Carolina with 272, and Tennessee with 264. Some
States, as Kentucky and Indiana, provided for a system of county
academies, while many States extended to them some form of state aid. In
New York State they found a warm advocate in Governor De Witt Clinton, who
urged (1827) that they be located at the county towns of the State to give
a practical scientific education suited to the wants of farmers,
merchants, and mechanics, and also to train teachers for the schools of
 The new emphasis given to the study of English, mathematics, and
book-science is noticeable. New subjects appeared in proportion as the
academies increased in numbers and importance. Of 149 new subjects for
study appearing in the academies of New York, between 1787 and 1870, 23
appeared before 1826, 100 between 1826 and 1840, and 26 after 1840.
Between 1825 and 1828 one half of the new subjects appeared. This also was
the maximum period of development of the academies.
 The existence of a number of colleges, basing their entrance
requirements on the completion of the classical course of the academy, and
the establishment of a few embryo state universities in the new States of
the West and the South, naturally raised the further question of why there
should be a gap in the public-school system. The increase of wealth in the
cities tended to increase the number who passed through the elementary
course and could profit by more extended education; the academies had
popularized the idea of more advanced education; while the new
manufacturing and commercial activities of the time called for more
training than the elementary schools afforded, and of a different type
from that demanded by the small colleges of the time for entrance.
 For an interesting table showing the simple entrance requirements of
Harvard in 1642, 1734, 1803, 1825, 1850, 1875, and 1885, see _Report of
the United States Commissioner of Education_, 1902, vol. I, pp. 930-33.
 In Spain, for example, the percentage of illiteracy in 1860 was 75.52;
in 1870 70.01 per cent; in 1887, 68.01 per cent; in 1890, 63.78 per cent;
and in 1910, 59.35 per cent. The percentage for 1920 will probably not be
less than for 1910, due to the closing of many schools for lack of
teachers during the World War. In 1916 ten provinces had an illiteracy of
over 70 per cent, and but five had less than 40 per cent. In Madrid and
Barcelona, cities as large as Baltimore and Cleveland, the illiteracy
approaches a third of the population in Madrid, and a half in Barcelona.
 While an exile from the Argentine, Dr. Sarmiento was commissioned by
Chili to visit, study, and report on the state school systems of the
United States and Europe. While in the United States he became intimately
acquainted with Horace Mann. Later he was Minister from the Argentine to
the United States, being recalled, in 1868, to assume the presidency of
the Republic. He was deeply impressed with the type of educational
opportunity provided in the schools of the United States and, through an
appointed Minister of Education, impressed his ideas on the Argentine
 In 1910 only about 3 per cent of the total population was in any type
 The Mikado still retained, through his ministers, very large powers,
while the parliament was a consultative assembly rather than a legislative
one. The form of government has been much like that of the German Empire
before the World War.
 The Japanese Government has so far been a military autocracy, and the
Japanese have been the Prussians of the Orient. The two-class school
system has accordingly met the needs of a benevolent autocracy fairly
well. With the rise of a liberal party in Japan, and the beginning of some
democratic life, we may look for progressive changes in their schools
which will tend to produce a more democratic type of educational
 "The idea of education for all classes, the aim of all educators and
statesmen of western countries, scarcely entered the minds of the leaders
of China under the traditional system of education. With the introduction
of the new educational system, however, the problem of universal education
suddenly came into prominence. Indeed, it is the stated goal of the new
educational policy." (Ping Wen Kuo, _The Chinese System of Public
Education_, p. 149.)
 Education in China has been common, for a class, for over four
thousand years. The schools were private, but a detailed national system
of examinations was provided by the State, and all who expected any state
preferment were required to pass these state examinations. The system was
based on the old Confucian classics. Under it schools existed in all the
chief towns, and the examination system exerted a strong unifying
influence on the nation. In 1842 China opened five treaty ports to the
ships and commerce of western nations, and from 1842 to 1903 a process of
gradual transition from the ancient examination system to modern
conditions took place.
 "A nation that has preserved its identity by peaceful means for three
milleniums; that has made the soil produce subsistence for a multitudinous
population during that long period, while Western peoples have worn out
their soil in less than that many centuries; that has produced many of the
most influential of modern inventions, such as printing, gunpowder, and
the compass; that has developed such mechanical ingenuity and commercial
ability as are shown in its everyday life, undoubtedly possesses the
ability to accomplish results by the use of methods worked out by the
Western world. When modern scientific knowledge is added by the Chinese to
the skill which they already have in agriculture, in commerce, in
industry, in government, and in military affairs, results will be
achieved, on the basis of their physical stamina and moral qualities,
which will remove the ignorance, the indifference, and the prejudice of
the Western world regarding things Chinese." (Monroe, Paul, Editorial
introduction to Ping Wen Kuo's _The Chinese System of Public Education_.)
 Though appearing small on the map, Siam is a nation of six millions of
people and an area over three and a half times that of the six New England
 "Through metaphysics first; then through alchemy and chemistry,
through physical and astronomical spectroscopy, lastly through radio-
activity, science has slowly groped its way to the atom." (Soddy, F.,
_Matter and Energy_.)
 Adams in England, and Leverrier in France. The planet Uranus had for
long been known to be erratic in its movements, and Adams and Leverrier
concluded, working from Newton's law for gravitation, that it must be due
to the pull of an unknown planet. Both calculated the orbit of this
unknown body, Adams sending his calculations to the Royal Observatory at
Greenwich, and Leverrier to the observatory at Berlin. At both
observatories the new planet--later named Neptune--was picked up by the
telescope at the position indicated.
 This theory of "catastrophes" held that at a number of successive
epochs, of which the age of Noah was the latest, great revolutions or
disasters had taken place on the earth's surface, in which all living
things were destroyed. Later the world was restocked, and again destroyed.
This explained the successive strata, and the fossils they contained. For
this theory Lyell substituted a slow and orderly evolution, covering ages,
and completely upset the Mosaic chronology.
 For example:--mineralogy, petrography, petrology, crystallography,
stratigraphy, and paleontology.
 "Darwin's Origin of Species had come into the theological world like
a plow into an ant-hill. Everywhere those thus rudely awakened from their
old comfort and repose had swarmed forth angry and confused. Reviews,
sermons, books, light and heavy, came flying at the new thinker from all
sides." (White, A. D., _The Warfare of Science and Theology_, vol. 1, p.
 Natural history as a study goes back to the days of Aristotle, in
Greece, but it had always been a study of fixed forms. Darwin destroyed
this conception, and vitalized the new subject of biology. From this
botany and zoology have been derived, and from these again many other new
sciences, such as physiology, morphology, bacteriology, anthropology,
cytology, entomology, and all the different agricultural sciences.
 The bacillus of tuberculosis was isolated in 1882, Asiatic cholera in
1883, lockjaw and diphtheria in 1884, and bubonic plague in 1894.
 Schools of engineering, mining, agriculture, and applied science are
 The book on Germany (_De l'Allemagne_) by Madame de Stael (1766-
1817), a brilliant French novelist, was published and immediately
confiscated in France in 1811, and republished in England in 1813. It is
one of the most remarkable books on one country written by a native of
another which had appeared up to that time. Through reading it many
English and Americans discovered a new world.
 For example, it has been estimated that one fifteenth of the working
population of modern industrial nations devotes itself to transportation;
another one fifteenth to maintaining public services--light, gas,
telephone, water, sewage, streets, parks--unknown in earlier times; and
another one fifteenth to the manufacture and distribution and care of
automobiles. Add still further the numbers employed in connection with
theaters, moving-picture shows, phonographs, magazines and the newspapers,
soft-drink places, millinery and dry goods, hospitals, and similar
"appendages of civilization," and we get some idea of the increased labor
efficiency which the applications of science have brought about.
 Labor unions were legalized in England in 1825. In the United States
they arose about 1825-30, and for a time played an important part in
securing legislation to better the condition of the workingman and to
secure education for his children. In continental Europe, the reactionary
governments following the downfall of Napoleon forbade assemblies of
workingmen or their organization, as dangerous to government. In
consequence, labor organizations in France were not permitted until 1848,
and in Germany and Austria not until after the middle of the century. In
Japan, as late as 1919, laborers were denied the right to organize.
 Up to 1789 serfdom was the rule on the continent of Europe; by 1850
there was practically no serfdom in central and western Europe, and in
1866 serfdom was abolished in Russia. For the worker and farmer the years
between 1789 and 1848 were years of rapid progress in the evolution from
mediaeval to modern conditions of living.
 Under conditions existing up to the close of the eighteenth century,
in part persisting up to the middle of the nineteenth on the continent,
and still found in unprogressive lands, a close limitation of the rights
of labor was maintained. Children followed the trade of their fathers, and
the right of an apprentice later to open a shop and better his condition
was prohibited until after he had become an accepted master (p. 210) in
his craft. Guild members, too, were not permitted to branch out into any
other line of activity, or to introduce any new methods of work. All these
old limitations the Industrial Revolution swept away.
 Women in Europe have secured the ballot rapidly since the end of the
nineteenth century. With manhood suffrage secured, universal suffrage is
the next step. Women were given the right to vote and hold office in
Finland in 1906; in Norway in 1907; in Denmark in 1916; in England in
1918; in Germany in 1919; and in the United States in 1920.
 See an excellent brief article "On German Education," by E. C. Moore,
in _School and Society_, vol. I, pp. 886-89.
 A State approximately the size of Illinois, and containing a
population of about two million people. The great development of this
country is in reality a history of the work of President Manuel Estrada
Cabrera, who was president from 1898 to 1920. His ruling interest has been
public education, believing that in universal education rests the future
greatness of the State. He accordingly labored to establish schools, and
to bring them up to as high a level as possible. The government has spent
much in building modern-type schoolhouses and in subsidizing schools,
holding that with the proper training of the younger generation the future
position of the nation rests. A sincere admirer of the United States,
American models have been copied. When the United States entered the World
War, Guatemala was the first Central American republic to follow. During
the War President Cabrera "would allow nothing to interfere with the
advancement of free and compulsory education in the State." (See Domville-
Fife, C. W., _Guatemala and the States of Central America_.)
 "Imagine how the streams of Celestials circulating between Hong Kong
and the mainland spread the knowledge of what a civilized government does
for the people! At Shanghai and Tientsin, veritable fairylands for the
Chinese, they cannot but contrast the throngs of rickshas, dog-carts,
broughams, and motor cars that pour endlessly through the spotless asphalt
streets with the narrow, crooked, filthy, noisome streets of their native
city, to be traversed only on foot or in a sedan chair. Even the young
mandarin, buried alive in some dingy walled town of the far interior,
without news, events, or society, recalled with longing the lights, the
gorgeous tea houses, and the alluring 'sing-song' girls of Foochow Road,
and cursed the stupid policy of a government that penalized even
enterprising Chinamen who tried to 'start something' for the benefit of
the community." (Ross, E. A., _Changing America_, p. 22.)
 The earliest Teachers' Seminaries in German lands were:
1750. Alfeld, in Hanover.
1753. Wolfenbuettel, in Brunswick.
1764. Glatz, in Prussia.
1765. Breslau, in Prussia.
1768. Carlsruhe, in Baden.
1771. Vienna, in Austria.
1777. Bamberg, in Bavaria.
1778. Halberstadt, in Prussia.
1779. Coburg, in Gotha.
1780. Segeberg, in Holstein.
1785. Dresden, in Saxony.
1794. Weissenfels, in Prussia.
 "My views of the subject," said he, "came out of a personal striving
after methods, the execution of which forced me actively and
experimentally to seek, to gain, and to work out what was not there, and
what I yet really knew not."
 See footnote 1, page 573, for places and dates.
 By the Reverend Samuel R. Hall, who conducted the school as an adjunct
to his work as a minister. The school accordingly traveled about, being
held at Concord, Vermont, from 1823 to 1830; at Andover, Massachusetts,
from 1830 to 1837; and at Plymouth, New Hampshire, from 1837 to 1840.
 By James Carter, at Lancaster, Massachusetts.
 In 1836, Calvin Stowe, a professor in the Lane Theological Seminary at
Cincinnati, went to Europe to buy books for the library of the
institution, and the legislature of Ohio commissioned him to examine and
report upon the systems of elementary education found there. The result
was his celebrated _Report on Elementary Education in Europe_, made to the
legislature in 1837. In it chief attention was given to contrasting the
schools of Wuertemberg and Prussia with those found in Ohio. The report was
ordered printed by the legislature of Ohio, and later by the legislatures
of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Michigan, North Carolina, and Virginia,
and did much to awaken American interest in advancing common school
 These are higher institutions which offer two, three, or four years of
academic and some professional education, and may be found in connection
with a university; may be maintained by city or county school authorities;
or may be voluntary institutions. In 1910-11 there were eighty-three such
institutions in England and Wales.
 In China, for example, as soon as the new general system of education
had been decided upon, normal schools of three types--higher normal
schools, lower normal schools, and teacher-training schools--were created,
and missionary teachers, foreign teachers, and students returning from
abroad were used to staff these new schools. By 1910 as many as thirty
higher normal schools, two hundred and three lower normal schools, and a
hundred and eighty-two training classes had been established in China
under government auspices. (Ping Wen Kuo, _The Chinese System of Public
Education_, p. 156.)
 The beginnings in the United States date from about 1890, and in
England even later. In France, on the other hand, the training of teachers
for the secondary schools goes back to the days of Napoleon.
 A common division was between the teacher who taught reading,
religion, and spelling, and the teacher who taught writing and arithmetic
(R. 307). Writing being considered a difficult art, this was taught by a
separate teacher, who often included the ability to teach arithmetic also
among his accomplishments.
 A good example of this may be found in the monitorial schools. The
New York Free School Society (p. 660), for example, reported in its
_Fourteenth Annual Report_ (1819) that the children in its schools had
pursued studies as follows:
297 children have been taught to form letters in sand.
615 have been advanced from letters in sand, to monosyllabic reading
686 from reading on boards, to Murray's First Book.
335 from Murray's First Book, to writing on slates.
218 from writing on slates, to writing on paper.
341 to reading in the Bible.
277 to addition and subtraction.
153 to multiplication and division..
60 to the compound of the four first rules.
20 to reduction.
24 to the rule of three.
 Herbart had visited Pestalozzi at Burgdorf, in 1799, just after
graduating from Jena and while acting as a tutor for three Swiss boys, and
had written a very sympathetic description of his school and his theory of
instruction. Herbart was one of the first of the Germans to understand and
appreciate "the genial and noble Pestalozzi."
 The son of a well-educated public official, Herbart was himself
educated at the _Gymnasium_ of Oldenburg and the University of Jena. After
spending three years as a tutor, he became, at the age of twenty-six, an
under teacher at the University of Goettingen. At the age of thirty-three
he was called to succeed Kant as professor of philosophy at Koenigsberg,
and from the age of fifty-seven to his death at sixty-five he was again a
professor at Goettingen.
 Charles De Garmo's _Essentials of Method_, published in 1889, marked
the beginning of the introduction of these ideas into this country. In
1892 Charles A. McMurry published his _General Method_, and in 1897, with
his brother, Frank, published the _Method in the Recitation_. These three
books probably have done more to popularize Herbartian ideas and introduce
them into the normal schools and colleges of the United States than all
other influences combined. Another important influence was the "National
Herbart Society," founded in 1892 by students returning from Jena, in
imitation of the similar German society.
 The studies which have come to characterize the modern elementary
school may now be classified under the following headings:
_Drill subjects_ _Content subjects_ _Expression subjects_
Reading Literature Kindergarten Work
Writing Geography Music
Spelling History Manual Arts
Language Civic Studies Domestic Arts
Arithmetic Manners and Conduct Plays and Games
Nature Study School Gardening
Agriculture Vocational Subjects
 Next, perhaps, would come Italy, which is strongly democratic in
spirit. In the cities of Holland one finds many privately supported
kindergartens, but the State has not made them a part of the school
system. In Norway and Sweden the kindergarten practically does not exist.
The kindergarten will always do best among self-governing peoples, and
seldom meets with favor from autocratic power.
 "In the best English Infant Schools a profound revolution has taken
place in recent years. Formal lessons in the 3 Rs have disappeared, and
the whole of the training of the little ones has been based on the
principles of the kindergarten as enunciated by Froebel. Much of the old
routine still remains; nevertheless there is no part of the English
educational system so brimful of real promise as the work that is now
being done in the best Infant Schools." (Hughes, R. E., _The Making of
Citizens_ (1902), p. 40.)
 In France, the Infant School or kindergarten is known as the Maternal
School. Pupils are received at two years of age, and carried along until
six. In the lower division the school is largely in the nature of a day
nursery, but in the upper division many of the features of the
kindergarten are found.
 Since Froebel's day we have learned much about children that was then
unknown, especially as to the muscular and nervous organization and
development of children, and with this new knowledge the tendency has been
to enlarge the "gifts" and change their nature, to introduce new
"occupations," elaborate the kindergarten program of daily exercises, and
to give the kindergarten more of an out-of-door character. Especially has
the work of Dewey (p. 780) and the child-study specialists been important
in modifying kindergarten procedure.
 By 1880 some 300 kindergartens and 10 kindergarten training-schools,
mostly private undertakings, had been opened in the cities of thirty of
the States of the Union. By 1890 philanthropic kindergarten associations
to provide and support kindergartens had been organized in most of the
larger cities, and after that date cities rapidly began to adopt the
kindergarten as a part of the public-school system, and thus add, at the
bottom, one more rung to the American educational ladder. To-day there are
approximately 9000 public and 1500 private kindergartens in the cities of
the United States, and training in kindergarten principles and practices
is now given by many of the state normal schools.
 In 1918, for example, according to a recent Report to the Zionist
Board of Education in the United States, there were over 5300 children in
kindergartens in Palestine, 125 kindergarten teachers there, and a College
for Kindergarten Teachers had been organized in the Holy Land to train
 The Saint Louis Manual Training High School, founded in 1880 in
connection with Washington University, first gave expression to this new
form of education, and formed a type for the organization of such schools
elsewhere. Privately supported schools of this type were organized in
Chicago, Toledo, Cincinnati, and Cleveland before 1886, and the first
public manual-training high schools were established in Baltimore in 1884,
Philadelphia in 1885, and Omaha in 1886. The shop-work, based for long on
the "Russian system," included wood-turning, joinery, pattern-making,
forging, foundry and machine work. The first high school to provide
sewing, cooking, dressmaking, and millinery for girls was the one at
Toledo, established in 1886, though private classes had been organized
earlier in a number of cities.
 A few of the earlier adaptations of the idea may be given. In 1882
Montclair, New Jersey, introduced manual training into its elementary
schools, and in 1885 the State of New Jersey first offered state aid to
induce the extension of the idea. In 1885 Philadelphia added cooking and
sewing to its elementary schools, having done so in the girls' high school
five years earlier. In 1888 the City of New York added drawing, sewing,
cooking, and woodworking to its elementary-school course of study.
 In 1802 Napoleon provided for instruction in natural history,
astronomy, chemistry, physics, and mineralogy in the scientific course of
the _lycees_, and in 1814 enlarged this instruction. He also established
numerous technical and military schools, with instruction based on
mathematics and science.
 The Royal Commissioners which reported on the condition of the
University of Oxford, in 1850, said: "It is generally acknowledged that
both Oxford and the country at large suffer greatly from the absence of a
body of learned men devoting their lives to the cultivation of science,
and to the direction of academical education. The fact that so few books
of profound research emanate from the University of Oxford materially
impairs its character as a seat of learning, and consequently its hold on
the respect of the nation."
 Book instruction in the new sciences goes back, in the universities
of most lands, to the late eighteenth century, but laboratory instruction
is a much more recent development. Chemistry was the first science to
develop, being the mother of science instruction, and probably the first
chemical laboratory in the world to be opened to students was that of
Liebig at Giessen, in 1826. The first American university to provide
laboratory instruction in chemistry was Harvard, in 1846. The instruction
in science in most of the universities, up to at least 1850, was book
instruction. (See schedule of studies for University of Michigan, R. 331.)
The first American university to be founded on the German model was Johns
Hopkins, in 1876.
 By Charles Mayo and his sister, who opened a private Pestalozzian
school, about 1825. Miss Mayo published her _Lessons on Objects_,
explaining the method, and this became very popular in England after about
1830. Both the Mayos were prominent in the Infant-School movement, which
adopted a formalized type of Pestalozzian procedure.
 In 1871 Dr. William T. Harris, then Superintendent of City Schools in
Saint Louis, published a well-organized course for the orderly study of
the different sciences. This attracted wide attention, and was in time
substituted for the scattered lessons on objects which had preceded it.
This in turn has largely given way, in the lower grades, to nature study.
 At the time of Professor Bache's visit, in 1838, the instruction
included Latin, French, English, German, history, religion, music,
drawing, mathematics, natural history, physics, chemistry, and geography.
 Scientific instruction in the _Lycees_ was not in favor in France
after 1815, and in 1840 it was materially reduced, on the ground that it
was injuring classical studies.
 Astronomy, botany, chemistry, and natural philosophy had been
prominent studies in the American academies. Between about 1825 and 1840
was the great period of their introduction. The first American high school
(Boston, 1821) provided for instruction in geography, navigation and
surveying, astronomy, and natural philosophy. By 1850 the rising high
schools were incorporating scientific studies quite generally. The
instruction was still textbook instruction, but some lecture-table
demonstrations had begun to be common.
 The Oneida School of Science and Industry, the Genesee Manual-Labor
School, the Aurora Manual-Labor Seminary, and the Rensselaer School, all
founded in the State of New York, between 1825 and 1830, were among the
most important of these early institutions.
 Spencer's classification of life activities and needs, in the order
of their importance, was (R. 362):
1 Those ministering directly to self-preservation.
2. Those which secure for one the necessities of life, and hence
minister indirectly to self-preservation.
3. Those which have for their end the rearing and discipline of
4. Those involved in the maintenance of proper social and political
5. Those which fill up the leisure part of life, and are devoted to
the gratification of tastes and feelings.
 All were republished in book form, in 1861, under the title of
_Education; Intellectual, Moral, and Physical_. The volume contains four
essays: What Knowledge is of Most Worth?; Intellectual Education; Moral
Education; and Physical Education. The first essay served as an
introduction to the other three.
 "A Liberal Education," in his _Science and Education_. p. 86.
 For many years head of the School of Education at the University of
Chicago, but more recently Professor of Philosophy at Columbia University,
New York City.
 Dewey, John, in _Elementary School Record_, p. 142.
 Described in _The Elementary School Record_, a series of nine
monographs, making a volume of 241 pages. University of Chicago Press,
 A very good example of this is to be found in the work of Colonel
Francis W. Parker (1837-1902) in the United States. It was he who
introduced Germanized Pestalozzian-Ritter methods of teaching geography;
he who strongly advocated the Herbartian plan for concentration of
instruction about a central core, which he worked out for geography; he
who insisted so strongly on the Froebelian principle of self-expression as
the best way to develop the thinking process; he who advocated science
instruction in the schools; and he who saw educational problems so clearly
from the standpoint of the child that he, and the pupils he trained, did
much to bring about the reorganization in elementary education which was
worked out in the United States between about 1875 and 1900.
 For long the knowledge-conception dominated instruction, it being
firmly believed by the advocates of schools that knowledge and virtue were
somewhat synonymous terms.
 It is to democratic England and the United States, and to the English
self-governing dominions, that the greatest flood of emigrants from less
advanced civilizations have gone. South America has also experienced a
large recent immigration, but this has been mainly of peoples from the
Latin races, and hence easier of assimilation.
 See a good article on this development by I. L. Kandel, in the
_Educational Review_ for November, 1919, entitled "The Junior High School
in European Systems."
 Paris, for example, has become the greatest university in Europe,
exceeding Berlin (1914) in students by approximately 25 per cent and in
expenditures 40 per cent.
 "The rise of these great universities is the most epoch-making feature
of our American civilization, and they are to become more and more the
leaders and the makers of our civilization. They are of the people. When a
state university has gained solid ground, it means that the people of a
whole state have turned their faces toward the light; it means that the
whole system of state schools has been welded into an effective agent for
civilization. Those who direct the purposes of these great enterprises of
democracy cannot be too often reminded that the highest function of a
university is to furnish standards for a democracy." (Pritchett, Henry S.,
in _Atlantic Monthly_.)
 The gifts and bequests for colleges and universities in the United
States, from 1871 to 1916, totaled $647,536,608, and by 1920 probably have
 The oldest was Charlottenburg (1799), Darmstadt (1822), Carlsruhe
(1825), Munich (1827), Dresden (1828), Nuremberg (1829), Stuttgart (1829),
Cassel (1830), Hanover (1831), Augsburg (1833), and Brunswick (1835). A
similar school, which later developed into a technical university, was
founded at Prague, in Bohemia, in 1806.
 The German technical training "produces an engineer who is not only
older in years, but also more mature in experience and in judgment than
the average graduate of an engineering college in America. Whether or not
it would be wise to adopt--so far as that would be possible--German
methods in the schools and colleges of the United States, it must
nevertheless be recognized that those methods have given Germany a
leadership in applied science and in industry which she will keep unless
the educational authorities of other nations find some way of producing
men of like calibre." (Munroe, James P., "Technical Education"; in
Monroe's _Cyclopedia of Education_.)
 _Report of Commission on National Aid to Vocational Education_,
Washington, 1914, p. 90.
 The first veterinary school in the world was established at Lyons,
France, in 1762; the second at Alfort, a suburb of Paris, in 1766; the
third at Berlin, in 1792; and the fourth at London, in 1793.
 The development of scientific training for nursing, begun by the
Germans near the end of their wars with Napoleon, is another example of
the creation of a new profession through the application of science. This
was carried to new levels by Miss Florence Nightingale, who began work in
London, in 1860, after her experiences in the Crimean War of 1854-56, and
has been greatly improved since 1870 as a result of the new medical
knowledge and methods which have come in since that time. The provision of
training for nurses, and the certification of doctors and nurses for
practice, are other new developments in the field of state education.
Similarly is the training and certification of dentists, veterinarians,
and pharmacists, all of which are nineteenth-century additions.
 The work of the Rockefeller Foundation, an American Foundation
organized to promote "the well-being of mankind throughout the world," in
spending millions to provide China with a modern system of western medical
education and hospital service, is perhaps the greatest example of a
scientifically organized service ever tendered by the people of one nation
to those of another.
 "Large-scale production, extreme division of labor, and the all-
conquering march of the machine, have practically driven out the
apprenticeship system through which, in a simpler age, young helpers were
taught, not simply the technique of some single process, but the 'arts and
mysteries of a craft' as well. The journeyman and the artisan have given
way to an army of machine workers, performing over and over one small
process at one machine, turning out one small part of the finished
article, and knowing nothing about the business beyond their narrow and
limited task." (_Report of the Commission on National Aid to Vocational
Education_, vol. i, pp. 19-20.)
 "In no country will you find the problem taken up in so thorough a
manner; in no country will you find an attempt made to cover, by means of
industrial schools, the occupations of everyone, from the lowly laborer to
the director of the great manufacturing establishment. The State provided
industrial training for every person who will be better off with it than
without it. No occupation is too humble to receive the attention of the
German authorities; and the opinion prevails there that science and art
have a place in every occupation known to man." (Cooley, E. G., in _Report
to the Commercial Club of Chicago_, 1912.)
 For example, the foreign trade of Germany, in 1880, was $31 per
capita of the total population, and that of the United States was $32.
Thirty years later, in 1910, Germany's foreign trade had increased to $62
per capita, and that of the United States to only $37.
 Chiefly raw products--a prodigal waste of natural resources. What
every nation should do is to work up its raw products at home, and sell
finished goods rather than raw products--"sell brains, rather than
materials." (R. 370.)
 The first trade school in the United States was established
privately, in New York City, in 1881. By 1900 some half-dozen had been
similarly established in different parts of the country. In 1902 a trade
school for girls was founded in New York City, which did pioneer work. In
1906 Massachusetts created a State commission on Industrial Education, and
later provided for the creation of industrial schools. In 1907 Wisconsin
enacted the first trade-school law, and New York State followed in 1909.
 Germany before 1914 formed an interesting contrast to such
conditions. There few untrained youths were to be found, and the nation,
before 1914, was rapidly moving toward universal vocational education.
 As illustrative of the general character of the vocations to be
trained for, a few of the more common ones may be mentioned:
_In agriculture_: The work of general farming, orcharding,
dairying, poultry-raising, truck gardening, horticulture, bee culture,
_In the trades and industries_: The work of the carpenter, mason,
baker, stonecutter, electrician, plumber, machinist, toolmaker,
engineer, miner, painter, typesetter, linotype operator, shoecutter
and laster, tailor, garment maker, straw-hat maker, weaver, and glove
_In commerce and commercial pursuits_: The work of the
bookkeeper, clerk, stenographer, typist, auditor, and accountant.
_In home economics_: The work of the dietitian, cook and
housemaid, institution manager, and household decorator.
 "The snail's pace at which the race has moved toward humanitarianism
is indicated by Payne's estimate (p. 6) that the race is perhaps two
hundred and forty thousand years old, civilized man a few hundred years
old, and a humanitarianism large enough to have any real concern in any
organized fashion for the protection of children scarcely fifty years old.
The fact that organizations in great number, laws, penalties, and constant
vigilance are still everywhere needed to secure for children their
inherent rights is evidence enough that we have still a long way to go
before we reach the golden age." (Waddel, C. W., _An Introduction to Child
Psychology_, p. 5.)
 "As late as 1840 children of ten to fifteen years of age and younger
were driven by merciless overseers for ten, twelve, sixteen, even twenty
hours a day in the lace mills. Fed the coarsest food, in ways more
disgusting than those of the boarding schools described by Dickens, they
slept, when they had opportunity, often in relays, in beds that were
constantly occupied. They lived and toiled, day and night, in the din and
noise, filth and stench, of the factory that coined their life's blood
into gold for their exploiters. Sometimes with chains about their ankles,
to prevent their attempts to escape, they labored until epidemics,
disease, or premature death brought welcome relief from a slavery that was
forbidden by law for negro slaves in the colonies." (Payne, G. H., _The
Child in Human Progress_.)
 An exception to this statement is to be found in the work of the
Pedagogical Seminars, organized in the German universities in the second
decade of the nineteenth century, which were intended for the professional
training of German university students for teaching in the German
secondary schools. (See footnote 1, page 573.)
 When the first teachers' training-school in America was opened at
Concord, Vermont, by the Reverend Samuel R. Hall, in 1823, it included,
besides a three-year academy-type academic course, practice teaching in a
rural school in winter, and some lectures on the "Art of Teaching."
Without a professional book to guide him, and relying only upon his
experience as a teacher, Hall tried to tell his pupils how to organize and
manage a school. To make clear his ideas he wrote out a series of
_Lectures on School-keeping_, which some friends induced him to publish.
This, the first professional book in English issued in America for
teachers, appeared in 1829.
 _Geschichte der Padagogik vom Wiederaufbluehen klassicher Studien bis
auf unsere Zeit_. Vols. I and II, 1843; vol. III, 1847; vol. IV, 1855.
Much of this was translated into other languages. Barnard's _American
Journal of Education_, begun in 1855, published a translation of much of
von Raumer's work for American readers.
 In 1876 S. S. Laurie (1829-1909) was elected to one of the first
chairs in education in Great Britain, that of "Professor of the Theory,
History, and Practice of Education" in the University of Edinburgh.
 Probably the first lectures on Pedagogy given in any American college
were given in 1832, in what is now New York University. From 1850 to 1855
the city superintendent of schools of Providence, Rhode Island, was
Professor of Didactics, in Brown University. In 1860 a course of lectures
on the "Philosophy of Education, School Economy, and the Teaching Art" was
given to the seniors of the University of Michigan. In 1873 a
Professorship of Philosophy and Education was established in the
University of Iowa. This was the first permanent chair created in America.
In 1879 a Department of the Science and Art of Teaching was created at the
University of Michigan. In 1881 a Department of Pedagogy was created at
the University of Wisconsin, and in 1884 similar departments at the
University of North Carolina and at Johns Hopkins University.
 In education, as in other lines of work, the statement of Richard H.
Quick that the distinctive function of a university is not action, but
thought, has been exemplified.