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Supplemental Nights, Volume 6 by Richard F. Burton

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Prince Simoustapha is protected by Setelpedour Ginatille, whose name is
interpreted as meaning the Star of the Seven Seas, though the first name
appears rather to be a corruption of Sitt El Bubur. She is the queen of
Ginnistan, and the daughter of Kokopilesobe (Satan), whose contests with
Mahomet and Michael (the former of whom continues the conflict by "becoming
man") are described on the approved Miltonic lines. Her chief councillors are
Bahlisboull (Beelzebub) and Asmonchar (Asmodeus), but ultimately she falls in
love with Simoustapha, and adjures her sovereignty, after which he carries her
off, and marries her, upon which the mother of Ilsetilsone, "the sensible
Zobeide, formed now a much truer and more favourable judgment of her
daughter's happiness, since she had shared the heart of Simoustapha with
Setelpedour, and at last agreed that the union of one man with two women might
be productive of great happiness to all the three, provided that one of the
wives happened to be a fairy." (Weber, ii. p. 50.) A most encouraging
sentiment for would-be polygamists, truly, especially in Europe, where fairies
appear to fly before the advance of civilisation as surely as the wild beasts
of the forest!

P. 99.--These apparitions resemble those which usually precede the visions
which appear in the well-known pool of ink. But the sweeper is not mentioned
in the present story, nor do I remember reading of his appearing in cases of
crystal seeing, though Dante Gabriel Rossetti introduces him into his fine
poem, "Rose Mary," as preparing the way for the visions seen in the beryl:

"'I see a man with a besom grey
That sweeps the flying dust away.'
'Ay, that comes first in the mystic sphere;
But now that the way is swept and clear
Heed well what next you look on there.'"

P. 104, note 1.--Apropos of the importance of "three days," I may refer to the
"three days and three nights" which Christ is commonly said to have passed in
the tomb, and I believe that some mystics assert that three days is the usual
period required by a man to recover consciousness after death.

Pp. 106, 107.--These worked lions recall the exhibition of power made by Abu
Mohammed hight Lazybones (No. 37; Nights, iv., p. 165). Their Oriental
prototypes are probably the lions and eagles with which the Jinn ornamented
the throne of Solomon. In the West, we meet with Southey's amusing legend of
the Pious Painter:

"'Help, help, Blessed Mary,' he cried in alarm,
As the scaffold sunk under his feet;
From the canvass the Virgin extended her arm;
She caught the good Painter; she saved him from harm;
There were hundreds who saw in the street."

The enchanted palaces of the Firm Island, with their prodigies of the Hart and
the Dogs, &c., may also be mentioned (Amadis of Gaul, book II., chap. 21,

Pp. 107, 108.--Stories of changed sex are not uncommon in Eastern and
classical mythology and folk-lore; usually, as in this instance, the change of
a man into a woman, although it is the converse (apparent, of course) which we
meet with occasionally in modern medical books.

In the Nights, &c., we have the story of the Enchanted Spring (No. 135j) in
the great Sindibad cyclus (Nights, vi., pp. 145-150), and Lane (Modern
Egyptians, chap. xxv.) relates a story which he heard in Cairo more resembling
that of the transformed Wazir. In classical legend we have the stories of
Tiresias, Caeneus, and Iphis. Turning to India, we meet with the prototype of
Caeneus in Amba, who was reincarnated as Sikhandin, in order to avenge herself
on Bhishma, and subsequently exchanged her sex with a Yaksha, and became a
great warrior (Mahabharata Udyoga-Parva, 5942-7057). Some of the versions of
the Enchanted Spring represent the Prince as recovering his sex by an exchange
with a demon, thus showing a transition from the story of Sikhandin to later
replicas. There is also a story of changed sex in the Hindi Baital Pachisi;
and no doubt many others might be quoted.

History of What Befel the Fowl-let with the Fowler (Pp.

One of the most curious stories relative to the escape of a captured prey is
to be found in the 5th Canto of the Finnish Kalevala. Vainaimoinen, the old
minstrel, is fishing in the lake where his love, Aino, has drowned herself,
because she would not marry an old man. He hooks a salmon of very peculiar
appearance, and while he is speculating about cutting it up and cooking it, it
leaps from the boat into the water, and then reproaches him with his folly,
telling him that it is Aino (now transformed into a water-nymph) who threw
herself in his way to be his life-companion, but that owing to his folly in
proposing to eat her, he has now lost her for ever. Hereupon she disappears,
and all his efforts to rediscover her are fruitless.

The Tale of Attaf (Pp. 129-170).

P. 138, note 6.--I may add that an episode is inserted in the Europeanised
version of this story, relative to the loves of the son of Chebib and the
Princess of Herak, which is evidently copied from the first nocturnal meeting
of Kamaralzaman and Budur (No. 21, Nights, iii., pp. 223-242), and is drawn on
exactly similar lines (Weber, i. pp. 508-510).

History of Prince Habib, and What Befel Him with the
Lady Durrat Al-Ghawwas (Pp. 171-201).

P. 197, note 1.--Epithets of colour, as applied to seas, frequently have a
purely mythological application in Eastern tales. Thus, in the story of Zaher
and Ali (cf. my "New Arabian Nights," p. 13) we read, "You are now upon an
island of the Black Sea, which encompasses all other seas, and flows within
Mount Kaf. According to the reports of travellers, it is a ten years' voyage
before you arrive at the Blue Sea, and it takes full ten years to traverse
this again to reach the Green Sea, after which there is another ten years'
voyage before you can reach the Greek Sea, which extends to inhabited
countries and islands."

Kenealy says (in a note to his poem on "Night") that the Atlantic Ocean is
called the Sea of Darkness, on account of the great irruption of water which
occasioned its formation; but this is one of his positive statements relative
to facts not generally known to the world, for which he considered it
unnecessary to quote his authority.

P. 200.--According to one account of impalement which I have seen, the stake
is driven through the flesh of the back beneath the skin.

Reading the account of the Crucifixion between the lines, I have come to the
conclusion that the sudden death of Christ was due to his drinking from the
sponge which had just been offered to him. The liquid, however, is said to
have been vinegar, and not water; but this might have had the same effect, or
water may have been substituted, perhaps with the connivance of Pilate. In the
latter case vinegar may only have been mentioned as a blind, to deceive the
fanatical Jews. The fragmentary accounts of the Crucifixion which have come
down to us admit of many possible interpretations of details.

Index to the Tales, and Proper Names, Together with
Alphabetical Table of Notes in Volumes XI. To XVI.


Additional Notes on the Bibliography of the Thousand
and One Nights.

Index to the Tales and Proper Names in the Supplemental

N.B.--The Roman numerals denote the volume, the Arabic the page.
{The Arabic numerals have been discarded}

Abbaside, Ja'afar bin Yahya and Abd Al-Malik bin Salih the, i.
Abd Al-Malik bin Salih the Abbaside, Ja'afar bin Yahya and, i.
Abdullah bin Nafi', Tale of Harun Al-Rashid and, ii.
Abu Niyattayn, History of Abu Niyyah and, iv.
Abu Niyyah and Abu Niyyatayn, History of, iv.
Abu Sabir, Story of, i.
Abu Tammam, Story of Aylan Shah and, i.
Advantages of Patience, Of the, i.
Adventure of the Fruit Seller and the Concubine, iv.
Adventures of Khudadad and his Brothers, iii.
Adventures of Prince Ahmad and the Fairy Peri-Banu, iii.
Al-'Abbas, Tale of King Ins bin Kays and his daughter with the
Son of King, ii.
Alaeddin, or the Wonderful Lamp, iii.
Al-Bundukani, or the Caliph Harun Al-Rashid and the daughter of
King Kisra, vi.
Al-Hajjaj and the Three Young Men, i.
Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf and the Young Sayyid, History of, v.
Al-Hayfa and Yusuf, The Loves of, v.
Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves, Story of, iii.
Ali Khwajah and the Merchant of Baghdad, Story of, iii.
Allah, Of the Speedy relief of, i.
Allah, Of Trust in, i.
Al-Maamun and Zubaydah, i.
Al-Maamun, The Concubine of, ii.
Al-Malik Al-Zahir Rukn Al-Din Bibars al-Bundukdari and the
Sixteen Captains of Police, ii.
Al-Nu'uman and the Arab of the Banu Tay, i.
Al-Rahwan, King Shah Bakht and his Wazir, i.
Al-Rashid and the Barmecides, i.
Al-Rashid, Ibn Al-Sammak and, i.
Appointed Term, which, if it be Advanced may not be Deferred, and
if it be Deferred, may not be Advanced, Of the, i.
Arab of the Banu Tay, Al-Nu'uman and the, i.
Ass, Tale of the Sharpers with the Shroff and the, i.
Attaf, The Tale of, vi.
Attaf, The Tale of, (by Alex. J. Cotheal), vi.
Aylan Shah and Abu Tammam, Story of, i.
Baba Abdullah, Story of the Blind Man, iii.
Babe, History of the Kazi who bare a, iv.
Bakhtzaman, Story of King, i.
Banu Tay, Al-Nu'uman and the Arab of the, i.
Barber and the Captain, The Cairenne Youth, the, v.
Barber's Boy and the Greedy Sultan, Story of the Darwaysh and
the, v.
Barmecides, Al-Rashid and the, i.
Barmecides,. Harun Al-Rashid and the Woman of the, i.
Beautiful Daughter to the Poor Old Man, Tale of the Richard who
married his, i.
Bhang-Eater and his Wife, History of the, iv.
Bhang-Eater,. Tale of the Kazi and the, iv.
Bihkard, Story of King, i.
Blind Man, Baba Abdullah, Story of the, iii.
Broke-Back Schoolmaster, Story of the, iv.
Cadette, Tale of the Two Sisters who envied their, iii.
Cairenne Youth, the Barber and the Captain, The, v.
Cairo (The good wife of) and her four gallants, v.
Caliph Harun Al-Rashid and the daughter of King Kisra, The
History of Al-Bundukam or the, vi.
Caliph Omar Bin Abd Al-Aziz and the Poets, The, i.
Caliph's Night Adventure, History of the, iii.
Caliph, The Concubine and the, ii.
Captain, The Cairenne Youth, the Barber and the, v.
Captain, The Tailor and the Lady and the, v.
Cheat and the Merchants, Tale of the, i.
China, The Three Princes of, v.
Clemency, Of, i.
Clever Thief, A Merry Jest of a, ii.
Cock and the Fox, The pleasant history of the, vi.
Coelebs the droll and his wife and her four Lovers, v.
Compeer, Tale of the Two Sharpers who each cozened his, i.
Concubine, Adventure of the Fruit Seller and the, iv.
Concubine and the Caliph, The, ii.
Concubine of Al-Maamun, The, ii.
Constable's History, First, ii.
Constable's History, Second, ii.
Constable's History, Third, ii.
Constable's History, Fourth, ii.
Constable's History, Fifth, ii.
Constable's History, Sixth, ii.
Constable's History, Seventh, ii.
Constable's History, Eighth, ii.
Constable's History, Ninth, ii.
Constable's History, Tenth, ii.
Constable's History, Eleventh, ii.
Constable's History, Twelfth, ii.
Constable's History, Thirteenth, ii.
Constable's History, Fourteenth, ii.
Constable's History, Fifteenth, ii.
Constable's History, Sixteenth, ii.
Cook, Story of the Larrikin and the, i.
Coyntes, The Lady with the two, v.
Crone and the Draper's Wife, Story of the, i.
Crone and the King, Tale of the Merchant, the, i.
Cunning She-thief, The Gate Keeper of Cairo and the, v.
Dadbin and his Wazirs, Story of King, i.
Darwaysh and the Barber's Boy and the Greedy Sultan, Story of
the, v.
Darwaysh, The Sultan who fared forth in the habit of a, iv.
Daryabar, History of the Princess of, iii.
Daughter of King Kisra, The History of Al-Bundukani, or the
Caliph Harun Al-Rashid and the, vi.
David and Solomon, Story of, i.
Destiny or that which is written on the Forehead, i.
Dethroned Ruler, whose reign and wealth were restored to him,
Tale of the, i.
Devotee accused of Lewdness, Tale of the, i.
Disciple's Story, The, i.
Druggist, Tale of the Singer and the, i.
Drummer Abu Kasim became a Kazi, How, iv.
Duenna and the King's Son, The Linguist-Dame, the, vi.
Eighth Constable's History, ii.
Eleventh Constable's History, ii.
Enchanting Bird, Story of the King of Al-Yaman and his Three
Sons, and the, iv.
Enchanting Bird, Tale of the Sultan and his Three Sons and the,
Ends of Affairs, Of Looking to the, i.
Envy and Malice, Of, i.
Fairy Peri-Banu, Adventures of Prince Ahmad and the, iii.
Falcon and the Locust, Story of the, i.
Fellah and his Wicked Wife, The, v.
Fifteenth Constable's History, ii.
Fifth Constable's History, ii.
First Constable's History, ii.
First Larrikin, History of the, iv.
First Lunatic, Story of the, iv.
Firuz and his Wife, i.
Fisherman and his Son, Tale of the, iv.
Forehead, Of Destiny or that which is Written on the, i.
Forty Thieves, Story of Ali Baba and the, iii.
Fourteenth Constable's History, ii.
Fourth Constable's History, ii.
Fowl with the Fowler, History of what befel the, vi.
Fox, The Pleasant History of the Cock and the, vi.
Fruit seller and the Concubine, Adventure of the, iv.
Fruit seller's Tale, The, iv.
Fuller and his Wife and the Trooper, Tale of the, i.
Gallants, The Goodwife of Cairo and her Four, v.
Gatekeeper of Cairo and the Cunning She-thief, The, v.
Girl, Tale of the Hireling and the, i.
Good and Evil Actions, Of the Issues of, i.
Goodwife of Cairo and her Four Gallants, The, v.
Greedy Sultan, Story of the Darwaysh and the Barber's Boy and
the, v.
Hajjaj (Al-) and the Three Young Men, i.
Harun Al-Rashid and Abdullah bin Nafi', Tale of, ii.
Harun Al-Rashid and the Woman of the Barmecides, i.
Harun Al-Rashid and the Youth Manjab, Night Adventure of, v.
Harun Al-Rashid Tale of the Damsel Tohfat al-Kulub and the
Caliph, ii.
Haykar the Sage, The Say of, vi.
History of King Azadbakht and his Son, The Ten Wazirs; or the, i.
History of what befel the Fowl with the Fowler, vi.
Hireling and the Girl, Tale of the, i.
How Allah gave him relief, Story of the Prisoner and, i.
How Drummer Abu Kasim became a Kazi, iv.
Husband, Tale of the Simpleton, v.
Ibn al-Sammak and Al-Rashid, i.
Ibrahim and his Son, Story of, i.
Ill Effects of Impatience, Of the, i.
Impatience, Of the Ill Effects of, i.
Ins bin Kays (King) and his Daughter with the Son of King
Al-'Abbas, Tale of, ii.
Isa, Tale of the Three Men and our Lord, i.
Issues of Good and Evil Actions, Of the, i.
Ja'afar bin Yahya and Abd Al-Malik bin Salih the Abbaside, i.
Kazi and the Bhang-Eater, Tale of the, iv.
Kazi and the Slipper, Story of the, iv.
Kazi, How Drummer Abu Kasim became a, iv.
Kazi schooled by his Wife, The, v.
Kazi who bare a babe, History of the, iv.
Khalbas and his Wife and the Learned Man, Tale of the, i.
Khudadad and his Brothers, Adventures of, iii.
Khwajah Hasan al-Habbal, History of, iii.
King and his Chamberlain's Wife, Tale of the, i.
King Azadbakht and his Son, The Ten Wazirs; or the History of, i.
King Bakhtzaman, Story of, i.
King Bihkard, Story of, i.
King Dadbin and his Wazirs, Story of, i.
King Ibrahim and his Son, Story of, i.
King of Al-Yaman and his Three Sons and the Enchanting Bird,
Story of the, iv.
King of Hind and his Wazir, Tale of, i.
King Shah Bakht and his Wazir Al-Rahwan, i.
King Sulayman Shah and his Niece, Story of, i.
King Tale of himself told by the, v.
King Tale of the Merchant, the Crone and the, i.
King who kenned the quintessence of things, Tale of the, i.
King who lost Kingdom and Wife and Wealth and Allah restored them
to him, Tale of the, i.
King's Son of Sind and the Lady Fatimah, The History of, v.
King's Son, The Linguist-Dame, the Duenna and the, vi.
Kurd Sharper, Tale of Mahmud the Persian and the, iv.
Lady and the Captain, The Tailor and the, v.
Lady Durrat al-Ghawwas, History of Prince Habib and what befel
him with the, vi.
Lady Fatimah, The History of the King's Son of Sind and the, v.
Lady with the two Coyntes, The, v.
Larrikin and the Cook, Story of the, i.
Larrikin concerning himself, Tale of the Third, iv.
Larrikin History of the First, iv.
Larrikin History of the Second, iv.
Larrikin History of the Third, iv.
Leach (Tale of the Weaver who became a), by order of his wife, i.
Learned Man, Tale of Khalbas and his Wife and the, i.
Lewdness, Tale of the Devotee accused of, i.
Limping Schoolmaster, Story of the, iv.
Linguist-Dame, the Duenna, and the King's Son, The, vi.
Locust, Story of the Falcon and the, i.
Looking to the Ends of Affairs, Of, i.
Lovers, Coelebs the Droll and his wife and her four, v.
Lovers of Syria, History of the, v.
Loves of Al-Hayfa and Yusuf, The, v.
Luck, Story of the Merchant who lost his, i.
Lunatic, Story of the First, iv.
Lunatic, Story of the Second, iv.
Mahmud the Persian and the Kurd Sharper, Tale of, iv.
Man of Khorassan, his Son and his Tutor, Tale of the, i.
Man whose Caution slew him, Tale of the, i.
Man who was Lavish of his House, and his Provision for one whom
he knew not, i.
Malice, Of Envy and, i.
Melancholist and the Sharper, Tale of the, i.
Merchant and his Sons, Tale of the, i.
Merchant of Baghdad, Story of Ali Khirajah and the, iii.
Merchant's Daughter and the Prince of Al-Irak, The, v.
Merchants, Tale of the Cheat and the, i.
Merchant, the Crone and the King, Tale of the, i.
Merchant who lost his luck, Story of the, i.
Merry Jest of a Clever Thief, A, ii.
Mistress and his Wife, Mohammed the Shalabi and his, v.
Mohammed, Story of a Sultan of Al-Hind and his Son, iv.
Mohammed Sultan of Cairo, History of, iv.
Mohammed the Shalabi and his Mistress and his Wife, v.
Mohsin and Musa, Tale of, v.
Musa, Tale of Mohsin and, v.
Niece, Story of King Sulayman Shah and his, i.
Night Adventure of Sultan Mohammed of Cairo with the Three
Foolish Schoolmasters, The, iv.
Night Adventure of Harun Al-Rashid and the Youth Manjab, v.
Ninth Constable's History, ii.
Nur al-Din Ali of Damascus and the damsel Sitt al-Milah, ii.
Omar Bin Abd Al-Aziz and the Poets, The Caliph, i.
Patience, Of the advantages of, i.
Persistent Ill Fortune, Of the Uselessness of Endeavor against
the, i.
Picture, Tale of the Prince who fell in love with the, i.
Pleasant History of the Cock and the Fox, The, vi.
Poets, The Caliph Omar Bin Abd Al-Aziz and the, i.
Poor man who brought to him Fruit, Tale of the Sultan and the,
Poor old man, Tale of the Richard who married his beautiful
Daughter to the, i.
Prince Ahmad and the Fairy Peri-Banu, Adventures of, iii.
Prince Bihzad, Story of, i.
Prince Habib and what befel him with the Lady Durrat al-Ghawwas,
History of, vi.
Prince of Al-Irak, The Merchant's Daughter and the, v.
Princess of Daryabar, History of, iii.
Prince who fell in love with the Picture, Tale of the, i.
Prisoner and how Allah gave him relief, Story of, i.
Quintessence of things, Tale of the King who kenned the, i.
Richard, Tale of the, who married his beautiful daughter to the
Poor Old Man, i.
Righteous Wazir wrongfully gaoled, The, v.
Robber and the Woman, Tale of the, i.
Sage and his Three Sons, Tale of the, i.
Sage and the Scholar, Story of the, iv.
Salim the Youth of Khorasan, and Salma, his Sister, Tale of, i.
Salma, his Sister, Tale of Salim the Youth of Khorasan and, i,
Say of Haykar the Sage, The, vi.
Scholar, Story of the Sage and the, iv.
Schoolmaster, Story of the Broke-Back, iv.
Schoolmaster, Story of the Limping, iv.
Schoolmaster, Story of the Split-mouthed, iv.
Second Constable's History, ii.
Second Larrikin, History of the, iv.
Second Lunatic, Story of the, iv.
Seventh Constable's History, ii.
Shah Bakht and his Wazir Al-Rahwan, King, i.
Sharpers with the Shroff and the Ass, Tale of the, i.
Sharper, Tale of the Melancholist and the, i.
Sharper, Tale of the old, ii.
Shroff and the Ass, Tale of the Sharpers with the, i.
Sidi Nu'uman, History of, iii.
Singer and the Druggist, Tale of the, i.
Simpleton Husband, Tale of the, i.
Simpleton Husband, Tale of the, v.
Sitt al-Milah, Nur al-Din Ali of Damascus and the Damsel, ii.
Sixteen Captains of Police, Al-Malik Al-Zahir Rukn Al-Din Bibars
al-Bundukdari and the, ii.
Sixteenth Constable's History, ii.
Sixth Constable's History, ii.
Sleeper and the Waker, The, i.
Slipper, Story of the Kazi and the, iv.
Solomon, Story of David and, i.
Sons, Tale of the Merchant and his, i.
Speedy relief of Allah, Of the, i.
Split-mouthed Schoolmaster, Story of the, iv.
Sulayman Shah and his Niece, Story of King, i.
Sultanah, Story of three Sisters and their Mother the, iv.
Sultan and his Three Sons and the Enchanting Bird, Tale of the,
Sultan and the Poor Man who brought to him Fruit, Tale of the,
Sultan Mohammed of Cairo with the Three Foolish Schoolmasters,
The Night Adventure of, iv.
Sultan of Al-Hind and his Son Mohammed, Story of the, iv.
Sultan of Al-Yaman and his Three Sons, Story of, iv.
Sultan who fared forth in the habit of a Darwaysh, The, iv.
Syria, History of the Lovers of, v.
Syrian and the Three Women of Cairo, The, v.
Tailor and the Lady and the Captain, The, v.
Tale of Himself told by the King, v.
Tenth Constable's History, ii.
Ten Wazirs; or, the History of King Azadbakht and his Son, The,
Thief's Tale, The, ii.
Third Constable's History, ii.
Third Larrikin concerning himself, Tale of, iv.
Third Larrikin, History of the, iv.
Thirteenth Constable's History, ii.
Three Foolish Schoolmasters, The Night Adventure of Sultan
Mohammed of Cairo with the, iv.
Three men and our Lord Isa, Tale of the, i.
Three Princes of China, The, v.
Three Sharpers, Story of the, iv.
Three Sisters and their Mother the Sultanah, Story of the, iv.
Three Sons, Tale of the Sage and his, i.
Three Women of Cairo, The Syrian and the, v.
Three Young Men, Al-Hajjaj and the, i.
Tither, Tale of the Unjust King and the, i.
Tohfat al-Kulub and the Caliph Harun Al-Rashid, Tale of the
Damsel, ii.
Trooper, Tale of the Fuller and his wife and the, i.
Trust in Allah, Of, i.
Tutor, Tale of the Man of Khorassan, his Son and his, i.
Twelfth Constable's History, ii.
Two Kings and the Wazir's daughters, Tale of the, ii.
Two Lack-Tacts of Cairo and Damascus, Story of the, v.
Two Sharpers who each cozened his Compeer, Tale of the, i.
Two Sisters who envied their Cadette, Tale of the, iii.
Ugly man and his beautiful Wife, Tale of the, i.
Unjust King and the Tither, Tale of the, i.
Uselessness of Endeavour against the Persistent Ill Fortune, Of
the, i.
Virtue, The whorish wife who vaunted her, v.
Waker, The Sleeper and the, i.
Warlock and the Young Cook of Baghdad, Tale of the, vi.
Wazir Al Rahwan, King Shah Bakht and his, i.
Wazir, Tale of the King of Hind and his, i.
Wazir, (The Righteous) wrongfully gaoled, v.
Wazir's Daughters, Tale of the Two Kings and the, ii.
Wazirs; or the History of King Azadbakht and his Son, The Ten, i.
Wazirs, Story of King Dadbin and his, i.
Weaver who became a Leach by order of his wife, Tale of the, i.
Whorish wife who vaunted her virtue, The, v.
Wicked wife, The Fellah and his, v.
Wife, Firuz and his, i.
Wife, History of the Bhang Eater and his, iv.
Wife, Story of the Crone and the Draper's, i.
Wife, Tale of the King and his Chamberlain's, i.
Wife, Tale of the Ugly man and his beautiful, i.
Wife, Tale of the Weaver who became a Leach by order of his, i.
Wife, The Kazi schooled by his, v.
Wives, Story of the Youth who would futter his father's, v.
Woman of the Barmecides, Harun Al-Rashid and the, i.
Woman, Tale of the Robber and the, i.
Woman who humoured her lover at her husband's expense, The, v.
Women's Wiles, ii.
Wonderful Lamp, Alaeddin; or the, iii.
Young Cook of Baghdad, Tale of the Warlock and the, vi.
Young Sayyid, History of Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf and the, v.
Youth Manjab, Night Adventure of Harun Al-Rashid and the, v.
Youth who would futter his father's wives, Story of the, v.
Yusuf, The Loves of Al-Hayfa and, v.
Zayn al-Asnam, Tale of, iii.
Zubaydah, Al-Maamun and, i.

Variants and Analogues of Some of the Tales in the
Supplemental Nights.

By W. A. Clouston.

Aladdin; or the Wonderful Lamp, iii.
Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves, iii.
Ali Khwajah and the Merchant of Baghdad, iii.
Al Malik Al-Zahir and the Sixteen Captains of Police, ii.
Blind Man, Baba Abdullah, The Story of the, iii.
Damsel Tuhfat al-Kulub, The, ii.
Devout woman accused of Lewdness, The, ii.
Fifteenth Constable's Story, The, ii.
Firuz and his Wife, ii.
Fuller, his Wife and the Trooper, The, ii.
Khudadad and his Brothers, iii.
Khwajah Hasan al-Habbal, History of, iii.
King Aylan Shah and Abu Tammam, ii.
King Dadbin and his Wazirs, ii.
King Ins bin Kays and his Daughter, ii.
King Shah Bakht and his Wazir Al-Rahwan, ii.
King Sulayman Shah and his Niece, ii.
King who kenned the Quintessence of things, The, ii.
King who lost Kingdom, Wife and Wealth, The, ii.
Melancholist and the Sharper, The, ii.
Ninth Constable's Story, The, ii.
Nur al-Din and the Damsel Sitt al-Milah, ii.
On the Art of Enlarging Pearls, ii.
Prince Ahmad and the Peri Banu, iii.
Prince who fell in love with the Picture, The, ii.
Sidi Nu'man, History of, iii.
Simpleton Husband, The, ii.
Singer and the Druggist; The, ii.
Sleeper and the Waker, ii.
Ten Wazirs, or the History of King Azadbakht and his son, ii.
Thief's Tale, The, ii.
Three men and our Lord Isa, The, ii.
Two Sisters who envied their Cadette, The, iii.
Weaver who became a leach by order of his wife, The, ii.
Women's Wiles, ii.
Zayn al-Asnarn, The tale of, iii.

Additional Notes.

By W. A. Clouston.

Aladdin, or the Wonderful Lamp, iii.
Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves, iii.
Firuz and his Wife, ii.
Fuller, his wife and the Trooper, The, ii.
Prince Ahmad, The Tale of, iii.
Singer and the Druggist, The, ii.
Zayn al-Asnam, The Tale of, iii.

By W. F. Kirby.

Additional Notes to some of Tales in vol. iv.; v.
Additional Notes to some of Tales in vol. v.; v.
Additional Notes to some of Tales in vol. vi.; vi.
Additional Bibliographical Notes to the Tales in the Supplemental
Nights, vi.

Additional Notes on the Bibliography of the Thousand
and One Nights. (Cf. Nights, X., App. Ii., P. 414.)

By W. F. Kirby.

Herewith I add notes on any works of importance which I had not seen when my
"Contributions" were published, or which have appeared since.

Zotenberg's Work on Aladdin and on Various Manuscripts
of the Nights.

One of the most important works which has appeared lately in connection with
the Thousand and One Nights, is the following:

Histoire d' 'Ala Al-Din ou la Lampe Merveilleuse. Texte Arabe publie avec une
notice sur quelques manuscrits des Mille et une Nuits par H. Zotenberg, roy.
8vo. Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 1888

The publication of this work puts an end to the numerous conjectures of
scholars as to the source of Galland's unidentified tales; and the notes on
various MSS. of the Nights are also very valuable. It therefore appears
desirable to give a tolerably full sketch of the contents of the book.[FN#431]

M. Zotenberg begins with general remarks, and passes on to discuss Galland's
edition. [Section I.]--Although Galland frequently speaks of Oriental
tales[FN#432], in his journal, kept at Constantinople in 1672 and 1673, yet as
he informs us, in his Dedication to the Marquise d'O., he only succeeded in
obtaining from Syria a portion of the MS. of the Nights themselves with
considerable difficulty after his return to France.

There is some doubt as to the date of appearance of the first 6 vols. of
Galland's "Mille et une Nuit." According to Caussin de Perceval, vols. 1 and 2
were published together in 1704, and vols. 3 and 4 in the course of the same
year. Nevertheless, in the copy in the Bibliotheque Nationale, vols. 1 and 4
are dated 1704, and vols. 2, 5 and 6 are dated 1705; vol. 3 is missing, just
as we have only odd volumes of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th English editions in the
British Museum, the 1st being still quite unknown.

M. Zotenberg proceeds to give an account of Galland's MS. (cf. Nights, x.
App., p. 414), and illustrates it by a specimen page in facsimile. Judging
from the character of the writing, &c., he considers it to have been
transcribed about the second half of the 14th century (Sir R. F. Burton
suggests about A.D. 1384). It is curious that there is a MS. of the 15th
century in the Library of the Vatican, which appears to be almost a
counterpart of Galland's, and likewise contains only the first 282 Nights.
Galland's MS. wants a leaf extending from part of Night 102 to the beginning
of Night 104, and containing an account of the Hunchback and his buffooneries;
this hiatus is filled up in the Vatican MS.

Habicht's version is noted as more approaching Galland's MS. than do the texts
founded on the Egyptian texts; but in thus speaking, Zotenberg does not notice
the assertion that Habicht's MS., though obtained at Tunis, came originally
from Egypt. He considers the ordinary Egyptian texts to be generally abridged
and condensed.

Although it is clear that Galland made great use of this MS. for his
translation, yet M. Zotenberg points out numerous discrepancies, especially
those at the commencement of the work, which led Caussin de Perceval to regard
Galland's work as a mere paraphrase of the original. M. Zotenberg, however (p.
14), writes, "Evidemment, Galland, pour la traduction du commencement du
recit, a suivi un texte plus developpe que celui du MS. 1508, texte dont la
redaction egyptienne ne presente qu'un maladroit abrege." He quotes other
instances which seem to show that Galland had more than one text at his

[Section II.]--At the beginning of the 17th century, only two MSS. of the
Nights existed m the libraries of Paris, one in Arabic, and the other in
Turkish. The Arabic MS. contains 870 Nights, and is arbitrarily divided into
29 sections. M. Zotenberg considers that it was to this MS. that Galland
referred, when he said that the complete work was in 36 parts The tales follow
the order of our Table as far as No. 7 (Nos. 2ab, 2ac and 3ba are wanting),
the remainder are irregular, and run as follows: 153, 154, 154a, 20; story of
Khailedjan ibn Haman, the Persian; Story of the Two Old Men, and of Baz
al-Aschbab Abou Lahab; 9, apparently including as episodes 9a, 9aa, 21, 8, 9b,
170, 181r to 181bb 137, 154 (commencement repeated), 181u to 181bb (repeated),
135a, Adventures of a traveller who entered a pond (etang) and underwent
metamorphoses:[FN#433] anecdotes and apothegms; a portion of the Kalila and
Dimna ?

The Turkish MS. (in 11 vols.) is made up of several imperfect copies, which
have been improperly put together. The bulk is formed by vols. 2-10 which are
written in three different hands, and some of which bear date 1046 A.H. The
contents of these nine vols. are as follows: Introduction and 1-3 (wanting
2ab), Story of 'Abdallah of Basra, 5; Story of 'Attaf ibn Isma'il al-Schoqlani
of Damascus and the schaikh Abou-'l-Baraka al-Nawwam, 6; Story told by the
Christian Merchant (relating to Qamar al-Zaman during the reign of Sultan
Mahmoud, and different from the story known under this title); Story of Ahmad
al- Saghir (the tattle) and Schams al-Qosour; Story of the Young Man of
Baghdad and the Bathman (Baigneur, attendant in a Hammam), 7; 153; 21; Story
of Khaledjan ibn Mahani; Story of Nour al-Din 'All and of Dounya (or Dinar) of
Damascus, 133, Story of Prince Qamar-Khan and of the schaikh 'Ate, of the
Sultan Mahmoud-Khan, of Bahram-Schah, of 'Abdallah ibn Hilal, of Harout and
Marout, &c.; Story of Qowwat al-Qoloub; 9, including as episodes 9a; 8; Story
of Moubaref who slept in the bath; ( ? = 96); and 170; Fables.

The other volumes (1 and 11 of the MS.) both contain the beginning of the MS.
Vol. I was written towards the end of the 17th century, and extends about as
far as Night 55, concluding with No. 7, which follows No. 3. Vol. 11., which
once belonged to Galland, includes only a portion of the Introduction. The
text of these two fragments is similar, but differs considerably from that of
vol. 2 of the MS.; and specimens of the commencement of vols. 1 and 2 are
given to show this. Yet it is singular that Galland does not seem to have used
these Turkish volumes; and the second MS. which he actually used, like the 4th
vol. of the copy preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale, appears to be

M. Zotenberg then remarks on the missing vol. 4 of Galland, and quotes
extracts from Galland's Diary, strewing that Nos. 191, 192 and 192a, which
were surreptitiously introduced into his work without his knowledge, and
greatly to his annoyance, were translated by Petis de la Croix, and were
probably intended to be included in the Thousand and One Days, which was
published in 1710.

[Section III.]--This is one of the most important in the book, in which
extracts from Galland's Diary of 1709 are quoted, shewing that he was then in
constant communication with a Christian Maronite of Aleppo, named Hanna
(Jean), who was brought to Paris by the traveller Paul Lucas, and who related
stories to Galland, of which the latter took copious notes, and most of which
he worked up into the later volumes of his "Mille et une Nuit" (sic). Among
these were 193, 194a, 194b, 59, 197, 198, 174, 195, 194c, 196. The following
tales he did not use: An Arab story of two cousins, Camar eddin and Bedr el
Bodour; the Golden City (another version of the story of the Three Princes, in
No. 198, combined with the story of the woman who slew pretenders who were
unable to solve a riddle); The Three Princes, the Genius Morhagian, and his
Daughters; and the story of the seller of ptisanne (or diet-drinks) and his
son Hassan.

Further extracts from Galland's Diary are added, extending from the time of
Hanna's departure from Paris between June and October, 1709, and the
completion of the 12th volume of the Mille et une Nuit in 1712. These relate
to the gradual progress of the work; and to business in connection with it;
and Hanna's name is occasionally mentioned.

Hanna supplied Galland with a written version of No. 193, and probably of 194
a-c; (i.e. most of the tales in vol. 9 and 10); but the tales in vols. 11 and
12 were apparently edited by Galland from his notes and recollections of
Hanna's narrations. These are Nos. 195, 196, 59, 197 and 198. M. Zotenberg
concludes that Hanna possessed a MS. containing all these tales, part of which
he copied for Galland, and that this copy, like several other important
volumes which Galland is known or believed to have possessed, was lost. M.
Zotenberg thinks that we may expect to meet with most of Hanna's tales either
in other copies of the Nights, or in some other collection of the same kind.
The latter supposition appears to me to be by far the most probable.

[Section IV.]--M. Zotenberg proceeds to give an account of one or two very
important MSS. of the Nights in the Bibliotheque Nationale. One of these is a
MS. which belonged to the elder Caussin, and was carefully copied by Michael
Sabbagh from a MS. of Baghdad. Prof. Fleischer, who examined it, states
(Journal Asiatique, 1827, t. II., p. 221) that it follows the text of Habicht,
but in a more developed form. M. Zotenberg copies a note at the end, finishing
up with the word "Kabikaj" thrice repeated. This, he explains, "est le nom du
genie prepose au regne des insectes. Les scribes, parfois, l'invoquent pour
preserver leurs manuscrits de l'atteinte de vers."

This MS. was copied in Parts on European paper at the beginning of the
century, though Caussin de Perceval was not acquainted with it in 1806, but
only with a MS. of the Egyptian redaction. This MS. agrees with Galland's only
as far as the 69th Night. It differs from it in two other points; it contains
No. 1c, and the end of No. 3 coincides with the end of Night 69. The contents
of Nights 70-1001 are as follows: 246, 4, 5, 6, 20, 7, 153, 21, 170, 247, The
Unhappy Lover confined in the Madhouse (probably = 204c), 8, 191, 193,174, 9,
9b (not 9a, or 9aa) and as episodes, 155, 32, and the story of the two
brothers 'Amir and Ghadir, and their children Djamil and Bathina.

Another MS., used by Chavis and Cazotte, and Caussin de Perceval, was written
in the year 1772. It has hitherto been overlooked, because it was erroneously
stated in the late M. Reinaud's Catalogue to be a MS. containing part of the
1001 Nights, extending from Night 282 to Night 631, and copied by Chavis. It
is not from Chavis' hand, and does not form part of the ordinary version of
the Nights, but contains the following tales: 174, 248, Story of King Sapor,
246, 3a, 36, 3c, 153, Story of the Intendant, the Interpreter, and the Young
Man; 247, 204c, 240, 250, Story of the Caliph and the Fisherman (probably =
156), the Cat and the Fox, and the Little Bird and the Fowler.

Another MS., really written by Chavis, commences exactly where Vol. 3 of
Galland's MS leaves off, i. e. in the middle of No. 21, and extends from Night
281 to Night 631. M. Zotenberg supposes it to have been written to supply the
place of the last volume of Galland's set. It contains the following tales in
addition to the conclusion of No. 21: 170, 247, 204c, 8, 191, 193 and 174. M.
Zotenberg suggests that the first part of this MS may have been copied from
Galland's last volume, which may have existed at the time in private hands.

The two last MSS. contain nearly the same tales, though with numerous

M. Zotenberg discusses the hypothesis of Chavis' MS. being a translation from
the French, and definitely rejects it.

[Section V.]--Here M. Zotenberg discusses the MSS. of the Nights in general,
and divides them into three categories. 1. MSS. proceeding from Muslim parts
of Asia. These, except the MSS. of Michael Sabbagh and that of Chavis, contain
only the first part of the work. They are all more or less incomplete, and
stop short in the middle of the text. They are not quite uniform, especially
in their readings, but generally contain the same tales arranged in the same
order. II. Recent MSS. of Egyptian origin, characterised by a special style,
and a more condensed narrative; by the nature and arrangement of the tales, by
a great number of anecdotes and fables; and by the early part of the work
containing the great romance of chivalry of King Omar Bin Al-Nu'uman. III.
MSS. mostly of Egyptian origin, differing as much among themselves in the
arrangement of the tales as do those of the other groups.

The following MSS. are mentioned as belonging to the first group:--

I. Galland's MS. in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Nos. 1506-1508.
II. MS. in the Vatican, No. 782.
III. Dr. Russell's MS. from Aleppo.
IV. MS. in the Bibl. Nat. (Suppl. 1715, I and II.).
V. MS. in the Library of Christ Church College, Oxford (No. ccvii.).
VI. MS. in the Library of the India Office, London (No. 2699).
VII. Sir W. Jones' MS., used by Richardson.
VIII. Rich's MS. in the Library of the British Museum (Addit. 7404).
IX. MS. in Bibl. Nat. (Suppl. 2522 and 2523) X. MS. in Bibl. Nat. (Suppl.

The following MSS. are enumerated as belonging to the second group:--

I. Salt's MS. (printed in Calcutta in 4 vols.).
II-IV. Three complete MSS. in Bibliotheque Nationale (Suppl. Arabe, Nos.
1717,1718, 1719).
V. Incomplete MS. of Vol. II. in Bibl. Nat. (Suppl. Arabe, Nos 2198 to
VI. Incomplete MS. of Vol. 4 (Suppl. Arabe, Nos. 2519 to 2521).
VII. Odd vol. containing Nights 656 to 1001 (Suppl. Arabe, No. 1721, III.).
XII. MS. containing Nights 284 to 327 (Suppl. Arabe, No. 1720).
XIII. MS. in British Museum (Oriental MSS., Nos. 1593 to 1598).
XIV. Ditto (Oriental MSS., Nos. 2916 to 2919).
XV. Burckhardt's MS. in the University Library at Cambridge (B. MSS. 106 to
XVI. MS. in the Vatican (Nos. 778 to 781).
XVII. MS. in the Ducal Library at Gotha.
XVIII. Odd vol. in ditto.
XIX. MS. in the Royal Library at Munich.
XX. Ditto, incomplete (De Sacy's).
XXI. Fragment in the Library of the Royal and Imperial Library at Vienna (No.
XXII. MS. in the Imperial Public Library at St. Petersburg (Von
XXIII.MS. in the Library of the Institute for the Study of Oriental languages
at St. Petersburg (Italinski's).
XXIV. Mr. Clarke's MS. (cf. Nights, x., App. pp. 444- 448).
XXV. Caussin de Perceval's MS.
XXVI. Sir W. Ouseley's MSS.

The above list does not include copies or fragments in various libraries of
which M. Zotenberg has no sufficient information, nor miscellaneous collection
in which tales from the Nights are mixed with others.

Portions of Habicht's MS. appear to belong to the Egyptian recension, and
others to have come from further East.

There is a MS. in the Bibliotheque Nationale (Suppl. Arabe, No. 1721, IV.)
from Egypt, containing the first 210 Nights, which somewhat resembles
Habicht's MS. both in style and in the arrangement of the tales. The Third
Shaykh's Story (No. 1 c.) is entirely different from those in the ordinary
MSS., nor is it the same as that in the Turkish version of the Nights, which
is again quite different from either. In this MS. (No. 1721, IV.) No. 6 is
followed by Nos. 7, 174, and 133.

Then follow notices of Anderson's MS., used by Scott, but which cannot now be
traced the Calcutta edition of the first 200 Nights; and of the Wortley
Montague MS. These form M. Zotenberg's third group of MSS.

M. Zotenberg does not enter into the question of the original form, date and
constituents of the primitive work, but concludes that the complete work as we
now have it only assumed its present form at a comparatively recent period.
But it must not be forgotten that the details, description, manners, and style
of the tales composing this vast collection, are undergoing daily alteration
both from narrators and copyists.

Then follows an Appendix, in which M. Zotenberg has copied two tales from
Galland's journals, which he took down as related by the Maronite Hanna. One
of these is new to me, it is the story of the Three Princes, and the Genius
Morhagian and his Daughters (added at the end of this section); and the other
is the well-known story of the Envious Sisters.

The remainder of M. Zotenberg's volume contains the Arabic text of the story
of 'Ala Al-Din, or the Wonderful Lamp, with numerous critical notes, most of
which refer to Galland's version. A few pages of Chavis' text are added for

The story itself, M. Zotenberg remarks, is modern, giving a faithful picture
of Egyptian manners under the reign of the last Mamlouk Sultans. Some
expressions which occur in the French Arabic Dictionary of Ellions Bocthor and
of A. Caussin de Perceval, are apparently derived from the story of 'Ala

Story of the Three Princes and the Genius Morhagian and
His Daughters.

[Reprinted by M. Zotenberg (pp. 53-61) from Galland's Journal, MS. francais,
No. 15277, pp. 120-131. The passages in brackets are added by the present
translator (chiefly where Galland has inserted "etc.") to fill up the sense.]

When the Sultan of Samarcand had reached a great age, he called the three
princes, his sons, and after observing that he was much pleased to see how
much they loved and revered him, he gave them leave to ask for whatever they
most desired. They had only to speak, and he was ready to grant them whatever
they asked, let it be what it might, on the sole condition that he should
satisfy the eldest first, and the two younger ones afterwards, each in his
turn. The eldest prince, whose name was Rostam, begged the Sultan to build him
a cabinet of bricks of gold and silver alternately, and roofed with all kinds
of precious stones.

The Sultan issued his orders that very day, but before the roof of the cabinet
was finished, indeed before any furniture had been put into it, Prince Rostam
asked his father's leave to sleep there. The Sultan tried to dissuade him,
saying that [the roof] ought to be finished first, but the prince was so
impatient that he ordered his bed to be removed there, and he lay down. He was
reading the Koran about midnight, when suddenly the floor opened and he beheld
a most hideous genius named Morhagian rise from the ground, who cried out,
"You are a prince, but even if you were the Sultan himself, I would not
refrain from taking vengeance for your rashness in entering this house which
has been built just above the palace of my eldest daughter." At the same time
he paced around the cabinet, and struck its walls, when the whole cabinet was
reduced to dust so fine that the wind carried it away, and left not a trace of
it. The prince drew his sword, and pursued the genius, who took to flight
until he came to a well, into which he plunged [and vanished]. When the prince
appeared before his father the Sultan next morning, he was overwhelmed with
confusion [not only at what had happened, but on account of his disobedience
to his father, who reproached him severely for having disregarded his advice].

The second prince, whose name was Gaiath Eddin (Ghayath al-Din), then
requested the Sultan to build him a cabinet constructed entirely of the bones
of fishes. The Sultan ordered it to be built, at great expense. Prince Gaiath
Eddin had no more patience to wait till it was quite finished than his brother
Rostam. He lay down in the cabinet notwithstanding the Sultan's warnings, but
took care to keep his sword by his side The genius Morhagian appeared to him
also at midnight, paid him the same compliment, and told him that the cabinet
was built over the palace of his second daughter. He reduced it to dust, and
Prince Gaiath Eddin pursued him, sword in hand, to the well, where he escaped;
and next day the prince appeared before his father, the Sultan [as crestfallen
as his brother].

The third prince, who was named Badialzaman (Badiu'l-Zaman = Rarity of the
Age) obtained leave from the Sultan to build a cabinet entirely of rock
crystal. He went to sleep there before it was entirely finished, but without
saying anything to the Sultan, as he was resolved to see whether Morhagian
would treat him in the same way. Morhagian arrived at midnight, and declared
that the cabinet was built over the palace of his third daughter. He destroyed
the cabinet' and when the prince seized his sword, Morhagian took to flight.
The prince wounded him three times before he reached the well, but he
nevertheless succeeded in escaping.

Prince Badialzaman did not present himself to the Sultan, but went to the two
princes, his brothers, and urged them to pursue the genius in the well itself.
The three went together, and the eldest was let down into the well by a rope,
but after descending a certain distance, he cried out, and asked to be drawn
up a rain. He excused his failure by saying that he felt a burning heat [and
was almost suffocated]. The same thing happened to Prince Gaiath Eddin, who
likewise cried out till he was drawn up. Prince Badialzaman then had himself
let down but commanded his brothers not to draw him up again, even if he
should cry out. They let him down, and he cried out, but he continued to
descend till he reached the bottom of the well, when he untied himself from
the rope, and called out to his brothers that the air was very foul. At the
bottom of the well he found an open door and he advanced for some distance
between two walls, at the end of which he found a golden door, which he
opened, and beheld a magnificent palace. He entered and passed through the
kitchen and the storerooms, which were filled with all kinds of provisions,
and then inspected the rooms, when he entered one magnificently furnished with
sofas and divans. He was curious to find out who lived there, so he hid
himself. Soon afterwards he beheld a flight of doves alight at the edge of a
basin of water in the middle of the court The doves plunged into the water,
and emerged from it as women, each of whom immediately set about her appointed
work. One went to the store room, another to the kitchen a third began to
sweep [and so on]. They prepared a feast [as if for expected guests]. Some
time afterwards, Badialza man beheld another flight of ten doves of different
colours who surrounded an eleventh, which was quite white, and these also
perched on the edge of the basin. The ten doves plunged into the basin and
came forth as women, more beautiful than the first and more magnificently
robed. They took the white dove and plunged her into a smaller basin, which
was [filled with] rose [water] and she became a woman of extraordinary beauty.
She was the eldest daughter of the genius, and her name was Fattane. (Fattanah
= The Temptress.)

Two of her attendants then took Fattane under the armpits, and led her to her
apartment, followed by the others. She took her seat on a small raised sofa,
and her women separated, some to the right and some to the left, and set about
their work. Prince Badialzaman had dropped his handkerchief. One of the
waiting women saw it and picked it up, and when she looked round, she saw the
prince. She was alarmed, and warned Fattane, who sent some of her women to see
who the stranger was. The prince came forward, and presented himself before
Fattane, who beheld a young prince, and gave him a most gracious reception.
She made him sit next to her, and inquired what brought him there? He told his
story from the beginning to the end, and asked where he could find the genius,
on whom he wished to take vengeance. Fattane smiled, and told him to think no
more about it, but only to enjoy himself in the good company in which he found
himself. They spread the table, and she made him sit next to her, and her
women played on all kinds of musical instruments before they retired to rest.

Fattane persuaded the prince to stay with her from day to day: but on the
fortieth day he declared that he could wait no longer, and that it was
absolutely necessary for him to find out where Morhagian dwelt. The princess
acknowledged that he was her father, and told him that his strength was so
great [that nobody could overcome him]. She added that she could not inform
him where to find him, but that her second sister would tell him. She sent one
of her women to guide him to her sister's palace through a door of
communication, and to introduce him. He was well received by the fairy, for
whom he had a letter, and he found her younger and more beautiful than
Fattane. He begged her to inform him where he could find the genius, but she
changed the subject of conversation, entertained him magnificently, and kept
him with her for forty days. On the fortieth day she permitted him to depart,
gave him a letter, and sent him to her youngest sister, who was a still more
beautiful fairy. He was received and welcomed with joy. She promised to show
him Morhagian's dwelling, and she also entertained him for forty days. On the
fortieth day she tried to dissuade him from his enterprise, but he insisted.
She told him that Morhagian would grasp his head in one hand, and his feet in
the other, and would tear him asunder in the middle. But this did not move
him, and she then told him that he would find Morhagian in a dwelling, long,
high and wide in proportion to his bulk. The prince sought him out, and the
moment he caught sight of him, he rushed at him, sword in hand. Morhagian
stretched out his hand, seized his head in one hand and his feet in the other,
rent him in two with very little effort, and threw him out of a window which
overlooked a garden.

Two women sent by the youngest princess each took a piece of the body of the
prince, and brought it to their mistress, who put them together, reunited
them, and restored life to the prince by applying water [of life ?] to the
wounds. She then asked the prince where he came from, and it seemed to him
that he had just awakened from sleep; and she then recalled everything to his
recollection. But this did not weaken his firm resolve to kill the genius. The
fairy begged him to eat, but he refused; and she then urged that Morhagian was
her father, and that he could only be killed by his own sword, which the
prince could not obtain.[FN#434] "You may say what you please," answered the
prince; "but there is no help for it, and he must die by my hand [to atone for
the wrongs which my brothers and I have suffered from him]."

Then the princess made him swear solemnly to take her as his bride, and taught
him how he might succeed in killing the genius. "You cannot hope to kill him
while he wakes," said she, "but when he sleeps it is not quite impossible. If
he sleeps, you will hear him snore, but he will sleep with his eyes open,
which is a sign that he has fallen into a very profound slumber. As he fills
the whole room, step upon him and seize his sword which hangs above his head,
and then strike him on the neck. The blow will not kill him, but as he wakes,
he will tell you to strike him a second time. But beware of doing this [for if
you strike him again, the wound will heal of itself, and he will spring up and
kill you, and me after you]."

Then Badialzaman returned to Morhagian's room, and found him snoring so loud
that everything around him shook. The prince entered, though not without
trembling, and walked over him till he was able to seize the sword when he
struck him a violent blow on the neck. Morhagian awoke, cursing his daughter,
and cried out to the prince, whom he recognised, "Make an end of me." The
prince answered that what he had done was enough, and he left him, and
Morhagian died.

The prince carried off Morhagian's sword, which he thought would be useful to
him in other encounters; and as he went, he passed a magnificent stable in
which he saw a splendid horse. He returned to the fairy and related to her
what he had done, and added that he would like to carry off the horse, but he
feared it would be very difficult. "Not so difficult as you think," said she.
"Go and cut off some hair from his tail, and take care of it, and whenever you
are in need, burn one or two of the hairs, and he will be with you immediately
[and will bring you whatever you require]."

After this the three fairies assembled together, and the prince promised that
the two princes, his brothers, should marry the other two sisters. Each fairy
reduced her palace to the size of a small ball, which she gave to the prince

The prince then took the three fairies to the bottom of the well. His father,
the Sultan, had long believed that he was dead, and had put on mourning for
him. His two brothers often came to the well, and they happened to be there
just at the time. Badialzaman attracted their attention by his shouts, told
them what had happened, and added that he had brought the three fairies with
him. He asked for a rope and fastened the eldest fairy to it, calling out,
"Pull away, Prince Rostam, I send you your good fortune." The rope was let
down again, and he fastened the second fairy to it, calling out "Brother
Gaiath Eddin, pull up your good fortune too."

The third fairy, who was to marry Badialzaman, begged him to allow himself to
be drawn up before her [as she was distrustful of his brothers], but he would
not listen to her. As soon as the two princes had drawn her up so high that
they could see her, they began to dispute who should have her. Then the fairy
cried out to Badialzaman, "Prince, did I not warn you of this ?"

The princes were obliged to agree that the Sultan should settle their dispute.
When the third fairy had been drawn out of the well, the three fairies
endeavoured to persuade the two princes to draw up their youngest brother, but
they refused, and compelled them to follow them. While they carried off the
youngest princess, the other two asked leave to say adieu to Prince
Badialzaman They cried out from the top of the well, "Prince have patience
till Friday, when you will see six bulls pass by--three red ones and three
black ones. Mount upon one of the red ones and he will bring you up to the
earth, but take good care not to mount upon a black one, for he would carry
you down to the Seventh Earth."[FN#435]

The princes carried off the three fairies, and on Friday, three days
afterwards, the six bulls appeared. Badialzaman was about to mount upon a red
one, when a black one prevented him, and compelled him to mount his back, when
he plunged through the earth till he stopped at a large town in another world.
He entered the town, and took up his abode with an old woman, to whom he gave
a piece of gold to provide him with something to eat, for he was almost
famished. When he had eaten enough, he asked for something to drink. "You
cannot be a native of this country," said the old woman ["or you would not ask
for drink"]. She then brought him a sponge, saying that she had no other
water. She then informed him that the town was supplied with water from a very
copious spring, the flow of which was interrupted by a monster. They were
obliged to offer up a girl to be devoured by it on every Friday. To-day the
princess, the Sultan's daughter, was to be given up to him, and while the
monster emerged from his lair to devour her, enough water would flow for
everyone to supply himself until the following Friday.

Badialzaman then requested the old woman to show him the way to the place
where the princess was already exposed; but she was so much afraid that he had
much trouble in persuading her to come out of her house to show him what
direction to take. He went out of the town, and went on till he saw the
princess, who made a sign to him from a distance to approach no nearer; and
the nearer he came, the more anxiety she displayed. As soon as he was within
hearing, he shouted to her not to be afraid; and he sat down beside her, and
fell asleep, after having begged her to wake him as soon as the monster
appeared. Presently a tear from the princess fell upon his face, and he woke
up, and saw the monster, which he slew with the sword of Morhagian, and the
water flowed in abundance The princess thanked her deliverer, and begged him
to take her back to the Sultan her father, who would give proofs of his
gratitude; but he excused himself. She then marked his shoulder with the blood
of the monster without his noticing it. The princess then returned to the
town, and was led back to the palace, where she related to the Sultan [all
that had happened]. Then the Sultan commanded that all the men in the town
should pass before himself and the princess under pain of death. Badialzaman
tried to conceal himself in a khan, but he was compelled to come with the
others. The princess recognised him, and threw an apple at him to point him
out. He was seized, and brought before the Sultan, who demanded what he could
do to serve him. The prince hesitated, but at length he requested the Sultan
to show him the way to return to the world from whence he came. The Sultan was
furious, and would have ordered him to be burned as a heretic [but the
princess interceded for his life]. The Sultan then treated him as a madman,
and drove him ignominiously from the town, and he wandered away without
knowing where he was going. At length he arrived at a mountain of rock, where
he saw a great serpent rising from his lair to prey on young Rokhs. He slew
the serpent with the sword of Morhagian, and the father and mother of the
Rokhs arrived at the moment, and asked him to demand whatever he desired in
return. He hesitated awhile, but at length he asked them to show him the way
to the upper world. The male Rokh then told him to prepare ten quarters of
mutton, to mount on his back, and to give him some of the meat whenever he
should turn his head either to one side or to the other on the journey.

The prince mounted on the back of the Rokh, the Rokh stamped with his foot,
and the earth opened before them wherever he turned. They reached the bottom
of the well when the Rokh turned his head, but there was no more meat left, so
the prince cut off the calf of his leg and gave it to him. When the Rokh
arrived at the top of the well, the prince leaped to the ground, when the Rokh
perceived [that he was lame, when he inquired the reason, and the prince
explained what had happened]. The Rokh then disgorged the calf of the leg, and
returned it to its place, when it grew fast, and the prince was cured

As the prince left the well, he met a peasant, and changed clothes with him,
but he kept the sword, the three balls, and the horse-hair. He went into the
town, where he took lodgings with a tailor, and kept himself in retirement.
The prince gradually rose in the tailor's esteem by letting him perceive that
he knew how to sew [and all the arts of an accomplished tailor]. Presently,
preparations were made for the wedding of Prince Rostam, and the tailor with
whom Badialzaman lodged was ordered to prepare the fairy's robes. Badialzaman,
who slept in the shop, took clothes from one of the balls similar to those
which were already far advanced, and put them in the place of the others. The
tailor was astonished [at their fine workmanship] and wished to take the
prince with him to receive a present, but he refused, alleging as an excuse
that he had so lately come to the town. When the fairies saw the clothes, they
thought it a good omen.

The wedding day arrived, and they threw the jarid[FN#436] [and practised other
martial exercises]. It was a grand festival, and all the shops were closed.
The tailor wished to take the prince to see the spectacle, but he put him off
with an excuse. However, he went to a retired part of the town, where he
struck fire with a gun,[FN#437] and burned a little of the horse hair. The
horse appeared, and he told him to bring him a complete outfit all in red, and
that he should likewise appear with trappings, jewels, &c., and a reed (jarid)
of the same colour. The prince then mounted the horse, and proceeded to the
race-course, where his appearance excited general admiration. At the close of
the sports, he cut off the head of Prince Rostam, and the horsemen pursued
him, but were unable to overtake him, and soon lost sight of him. He returned
to the shop dressed as usual before the arrival of the tailor, who related to
him what had happened, of which he pretended to be entirely ignorant. There
was a great mourning at the court; but three months afterwards, fresh robes
were ordered for the wedding of the second prince. The fairies were confirmed
in their suspicions when they saw the fresh clothes [which Badialzaman sent

On the wedding day they again assembled to throw the jarid. Prince Badialzaman
now presented himself on the white horse, robed in white, and with pearls and
jewels to match, and again he attracted general admiration. He pushed himself
into the midst of a guard of eight hundred horsemen, and slew Gaiath Eddin.
They rushed upon him, and he allowed himself to be carried before the Sultan,
who recognised him [and pronounced his decision]. "A brother who has been
abandoned to die by his brothers has a right to kill them."

After this, Prince Badialzaman espoused the youngest princess, and the two
others were given in marriage to two princes who were related to the Sultan.

Cazotte's Continuation, and the Composite Editions of
the Arabian Nights (Pp. 418-422).

P. 422.--There is a small Dutch work, the title of which is as follows:

Oostersche Vertellingen, uit de Duizend-en-cen-Nacht: Naar de Hoogduitsche
Bewerking van M. Claudius,[FN#438] voor de Nederlandsche Jeugduiitgegeven door
J. J. A. Gouverneur. Te Groningen, bij B. Wolters, n.d. 8vo., pp. 281, colt
front. (illustrating No. 170).

A composite juvenile edition, including Introduction (very short), and Nos.
251g, 36a 163 (complete form), 6ef, 4, 5, 1, 52, 170, 6ee, 223, 207c, 6, 194c,
206a, 204h, 2a, 174a and Introduction (a).

Derived from at least four different sources.

Translations of the Printed Texts (Pp. 438-439).

Under this heading I have to record Sir Richard and Lady Burton's own works.

Lady Burton's Edition of her husband's Arabian Nights, translated literally
from the Arabic, prepared for household reading by Justin Huntly McCarthy,
M.P., London, Waterlow and Sons, Roy. 8vo. 6 vols.

In preparing this edition for the press, as much as possible has been
retained, both of the translation and notes; and it has not been found
necessary to omit altogether more than a very few of the least important
tales. The contents of the 6 volumes are as follows:--

Vol. I. (1886), Front's piece (Portrait of Lady Burton), Preface, Translator's
Foreword Introduction 1-9 (pp. xxiii. 476).

Vol. II. (1886), Front's piece (Portrait of Sir Richard F. Burton), 9
(continued), 9a-29 (pp. ii. 526).

Vol. III. (1887), 29 (continued)-133e (pp. viii. 511).

Vol. IV. (1887), 133e (continued)-154a (pp. iv. 514).

Vol. V. (1887), 154a (continued)-163 (pp. iv. 516).

Vol. VI. (1886) [? 1888], 163 (continued)-169 (pp. ii. 486).

Also includes Terminal Essay, Index to Tales and Proper Names, Contributions
to Bibliography, as far as it relates to Galland's MS. and Translations;
Comparative Table of Tales; Opinions of the Press; and Letters from Scholars.

Supplemental Nights to the Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, with notes
anthropological and explanatory, by Richard F. Burton. Benares, printed by the
Kamashastra Society for private subscribers only. Roy. 8vo.

The contents of the 6 volumes are as follows:

Vol. I. (1886) Translator's Foreword, 170-181bb.

Vol. II. (1886) 182-189. Appendix: Variants and analogues of some of the tales
in vols. i. and ii., by Mr. W. A. Clouston.

These two volumes contain the tales peculiar to the Breslau Text, and cover
the same ground as Mr. Payne's 3 vols. of "Tales from the Arabic."

Vol. III. (1887) Foreword, 191-198. Appendix: Variants and Analogues of the
Tales in the Supplemental Nights, vol. iii., by Mr. W. A. Clouston.

This volume, the bulkiest of the whole series, contains such of Galland's
tales as are not to be found in the ordinary texts of the Nights.

Vol. IV. (1887) The Translator's Foreword, 203-209; App. A. Ineptiae
Bodleianae; App. B., The three untranslated tales in Mr. E. J. W. Gibb's
"Forty Vezirs."

Vol. V. (1888) 210-241a, Translator's Foreword; App. i. Catalogue of Wortley
Montague Manuscript, Contents, App. ii. Notes on the Stories contained in
vols. iv. and v. of Supplemental Nights, by Mr. W. F. Kirby.

These two volumes contain tales translated from the Wortley Montague MS., used
by Jonathan Scott, and now in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. The following
tales, not in our table, are added:--

Vol. IV. Story of the Limping Schoolmaster (between 204i and 204j).

How Drummer Abu Kasim became a Kazi, and Story of the Kazi and his Slipper.
(These two tales come between 206a and 206b.)

Adventure of the Fruit-seller and the Concubine (between 207c and 207d).

Tale of the third Larrikin concerning himself (between 208 and 209).

On the other hand, a few tales in the MS. are omitted as repetitions, or as
too unimportant to be worth translating:--

Vol. VI. (1888) Translator's Foreword: 248; 246; The Linguist-Dame, the
Duenna, and the King's Son; 247; The Pleasant History of the Cock and the Fox;
History of what befel the Fowl-let with the Fowler; 249; 250.

App. i. Index to the Tales and Proper Names; ii. Alphabetical Table of the
Notes (Anthropological, &c.); iii. Notes on the Stories contained in vol. vi.
of Supplementary Nights, by W. F. Kirby; iv. Additional Notes on the
Bibliography of the Thousand and One Nights, by W. F. Kirby; v. The Biography
of the Book and the Reviewers Reviewed, Opinions of the Press.

This volume contains the originals of Chavis and Cazotte's Tales, omitting the
four doubtful ones (cf. Nights, x. App., pp. 418, 419).

Collections of Selected Tales (P. 439).

"We have also 'Aladdin or the Wonderful Lamp,' 'Sindbad the Sailor, or the Old
Man of the Sea' and 'Ali Baba, or the Forty Thieves,' revised by M. E.
Braddon, author of 'Lady Audley's Secret,' etc. Illustrated by Gustav Dore and
other artists. London: J. & R. Maxwell.

"Miss Braddon has contented herself with 'Englishing' the vulgar version,
whose Gallicisms are so offensive to the national ear." (Sir R. F. Burton, in

Imitations and Miscellaneous Works Having More or less
Connection with the Nights (Pp. 448-453). B. English
(Pp. 452-453).

13. History of Rhedi, the Hermit of Mount Ararat, an Oriental Tale.
By--Mackenzie, 16mo., Dublin, 1781.

I have not seen this little book.

14. Miscellanies, consisting of classical extracts, and Oriental Epilogues. By
William Beloe, F.S.A. Translator of Herodotus, &c. London, 1795.

Includes some genuine Oriental tales, such as a version of that of Basim the

15. The Orientalist, or Letters of a Rabbi, with Notes by James Noble,
Oriental Master in the Scottish Nasal and Military Academy. Edinburgh, 1831.

Noticed by Mr. W. A. Clouston, Suppl. Nights, iii., p. 377.

16. The Adventures of the Caliph Haroun Al-raschid. Recounted by the Author of
"Mary Powell" [Miss Manning]. 8vo., London, 1855; Arthur Hall, Virtue & Co.

17. The 1001 Days, a Companion to the Arabian Nights, with introduction by
Miss J.] Pardoe. 8vo., London 1857, woodcuts.

A miscellaneous collection partly derived from "Les Mille et un Jours" (cf.
Nights x., pp. 499, 500). I have also seen a similar miscellaneous collection
in French under the latter title. The tales in the English work are as

I. Hassan Abdallah, or the Enchanted Keys Story of Hassan.
Hassan Abdallah the Basket Maker.
Hassan Abdallah the Dervise Abounader

II. Soliman Bey and the Story Tellers
The First Story Teller.
The Second Story Teller.
The Third Story Teller.

III. Prince Khalaf and the Princess of China
Story of Prince Al-Abbas.
Story of Liri-in.

IV. The Wise Dey.

V. The Tunisian Sage.

VI. The Nose for Gold.

VII. The Treasures of Basra.

History of Aboulcassem.

VIII. The Old Camel.

IX. The Story of Medjeddin (Grimm's "Haschem," cf. Nights, x., p. 422).

X. King Bedreddin Lolo and his Vizier.
Story of the Old Slippers.
Story of Atalmulk, surnamed the Sorrowful Vizier, and the Princess
Story of Malek and the Princess Schirine

18. The Modern Arabian Nights. By Arthur A'Beckett and Linley Sambourne.
London: Bradbury, Agnew & Co., 1877, sm. 4to., with comic coloured
frontispieces and woodcuts.

Four clever satires (social and political) as follows:

1. Alley Baber and Son, a Mock Exchange Story.
2. Ned Redding and the Beautiful Persian.
3. The Ride of Captain Alf Rashit to Ke-Vere-Street.
4. Mr. O'Laddin and the Wonderful Lamp.

19. Tales of the Caliph. By Al Arawiyah, 8vo., London, T. Fisher Unwin, 1887.

Belongs to Class 5 (Imitations). Consists of fictitious adventures supposed to
have happened to Harun Al-Rashid, chiefly during his nocturnal rambles.

Separate Editions of Single or Composite Tales (Pp. 439

P. 440.--No. 184 was published under the title of "Woman's Wit" in the
"Literary Souvenir" for 1831, pp.217-237.derived from Langles' version (Mr.
L.C. Smithers in litt.).

Translation of Cognate Oriental Romances Illustrative
of the Nights (Pp. 441-443).

P. 441, No. 1. Les Mille et un Jours.

Mr. L. C. Smithers (in litt.) notes English editions published in 1781 and
1809, the latter under the title of "The Persian and Turkish Tales."

P. 443, No. 5. Recueil de Contes Populaires de la Kabylie du Djurdjura
recueillis et traduits par J. Riviere. 12mo. Paris: Leroux. 1882.

This collection is intended to illustrate the habits and ideas of the people.
The tales are very short, and probably very much abridged, but many of them
illustrate the Nights. I may note the following tales as specially interesting
from their connection with the Nights, or with important tales in other
collections, Oriental or otherwise.

Thadhillala. A brief abstract of No. 151.

Les deux Freres. A variant of Herodotus' Story of Rhampsinitus.

L'homme de bien et le mechant. A variant of No. 262; or Schiller's Fridolin.

Le Corbeau et l'Enfant. Here a child is stolen and a crow left in its place.

H'ab Sliman. Here an ugly girl with foul gifts is substituted for her

Le roi et son fils. Here we find the counterpart of Schaibar (from No. 197),
who, however, is a cannibal and devours everybody.

Les Enfants et la Chauve-sourie. Resembles No. 198.

Le Joueur de Flute. Resembles Grimm's story of the Jew in the Bramble-Bush.

Jesus-Christ et la femme infidels (=261 b.; cf. Nights, x., p. 420).

Le Roitelet. This is the fable of the Ox and the Frog.

L'idiot et le coucou (=No. 206a).

Moh'amed teen Soltan. This is one of the class of stories known to
folk-lorists as the Punchkin series. The life of a Ghul is hidden in an egg,
the egg in a pigeon, the pigeon in a camel, and the camel in the sea.

Les deux Freres. A Cinderella story. The slayer of a hydra is discovered by
trying on a shoe.

Les trots Freres. Here a Ghul is killed by a single blow from a magic dagger,
which must not be repeated. (Cf. Nights, vii., p. 361.) In this story, too,
the protection of a Ghulah is secured by tasting her milk, a point which we
find in Spitta Bey's "Comes Arabes Modernes," but not in the Nights.

9. Turkish Evening Entertainments. "The Wonders of Remarkable Incidents and
the Rarities of Anecdotes," by Ahmed ibn Hemdem the Kethhoda called
"Sobailee." Translated from the Turkish by John F. Brown. 8vo., New York,

Contains a great number of tales and anecdotes, divided into 37 chapters, many
of which bear such headings as "Illustrative of intelligence and piety," "On
justice and fostering care," "Anecdotes about the Abbaside Caliphs," &c.

"A translation of the Turkish story-book, 'Aja'ib al-ma'asir wa ghara 'ib
ennawadir,' written for Muad the Fourth Ottoman Sultan who reigned between
1623-40. A volume of interesting anecdotes from the Arabic and Persian" (Mr.
L. C. Smithers, in litt.).

10. Contes Arabes Modernes, recueillis et traduits par Guillaume Spitta-Bey.
8vo., Leyden and Paris, 1883.

This book contains 12 orally collected tales of such great importance from a
folk-lore point of view that I have given full abstracts of all. They are
designed to illustrate the spoken Egyptian dialect, and are printed in Roman
character, with translation and glossary. The hero of nearly all the tales is
called "Mohammed l'Avise," which Mr. Sydney Hartland renders "Prudent," and
Mr. W. A. Clouston "Discreet." The original gives "Essatir Mehammed."
(Al-Shatir Mohammed, i.e., M. the Clever.) The frequent occurrence of the
number 39 (forty less one) may also be noted. Ghuls often play the part which
we should expect Jinn to fill. The bear, which occurs in two stories, is not
an Egyptian animal. Having called attention to these general features we may
leave the tales to speak for themselves.

I. Histoire de Mohammed l'Avise.

Contains the essential features of Cazotte's story of the Maugraby (cf.
Nights, x., p 418) with interesting additions. The "Mogrebin" confers three
sons on a king and queen and claims Mohammed, the eldest and the cleverest. He
gives him a book to read during his absence of 30 days, but on the 29th day he
finds a girl hanging by her hair in the garden and she teaches him to read it,
but not to tell the magician. The latter cuts off his arm threatening to cut
off his head if he cannot read the book within another 30 days. As soon as he
is gone, Mohammed reads on his arm again with the book, and escapes with the
girl when they separate and return to their respective homes. Mohammed then
changes himself into a sheep for his mother to sell, but warns her not to sell
the cord round his neck. Next day he changes himself into a camel, forbidding
his mother to sell the bridle but she is persuaded to do so, and he falls into
the hands of the magician. But he contrives to escape in the form of a crow
and the magician pursues him for two days and nights in the form of a hawk,
when he descends into the garden of the king whose daughter he had rescued
from the magician, and changes himself into a pomegranate on a tree. The
magician asks for and receives the pomegranate, when it bursts, and the seed
containing the life of Mohammed rolls under the king's throne. The magician
changes himself into a cock, and picks up the seeds, but while he is searching
for the last, it changes into a dagger, and cuts him in two. The princess
acknowledges Mohammed as her deliverer and they are married.

II. Histoire de l'Ours de Cuisine.

This begins as a swan-maiden story.[FN#439] A king steals the feather-dress of
a bathing maiden, who will only marry him on condition that she shall tear out
the eyes of his forty women (39 white slaves and a princess). The king
answers, "C'est bien, il n'y a pas d'inconvenient." The forty blind women are
shut up in a room under the kitchen, where they give birth to children whom
they cut up and divide; but the princess saves her shares and thus preserves
her son, whom she calls "Mohammed l'Avise," and teaches to read. He steals
food from the kitchen, calling himself "Ours de Cuisine," the queen hears of
him, pretends to be ill, and demands that he shall be sent to fetch the heart
of the Bull of the Black Valley. He finds a Ghuleh sitting with her breasts
thrown back on her shoulders so he tastes her milk unperceived, and she at
once adopts him as her son. She gives him a ball and a dagger, warning him
that if he strikes the bull more than once, he will sink into the earth with
him. The ball rolls before him, and when it stops, the bull rises from the
ground. Mohammed kills him, refusing to repeat the blow, returns the ball and
dagger to the Ghuleh, and returns home. A few days afterwards, the queen sends
Mohammed to fetch the heart of the Bull of the Red Valley, and when he informs
the Ghuleh, she says "Does she wish to kill her second brother too?" "Are
these her brothers ?" asked Mohammed. She answered, "Yes, indeed, they are the
sons of the Sultan of the Jann." He kills the Bull as before. A fortnight
afterwards, the queen hides a loaf of dry bread under her mattress. When its
cracking gives rise to the idea that she is very ill, and she complains of
great pain in the sides. She demands a pomegranate from the White Valley,
where the pomegranates grow to the weight of half a cantar.[FN#440] The Ghuleh
tells him she cannot help him, but he must wait for her son Adberrahym. When
he arrives he remarks, "Hum! mother, there's a smell of man about you, bring
him here to me to eat for breakfast." But his mother introduces Mohammed to
him as his foster brother, and he becomes friendly at once, but says that the
pomegranate is the queen's sister. He tells Mohammed to get an ardebb of small
round loaves in a basket, along with a piece of meat, and a piece of liver.
The Ghul then gives him a rod, saying, "Throw it down, and walk after it. It
will knock at the garden gate, which will open, and when you enter you will
find great dogs, but throw the bread right and left, without looking back.
Beyond a second gate you will find Ghuls; throw bread to them right and left,
and after passing them, look up, and you will find a tree in a fountain
surrounded with roses and jasmine. You will see a pomegranate upon it. Gather
it, and it will thunder, but fear nothing, and go on your way directly, and do
not look behind you after passing the gate." The queen waits another
fortnight, and then demands the flying castle from Mount Kaf, intending that
her father, who dwelt there, should burn him. The Ghuleh directed Mohammed to
dye himself black, and to provide himself with some mastic (ladin) and
lupines. With these, he makes friends with a black slave, who takes him into
the castle, and shows him a bottle containing the life of the queen, another
containing the eyes of the forty women; a magic sword which spares nothing,
and the ring which moves the castle. Mohammed then sees a beetle,[FN#441]
which the slave begs him not to kill, as it is his life. He watches it till it
enters a hole, and as soon as the slave is asleep, he kills it, and the slave
dies. Then he lays hands on the talismans, rushes into the room where the
inhabitants of the castle are condoling with the king and queen on the loss of
their three children, and draws the sword, saying "Strike right and left, and
spare neither great nor small." Having slain all in the castle, Mohammed
removes it to his father's palace, when his father orders the cannons to be
fired. Then Mohammed tells his father his history, compels the queen to
restore the eyes of the forty women, when they become prettier than before,
and then gives her the flask containing her life. But she drops it in her
fright, and her life ends, and the king places Mohammed on the throne.

III.--Histoire de la Dame des Arabes Jasmin.

A king sends his wazir to obtain a talisman of good luck, which is written for
him by Jasmine, the daughter of an Arab Sheikh. The king marries her, although
she demands to be weighed against gold, but drives her away for kissing a
fisherman in return for a bottle which he has drawn out of the river for her.
She goes two days' journey to a town, where she takes up her abode with a
merchant, and then discovers that whenever she turns the stopper of the
bottle, food, drink, and finally ten white dancing girls emerge from it. The
girls dance, each throws her ten purses of money, and then they retire into
the bottle. She builds herself a grand palace, where her husband seeks her,
and seeing the new palace, orders that no lights shall be lit in the town that
night. She lights up her palace, which convinces the king that he has a
dangerous rival. Then the wazir and the king visit her; the king asks for the
bottle, and she demands more than a kiss, then reveals herself, puts the king
to shame, and they are reconciled.

IV.--Histoire du Pecheur et de son Fils.

A king falls in love with the wife of a fisherman, and the wazir advises the
former to require the fisherman on pain of death to furnish a large hall with
a carpet in a single piece. The fisherman's wife sends him to the well of
Shoubrah where he exclaims, "O such-and-such-a-one, thy sister so-and-so
salutes thee, and asks thee to send her the spindle which she forgot when she
was with thee yesterday, for we want to furnish a room with it." The fisherman
drives a nail into the floor at one end of the room, fixes the thread on the
spindle to it, and draws out a wonderful carpet. Then the wazir demands a
little boy eight days old, who shall tell a story of which the beginning shall
be a lie and the end a lie. The fisherman is sent to the well with the
message, "O such-and-such-a-one, thy sister so-and-so greets thee, and
requests thee to give her the child which she brought into the world
yesterday." But the child only cries until three gnats are applied to him, one
on each side and one on the back. Then the boy speaks, saying, "Peace be on
thee, O king!" and afterwards tells his lying story: "When I was in the flower
of my youth, I walked out of the town one day into the fields when it was very
hot, I met a melon-seller, I bought a melon for a mahboub, took it, cut out a
piece, and looked inside, when I saw a town with a grand hall, when I raised
my feet and stepped into the melon. Then I walked about to look at the people
of the town inside the melon. I walked on till I came out of the town into the
country. There I saw a date-tree bearing dates a yard long. I wished for some,
and climbed the date-tree to gather a date and eat it. There I found peasants
sowing and reaping on the date-tree, and the threshing wheels were turning to
thresh the wheat. I walked on a little, and met a man who was beating eggs to
make a poultry yard. I looked on, and saw the chickens hatch; the cocks went
to one side and the hens to the other. I stayed near them till they grew up,
when I married them to each other, and went on. Presently I met a donkey
carrying sesame-cakes, so I cut off a piece and ate it. When I had eaten it, I
looked up, and found myself outside the melon, and the melon became whole as
it was at first." Then the child rebukes and threatens the king and the wazir
and the fisherman's wife sends her husband to take the child back to the well.

The fisherman had a son named Mohammed l'Avise (Al-Shatir), who was as
handsome as his mother; but the king had a son whose complexion was like that
of a Fellah. The boys went to school together, and the prince used to say,
"Good day, fisherman's son," and Mohammed used to reply, "Good day, O son of
the king, looking like a shoe-string." The prince complained to his father,
who ordered the schoolmaster to kill Mohammed and he bastinadoed him severely.
The boy went to his father, and turned fisherman. On the first day he caught a
mullet (Fr. rouget), and was about to fry it, when it cried out that it was
one of the princesses of the river, and he threw it back. Then the wazir
advised the king to send Mohammed to fetch the daughter of the king of the
Green Country, seven years journey distant. By the advice of the fish,
Mohammed asked the king for a golden galley; and on reaching the Green
Country, invited the inhabitants to inspect his galley. At last the princess
came down, and he carried her off. When she found she was entrapped she threw
her ring into the sea, which the fish caught. When the king proposed to the
princess, she first demanded her ring, which Mohammed immediately presented to
the king. Then she said it was the custom of her country on the occasion of a
marriage to dig a trench from the palace to the river, which was filled with
wood, and set on fire. The bridegroom was required to walk through the trench
to the river. The wazir proposed that Mohammed should walk through the trench
first; and by the fish's advice, he stopped his ears, cried out, "In the name
of God, the Compassioning, the Merciful," threw himself into the trench, and
returned from the river handsomer than before. So the wazir said to the king,
"Send for your son to go with us, that he may become as handsome as Mohammed."
So the three threw themselves into the fire, and were burned to ashes, and
Mohammed married the princess.

V.--Histoire de Dalal.

Dalal was a little girl, the daughter of a king, who found a louse on her
head, and put it into a jar of oil, where it remained till Dalal was twenty
years old, when it burst the jar, and emerged in the form of a horned buffalo.
The king ordered the hide to be hung at the gate of the palace, and proclaimed
that anyone who could discover what the skin was should marry his daughter,
but whoever tried and failed should lose his head. Thirty-nine suitors thus
perished, when a Ghul passed by in the form of a man, who knew the secret. He
took Dalal home with him and brought her a man's head, but as she would not
eat it, he brought her a sheep. He then visited her under the forms of her
mother and her two aunts, and told her that her husband was a Ghul; but she
refused to believe it until the third visit. Then he was angry; but she begged
him to let her go to the bath before she was eaten. He consented, took her to
a bath, and sat at the door; but she rubbed herself with mud, changed clothes
with an old lupine-seller, and escaped for a time. She reached a palace which
she would not enter until she was invited by the Prince himself, who then
proposed to marry her, but on the wedding day, her husband, having tracked her
out, contrived that another Ghul in the form of a man should present him to
the king in the form of a sheep, pretending that he had been reared in a
harem, and would bleat so loud that nobody could sleep, unless he was tethered
in the women's apartments. At night the Ghul carried off Dalal from beside the
prince to the adjoining room, but she begged to be allowed to retire for a few
moments, when she called upon Saint Zaynab for help, who sent one of her
sisters (?) a Jinniyah. She clove the wall, and asked Dalal to promise to give
her her first child. She then gave her a piece of wood to throw into the mouth
of the Ghul when he opened his mouth to eat her.[FN#442] He fell on the ground
senseless, and Dalal woke up the prince who slew him. But when Dalal brought
forth a daughter whom she gave to the Jinniyah, her mother-in law declared
that Dalal herself was a Ghuleh, and she was banished to the kitchen, where
she peeled onions for ten years. At the end of this time the Jinniyah again
clove the wall, and brought back the young princess, who was introduced to her
father, who took Dalal again into favour. Meantime the sultan of the Jinn sent
for the Jinniyah, for his son was ill, and could only be cured by a cup of
water from the Sea of Emeralds, and this could only be obtained by a daughter
of mankind. So the Jinniyah borrowed Dalal's daughter again, and took her to
the sultan, who gave her a cup, and mounted her on a Jinni, warning her not to
wet her fingers. But a wave touched the hand of the princess, which turned as
green as clover. Every morning the Sea of Emerald is weighed by an officer to
discover whether any has been stolen; and as soon as he discovered the
deficiency, he took a platter of glass rings and bracelets, and went from
palace to palace calling out, "Glass bracelets and rings, O young ladies."
When he came to Dalal's palace, the young princess was looking out of the
window, and insisted on going herself to try them on. She hesitated to show
her right hand; and the spy knew that she was guilty, so he seized her hand,
and sunk into the ground with her. He delivered her over to the servants of
the King of the Sea of Emerald, who would have beaten her, but the Jinn
surrounded her, and prevented them. Then the King of the Sea of Emerald
ordered her to be taken, bound into the bath, saying that he would follow in
the form of a serpent, and devour her. But she recognised him by his green
eyes, when he became a man, ordered her to be restored to her father, and
afterwards married her. He gave forty camel loads of emeralds and jacinths as
her dowry, and always visited her by night in the form of a winged serpent,
entering and leaving by the window.

VI.--Histoire de la fille vertueuse.

A merchant and his wife set out to the Hejaz with their son, leaving their
daughter to keep house, and commending her to the protection of the Kazi. The
Kazi fell in love with the girl, but as she would not admit him, he employed
an old woman to entice her to the bath, but the girl threw soap in his eyes,
pushed him down and broke his head, and escaped to her own house, carrying off
his clothes. When the Kazi was well enough to get about again he found that
she had had the door of her house walled up until the return of her friends,
so he wrote a slanderous letter to her father, who sent her brother to kill
her, and bring him a bottle of her blood. But her brother, although he thought
the walling up of the door was a mere presence, could not find it in his heart
to kill her, but abandoned her in the desert, and filled the bottle with
gazelle blood. When the young girl awoke, she wandered to a spring, and
climbed into a tree where a prince who was passing saw her, carried her home,
and married her. She had two sons and a daughter, but one of their playmates
refused to play with them because they had no maternal uncle. The king then
ordered the wazir to escort the princess and her three children to her
father's village for a month; but on the road, the wazir made love to her, and
she allowed him to kill children in succession to save her honour. At last, he
became so pressing that she pretended to consent, but asked to quit the tent
for a moment, with a cord attached to her hand to prevent her escape. But she
untied the cord, fastened it to a tree, and fled. As they could not find the
princess, the wazir advised the soldiers to tell the king that a Ghuleh had
devoured the children, and fled into the desert. The princess changed clothes
with a shepherd boy, went to a town, and took a situation in a cafe. When the
wazir returned to the king, and delivered his report, the king proposed that
they should disguise themselves and set out in search of the princess and her
children; and the wazir could not refuse. Meantime, the brother of the
princess had admitted to her father that he had not slain her, and they also
set out in search of her, taking the Kazi with them. They all met at the cafe,
where she recognised them, and offered to tell them a story. She related her
own, and was restored to her friends. They seized the Kazi and the wazir, and
sent for the old woman, when they burned them all three, and scattered their
ashes in the air.

VII.--Histoire du prince qui apprit un metier.

A prince named Mohammed l'Avise went to seek a wife, and fell in love with the
daughter of a leek-grower. She would not accept him unless he learned a trade,
so he learned the trade of a silk weaver, who taught him in five minutes, and
he worked a handkerchief with the palace of his father embroidered upon it.
Two years afterwards, the prince and the wazir took a walk, when they found a
Maghrabi seated at the gate of the town, who invited them to take coffee. But
he was a prisoner (or rather a murderer) who imprisoned them behind seven
doors; and after three days he cooked the wazir, and was going to cook the
prince, but he persuaded him to take his handkerchief to market where it was
recognised, and the prince released from his peril. Two years later the king
died, and the prince succeeded to the throne. The latter had a son and
daughter, but he died when the boy was six and the girl eight, warning the boy
not to marry until the girl was married, lest his wife should ill-use her.
After two years the sister said, "Brother, if I show you the treasures of your
father and mother, what will you do?" He answered, "I will buy a slipper for
you and a slipper for me, and we will play with them among the stones." "No,"
said she, "you are still too little," and waited a year before she asked him
again. This time he answered, "I will buy a tambourine for you, and a flute
for myself and we will play in the street." She waited two more years, and
this time he answered, "We will use them to repair the water-wheels and my
father's palaces, and we will sow and reap." "Now you are big," said she, and
gave him the treasures, which he used to erect buildings in his father's
country. Soon afterwards, an old woman persuaded the youth to marry her
daughter; but she herself went into the mountains, collected eggs of the bird
Oumbar, which make virgins pregnant if they eat them, and gave them to the
sister. The old woman reported the result to the king, who visited his sister
to satisfy himself of the truth of the matter, and then left her, but sent her
food by a slave. When the sister's time came, four angels descended from
heaven, and took her daughter, bringing the child to her mother to be nursed.
The mother died of grief, and the angels washed and shrouded her and wept over
her; and when the king heard it, he opened the door, and the angels flew away
to heaven with the child. The king ordered a tomb to be built in the palace
for his sister, and was so much grieved at her death that he went on
pilgrimage. When he had been gone some time, and the time of his return
approached, the old woman opened the sister's tomb, intending to throw her
body to the dogs to devour, and to put the carcase of a sheep in its place.
The angels put the child in the tomb, and she reproached and threatened the
old woman; who, however, seized upon her and dyed her black, pretending that
she was a little black slave whom she had bought. When the king returned, he
pitied her, and called her to sit by him, but she asked for a candle and
candlestick to hold in her hand before all the company. Then she told her
mother's story, saying to the candle at every word, "Gutter for kings; this is
my uncle, the chief of kings." Then the candle threw mahboubs on her uncle's
knees. When the story was ended the king ordered proclamation to be made, "Let
whosoever loves the Prophet and the Elect, bring wood and fire." The people
obeyed, and the old woman and her daughter were burned.

VIII.--Histoire du Prince Amoureux.

A woman prayed to God to give her a daughter, even if she should die of the
smell of flax. When the girl was ten years old, the king's son passed through
the street, saw her at the window, and fell in love with her. An old woman
discovered that he loved Sittoukan, the daughter of a merchant, and promised
to obtain her. She contrived to set her to spin flax, when a splinter ran
under her nail, and she fainted. The old woman persuaded her father and mother
to build a palace in the midst of the river, and to lay her there on a bed.
Thither she took the prince, who turned the body about, saw the splinter, drew
it out, and the girl awoke. He remained with her forty days, when he went down
to the door, where he found the wazir waiting, and they entered the garden.
There they found roses and jasmines, and the prince said, "The jasmines are as
white as Sittoukan, and the roses are like her cheeks; if you did not approve,
I would still remain with her, were it only for three days." He went up again
for three days, and when he next visited the wazir, they saw a carob-tree, and
the prince said, "Remember, wazir, the carob-tree is like the eyebrows of
Sittoukan, and if you would not let me, I would still remain with her, were it
only for three days." Three days later, they saw a fountain, when the prince
observed that it was like the form of Sittoukan, and he returned. But this
time, she was curious to know why he always went and returned, and he found
her watching behind the door, so he spat on her saying, "If you did not love
men, you would not hide behind doors"; and he left her. She wandered into the
garden in her grief, where she found the ring of empire, which she rubbed, and
the ring said, "At your orders, what do you ask for ?" She asked for increased
beauty, and a palace beside that of the prince. The prince fell in love with
her, and sent his mother to propose for her hand. The mother took two pieces
of royal brocade as a present, which the young lady ordered a slave in her
hearing to cut up for dusters. Then the mother brought her an emerald collar
worth four thousand diners, when she ordered it to be threshed, and thrown to
the pigeons. The old lady acknowledged herself beaten, and asked Sittoukan if
she wished to marry or not. The latter demanded that the prince should be
wrapped in seven shrouds, and carried to the palace which she indicated, as if
he were dead. Then she went and took off the shrouds one after another, and
when she came to the seventh, she spat on him, saying, "If you did not love
women, you would not be wrapped in seven shrouds." Then he said, "Is it you?"
and he bit his finger till he bit it off, and they remained together.

IX.--Histoire du musician ambulant et de son fils.

This travelling musician was so poor that when his wife was confined, he went
out to beg for their immediate necessities, and found a hen lying on the
ground with an egg under her. He met a Jew to whom he sold the egg for twenty
mahboubs. The hen laid an egg every day, which the Jew bought for twenty
mahboubs, and the musician became rich and opened a merchant's shop. When his
son was grown, he built a school for him at his own expense, where poor
children were taught to read. Then the musician set out on pilgrimage,
charging his wife not to let the Jew trick her out of the hen. A fortnight
afterwards, the Jew called, and persuaded the woman to sell him the hen for a
casket of silver. He ordered her to cook it, but told her that if anybody else
ate a piece, he would rip him up. The musician's son came in, while the fowl
was cooking, and as his mother would not give him any, he seized the gizzard,
and ate it, when one of the slaves warned him to fly before the arrival of the
Jew. The Jew pursued the boy, and would have killed him, but the latter took
him up with one hand, and dashed him to pieces on the ground. The musician's
son continued his journey, and arrived at a town where thirty-nine heads of
suitors who had failed to conquer the princess in wrestling, were suspended at
the gate of the palace. On the first day the youth wrestled with the princess
for two hours without either being able to overcome the other; but during the
night the king ordered the doctors to drug the successful suitor, and to steal
the talisman. Next morning when the youth awoke, he perceived his weakness,
and fled. Presently he met three men quarrelling over a flying carpet, a
food-producing cup, and a money mill. He threw a stone for them to run after
and transported himself to Mount Kaf, where he made trial of the other
talismans. Then he returned to the palace, called to the princess to come down
to wrestle with him, and as soon as she stepped on the carpet, carried her
away to Mount Kaf, when she promised to restore the gizzard, and to marry him.
She deserted him, and he found two date-trees, one bearing red and the other
yellow dates. On eating a yellow date, a horn grew from his head[FN#443] and
twisted round the two date-trees. A red date removed it. He filled his
pockets, and travelled night and day for two months.[FN#444] He cried dates
out of season, and the princess bought sixteen yellow ones, and ate them all;
and eight [sixteen ?] horns grew from her head, four to each wall. They could
not be sawn off, and the king offered his daughter to whoever could remove
them. When the musician's son married the princess, and became wazir, he said
to his bride, "Where is my carpet, &c." She replied, "Is it you?" "Yes," said
he, "Is my trick or yours the best?" She admitted that she was beaten, and
they lived together in harmony.

X.--Histoire du rossignol chanteur.

Three brothers built a palace for their mother and sister after their father's
death. The sister loved someone of whom the brothers disapproved. An old woman
advised the sister to send her brothers for the singing nightingale. The two
eldest would not wait till the bird was asleep, but while they were trying to
shut his cage, he dusted sand over them with his claws, and sunk them to the
seventh earth. The beads and the ring gave warning of their deaths at home;
but the third, who left a rose with his mother, to fade if he died captured
the bird, and received sand from under the cage. When he scattered it on the
ground, more than a thousand men rose up, some negroes and some Turks. The
brothers were not among them, so the youngest was told to scatter white sand,
when 500 more people emerged, including the brothers. Afterwards the eldest
brother was sitting in his ship when a Maghrebi told him to clean his turban;
which his mother interpreted to mean that his sister had misconducted herself,
and he should kill her. He refused, and fled with her to the desert. Hearing
voices, he entered a cave where thirty nine robbers were dividing rations; and
he contrived to appropriate a share, and then to return it when missed; but as
he was detected, he gave himself out as a fellow-robber, engaged himself to
them, and watching his opportunity, slew them. Afterwards he brought his
sister two young lions. She found a wounded negro in the cave, whom she
nursed, and after having had two children by him, plotted against her brother.
She pretended to be ill, and sent him to find the grapes of Paradise. He met a
Ghuleh who gave him a ball which directed him to Paradise, and he returned
safely. Then his sister sent him for the Water of Life when the two young
lions followed him, and he could not drive them back. After travelling for a
year the brother reached the Sea of the Water of Life, and while resting under
a tree heard two pigeons telling each other that the king's daughter was ill,
and every doctor who failed to restore her was put to death, and she could
only be cured by the Water of Life. "Mohammed l'Avise" filled two bottles and
a jar with the water, cured the princess with the water in the jar, married
her, and after forty days, gave her one bottle, and set out to visit his
family. At the sister's instigation, the negro slew Mohammed, cut him to
pieces, and put the remains into a sack, which they loaded on the ass. Then
the lions drove the ass to the wife of Mohammed, who restored his life with
the water which he had left with her. Mohammed then shut up the lions, dressed
himself as a negro, and went to visit his sister, taking with him some rings
and mastic (ladin). His sister recognised his eyes, and while she and the
negro were disputing, Mohammed slew the negro and the three [sic] children,
and buried his sister alive. He then returned to his wife, announced that his
relations were dead, and asked for a hundred camels; and it took them a week
to convey away the treasures of the robbers.

XI .--Histoire d' Arab-Zandyq.

This story is translated by Mr. W. A. Clouston, Suppl. Nights, iii., p. 411,
and need not be repeated here.

XII.--Histoire du prince et de son cheval.

A prince and foal were born at the same time, and some time afterwards the
mother and the mare died. The king married again, and the new queen had an
intrigue with a Jew. They plotted to poison the prince, but his horse wept and
warned him. Then the queen pretended to be ill, and asked for the heart of the
horse, but the prince fled to another kingdom, and bought clothes from a poor
man, packing his own on his horse. Then he parted from the horse, who gave him
a hair and a flint, telling him to light the hair when ever he needed him. The
prince then went to a town, and engaged himself as under gardener to the king.
He was set to drive the ox which turned the water-wheel, but one day he called
his horse, put on his own clothes, and galloped about the garden, where the
youngest princess saw "Mohammed l'Avise" from the window, and fell in love
with him. He then returned to the water-wheel, and when the head-gardener
returned and found the garden in disorder, he wanted to beat him; but the
princess interfered and ordered the prince to receive a fowl and a cake of
bread every day. The princess then persuaded her mother and sisters that it
was time to be married, so the king ordered everybody to pass under the window
of the seven princesses, each of whom threw down a handkerchief on the man of
her choice. But the youngest would look at no one till at last they fetched
the gardener's boy, when the king was angry, and confined them in a room. The
king fell ill with vexation, and the doctors ordered him to drink bear's milk
in the hide of a virgin bear. The king's six sons-in-law were ordered to seek
it, and Mohammed too set forth mounted on a lame mare, while the people jeered
him. Presently he summoned his own horse, and ordered him to pitch a camp of
which the beginning and the end could not be seen, and which should contain
nothing but bears. When the six sons-in-law passed, they dismounted, and asked
the attendants for what they required, but they referred them to their king.
The latter offered them what they asked, but branded a ring and a circle on
the back of each of the sons-in-law. However, he gave them only the milk and
hide of old she-bears, while he himself took the milk of a virgin[FN#445] bear
that had just cubbed for the first time, slaughtered it, put the milk into the
skin, and then remounted his lame mare, saying to the horse, "God reward you."
He returned to town, and gave the milk to his wife who took it to her mother.

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