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Studies in Civics by James T. McCleary

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Portugal Carlos I King 1863 Oct 19 '89
Rome (Pontificate
of) Leo XIII Pope 1810 Feb 20 '78
Romania Carol I King 1839 Mar 26 '81
Russia Nicholas II Emperor 1868 Nov 1 '94
Santo Domingo Ulises Heureaux President ---- '86
Servia Alexander I King 1876 Mar 6 '89
Siam Chulalongkorn I King 1853 Oct 1 '68
South African
Rep'blic S.J. Paul Kruger President 1825 May 12 '93
Spain Alfonso XIII King 1886 May 17 '86
Sweden and Norway Oscar II King 1829 Sept 18 '72
Switzerland Adrien Lachenal President Jan 1 '96
Turkey Abdul Hamid II Sultan 1842 Aug 31, '76
Egypt Abbas II Khedive 1874 Jan 7 '92
United States William McKinley President 1843 Mar 4 '97
Uruguay Idiarte Borda President 1844 Mar 1 '94
Venezuela Joaquin Crespo President 1841 Mar 5, '94

PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

+===+==================+===============+=====+=========+======+======+
| |Name |Birthplace |Year |Paternal |Resi- |Year |
| | | | |Ancestry |dence |Inaug.|
+===+==================+===============+=====+=========+======+======+
|1 |George Washington |Westmoreland |1732 |English |Va. |1789 |
| | | Co., Va. | | | | |
|2 |John Adams |Quincey, Mass. |1735 |English |Mass. |1797 |
|3 |Thomas Jefferson |Shadwell, Va. |1743 |Welsh |Va. |1801 |
|4 |James Madison |Port Conway, |1751 |English |Va. |1809 |
| | | Va. | | | | |
|5 |James Monroe |Westmoreland |1758 |Scotch |Va. |1817 |
| | | Co., Va. | | | | |
|6 |John Quincy Adams |Quincey, Mass. |1767 |English |Mass. |1825 |
|7 |Andrew Jackson |Union Co., N.C.|1767 |Scotch- |Tenn. |1829 |
| | | | | Irish | | |
|8 |Martin Van Buren |Kinderhook, |1782 |Dutch |N.Y. |1837 |
| | | N.Y. | | | | |
|9 |William H. |Berkeley, Va. |1773 |English |O. |1841 |
| | Harrison | | | | | |
|10 |John Tyler |Greenway, Va. |1790 |English |Va. |1841 |
|11 |James K. Polk |Mecklenburg |1795 |Scotch- |Tenn. |1845 |
| | | Co., N.C. | | Irish | | |
|12 |Zachary Taylor |Orange Co., Va.|1784 |English |La. |1849 |
|13 |Millard Fillmore |Summer Hill, |1800 |English |N.Y. |1850 |
| | | N.Y. | | | | |
|14 |Franklin Pierce |Hillsboro, N.H.|1804 |English |N.H. |1853 |
|15 |James Buchanan |Cove Gam, Pa. |1791 |Scotch- |Pa. |1857 |
| | | | | Irish | | |
|16 |Abraham Lincoln |Larue Co., Ky. |1809 |English |Ill. |1861 |
|17 |Andrew Johnson |Raleigh, N.C. |1808 |English |Tenn. |1865 |
|18 |Ulysses S. Grant |Point Pleasant,|1822 |Scotch |D.C. |1869 |
| | | O. | | | | |
|19 |Rutherford B. |Delaware, O. |1822 |Scotch |O. |1877 |
| | Hayes | | | | | |
|20 |James A. Garfield |Cuyahoga Co., |1831 |English |O. |1881 |
| | | O. | | | | |
|21 |Chester A. Arthur |Fairfield, Vt. |1830 |Scotch- |N.Y. |1881 |
| | | | | Irish | | |
|22 |Grover Cleveland |Caldwell, N.J. |1837 |English |N.Y. |1883 |
|23 |Benjamin Harrison |North Bend, O. |1833 |English |Ind. |1889 |
|24 |Grover Cleveland |Caldwell, N.J. |1837 |English |N.Y. |1893 |
|25 |William McKinley |Niles, O. |1843 |Scotch- |O. |1897 |
| | | | | Irish | | |
+===+==================+===============+=====+=========+======+======+

VICE-PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

+===+===============+==================+=====+=========+======+=======+
| |Name |Birthplace |Year |Paternal |Resi- |Inaug. |
| | | | |Ancestry |dence | |
+===+===============+==================+=====+=========+======+=======+
|1 |John Adams |Quincey, Mass. |1735 |English |Mass. |1789 |
|2 |Thomas |Shadwell, Va. |1743 |Welsh |Va. |1797 |
| | Jefferson | | | | | |
|3 |Aaron Burr |Newark, N.J. |1756 |English |N.Y. |1801 |
|4 |George Clinton |Ulster Co., N.Y. |1739 |English |N.Y. |1805 |
|5 |Elbridge Gerry |Marblehead, Mass. |1744 |English |Mass. |1813 |
|6 |Daniel D. |Scarsdale, N.Y. |1774 |English |N.Y. |1817 |
| | Tompkins | | | | | |
|7 |John C. |Abbeville, S.C. |1782 |Scotch- |S.C. |1825 |
| | Calhoun | | | Irish | | |
|8 |Martin Van |Kinderhook, N.Y. |1782 |Dutch |N.Y. |1833 |
| | Buren | | | | | |
|9 |Richard M. |Louisville, Ky. |1780 |English |Ky. |1837 |
| | Johnson | | | | | |
|10 |John Tyler |Greenway, Va. |1790 |English |Va. |1841 |
|11 |George M. |Philadelphia, Pa. |1792 |English |Pa. |1845 |
| | Dallas | | | | | |
|12 |Millard |Summer Hill, N.Y. |1800 |English |N.Y. |1849 |
| | Fillmore | | | | | |
|13 |William R. |Sampson Co., N.C. |1786 |English |Ala. |1853 |
| | King | | | | | |
|14 |John C. |Lexington, Ky. |1821 |Scotch |Ky. |1857 |
| | Breckinridge | | | | | |
|15 |Hannibal |Paris, Me. |1809 |English |Me. |1861 |
| | Hamlin | | | | | |
|16 |Andrew Johnson |Raleigh, N.C. |1808 |English |Tenn. |1865 |
|17 |Schuyler |New York City |1823 |English |Ind. |1869 |
| | Colfax | | | | | |
|18 |Henry Wilson |Farmington, N.H. |1822 |English |Mass. |1873 |
|19 |William A. |Malone, N.Y. |1819 |English |N.Y. |1877 |
| | Wheeler | | | | | |
|20 |Chester A. |Fairfield, Vt. |1830 |Scotch- |N.Y. |1881 |
| | Arthur | | | Irish | | |
|21 |Thomas A. |Muskingum Co., O. |1819 |Scotch- |Ind. |1885 |
| | Hendricks | | | Irish | | |
|22 |Levi P. Morton |Shoreham, Vt. |1824 |Scotch |N.Y. |1889 |
|23 |Adlai E. |Christian Co., Ky.|1835 |Scotch- |Ill. |1893 |
| | Stevenson | | | Irish | | |
|24 |Garret A. |Long Branch, N.J. |1844 |English |N.J. |1897 |
| | Hobart | | | | | |
+===+===============+==================+=====+=========+======+=======+

PRESIDENTS PRO TEMPORE OF THE UNITED STATES SENATE.
CONGRESS YEARS NAME STATE BORN DIED
=================================================================
1, 2 1789-92 John Langdon N H 1739 1819
2 1792 Richard H Lee Va 1732 1794
2, 3 1792 94 John Langdon N H 1739 1819
3 1794 95 Ralph Izard S C 1742 1804
3, 4 1795 96 Henry Tazewell Va 1753 1799
4 1796 97 Samuel Livermore N H 1732 1803
4, 5 1797 William Bingham Pa 1751 1804
5 1797 William Bradford R I 1729 1808
5 1797 98 Jacob Read S C 1752 1816
5 1798 Theo Sedgwick Mass 1746 1813
5 1798 99 John Laurence N Y 1750 1810
5 1799 James Ross Pa 1762 1847
6 1799-1800 Samuel Livermore N H 1732 1803
6 1800 Uriah Tracy Ct 1755 1807
6 1800-1801 John E Howard Md 1752 1827
6 1801 James Hillhouse Ct 1754 1832
7 1801 02 Abraham Baldwin Ga 1754 1807
7 1802-03 Stephen R Bradley Vt 1754 1830
8 1803 04 John Brown Ky 1757 1837
8 1804-05 Jesse Franklin N C 1758 1823
8 1805 Joseph Anderson Tenn 1757 1837
9, 10 1805-08 Samuel Smith Md 1752 1823
10 1808-09 Stephen R Bradley Vt 1754 1837
10, 11 1809 John Milledge Ga 1757 1839
11 1809-10 Andrew Gregg Pa 1755 1835
11 1810 11 John Gaillard S C 1826
11, 12 1811-12 John Pope Ky 1770 1845
12, 13 1812 13 Wm H. Crawford Ga 1772 1834
13 1813 14 Jos B Varnum Mass 1750 1821
13-15 1814-18 John Gaillard S C 1826
15 16 1818 19 James Barbour Va 1775 1842
16 19 1820-26 John Gaillard S C 1826
19, 20 1826 28 Nathaniel Macon N C 1757 1837
20 22 1828-32 Samuel Smith Md 1752 1839
22 1832 L W Tazewell Va 1774 1863
22, 23 1832-34 Hugh L White Tenn 1773 1840
23 1834 35 Geo Poindexter Miss 1779 1853
24 1835 35 John Tyler Va 1790 1862
24-26 1836 41 William R King Ala 1786 1853
26, 27 1841 42 Samuel L Southard N J 1787 1842
27 29 1842 46 W P Mangum N C 1792 1861
29, 30 1846-49 D R Atchison Mo 1807 1886
31, 32 1850 52 William R King Ala 1786 1853
32 33 1852 54 D R Atchison Mo 1807 1886
33 34 1854-57 Jesse D Bright Ind 1812 1875
34 1857 James M Mason Va 1798 1871
35, 36 1857 61 Benj Fitzpatrick Ala 1802 1869
36 38 1861-64 Solomon Foot Vt 1802 1866
38 1864-65 Daniel Clark N H 1809 1891
39 1865-67 Lafayette S. Foster Ct 1806 1880
40 1867-69 Benj F Wade Ohio 1800 1878
41, 42 1869-73 Henry B Anthony R I 1815 1884
43 1873-75 M H Carpenter Wis 1824 1881
44, 45 1875 79 Thomas W Ferry Mich 1827 1896
46 1879-81 A G Thurman Ohio 1813 1895
47 1881 Thomas F Bayard Del 1828
47 1881-83 David David Ill 1815 1886
48 1883 85 Geo F Edmunds Vt 1818
49 1885 87 John Sherman Ohio 1823 1900
49-51 1887 91 John J Ingalls Kan 1833
52 1891-93 C F Manderson Neb 1837
53 1893-95 Isham G Harris Tenn 1818 ....
54, 55 1895-99 William P Frye Me 1831 ....

SPEAKERS OF THE U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

CONGRESS. YEARS. NAME. STATE. BORN. DIED.
===============================================================
1 1789-91 F.A. Muhlenburg Pa. 1750 1801
2 1791-93 Jonathan Trumbull Ct. 1740 1809
3 1793-95 F.A. Muhlenburg Pa. 1750 1801
4, 5 1795-99 Jonathan Dayton N.J. 1760 1824
6 1799-1801 Theo. Sedgwick Mass. 1746 1813
7-9 1801-07 Nathaniel Macon N.C. 1757 1837
10, 11 1807-11 Joseph B. Varnum Mass. 1750 1821
12, 13 1811-14 Henry Clay Ky. 1777 1852
13 1814-15 Langdon Cheves S.C. 1776 1857
14-16 1815-20 Henry Clay Ky. 1777 1852
16 1820-21 John W. Taylor N.Y. 1784 1854
17 1821-23 Philip P. Barbour Va. 1783 1841
18 1823-25 Henry Clay Ky. 1777 1852
19 1825-27 John W. Taylor N.Y. 1784 1854
20-23 1827-34 Andrew Stevenson Va. 1784 1857
23 1834-35 John Bell Tenn. 1797 1869
24, 25 1835-39 James K. Polk Tenn. 1795 1849
26 1839-41 R. M. T. Hunter Va. 1809 1887
27 1841-43 John White Ky. 1805 1845
28 1843-45 John W. Jones Va. 1805 1848
29 1845-47 John W. Davis Ind. 1799 1850
30 1847-49 Robert C. Winthrop Mass. 1809 1894
31 1849-51 Howell Cobb Ga. 1815 1868
32, 33 1851-55 Linn Boyd Ky. 1800 1859
34 1855-57 Nathaniel P. Banks Mass. 1816 1894
35 1857-59 James L. Orr S.C. 1822 1873
36 1860-61 Wm. Pennington N.J. 1796 1862
37 1861-63 Galusha A. Grow Pa. 1823 ....
38-40 1863-69 Schuyler Colfax Ind. 1823 1885
41-43 1869-75 James G. Blaine Me. 1830 1893
44 1875-76 Michael C. Kerr Ind. 1827 1876
44-46 1876-81 Samuel J. Randall Pa. 1828 1890
47 1881-83 John W. Keifer O. 1836 ....
48-50 1883-89 John G. Carlisle Ky. 1835 ....
51 1889-91 Thomas B. Reed Me. 1839 ....
52, 53 1891-95 Charles F. Crisp Ga. 1845 1896
54, 55 1895-99 Thomas B. Reed Me. 1839 ....

PRINCIPAL UNITED STATES EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND SALARIES.

EXECUTIVE MANSION.

Office. Salary.
President of United States..... $30,000
Vice President................. 8,000

DEPARTMENT OF STATE.

Secretary of State............. $ 8,000
Assistant Secretary............ 4,500
Second Assistant Sec'y......... 3,500
Third Assistant Sec'y.......... 3,500
Chief Clerk.................... 2,750
Chief of Diplomatic Bureau..... 2,100
Chiel of Consular Bureau....... 2,100
Chief of Indexes & Archives.... 2,100
Four other bureau officers..... 2,100

TREASURY DEPARTMENT.

Secretary of the Treasury...... $ 8,000
2 Assistant Secretaries........ 4,500
Chief Clerk of Department...... 3,000
Chief of Appointmerit Div...... 2,750
Chief of Warrant Division...... ,000 [Transcriber's Note: misprint]
Chief of Public Moneys Div..... 2,500
Chief of Customs Division...... 2,750
Chief Mer.Mar.& Int. Rev....... 2,500
Chief Loans & Currency Div..... 3,500
Chief Revenue Marine Div....... 2,500
Chief Stationery & Printing.... 2,500
Supervising Inspector-General
of Steamboats................ 3,500
Director of the Mint........... 4,500
Chief of Bureau of Statistics.. 3,000
Supt. of Life-Saving Service... 4,000
Chairman Light-House Board..... .....
Supervising Surgeon-General.... 4,000
Chief of Bureau of Engraving
and Printing................. 4,500
Supervising Architect.......... 4,500
Supt, U.S. Coast Survey (Acting) 6,000
2 Comptrollers.................. 5,000
Commissioner of Customs......... 4,000
6 Auditors...................... 3,600
Treasurer of the U. S........... 6,000
Register of the Treasury........ 4,000
Comptroller of the Currency..... 5,000
Com'r of Internal Revenue....... 6,000

WAR DEPARTMENT.

Secretary of War............... $ 8,000
Chief Clerk.................... 2,750
Adjutant-General............... 5,500
Inspector-General.............. 5,500
Quartermaster-General.......... 5,500
Paymaster-General.............. 5,500
Commissary-General............. 5,500
Surgeon-General................ 5,500
Judge Advocate Gen. (Acting)... 5,500
Chief of Engineers............. 5,500
Chief Signal Officer........... 5,500
Chief of Ordnance.............. 5,500
Officer in Charge War Records.. 3,500

NAVY DEPARTMENT.

Secretary of the Navy.......... $ 8,000
Chief Clerk.................... 2,500
Judge-Advocate General......... 4,500
Chief of Bureau of Yards and
Docks........................ 5,000
Chief of Bureau of Navigation.. 5,000
Chief of Bureau of Ordnance.... 5,000
Chief of Bureau of Provisions
and Clothing................. 5,000
Chief of Bureau of Medicine
and Surgery.................. 5,000
Chief of Bureau of Equipment
and Recruiting............... 5,000
Chief of Bureau of Construction
and Repair................... 5,000
Chief of Bureau of Steam
Engineering.................. 5,000
Chief of Library and War
Records...................... 3,000
Pay Director................... 3,000
Supt. Naval Observatory........ 5,000
Supt. Nautical Almanac......... 3,500

POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT.

Postmaster-General............. $ 8,000
Chief Clerk.................... 2,200
3 Ass't Postmaster-Generals.... 4,000
Supt. of Foreign Mails......... 3,000
Supt. of Money Order System.... 3,500
Asst. Attorney-General for
Post-Office Department....... 4,000

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR.

Secretary of the Interior...... $ 8,000
First Assistant Secretary...... 4,500
Assistant Secretary............ 4,000
Chief Clerk & Superintendent... 2,750
Assistant Attorney-General..... 5,000
Com'r General Land Office...... 4,000
Com'r Pension Office........... 5,000
Com'r of Indian Affairs........ 4,000
Commissioner Patent Office..... 5,000
Assistant Commissioner......... 3,000
3 Examiners-in-Chief........... 3,000
30 Principal Examiners, each... 2,400
Commissioner of Education...... 3,000
Director Geological Survey..... 6,000
Commissioner of Labor.......... 3,000
Commissioner of Railroads...... 4,500
3 Civil Service Com'rs, each... 3,500

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE.

Attorney-General............... $ 8,000
Solicitor-General.............. 7,000
Two Asst. Attorney-Generals.... 5,000

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

Secretary of Agriculture....... $ 8,000
Entomologist................... 2,500
Botanist....................... 2,000
Chemist........................ 2,500
Microscopist................... 2,000

NOTE.--For appointees consult any political almanac of this year.

UNITED STATES JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT.

SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES.

The court holds annual sessions at Washington, commencing on the second
Monday in October.

Appointed Date of Salary
from Commission
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Chief Justice Melville W. Illinois July 20, 1888 $10,500
Fuller
Justice Stephen J. Field California Mar 10, 1863 10,000
Justice John M. Harlan Kentucky Nov 29, 1877 10,000
Justice Horace Gray Massachusetts Dec 20, 1881 10,000
Justice David J. Brewer Kansas Dec 18, 1889 10,000
Justice Henry B. Brown Michigan Dec 30, 1890 10,000
Justice George Shiras Pennsylvania Oct --, 1892 10,000
Justice Edward D. White Louisiana Feb --, 1894 10,000
Justice Rufus W. Peckham New York Dec --, 1893 10,000
Clerk of the Supreme Dist. of Columbia 1880 6,000
Court: James H. McKenny
Marshal: John M. Wright Kentucky Jan 4, 1888 3,000
Reporter: J.C. Bancroft New York 1883 5,700
Davis

CIRCUIT COURTS OF THE UNITED STATES

(Salary of Circuit Judges $6,000 a year)

First Judicial Circuit--Mr Justice Gray, Boston, Mass
Districts of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island.
Circuit Judges--Le Baron B. Colt, R.I. 1884
Wm. L. Putnam, Me. 1892

Second Judicial Circuit--Mr Justice Peckham, New York City.
Districts of Vermont, Connecticut and New York
Circuit Judges--Wm. J. Wallace, N.Y. 1882
E. Henry Lacombe, N.Y. 1888
Nathaniel Shipman, Ct. 1892

Third Judicial Circuit--Mr Justice Shiras, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Districts of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware
Circuit Judges--Marcus W. Acheson, Pa. 1891
Geo. M. Dallas, Pa. 1892

Fourth Judicial Circuit--Mr Chief Justice Fuller, Washington, D.C.
Districts of Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North and South Carolina
Circuit Judges--Nathan Goff, W. Va. 1892
Charles H. Simonton, S.C. 1893

Fifth Judicial Circuit--Mr Justice White, New Orleans, La.
Districts of Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas.
Circuit Judges--Don A. Pardee, La. 1881
A.P. McCormick, Tex. 1892

Sixth Judicial Circuit--Mr Justice Harlan, Nashville, Tenn.
Districts of Ohio, Michigan, Kentucky, and Tennessee
Circuit Judges--William H. Taft, Ohio 1892
Horace H. Lurton, Tenn. 1893

Seventh Judicial Circuit--Mr Justice Brown, Chicago, I11.
Districts of Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin
Circuit Judges--William A. Woods, Ind. 1892
James G. Jenkins, Wis. 1893

Eighth Judicial Circuit--Mr Justice Brewer, Leavenworth, Kan.
Districts of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas, Nebraska,
Colorado, North and South Dakota, Wyoming
Circuit Judges--Henry C. Caldwell, Ark. 1890
Walter H. Sanborn, Minn. 1892
Amos M. Thayer, Mo. 1892

Ninth Judicial Circuit--Mr Justice Field, San Francisco, Cal.
Districts of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, and Montana.
Circuit Judges--Joseph McKenna, Cal. 1892
William B. Gilbert, Ore. 1892

JUDGES OF THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURTS. (Salary, $5,000 a year.)

DISTRICTS. NAME. RESIDENCE. DATE OF
COMMISSION
Alabama:
N. Mobile District John Bruce Montgomery Feb. 27, 1875
Southern " Harry T. Toulmin Mobile Dec. 14, 1886
Arkansas:
Eastern District John A. Williams Pine Bluff -------- 1890
Western " John H. Rodgers Fort Smith
California:
Northern District W.W. Morrow San Francisco
Southern " Olin Wellborn Los Angeles
Colorado Moses Hallett Denver Jan. 20, 1877
Connecticut W.K. Townsend New Haven -------- 1892
Delaware Leonard E. Wales Wilmington Mar. 20, 1884
Florida:
Northern District Charles Swayne Jacksonville
Southern " James W. Locke Key West Feb. 1, 1872
Georgia:
Northern District William T. Newman Atlanta Aug. 13, 1886
Southern " Emory Speer Savannah Feb. 18, 1885
Idaho J.H. Beatty Hailey -------- 1890
Illinois:
Northern District P.S. Grosscup Chicago.
Southern " William J. Allen Springfield April 18, 1887
Indiana John H. Baker Goshen -------- 1892
Iowa:
Northern District Oliver P. Shiras Dubuque Aug. 14, 1882
Southern " John S. Woolson Keokuk
Kansas Cassius G. Foster Topeka Mar. 10, 1874
Kentucky John W. Barr Louisville April 15, 1880
Louisiana:
Eastern District Charles Parlange New Orleans
Western " Aleck Boarman Shreveport May 18, 1881
Maine Nathan Webb Portland Jan. 24, 1882
Maryland Thomas J. Morris Baltimore July 1, 1879
Massachusetts Thomas L. Nelson Worcester Jan. 10, 1879
Michigan:
Eastern District Henry H. Swan Detroit -------- 1890
Western " Henry F. Severens Kalamazoo May 25, 1886
Minnesota William Lochren Minneapolis -------- 1896
Mississippi
(Two Districts) Henry C. Niles Jackson
Missouri:
Eastern District Elmer E. Adams St. Louis -------- 1896
Western " John F. Phillips -------- 1888
Montana Henry Knowles Helena -------- 1889
Nebraska W.D.M. Hugh Omaha
Nevada T.P. Hawley Carson City
New Hampshire Edgar Aldrich Littleton
New Jersey A. Kirkpatrick Trenton
New York
Northern District Alfred C. Coxe Utica May 4, 1882
Southern " Addison Brown New York June 2, 1881
City
Eastern " Charles L. Brooklyn Mar. 9, 1865
Benedict
North Carolina:
Eastern District
Western " Robert P. Dick. Greensboro June 7, 1872
North Dakota C.F. Amidon Fargo -------- 1896
Ohio:
Northern District A.J. Ricks Cleveland
Southern " George R. Sage Cincinnati Mar. 20, 1883
Oregon C.B. Bellinger Portland
Pennsylvania:
Eastern District William Butler Philadelphia Feb. 19, 1879
Western " J. Buffington Pittsburgh -------- 1891
Rhode Island Arthur L. Brown Providence
South Carolina W.H. Brawley Charleston -------- 1893
South Dakota John E. Carland Sioux Falls
Tennessee:
East & Mid. Dist. C.D. Clark Chattanooga
Western District S. Hammond Memphis June 17, 1878
Texas:
Eastern District D.E. Bryant Sherman
Western " Thos S. Maxey Austin -------- 1888
Northern " John B. Rector Dallas
Utah John A. Marshall Salt Lake City
Vermont Hoyt H. Wheeler Jamaica Mar. 16, 1877
Virginia:
Eastern District Robert W. Hughes Norfolk Jan. 14, 1874
Western " John Paul Harrisonburg Mar. 3, 1883
Washington C.H. Hanford Seattle -------- 1889
West Virginia John J.Jackson, Jr Parkersburg Aug. 3, 1861
Wisconsin:
Eastern District W.H. Seaman Sheboygan -------- 1898
Western " Romanzo E. Bunn Madison Oct. 30, 1877
Wyoming John A. Riner Cheyenne -------- 1890

CORRESPONDING OFFICERS OF U.S. ARMY AND NAVY.

FIELD OFFICERS:

1 General, $13,500.
2 Lieutenant General, $11,000.
3 Major Generals, $7,500.
4 Brigadier Generals, $5,500.

REGIMENTAL OFFICERS:

5 Colonels, $3,500 to $4,500.
6 Lieutenant Colonels, $3,000 to $4,000.
7 Majors, $2,500 to $3,500.

COMPANY OFFICERS:

8 Captains, $1,800 to $2,800.
9 First Lieutenants, $1,500 to $2,240.
10 Second Lieutenants, $1,400 to $2,100

FLEET OFFICERS:

1 Admiral, $13,000.
2 Vice-Admiral, $9,000.
3 Rear Admirals, $6,000.
4 Commodores, $5,000.

SHIP OFFICERS:

5 Captains, $4,500
6 Commanders, $3,500.
7 Lieutenant Commanders, $2,800.

SUBORDINATE SHIP OFFICERS:

8 Lieutenants, $2,400 to $2,600.
9 Masters, $1,800 to $2,000.
10 Ensigns, $1,200 to $1,400.

For names of officers, see Political Almanac.

JUSTICES OF THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT. (Names of the Chief Justices
in italics)

SERVICE
NAME TERM YEARS BORN DIED
_John Jay_, N Y 1789 1795 6 1745 1829
John Rutledge, S C 1789 1791 2 1739 1800
William Cushing, Mass 1789 1800 21 1733 1810
James Wilson, Pa 1789 1798 9 1742 1798
John Blair, Va 1789 1796 7 1732 1800
Robert H Harrison, Md 1789 1790 1 1745 1790
James Iredell, N C 1790 1799 9 1751 1799
Thomas Johnson, Md 1791 1793 2 1732 1819
William Paterson, N J 1793 1806 13 1745 1806
_John Rutledge_, S C 1795 1739 1800
Samuel Chase, Md 1796 1811 15 1741 1811
_Oliver Ellsworth_,
Ct 1796 1800 5 1745 1807
Bushrod Washington, Va 1798 1829 31 1762 1829
Alfred Moore, N C 1799 1804 5 1755 1835
_John Marshall_, Va 1801 1835 34 1771 1834
William Johnson, S C 1804 1834 30 1757 1823
Brock Livingston, N Y 1806 1823 17 1765 1826
Thomas Todd, Ky 1807 1826 19 1765 1826
Joseph Story, Mass 1811 1845 34 1770 1846
Gabriel Duval, Md 1811 1836 25 1732 1844
Smith Thompson, N Y 1823 1843 20 1767 1843
Robert Trimble, Ky 1826 1828 2 1777 1828
John McLean, Ohio 1829 1861 32 1785 1861
Henry Baldwin, Pa 1830 1844 16 1779 1844
James M Wayne, Ga 1835 1867 32 1790 1867
_Roger B Taney_, Md 1836 1864 28 1777 1864
Philip P Barbour, Va 1836 1841 5 1783 1841
John Catron, Tenn 1837 1865 28 1786 1865
John McKinley, Ala 1837 1852 15 1780 1852
Peter V Daniel, Va 1841 1860 19 1785 1860
Samuel Nelson, N Y 1845 1872 27 1792 1873
Levi Woodbury, N H 1845 1851 6 1789 1851
Robert C Grier, Pa 1846 1870 23 1794 1870
Benj R Curtis, Mass 1851 1857 6 1800 1874
John A Campbell, Ala 1853 1861 8 1811 1889
Nathan Clifford, Maine 1858 1881 23 1803 1881
Noah H Swayne, Ohio 1861 1881 20 1804 1884
Samuel F Miller, Iowa 1862 1890 28 1816 1890
David Davis, Ill 1862 1877 15 1815 1885
Stephen J Field, Cal 1863 1816
_Salmon P Chase_,
Ohio 1864 1873 9 1808 1873
William Strong, Pa 1870 1880 10 1808
Joseph P Bradley, N J 1870 1892 22 1818 1892
Ward Hunt, N Y 1872 1882 10 1811 1886
_Morrison R Waite_,
Ohio 1874 1888 14 1816 1888
John M Harlan, Ky 1877 1877
William B Woods, Ga 1880 1887 7 1824 1887
Stanley Matthews, Ohio 1881 1889 8 1824 1889
Horace Gray, Mass 1881 1828
Samuel Blatchford, N Y 1882 1893 11 1820 1893
Lucius Q C Lamar, Miss 1888 1993 5 1825 1893
_Melville W Fuller_,
Ill 1888 1833
David J Brewer, Kan 1889 1837
Henry B Brown, Mich 1890 1836
George Shiras Jr, Pa 1892 1832
Howell D Jackson, Tenn 1893 1895 2 1832 1895
Edward D White, La 1893 1845
Rufus W Peckham 1895 1837

UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY AT WEST POINT.

Each Congressional District and Territory--also the District of Columbia--
is entitled to have one cadet at the Academy. There are also ten
appointments at large, specially conferred by the President of the United
States. The number of students is thus limited to three hundred and
seventy-one.

Appointments are usually made one year in advance of date of admission, by
the Secretary of War, upon the nomination of the Representative. These
nominations may either be made after competitive examinations or given
direct, at the option of the Representative. Appointees to the Military
Academy must be between seventeen and twenty-two years of age, free from
any infirmity which may render them unfit for military service, and able
to pass a careful examination in reading, writing, orthography,
arithmetic, grammar, geography, and history of the United States.

The course of instruction, which is quite thorough, requires four years,
and is largely mathematical and professional. About one-fourth of those
appointed usually fail to pass the preliminary examination, and but little
over one-half the remainder are finally graduated. The discipline is very
strict--even more so than in the army--and the enforcement of penalties
for offences is inflexible rather than severe. Academic duties begin
September 1 and continue until June 1. Examinations are held in each
January and June.

From about the middle of June to the end of August cadets live in camp,
engaged only in military duties and receiving practical military
instruction. Cadets are allowed but one leave of absence during the four
years' course, and this is granted at the expiration of the first two
years. The pay of a cadet is five hundred and forty dollars per year. Upon
graduating, cadets are commissioned as second lieutenants in the United
States Army.

The Academy was established by act of Congress in 1802. An annual Board of
Visitors is appointed, seven being appointed by the President of the
United States, two by the President of the Senate, and three by the
Speaker of the House of Representatives. They visit the Academy in June,
and are present at the concluding exercises of the graduating class of
that year.

UNITED STATES NAVAL ACADEMY AT ANNAPOLIS.

There are allowed at the Academy one naval cadet for each Member or
Delegate of the United States House of Representatives, one for the
District of Columbia, and ten at large. The appointment of cadets at large
and for the District of Columbia is made by the President. The Secretary
of the Navy, as soon after March 5 in each year as possible, must notify
in writing each Member and Delegate of the House of Representatives of any
vacancy that may exist in his district. The nomination of a candidate to
fill the vacancy is made, on the recommendation of the Member or Delegate,
by the Secretary. Candidates must be actual residents of the districts
from which they are nominated.

The course of naval cadets is six years, the last two of which are spent
at sea. Candidates at the time of their examination for admission must be
not under fifteen nor over twenty years of age, and physically sound, well
formed, and of robust condition. They enter the Academy immediately after
passing the prescribed examinations, and are required to sign articles
binding themselves to serve in the United States Navy eight years
(including the time of probation at the Naval Academy), unless sooner
discharged. The pay of a naval cadet is five hundred dollars a year,
beginning at the date of admission.

At least ten appointments from among the graduates are made each year.
Surplus graduates who do not receive appointments are given a certificate
of graduation, an honorable discharge, and one year's sea pay.

The Academy was founded in 1845 by the Hon. George Bancroft, Secretary of
the Navy in the administration of President Polk. It was formally opened
October 10 of that year, with Commander Franklin Buchanan as
Superintendent. During the Civil War it was removed from Annapolis, Md.,
to Newport, R.I., but was returned to the former place in 1865. It is
under the direct supervision of the Bureau of Navigation, Navy Department.

REPRESENTATION IN CONGRESS FOR EACH DECADE WITH RATIOS.

[Transcriber's Note: This table went horizontally across two pages, so
it's given in pieces, with line numbers, as some of the others were.]

+===+===============+========+=======+=======+=======+=======+=======+
| |Ratios |Consti- |33,900 |33,900 |35,000 |40,000 |47,000 |
| | |tution | | | | | |
| +===============+========+=======+=======+=======+=======+=======+
| |States |1787 |1790 |1800 |1810 |1820 |1830 |
+===+===============+========+=======+=======+=======+=======+=======+
|1 |Alabama |.... |.... |.... |1[1] |8 |5 |
|2 |Arkansas |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |1[1] |
|3 |California |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|4 |Colorado |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|5 |Connecticut |5 |7 |7 |7 |6 |6 |
|6 |Delaware |1 |1 |1 |2 |1 |1 |
|7 |Florida |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|8 |Georgia |3 |2 |4 |6 |7 |9 |
|9 |Idaho |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|10 |Illinois |.... |.... |.... |1[1] |1 |8 |
|11 |Indiana |.... |.... |.... |1[1] |3 |7 |
|12 |Iowa |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|13 |Kansas |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|14 |Kentucky |.... |2[1] |6 |10 |12 |13 |
|15 |Louisiana |.... |.... |.... |1[1] |3 |3 |
|16 |Maine |.... |.... |.... |7[1] |7 |8 |
|17 |Maryland |8 |8 |9 |9 |9 |8 |
|18 |Massachusetts |8 |14 |17 |20 |13 |12 |
|19 |Michigan |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |1[1] |
|20 |Minnesota |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|21 |Mississippi |.... |.... |.... |1[1] |1 |3 |
|22 |Missouri |.... |.... |.... |.... |1[1] |2 |
|23 |Montana |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|24 |Nebraska |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|25 |Nevada |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|26 |New Hampshire |3 |4 |5 |6 |6 |5 |
|27 |New Jersey |4 |5 |6 |6 |6 |6 |
|28 |New York |6 |10 |17 |27 |34 |40 |
|29 |North Carolina |5 |10 |12 |13 |13 |13 |
|30 |North Dakota |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|31 |Ohio |.... |.... |1[1] |6 |14 |19 |
|32 |Oregon |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|33 |Pennsylvania |8 |13 |18 |23 |25 |28 |
|34 |Rhode Island |1 |2 |2 |2 |2 |2 |
|35 |South Carolina |5 |6 |8 |9 |9 |9 |
|36 |South Dakota |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|37 |Tennessee |.... |1[1] |3 |6 |9 |13 |
|38 |Texas |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|39 |Utah |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|40 |Vermont |.... |2[1] |4 |6 |5 |5 |
|41 |Virginia |10 |19 |22 |23 |22 |12 |
|42 |Washington |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|43 |West Virginia |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|44 |Wisconsin |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|45 |Wyoming |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
+===+===============+========+=======+=======+=======+=======+=======+
|46 |Totals |65 |106 |142 |193 |213 |234 |
+===+===============+========+=======+=======+=======+=======+=======+

REPRESENTATION IN CONGRESS FOR EACH DECADE WITH RATIOS.

[Transcriber's Note: Continued from previous table.]

+===+=======+=======+========+========+========+========+=======+
| |70,680 |93,420 |127,000 |131,425 |151,912 |173,901 |47,000 |
| +=======+=======+========+========+========+========+=======+
| |1840 |1850 |1860 |1870 |1880 |1890 |1830 |
+===+=======+=======+========+========+========+========+=======+
|1 |7 |7 |6 |8 |8 |9 |5 |
|2 |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |6 |1[1] |
|3 |2[1] |2 |3 |4 |6 |7 |.... |
|4 |.... |.... |.... |1[1] |1 |2 |.... |
|5 |4 |4 |4 |4 |4 |4 |6 |
|6 |1 |1 |1 |1 |1 |1 |1 |
|7 |1[1] |1 |1 |2 |2 |2 |.... |
|8 |8 |8 |7 |9 |10 |11 |9 |
|9 |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |
|10 |7 |9 |14 |19 |20 |22 |8 |
|11 |10 |11 |11 |13 |13 |13 |7 |
|12 |2[1] |2 |6 |9 |11 |11 |.... |
|13 |.... |.... |1[1] |3 |7 |8 |.... |
|14 |10 |10 |9 |10 |11 |11 |13 |
|15 |4 |4 |5 |6 |6 |6 |3 |
|16 |7 |6 |5 |5 |4 |4 |8 |
|17 |6 |6 |5 |6 |6 |6 |8 |
|18 |10 |11 |10 |11 |12 |13 |12 |
|19 |3 |4 |6 |9 |11 |12 |1[1] |
|20 |.... |2[1] |2 |3 |5 |7 |.... |
|21 |4 |5 |5 |6 |7 |7 |3 |
|22 |5 |7 |9 |13 |14 |15 |2 |
|23 |.... |.... |.... |.... |1[1] |1 |.... |
|24 |.... |.... |1[1] |1 |3 |6 |.... |
|25 |.... |.... |1[1] |1 |1 |1 |.... |
|26 |4 |3 |3 |3 |2 |2 |5 |
|27 |5 |5 |5 |7 |7 |8 |6 |
|28 |34 |33 |31 |33 |34 |34 |40 |
|29 |9 |8 |7 |8 |9 |9 |13 |
|30 |.... |.... |.... |.... |1[1] |1 |.... |
|31 |21 |21 |19 |20 |21 |21 |19 |
|32 |.... |1[1] |1 |1 |1 |2 |.... |
|33 |24 |25 |24 |27 |28 |30 |28 |
|34 |2 |2 |2 |2 |2 |2 |2 |
|35 |7 |6 |4 |5 |7 |7 |9 |
|36 |.... |.... |.... |.... |2[1] |2 |.... |
|37 |11 |10 |8 |10 |10 |10 |13 |
|38 |2[1] |2 |4 |6 |11 |13 |.... |
|39 |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |1[1] |.... |
|40 |4 |3 |3 |3 |2 |2 |5 |
|41 |15 |13 |11 |9 |10 |10 |12 |
|42 |.... |.... |.... |.... |1[1] |2 |.... |
|43 |.... |.... |3[1] |3 |4 |4 |.... |
|44 |2[1] |3 |6 |8 |9 |10 |.... |
|45 |.... |.... |.... |.... |.... |1 |.... |
+===+=======+=======+========+========+========+========+=======+
|46 |232 |246 |246 |293 |330 |357 |234 |
+===+=======+=======+========+========+========+========+=======+

REPRESENTATION IN CONGRESS FOR EACH DECADE WITH RATIOS.

[Transcriber's Note: The data below is from the same table, but can stand
on its own.]

+===============+=================================+
|States |Territory, How Obtained |
+===============+=================================+
|Alabama |Ceded by S.C. and Ga. |
|Arkansas |Part of Louisiana purchase. |
|California |Ceded by Mexico. |
|Colorado |From France and Mexico. |
|Connecticut |One of original thirteen. |
|Delaware |One of original thirteen. |
|Florida |Part of Florida purchase. |
|Georgia |One of original thirteen. |
|Idaho |Part of "Oregon Country." |
|Illinois |Ceded to U.S. by Virginia. |
|Indiana |Ceded to U.S. by Virginia. |
|Iowa |Part of Louisiana Purchase. |
|Kansas |From France and Texas. |
|Kentucky |Ceded to U.S. by Virginia. |
|Louisiana |Part of Louisiana Purchase. |
|Maine |From Massachusetts. |
|Maryland |One of original thirteen. |
|Massachusetts |One of original thirteen. |
|Michigan |Ceded to U.S. by Virginia. |
|Minnesota |From Virginia and France. |
|Mississippi |Ceded by Ga. and S. Carolina. |
|Missouri |Part of Louisiana purchase. |
|Montana |Part of Louisiana purchase. |
|Nebraska |Part of Louisiana purchase. |
|Nevada |Part of Mexican cession. |
|New Hampshire |One of original thirteen. |
|New Jersey |One of original thirteen. |
|New York |One of original thirteen. |
|North Carolina |One of original thirteen. |
|North Dakota |Part of Louisiana purchase. |
|Ohio |Ceded to U.S. by Virginia. |
|Oregon |France, Spain and Great Britain. |
|Pennsylvania |One of original thirteen. |
|Rhode Island |One of original thirteen. |
|South Carolina |One of original thirteen. |
|South Dakota |Part of Louisiana purchase. |
|Tennessee |Ceded to U.S. by N. Carolina. |
|Texas |Independent republic. |
|Utah |Part of Mexican cession. |
|Vermont |Ceded to U.S. by New York. |
|Virginia |One of original thirteen. |
|Washington |Exploration and treaty. |
|West Virginia |Portion of Virginia. |
|Wisconsin |Ceded to U.S. by Virginia. |
|Wyoming |Part of "Oregon Country." |
+===============+=================================+

TABULAR VIEW OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT OF MINNESOTA

Senators/Representatives:
Created : Constitution.
How Chosen: By the People in Senatorial Districts.
Duties : Make Laws.
Beginning : First Monday in January.
Vacancy : New Election.
Bonds : None.

Senators:
No. : 63
Duties : Try Impeachments, Confirm Appointments.
Term : 4 years.
Removal : 2/3 of Senate.
Salary : $5 a day and Mileage.

Representatives:
No. : 119
Duties : Impeach, Originate Revenue Bills.
Term : 2 years.
Removal : 2/3 of H. of R.
Salary : $5 a day and Mileage; Speaker, $10.

Governor/Lieutenant-Governor/State Auditor/State
Treasurer/Secretary of State/Attorney General:
Created : By the Constitution.
No. : 1
How Chosen: By the People of the State on a General Ticket.
Beginning : First Monday in January.
Removal : Impeachment by House of R. and Conviction by Senate.

Governor:
Duties : Execute Laws, Veto, Appointments, Pardons.
Term : 2 years.
Vacancy : Lieut.-Gov.
Bonds : None.
Salary : $5,000 a year.

Lieutenant-Governor:
Duties : Preside over Senate, Act as Governor in Vacancy.
Term : 2 years.
Vacancy : Not filled.
Bonds : None.
Salary : $10 a day during Leg.

State Auditor:
Duties : Book-Keeper, Examine Accounts, Warrants,
Land Commissioner.
Term : 4 years.
Vacancy : Appointment by Governor till next Election.
Bonds : $20,000
Salary : $3,600 a year.

State Treasurer:
Duties : Act as Custodian of State Funds.
Term : 2 years.
Vacancy : Appointment by Governor till next Election.
Bonds : $400,000
Salary : $3,500 a year.

Secretary of State:
Duties: Keep State Papers and Great Seal, Manual, Public Printing.
Term : 2 years.
Vacancy : Appointment by Governor till next Election.
Bonds : None.
Salary : $3,500 a year.

Attorney General:
Duties: Represent State in Suits, Legal Advice to other
State Officers.
Term : 2 years.
Vacancy : Appointment by Governor till next Election.
Bonds : None.
Salary : $3,500 a year.

State Supt. Pub. Inst./Public Examiner/State Librarian/Insurance
Commissioner/State Oil Inspector/Dairy Commissioner/:
Created : Except Librarian, by Statute.
No. : 1
How Chosen: Appointed by the Governor and Confirmed by the Senate.
Term : 2 years.
Beginning : First Monday in January.
Removal : By Governor after due Examination.
Vacancy : New Appointment made by Governor.

State Supt. Pub. Inst.:
Duties : Act as Chief Educational Officer, Secretary of
Educational Boards.
Bonds : None.
Salary : $2,500 a year.

Public Examiner:
Duties : Inspect Books, &c., of State and County Financial Officers.
Bonds : $50,000
Salary : $3,500 a year.

State Librarian:
Duties : Take care of State Library.
Bonds : $2,000
Salary : $2,000 a year.

R.R. Commissioners:
Created : By Statute.
No. : 3
Duties : Regulate Railroads and Warehouses, Appoint Grain
Inspectors.
How Chosen: Appointed by the Governor and Confirmed by the Senate.
Term : 2 years.
Beginning : First Monday in January.
Removal : By Governor after due Examination.
Vacancy : New Appointment made by Governor.
Bonds : $20,000 each.
Salary : $3,000 each.

Insurance Commissioner:
Duties : Authorize Operation of Insurance Companies.
Bonds : $5,000
Salary : $2,000 of Fees.

State Oil Inspector:
Duties : Render the Use of Illuminating Oils Safe.
Bonds : $5,000
Salary : Fees.

Dairy Commissioner:
Duties : Regulate Sale of Dairy Products.
Bonds : None.
Salary : $1,800 and Expenses.

Surveyors-General:
Created : By Statute.
No. : 7
Duties : Scale Logs, Record Marks, Secure Laborers' Liens.
How Chosen: Appointed by the Governor and Confirmed by the Senate.
Term : 2 years.
Beginning : First Monday in January.
Removal : By Governor after due Examination.
Vacancy : New Appointment made by Governor.
Bonds : $5,000
Salary : Fees.

Administrative Boards/Boards of Trustees:
Created : By Statute.
No. : Varies
How Chosen: Appointed as Above.
Term : Various.
Beginning : Specified in Appointment.
Removal : By Governor after due Examination.
Vacancy : New Appointment made by Governor.
Bonds : None.
Salary : None, except Sec.

Administrative Boards:
Duties : Immigration, Health, Fisheries, Charities, Taxes.

Boards of Trustees:
Duties : State Institutions, Educational, Charitable and Penal.

Justices of Supreme Court:
Created : Constitution.
No. : 5
Duties : Interpret Laws, Try Appealed Cases.
How Chosen: By People of State.
Term : 6 years.
Beginning : First Monday in January.
Removal : Impeachment and Conviction.
Vacancy : Same as Auditor, etc.
Bonds : None.
Salary : $5,000 a year.

Clerk of Supreme Court:
Created : Constitution.
No. : 1
Duties : Keep Records of Supreme Court.
How Chosen: By People of State.
Term : 4 years.
Beginning : First Monday in January.
Removal : Impeachment and Conviction.
Vacancy : Same as Auditor, etc.
Bonds : $1,000
Salary : $1,500 a year and fees.

Justices of District Courts:
Created : Constitution.
No. : 21
Duties : Establish Justice in Counties.
How Chosen: By People in Judicial Dist.
Term : 6 years.
Beginning : First Monday in January.
Removal : Impeachment and Conviction.
Vacancy : Same as Auditor, etc.
Bonds : None.
Salary : $3,500 a year.

APPENDIX C.--HOW SOME THINGS ARE DONE.

HOW TAXES ARE LEVIED.

Definitions.--Taxes may be defined as the moneys contributed by the people
to defray the public expenses. They are spoken of as direct and indirect,
the former being paid as taxes, the latter as part of the price of a
commodity.

Within the State.--Local and state taxes are all direct. They are meant to
be proportioned to a person's ability to pay. In fact, however, a person's
tax is based upon the value of his _discoverable property_. The value of
such property is estimated by local officers called assessors. The
estimates of these officers are reviewed by the local board, and the
reviewed estimates are again examined and equalized by the county board.
But assessors, local boards, and county boards are all tempted to make the
estimates low, to reduce their share of taxation for the use of the state.
So a final review is made by the state board of equalization. The final
estimates being reported to the computing officer, and the various sums to
be raised having been reported to him, he finds the _rate_ of taxation,
computes the taxes, and turns the books over to the collecting officer.

Certain classes of property are exempt from taxation. Among those usually
exempt may be mentioned property owned by the United States, the state, or
the municipal corporation; church property; educational and charitable
institutions; and a certain amount of personal property. United States
bonds cannot be taxed.

By the General Government.--The sources of revenue to the general
government are: 1, customs; 2, excises; 3, direct taxes; 4, public lands;
5, receipts from post offices, patents, copyrights, fines, escheats, &c.
The last two classes cannot be called taxes. As it cannot compel a state
to collect taxes for it, the general government is practically barred, on
account of expense, from laying direct taxes. So that it is practically
true that national taxation is all indirect. The "customs" are duties on
imports. The "excises," or internal revenue, consist of taxes on tobacco,
fermented and alcoholic liquors, &c.

A Difficult Problem.--Though taxes have been levied for untold centuries,
it is still one of the unsolved problems how to levy them so as to be just
to all. Much progress has been made, but entirely satisfactory answers
have not yet been wrought out to the questions: What are the proper things
to tax? For what purposes should taxes be levied?

HOW THE GOVERNMENT BORROWS.

When an individual wishes to borrow money, he looks around for some one
who has the money to spare and who has confidence enough in him to let him
have it. He gives his note or bond, and gets the money. Similarly the
United States borrows. The secretary of the treasury looks for lenders in
the money-centers of the world, consults great banking-houses, and
sometimes advertises in newspapers.

A private borrower pays for the use of the money, and similarly the debt
of the United States is largely interest-bearing. The notes called
"greenbacks" bear no interest, because, being legal tender, they circulate
as money, as do also the gold and silver certificates of deposit.

HOW NATIONAL BANKS ARE ESTABLISHED.

Organization.--Associations for carrying on the business of banking may be
formed by any number of natural persons not less than five. A signed and
certified copy of the articles of association is forwarded to the
comptroller of the currency; also a certificate giving the name of the
association, its place of business, its capital, the number of shares and
their owners.

Capital.--The minimum capital required is: in cities of less than 6000
inhabitants, $50,000; less than 50,000 inhabitants, $100,000; others,
$200,000.

Powers.--Such associations have the usual corporate and banking powers. In
addition, they may issue their notes to circulate as currency on the
following conditions: Upon depositing with the U. S. Treasurer registered
bonds of the United States, to an amount not less than $30,000 nor less
than one-third of its capital, the bank receives from the comptroller of
the currency blank notes of face value not to exceed ninety per cent of
the par value of the bonds. These notes, after being signed by the
president and the cashier of the bank, may circulate as money, but are not
legal tender for private debts.

HOW TO OBTAIN A COPYRIGHT.

[By A. R. Spofford, Librarian of Congress]

Every applicant for a copyright must state distinctly the name and
residence of the claimant, and whether right is claimed as author,
designer, or proprietor. No affidavit or formal application is required.

A printed copy of the title of the book, map, chart, dramatic or musical
composition, engraving, cut, print, or photograph, or a description of the
painting, drawing, chromo, statue, statuary, or model or design for a work
of the fine arts, for which copyright is desired, must be sent by mail or
otherwise, prepaid, addressed, "Librarian of Congress, Washington, D.C."
This must be done before publication of the book or other article.

A fee of 50 cents, for recording the title of each book or other article,
must be inclosed with the title as above, and 50 cents in addition (or one
dollar in all) for each certificate of copyright under seal of the
Librarian of Congress, which will be transmitted by early mail.

Within ten days after publication of each book or other article, two
complete copies must be sent prepaid, or under free labels, furnished by
the Librarian, to perfect the copyright, with the address, "Librarian of
Congress, Washington, D.C."

No copyright is valid unless notice is given by inserting in every copy
published, "Entered according to the act of Congress, in the year ----, by
----, in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington," or, at
the option of the person entering the copyright, the words "Copyright,
18--, by ----."

The law imposes a penalty of $1*0 [Transcriber's Note: Illegible] upon any
person who has not obtained copyright who shall insert the notice "Entered
according to act of Congress," or "Copyright," or words of the same
import, in or upon any book or other article.

Each copyright secures the exclusive right of publishing the book or
article copyrighted for the term of twenty-eight years. Six months before
the end of that time, the author or designer, or his widow or children,
may secure a renewal for the further term of fourteen years, making
forty-two years in all.

Any copyright is assignable in law by any instrument of writing, but such
assignment must be recorded in the office of the Librarian of Congress
within sixty days from its date. The fee for this record and certificate
is one dollar.

A copy of the record (or duplicate certificate) of any copyright entry
will be furnished, under seal, at the rate of fifty cents.

Copyrights cannot be granted upon Trade-marks, nor upon Labels intended to
be used with any article of manufacture. If protection for such prints or
labels is desired, application must be made to the Patent Office, where
they are registered at a fee of $6 for labels and $25 for trade-marks.

Up to 1849 the secretary of state had the care of issuing copyrights. It
was then assigned to the department of the interior, newly created. In
1870 it was transferred to the librarian of congress.

HOW TO OBTAIN A PATENT.

1. The person desiring a patent must declare upon oath that he believes
himself to be the inventor or discoverer of the art, machine, or
improvement for which he solicits the patent.

2. He must also give in writing a definite and minute description of it,
accompanied by drawings to illustrate. If necessary, he must make and
deliver to the commissioner of patents a model of his invention.

To be patentable, the invention must be new, unused and unknown before,
and useful.

The invention is carefully examined by the appropriate expert at the
patent office, and if found to be deserving a patent is issued, signed by
the secretary of the interior, countersigned by the commissioner of
patents, and sealed with his seal. This gives the patentee the sole right
of manufacture and sale and use for seventeen years. The right to make,
sell, or use the invention may be sold by the patentee. He may assign the
patent entire, an interest in it, or the exclusive right for a certain
specified district.

HOW AN ALIEN BECOMES A CITIZEN.

1. Declaration of Intention.--An alien, who has come to the United States
after reaching the age of eighteen, may appear before any court of record
in the United States having common law jurisdiction, or the clerk thereof,
and declare upon oath that it is _bona fide_ his intention to become a
citizen of the United States, and to renounce forever "all allegiance to
any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty whatever," and
particularly by name the potentate or sovereignty whereof such alien may
at any time have been a citizen or subject. This declaration is recorded,
and a certified copy of it is furnished by the clerk of the court to the
person so declaring his intention. He is then said to have his "first
papers." See page 290. 2. The Final Step.--After two years from the time
of declaring his intention, provided that he has resided in the United
States continuously for five years, and also at least one year within the
state or territory wherein the court is held, he may appear in open court
and there upon oath renounce all allegiance, as declared in his statement
of intention, and swear to support the constitution of the United States.
If he has borne any hereditary title, he must renounce it. He must have
two witnesses to certify to his residence and to his moral character.
These proceedings are recorded, and he is given a certificate of
naturalization. See page 201.

An alien arriving in the United States before reaching the age of eighteen
and continuously residing therein until making his application for
citizenship, provided that he has resided in the United States five years,
may on coming of age be admitted to citizenship at once, without the
interval between the declaration and the consummation. He must, however,
make declaration, must prove his moral character by two witnesses, and
must satisfy the court that for three years it has been _bona fide_ his
intention to become a citizen of the United States.

Status of Minors.--The naturalization of a man confers citizenship upon
his wife and upon such of his children as are minors at the time. A child
of his born in this country, either before or after his naturalization, is
a "natural-born" citizen. This is also the case if the child is born on
the ocean while the parents are coming to this country, provided that they
are coming with the intention of seeking citizenship. If an alien dies
after declaring his intention, his wife and minor children may become
citizens upon taking the oath required.

Losing Citizenship.--By treaties with Austria, Baden, Bavaria, Belgium,
Great Britain, Germany, the Grand Duchy of Hesse, Mexico, Norway and
Sweden, Denmark, and Wurtemberg, it is provided that "a renewal of
domicile in the mother country, with the intent not to return (and two
years residence is presumptive evidence of such intent), shall work
renewal of the former allegiance."

In some of the treaties it is further provided that when the subject has
emigrated to avoid military duty, "the right to exact which was complete
before his departure, such service may be enforced on his return in spite
of intervening naturalization." (See also U.S. Revised Statutes of 1878,
2165-74.)

HOW CITIZENS ABROAD ARE PROTECTED.

One of the things that makes citizenship desirable is the protection which
it secures. This is particularly grateful when one is in a foreign
country. What a feeling of strength and security one has when far away
from home among strangers to know that his rights must be respected, to
realize that behind him is the might of the nation!

Passports.--A United States passport is an instrument in writing, issued
by the secretary of state and under his seal, informing the world that the
bearer is a citizen of the United States, that he travels under its
protection. That passport is a means of identification for the bearer and
secures to him all the rights and privileges guaranteed to citizens of the
United States by treaties with the country in which he may be traveling.

Passports, as a means of ingress or egress, are now required in only a few
countries of Europe. For the convenience of citizens who may have left
home without securing passports, arrangements have been made whereby they
may be obtained from our representatives in foreign countries.

Another kind of passport is that for American ships. Each ship-master
obtains one before leaving for a foreign port. It tells the nationality of
the ship, shows that she is under the protection of the United States.

Consuls.--These are the business representatives of the government
residing in foreign lands. They are "the guardians of their countrymen
against the vexations, injuries, and injustices of the country where they
reside; and they exercise certain police powers over all the individuals
of their nation" within their respective consulates.

The origin of consulates dates back to the time of the Crusades. They were
instituted by the great commercial cities of the Mediterranean. The
Pisans, Venetians, and Genoese had trading-places in various parts of
Asia, and they secured from the princes of the countries where these
trading-posts were located the right to have judges or arbitrators of
their own nation located at each of these posts who were privileged to
settle disputes between citizens of these cities in accordance with their
own laws. At first, then, the consuls were only arbitrators in commercial
matters. But their prerogatives have increased until now they are
intrusted with the protection of merchants of their country in their
relations with the countries to which they come to trade.

In some countries, such as China, Japan, Siam, and Turkey, our consuls are
by treaty invested with judicial powers. They try and punish American
citizens for crimes committed there.

Incidentally it is the duty of a consul to provide for sick, disabled or
destitute American seamen, and to send them home to the United States; to
receive and take care of the personal property of any American citizen who
dies within his consulate, and to forward to the secretary of state the
balance remaining after the necessary funeral expenses, to be held in
trust for the heirs. (See also page 350.)

Some of the consular reports contain very valuable information regarding
the products and industries of the countries where they are located. These
reports can sometimes be obtained in limited numbers through a member of
congress.

HOW WE ARE PROTECTED AT HOME.

Life.--Our lives are protected very carefully, not only against crime, but
also against accident. Taking human life is made the worst crime and
suffers the severest punishment. Death-dealing weapons, such as revolvers
and dirks, cannot lawfully be carried concealed. Poisons are cautiously
sold, and usually a record is made of the sale. If death results from
accident the person to blame is held responsible. But every precaution is
taken to prevent accidents. Lamps are provided for streets; fast driving
is prohibited; horses are not allowed to be left standing unhitched;
business dangerous to life, such as powder-making, must be carried on at a
distance from residences; railroads are required to stop trains at
crossings, to ring a bell in going through a town, to carry axes and
buckets to be used in case of fire; steamboats must be inspected, and must
be supplied with life-boats, life-preservers, and other appliances.

Health.--To protect our health precautions are taken against the outbreak
of preventable diseases, such as diphtheria, typhoid fever, etc., by
requiring cleanliness in yards and alleys; and against small pox by
requiring vaccination. The government also supports hospitals for the care
of the sick.

Reputation.--To secure to each person as good a reputation as his
character will warrant it is made a crime to make false and malicious
statements about any one. If spoken, the malicious statement is called
slander; if written or printed, it is called libel. The essential elements
of these crimes are malice and injury. If a false statement is made
without intent to injure, it is not slander. And a true statement injuring
another must not be made except for a proper purpose.

Liberty.--This includes all those rights guaranteed in the Bills of Rights
of the several constitutions, and the right to come and go without
restraint, the right to choose a vocation and to change it, and other
rights. To appreciate the protection received in this direction, the
student should read up the history of each of the guarantees, and of
caste, curfew, passports, etc.

Property.--"The right of private property covers the acquiring, using, and
disposing of anything that a person may call his own, including time and
labor." A person's property rights may be interfered with in so many ways
that many laws are necessary to protect him. A brief outline of commercial
law is given elsewhere.

HOW ELECTIONS ARE CONDUCTED.

Electors.--The voters of each state are designated by the constitution
thereof. See page 298.

Time.--The time of elections is usually also a matter of constitutional
provision. The local (town, village, and city) elections are, in most if
not all of the states, held in the spring; probably because the public
improvements contemplated are to be made chiefly in the summer. The
general elections are held in the fall. This may be partly at least, in
order that the official year may begin with the calendar year.

Place.--Towns, villages, and city wards are the usual election precincts,
but any of these may be divided if necessary. The location of the
polling-place is determined by the convenience of the voters.

Supervision.--Each polling-place is in charge of supervisors of election,
usually three. In towns and villages, the regular trustees supervise the
elections. In cities, three persons for each precinct are appointed to act
by the council or by the mayor. The supervisors are assisted by one or two
clerks.

Registration.--To prevent fraud, it is required that a person shall have
been a resident of the precinct in which he offers to vote for at least
ten days. In the cities, where population fluctuates greatly, it has been
found necessary to require voters to register before the day of election;
that is, to enroll their names and places of residence with the officers
of election.

Notices.--Due notice of the times and places of registration and election
is given, at least ten days in advance.

Voting.--This is by ballot, the two chief reasons being, (_a_) to permit
the voter to express his choice uninfluenced by any one else; (_b_) to
facilitate the voting.

The voter hands to the chairman of the supervisors his ballot, folded so
as to conceal the names. After ascertaining from the other supervisors
that the name of the person offering the vote is registered, or being
satisfied in some other way that he is entitled to vote, the chairman, in
the presence of the voter, deposits the ballot in the box. The voter's
name is then checked on the register, and enrolled by the clerks on the
"list of persons who have voted."

Counting.--Each name as it is written by the clerks is numbered, and the
supervisors in checking the register do so by writing the number of the
vote. At the close of the polls, therefore, the number of persons who have
voted is known. The ballots are then turned out of the box upon a table,
and, without being unfolded, are carefully counted, to see whether they
correspond in number with the records. If, as once in a while happens, it
is found that there are too many ballots, those in excess are drawn
hap-hazard from the pile by the supervisors and destroyed. The ballots are
then unfolded, and the count of the persons voted for is carefully made
and recorded. These proceedings are all open to the public.

Reporting.--In local elections, the result of the vote is read by a clerk
to those present. An abstract of the vote is filed in the office of the
clerk of the corporation, and a list of the persons elected is sent to the
auditor (clerk) of the county. The names of the justices of the peace and
the constables are reported to the clerk of the court.

In general elections, the abstract of the vote is sent to the county
auditor. He makes a general abstract of the vote of the county on state
officers, members of congress, and presidential electors, and sends it to
the state auditor. He also sends to the same officer a list of the persons
elected to county offices. An abstract of the vote is published in one or
more of the county papers.

Canvassing Boards.--The persons composing these boards are designated by
statute. The secretary of the organization is always a member. He is
usually assisted by two or more judicial officers.

Certificates of Election.--These are furnished to officers-elect by the
secretary of the organization. Certificates of members of congress and
presidential electors are signed by the governor and the secretary of
state, and are authenticated by the state seal.

Defects.--With all the thought that has been given to the subject, it is
still an unsolved problem how to secure "a free vote and a fair count." Of
the two purposes given above to be subserved by the use of the ballot
rather than by _viva voce_ voting, the first is too commonly not realized.
Perhaps the greatest danger to our government is bribery or overawing of
the voter.

A remedy suggested.--The main reliance for the purity of the ballot must
of course be the intelligence and uprightness of the people, and he who
enlightens and uplifts one or more individuals is to that extent truly a
patriot.

The second reliance is the removal of temptation. There may be "honor
among thieves," but wrong doing makes a person suspicious, and if the
briber cannot see the bribed deposit his ballot he has no good reason for
believing that he did as directed.

In Australia they have a plan which seems to obviate bribery, and to have
certain other incidental advantages. The plan includes two main features:
1. The printing of ballots at state expense, the ballots to contain all
the nominees of all the parties and appropriate blank spaces for the
insertion of other names; 2. The secret preparation of the ballot by the
voter and his casting it in the presence of the officers only. The
operation of the plan slightly modified, as now proposed in Massachusetts,
is briefly this: In the polling room as now, is the ballot-box; this none
but those in the act of voting and the officers are allowed to approach.
As the voters enter the enclosed area a stile numbers them, and an officer
hands each a ballot, containing the names of all nominees. The voter takes
this into a booth, and makes a cross in ink opposite the name of each
person that he wishes to vote for. Having thus prepared his ballot alone,
he deposits it in the usual way.

The advantages promised by this plan are obvious. The printing of the
ballots at state expense would do away with one of the pretexts for
bleeding a candidate for "legitimate expenses." It would take their
occupation from the ticket-peddlers, and do away with the deceiving
"pasters." The electors would be freed from the nuisance of personal
solicitation or dictation. The polling-places would be quieter and more
orderly. Best of all, it would greatly minify the evils of bribery for
reasons given above.

The principle is certainly a good one, and the machinery is worthy of the
careful consideration of our legislators.

Later: This system is now used in several states.

WHY AND HOW NOMINATIONS ARE MADE.

A political party may be defined as a number of persons holding similar
views in relation to one or more questions of public policy, and who
through unity of action seek to have these views prevail.

The great instrument for securing unity is the convention. It may be a
mass meeting, or, as is more usual among the large and well-organized
parties, a convention of delegates. In either case it is, be it
remembered, not a part of the elective machinery designed by the
legislature, but a political device to increase the chances of victory
through unity of purpose and action.

Party organization consists of "committees"--town, village, city-ward,
county, state, and national. The local committees are chosen by the
resident partisans; the county committees by the county conventions; the
state committees by state conventions; and the national committee,
consisting usually of one member from each state, by the delegates of the
respective states to the national convention. Each committee chooses its
own chairman and secretary. Besides those mentioned, there are district
committees, such as congressional-district committees, senate-district
committees, etc., whose members are appointed in a manner similar to that
given above. The term of a member is, as might be expected, from the close
of one regular convention to the close of the succeeding one. Thus a town
committeeman's term is one year, while that of a national committeeman is
four years.

The mode of nominating a candidate for the presidency of the United States
will illustrate the way of making nominations in general.

1. By long-established practice, each state is entitled to twice as many
delegates to the national convention as the number of its presidential
electors, and each territory to two delegates. Thus, Minnesota being
entitled to nine electors, may send eighteen delegates: and New York,
having thirty-six electors, is entitled to seventy-two delegates. Each
delegate has an alternate, who acts in the delegate's absence.

2. Though the popular election does not take place until November, the
national conventions are usually held in June or July. This is probably to
allow plenty of time for the campaign.

3. To allow the machinery time to grind out the delegates, the national
committee, having early determined upon the time and place for holding the
convention, issues its "call" some months in advance, say in February or
March. This is published in the newspapers throughout the country.

4. The next step in the process is the issuance of calls by the several
state committees. These are issued as soon as practicable after that of
the national committee, and usually appoint the state convention for the
latter part of May.

5. In some states all of the delegates to the national convention are
chosen by the state convention. But the number of states is increasing,
and properly so, in which each congressional district chooses its own two
delegates, leaving only the four "delegates at large" to be chosen by the
state convention. In these states, the next step is the call of the
district committee for a convention slightly antedating that of the state.

6. As soon as practicable after the district call is announced, the
several county committees issue their call for county conventions, to be
held shortly before the district convention.

7. Lastly, the local committees issue their calls, usually giving a week
or ten days' notice. The local convention is called a "caucus."

8. Then in succession the local, county, district, state, and national
conventions are held. The caucuses send representatives to the county
conventions, which in turn choose the deputations to the district and
state conventions, and these finally select the delegates to the national
convention. An equal number of "alternates" are chosen at the same time.
The state convention also names the presidential electors to be supported
by the party.

Thus the national convention is the first to be called and the last to be
held, while the caucuses are the last to be called and the first to be
held. The caucuses are the real battling-place for the people.

The delegates from each convention receive certificates of election signed
by the chairman and secretary thereof. These "credentials" are given to
prevent fraud, and constitute the delegates' title to seats in the
convention to which they are sent.

The first step taken in the national convention, after securing a
"temporary organization," is the appointment of a committee on credentials
and another on permanent organization, by the temporary chairman. When the
former committee reports, it is known who are entitled to participate in
the proceedings; and when the latter committee reports, the convention
almost invariably adopts the report and thereby perfects its organization.
A committee on rules and one on platform are then appointed.

The states are then called in alphabetical order, and each one that cares
to, presents to the convention the name of her "favorite son." Thus in the
republican convention of 1860, when Illinois was called, the name of
Abraham Lincoln was presented; and when New York was called, the name of
William H. Seward was presented, and so on.

When the "roll of the states" is completed, the balloting begins. In the
republican convention, nomination is by majority vote; in the democratic,
it takes a two-thirds vote to nominate.

The vice-president is then nominated in a similar manner.

After adopting a platform the convention adjourns.

HOW CONGRESS IS ORGANIZED. [Footnote: See also Among the Lawmakers,
chapter III. ]

Though the senate is quite a permanent body, two-thirds of its members
holding over from one congress to another, its committees are reorganized
at the beginning of each congress.

The terms of all members of the house of representatives expire March 4 of
the odd-numbered years, and, though many of the old members are
re-elected, the house must be reorganized at the beginning of each
congress. The mode of organizing the house is briefly as follows:

1. At the first session, the house is called to order by the clerk of the
preceding house, who then calls the roll of members-elect [Footnote: The
members-elect have previously sent him their certificates of election,
received from the state canvassing board.] by states. If a quorum is found
to be present, the clerk declares it to be in order to proceed to the
election of a speaker. The vote is _viva voce_ on the call of the roll,
each member when his name is called pronouncing the name of his choice for
speaker. Election is by majority of the votes given. The result is
declared by the clerk, who "then designates two members (usually of
different politics, and from the number of those voted for as speaker) to
conduct the speaker-elect to the chair; and also one member (usually that
one who has been longest in continuous service a member of the house) to
administer to him the oath required by the constitution." [Footnote:
Manual of the House of Representatives.]

The speaker then administers the oath to the members, in groups of about
forty, all standing in line before the speaker's desk.

3. The organization is completed by the election of a clerk, a
sergeant-at-arms; a doorkeeper, a postmaster, and a chaplain. The vote is
_viva voce_, and the term is "until their successors are chosen and
qualified"--usually about two years, though all are subject to removal at
the will of the house.

The delegates from the territories are then sworn in.

"At this stage it is usual for the house to adopt an order that a message
be sent to the senate to inform that body that a quorum of the house of
representatives has assembled, and that --------, one of the
representatives from the state of ----, has been elected speaker, and -----
---, a citizen of the state of ---, has been chosen clerk, and that the
house is now ready to proceed to business." [Footnote: Manual of the House
of Representatives.]

Each house then orders a committee of three members to be appointed, the
joint committee "to wait upon the president of the United States and
inform him that a quorum of the two houses has assembled, and that
congress is ready to receive any communication he may be pleased to make."
[Footnote: Manual of the House of Representatives.] It is in order then
for the president to forward his message to congress.

The above are the _usual_ proceedings, and they generally occur on the
first day of the session.

The seating of the members is by lot, except in the case of certain
members privileged by very long experience or otherwise, who are by
courtesy permitted to make the first selection. Each member is numbered,
and corresponding numbers are placed in a box "and thoroughly
intermingled." Then the numbers are drawn from the box successively by a
page, the member whose number is drawn first having first choice of seat,
and so on. This may be done while the committees are waiting on the
president, as above described.

HOW CONTESTED ELECTIONS ARE SETTLED.

"Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and
qualifications of its own members."--Constitution, I., 5, 5.

A contested election resembles very much in its mode of settlement the
trial of a civil suit.

1. Within thirty days after the result of the election is made known, the
contestant must serve upon the person declared elected by the canvassing
board a notice of intention to contest his seat, and the grounds therefor.

2. Within thirty days of receiving said notice, the member-elect must
answer it, stating specifically the grounds of his defense, and must serve
a copy of this answer upon the contestant.

3. Ninety days are then allowed for the taking of testimony--the first
forty to the contestant, the second forty to the member-elect, and the
remaining ten to the contestant for testimony in rebuttal.

Testimony may be taken before any United States, state or municipal judge,
notary public, or by two justices of the peace. The opposite party must
have due notice of the times and places of taking the evidence; but
testimony may be taken at several places at the same time. The witnesses
are summoned by subpoena served in the usual way. The examination of the
witnesses is by the officer issuing the subpoena, but either party may
propose questions. The questions and answers are committed to writing, and
authenticated.

All the papers in each case, certified, carefully sealed, and the
envelopes indorsed with name of the case, are sent by mail to Washington,
addressed to the clerk of the house in which is the contested seat.

The matter is referred to the committee on elections. [Footnote: This is
the oldest of all the committees, having been established at the beginning
of the first congress.] This committee having carefully considered the
matter may bring in its report at any time, this being what is known as a
"privileged question." The decision is by majority vote of the house
interested.

In the meantime the person who has obtained the certificate of election
from the state canvassing board is presumed to have been elected, and is
treated accordingly.

In order that lack of means may not compel a man to submit to a wrong, and
that the real will of the congressional district as expressed in the
election may be ascertained, the contestant may be allowed not to exceed
two thousand dollars for expenses.

HOW AN IMPEACHMENT CASE IS CONDUCTED.

"The house of representatives ... shall have the sole power of
impeachment."--Constitution I. 2: 9.

"The senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments.'--Ib., I. 3:
6.

"The president, vice-president, and all civil officers of the United
States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction
of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors."--Ib., II. 4:
17.

The house, having resolved that a certain civil officer be impeached,
orders that a committee be appointed to notify the senate of the fact; and
to state that "the house of representatives will, in due time, exhibit
particular articles of impeachment against him, and make good the same;"
and to demand that the senate prepare to try the impeachment.

The house then, on motion, appoints a committee (usually of five members)
to prepare carefully the articles of impeachment. [Footnote: This
corresponds to the indictment of a grand jury.] The report of this
committee, having been considered in committee of the whole, is reported
to the house, with such amendments as seem necessary. If the report is
agreed to by the house, a committee of five "managers" is appointed to
conduct the impeachment on the part of the house.

The senate is then notified by the clerk of the house, that the managers,
naming them, have been appointed, and that the articles of impeachment are
ready to be exhibited.

The senate having appointed the time when it would resolve itself into a
court of impeachment notifies the house. At the appointed time the
managers carry the articles to the senate, and on their return report to
the house.

The senate then issues a summons to the defendant, ordering him to file
his answer with the secretary of the senate by a certain day.

On the day appointed, the house, having resolved itself into committee of
the whole, attends the trial in the senate chamber. The next day the house
attends similarly, if a reply is to be made to the defendant's answer.
During the taking of the testimony only the managers attend, the house
devoting itself to its regular business. When the case is ready for
argument, the house attends daily, as committee of the whole.

The report of the final action of the senate is made to the house by the
chairman of the committee of the whole.

In an impeachment trial the senate is both judge and jury. But, for
convenience, the functions of judge are usually performed by the president
of the court of impeachment; and a senator may be called upon to testify.

The secretary of the senate corresponds to the clerk of the court, and the
sergeant-at-arms corresponds to the sheriff in an ordinary court.

"On the final question whether the impeachment is sustained, the yeas and
nays shall be taken on each article of impeachment separately; and if the
impeachment shall not, upon any of the articles presented, be sustained by
the votes of two-thirds of the members present, a judgment of acquittal
shall be entered; but if the person accused in such articles of
impeachment shall be convicted upon any of said articles by the votes of
two-thirds of the members present, the senate shall proceed to pronounce
judgment, and a certified copy of such judgment shall be deposited in the
office of the secretary of state." [Footnote: Manual of the United States
Senate.] Only seven cases of impeachment before the U.S. senate have
occurred. To save space they are shown in tabular form:

Time Name. Office. Charge. Result.
1798 William Blount. U.S. Senator Intrigues with Case dismissed;
from Tennessee. Indians. not an
"officer"

1803 John Pickering. U.S. district Intemperance Removed from
judge, N.H. and malfeasance office.[1]
in office.

1804 Samuel Chase. Associate Just. Partiality and Acquitted.[1]
U.S. Sup. Ct. injustice.

1830 James Peck. U.S. district Abuse of power. Acquitted.
judge, Mo.

1860 West W. U.S. district Treason in Removed and
Humphreys judge, Tenn. advocating and disqualified.
aiding secession.

1868 Andrew Johnson. President of the Violation of Acquitted by
United States. Tenure of one vote.
Office act and
other crimes.

1876 William W. Sec'y of war. Malfeasance in Acquitted.
Belknap. office and
accepting
bribes.

[Footnote 1: See Thomas Jefferson, American Statesmen Series, pp. 259-63.]

HOW UNITED STATES SENATORS ARE ELECTED.

"The senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators from
each state, chosen by the legislature thereof."--Constitution, I. 3: 1.

The time of this election is the second Tuesday after the meeting and
organization of the legislature. If a vacancy occurs in the senate during
the session of the legislature, the election occurs on the second Tuesday
after notice of the vacancy is received by the legislature.

On the day appointed, the roll of each house being called, each member
responds by naming one person for the senatorship. The result of the vote
is entered on the journal of each house by the clerk thereof.

The next day at noon, the members of both houses convene in joint
assembly, and the journal of each house is read. If the same person has
received a majority of all the votes in each house, he is declared
elected.

But if no person has received such majority, the joint assembly proceeds
to choose, by _viva voce_ vote of each member present, a person for
senator. A quorum consists of a majority of each house, and a majority of
those present and voting is necessary to a choice.

If no one receives such majority on the first day, the joint assembly
meets daily at noon, and takes at least one vote, until a senator is
elected.

A certificate of election is made out by the governor, countersigned and
authenticated under seal of the state by the secretary of state, and
forwarded to the president of the senate of the United States.

HOW THE ELECTORAL VOTE IS COUNTED.

"The president of the senate shall, in the presence of the senate and
house of representatives, open all the certificates, and the vote shall
then be counted."--Constitution, Amendment XII.

The constitution gives no directions as to the manner of counting. No
trouble was experienced, however, until the Hayes-Tilden election. The
result of this election depended upon the votes of three states, each of
which sent in two conflicting sets of certificates. There being no legal
provision for the settlement of such disputes, the famous electoral
commission was created to determine which certificates should be counted.
It consisted of five senators, five representatives, and five justices of
the supreme court.

The gravity of the danger thus revealed made it obviously necessary that
some general plan be devised whereby such disputes might be obviated.
Though consideration of the subject began at once, and various measures
were from time to time proposed, no satisfactory solution was presented
until February 3, 1887, when the Electoral Count Bill was passed and
received the signature of the president.

An outline of the bill is here given, the principal provisions being the
second and sixth as here numbered.

1. The electors shall meet and vote on the second Monday in January
following their election. [Footnote: The time of meeting had been the
first Wednesday in December. The change was made to give time for the
settlement of any disputes, as provided in the second section.]

2. If there be any disputes as to the choice of the electors, they are to
be settled in the respective states in the way that each state shall
determine, provided that the laws governing the matter shall have been
passed before the election, and that disputes shall have been settled at
least six days before the time fixed for the meeting of the electors. A
report of the contest and its mode of settlement shall be made by the
governor, and forwarded under seal to the secretary of state of the United
States.

3. As soon as practicable after it shall have been ascertained who have
been chosen electors, the executive of the state shall transmit under the
seal of the state to the secretary of state of the United States the names
of the electors, with an abstract of the popular vote for each candidate
for elector. The executive shall also deliver to the electors, on or
before the day of meeting, three copies of said certificate, one of which
the electors shall enclose with each "list of persons voted for as
president and vice-president."

4. As soon as practicable after receiving the certificates as aforesaid,
the secretary of state shall publish them in full in such newspaper as he
shall designate; and at the first meeting of congress thereafter he shall
transmit to each house a copy in full of each certificate received.

5. The counting of the vote will take place, as heretofore, on the second
Wednesday in February following the meeting of the electors. At one
o'clock in the afternoon the senate and house of representatives meet in
the hall of the house of representatives, and the president of the senate
takes the chair.

"Two tellers shall be previously appointed on the part of the senate and
two on the part of the house of representatives, to whom shall be handed,
as they are opened by the president of the senate, all the certificates
and papers purporting to be certificates of the electoral votes, which
certificates and papers shall be opened, presented, and acted upon in the
alphabetical order of the states, beginning with the letter A; and said
tellers, having then read the same in the presence and hearing of the two
houses, shall make a list of the votes as they shall appear from the said
certificates; and the votes having been ascertained and counted in the
manner and according to the rules in this act provided the result of the
same shall be delivered to the president of the senate, who shall
thereupon announce the state of the vote, which announcement shall be
deemed a sufficient declaration of the persons, if any, elected president
and vice-president of the United States, and, together with a list of the
votes, be entered on the journals of the two houses."

6. Upon the reading of each certificate the president of the senate asks
whether there be any objections to it. Objection must be made in writing,
and must "state clearly and concisely, and without argument, the ground
thereof." To entitle it to consideration, the objection must be signed by
at least one senator and one representative.

When all the objections to any paper have been received and read, the
senate withdraws, and the two houses proceed separately to consider them.

If from any state but one set of electors are certified, and the
certification has been done as prescribed in section three, the
certificate cannot be rejected. But if not properly certified, the two
houses acting concurrently "may reject the vote or votes when they agree
that such vote or votes have not been so regularly given by those whose
appointment has been so certified."

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