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Social life at Rome in the Age of Cicero by W. Warde Fowler

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conditions would be much the same in each case. Cp. Varro, _Men. Sat_.
ed. Riese, p. 220: "Crede mihi, plures dominos servi comederunt quam

[Footnote 368: Petronius, _Sat_. 75.]

[Footnote 369: Diodorus xxxiv. 38.]

[Footnote 370: "Coli rura ab ergastulis pessimum est et quicquid
agitur a desperantibus," wrote Pliny (_Nat. Hist_. xviii. 36) in the
famous passage about latifundia.]

[Footnote 371: _R.R._ i. 17.]

[Footnote 372: See some excellent remarks on this subject in _Ecce
Homo_, towards the end of ch. xii. ("Universality of the Christian
Republic ").]

[Footnote 373: _The Slave Power_, ch. v., and especially p. 374 foll.
A living picture of the mean white may be found in Mark Twain's
_Huckleberry Finn_, drawn from his own early experience, particularly
in ch. xxi.]

[Footnote 374: "Regum nobis induimus animos," wrote Seneca in a
well-known letter about the claims of slaves as human beings, _Ep_.

[Footnote 375: _Life in Ancient Athens_, p. 55.]

[Footnote 376: For this view of the Lar see Wissowa, _Religion und
Kultus der Roemer_, p. 148 foll.; and a note by the author in _Archiv
fur Religionswissenschaft_, 1906, p. 529.]

[Footnote 377: _Fasti_, vi. 299.]

[Footnote 378: Cato, _R.R._, ch. ii. init.; Horace, _Epode_ 2. 65;
_Sat_. ii. 6. 65.]

[Footnote 379: _Romische Religion_, p. 214.]

[Footnote 380: Or lectulus adversus, i.e. opposite the door; Ascon.
ed. Clark, p. 43, a good passage for the contents of an atrium.]

[Footnote 381: See Mau's _Pompeii_, p. 248.]

[Footnote 382: Mau, _Pompeii_, p. 240.]

[Footnote 383: The extent to which this could be carried can be
guessed from Sall. _Cat._ 12.]

[Footnote 384: Quintus Cicero, growing rich with Caesar in Gaul, had a
fancy for a domus suburbana: Cic. _ad Q. Fr._ iii. I. 7. Marcus tells
his brother in this letter that he himself had no great fancy for such
a residence, and that his house on the Palatine had all the charm of
such a suburbana. His villa at Tusculum, as we shall see, served the
purpose of a house close to the city.]

[Footnote 385: A great number of passages about the noise and crowds
of Rome are collected in Mayor's _Notes to Juvenal_, pp. 173, 203,

[Footnote 386: Some interesting remarks on the general aspect of the
city will be found in the concluding chapter of Lanciani's _Ruins and
Excavations_. For the bore elsewhere than in Rome, see below, p. 256.]

[Footnote 387: _ad Fam_. ii. 12: "Urbem, Urbem, mi Rufe, cole, et in
ista luce viva Omnis peregrinatio (foreign travel) obscura et sordida
est iis, quorum industria Roma potest illustris esse," etc.]

[Footnote 388: Lucr. ii. 22 foll.; iii. 1060 foll. Cp. Seneca, _Ep._
69: "Frequens migratio instabilis animi est!"]

[Footnote 389: _de Oratore_, ii. 22.]

[Footnote 390: These houses, with the coast on which they stood,
have long sunk into the sea, and we are only now, thanks to the
perseverance of Mr. R.T. Guenther of Magdalen College, realising their
position and former magnificence. See his volume on _Earth Movements
in the Bay of Naples_.]

[Footnote 391: See Cic. _pro Caelio_, Sec.Sec. 48-50.]

[Footnote 392: _Cicero's Villen_, Leipzig, 1889.]

[Footnote 393: Varro, _R.R._ iii. 13.]

[Footnote 394: The villa had once been Sulla's also: and the
aristocratic connection gave its owner some trouble. See above, p.

[Footnote 395: Schmidt, _op. cit._ p. 31.]

[Footnote 396: _de Finibus_, iii. 2. 7.]

[Footnote 397: _de Legibus_, ii. 1.]

[Footnote 398: _op. cit_. p. 15. I am assured by a travelling friend
that the Fibreno is a delicious stream.]

[Footnote 399: _ad Quint. Fratr_. iii. 1.]

[Footnote 400: _ad Att._ xiii. 19. 2.]

[Footnote 401: For further details of the amenities of the villa at
Arpinum see Schmidt, _op. cit._]

[Footnote 402: _ad Att._ ii. 14 and 15.]

[Footnote 403: O.E. Schmidt, _Briefwechsel Cicero's_, pp. 66 and 454;
but see his _Cicero's Villen_, p. 46, note.]

[Footnote 404: _ad Att_. xii. 19 init.]

[Footnote 405: See Seneca, _Epist_. 69, on the disturbing influence of
constant change of scene.]

[Footnote 406: There is an exception in the young Cicero's letter to
Tiro, translated above, p. 202.]

[Footnote 407: Censorinus, _De die natali_, 23. 6.; Pliny, _N.H._ vii.
213. On the whole subject of the division of the day see Marquardt,
_Privatlben_, p. 246 foll.]

[Footnote 408: In the XII Tables only sunrise and sunset were
mentioned (Pliny, _l.c._ 212). Later on noon was proclaimed by the
Consul's marshal (Varro, _de Ling. Lat_. vi. 5), and also the end of
the civil day. Cp. Varro, _L.L._ vi. 89.]

[Footnote 409: Cic. _pro Quinctio_, 18. 59.]

[Footnote 410: See the article "Horologium" in _Dict. of Antiquities_,
vol. i.]

[Footnote 411: Our modern hours are called equinoctial, because they
are fixed at the length of the natural hour at the equinoxes. This
system does not seem to have come in until late in the Empire period.]

[Footnote 412: For the water-clock see Marquardt, _op. cit_. p. 773

[Footnote 413: The lines are so good that I may venture to quote them
in full from Gell. iii 3 (cp. Ribbeck, _Fragm. Gomicorum_, ii. p. 34):
"parasitus esuriens dicit:

Ut illum di perdant primus qui horas repperit,
Quique adeo primus statuit hic solarium.
Qui mihi comminuit misero articulatim diem,
Nam olim me puero venter erat solarium,
Multo omnium istorum optimum et verissimum:
Ubivis ste monebat esse, nisi quom nihil erat.
Nunc etiam quom est, non estur, nisi soli libet.
Itaque adeo iam oppletum oppidum est solariis,
Maior pars populi iam aridi reptant fame."

The fourth line contains a truth of human nature, of which
illustrations might easily be found at the present day.]

[Footnote 414: Pliny, _N.H._ xv. 1 foll, supplies the history of the
oil industry. For the candles see Marquardt, _Privatleben_, p. 690.]

[Footnote 415: See above, p. 93.]

[Footnote 416: Marq. _Privatleben_, p. 264.]

[Footnote 417: Cic. _ad Q.F._ ii. 3. 7. For the lippitudo, _ad Att._
vii. 14.]

[Footnote 418: Hor. _Epist_. ii. 1. 112; Pliny, _Ep_. iii. 5, 8, 9.]

[Footnote 419: Hor. _Epist._ ii. 1. 103: "Romae dulce diu fuit et
solenne reclusa Mane domo vigilare, clienti promere iura" etc. It is
curious that all our information on this early business comes from the
literature of the Empire. The single passage of Cicero which Marquardt
could find to illustrate it unluckily relates to his practice as
governor of Cilicia (_ad Att._ vi. 2. 5).]

[Footnote 420: e.g. _ad Q.F._ i. 2. 16.; and Q. Cic. _Commentariolum
petitionis_, sec. 17.]

[Footnote 421: See what he says of M. Manilius in _De Orat_. iii.

[Footnote 422: The word seems to be connected with ieiunium (Plant.
_Curculio_ I. i. 73; Festus, p. 346), and thus answers to our
break_fast_. The verb is ientare: Afranius: fragm. "ientare nulla

[Footnote 423: Galen, vol. vi. p. 332. I take this citation from
Marquardt, _Privatleben_, p. 257; others will be found in the notes
to that page. Marquardt seems to have been the first to bring the
evidence of the medical writers to bear on the subject of Roman

[Footnote 424: See the interesting account of these (salutatores,
deductores, assectatores) in the _Commentariolum petitionis_ of Q.
Cicero, 9. 34 foll.]

[Footnote 425: See above, p. 109.]

[Footnote 426: Q. Cicero, _Comment. Pet._9. 37.]

[Footnote 427: See the author's _Roman Festivals_, pp. 125 foll.]

[Footnote 428: Plutarch, _C. Gracchus_, 6.]

[Footnote 429: Cic. _ad Fam._ ii. 12.]

[Footnote 430: Fragm. 9. Baehrens, _Fragm. Poet. Rom._ p. 141. Cp.
Galen, vol. x. p. 3 (Kuhn).]

[Footnote 431: Livy xlv. 36; Cic. _ad Fam_. i. 2; for a famous case of
"obstruction" by lengthy speaking, Gell. iv. 10.]

[Footnote 432: Festus, p. 54.]

[Footnote 433: _ad Fam._ vii. 30.]

[Footnote 434: _de Divinatione_, ii. 142, written in 44 B.C.]

[Footnote 435: Varro, _R.R._ i. 2; the words are put into the mouth
of one of the speakers in the dialogue. See, for examples from later
writers, Marq., _Privatleben_, p. 262.]

[Footnote 436: _ad Att_. xiii. 52; the habit may have often been
dropped in winter.]

[Footnote 437: Seneca, _Ep_. 86. The whole passage is most
interesting, as illustrating the difference in habits wrought in the
course of two centuries.]

[Footnote 438: Mau, _Pompeii_, p. 300. See above, p. 244.]

[Footnote 439: See the plan in Mau, p. 357; Marquardt, _Privatleben_,
p. 272.]

[Footnote 440: See Professor Purser's explanation and illustrations in
the _Dict. of Antiquities_, vol. i. p. 278.]

[Footnote 441: The subject of the public baths at Rome properly
belongs to the period of the Empire, and is too extensive to be
treated in a chapter on the daily life of the Roman of Cicero's time.
Public baths did exist in Rome already, but we hear very little of
them, which shows that they were not as yet an indispensable adjunct
of social life; but the fact that Seneca in the letter already quoted
describes the aediles as testing the heat of the water with their
hands shows (1) that the baths were public, (2) that they were of hot
water and not, as later, of hot air (_thermae_). The latter invention
is said to have come in before the Social war (Val. Max. ix. 1.
1.). Some baths seem to have been run as a speculation by private
individuals, and bore the name of their builder (e.g. balneae Seniae,
Cic. _pro Cael_. 25. 61). In summer the young men still bathed in the
Tiber (_pro Cael_. 15. 36). At Pompeii the oldest public baths (the
Stabian; Mau, p. 183) date from the second century B.C.]

[Footnote 442: The tradition was that the paterfamilias originally
also sat instead of reclining. See Marq. _Privatleben_, p. 292 note

[Footnote 443: Columella, ii. 1. 19, a very interesting chapter;
Plutarch, _Cato min_. 56.]

[Footnote 444: Plut. _Lucullus_ 40; see above, p. 242.]

[Footnote 445: Plut. _Quaest. Conv._ 1. 3 foll.; and Marq. p. 295.]

[Footnote 446: Hor. _Sat_. i. 4. 86; cp. Cic. _in Pisonem_, 27. 67.]

[Footnote 447: Cic. _de Senect_. 14. 46.]

[Footnote 448: Lucilius, fragm. 30; 120 foll.; 168, 327 etc. Varro
wrote a Menippean satire on gluttony, of which a fragment is preserved
by Gellius, vi. 16.]

[Footnote 449: See the interesting passage in _Cic. pro Murena_, 36.
75, about the funeral feast of Scipio Aemilianus.]

[Footnote 450: Catull. 47. 5: "vos convivia lauta sumptuose De die

[Footnote 451: 26. 65 foll; Hor. _Od_. iii. 19, and the commentators.]

[Footnote 452: _ad Fam_. vii. 26, of the year 57 B.C. The sumptuary
law must have been a certain lex Aemilia of later date than Sulla.
(See Gell. ii. 24: "qua lege non sumptus cenarum, sed ciborum genus et
modus praefinitus est.") This chapter of Gellius, and Macrob. iii. 17,
are the safest passages to consult on the subject of the growth of

[Footnote 453: See Munro, _Elucidations of Catullus_, p. 92 foll.]

[Footnote 454: Tibull. ii. 1. 51 foll. Cp. ii. 5. 83 foll. Several are
also described by Ovid in his _Fasti_. A charming account of feste in
a Tuscan village of to-day will be found in _A Nook in the Apennines_,
by Leader Scott, chapters xxviii. and xxix.: a book full of value for
Italian rural life, ancient and modern.]

[Footnote 455: Wissowa, _Religion und Kultus_, p. 366. "Feriae" came
in time to be limited to public festivals, while "festus dies" covered
all holidays.]

[Footnote 456: de Legibus, ii. 8. 19: cp. 12. 29.]

[Footnote 457: Georg. i. 268 foll. Cato had already said the same
thing: _R.R._ ii. 4.]

[Footnote 458: Thus Ovid describes the rites performed by the Flamen
Quirinalis at the old agricultural festival of the Robigalia (Robigus,
deity of the mildew) as if it were a curious bit of old practice which
most people knew nothing about.--_Fasti_, iv. 901 foll.]

[Footnote 459: Greenidge, _Legal Procedure in Cicero's time_, p. 457.]

[Footnote 460: It is the same word as our _fair_.]

[Footnote 461: _Fasti_, iii. 523 foll.; Fowler, _Roman Festivals_, p.

[Footnote 462: _Roman Festivals_, p. 185. The custom doubtless had a
religious origin.]

[Footnote 463: _Ib_. p. 268. Augustus limited the days to three.]

[Footnote 464: Wissowa, _Religion und Kultus_, p. 170. The cult of
Saturn was largely affected by Greek usage, but this particular custom
was more likely descended from the usage of the Latin farm.]

[Footnote 465: See above, p. 172. Marquardt, _Privatleben_, p. 586;
Frazer, _Golden Bough_ (ed. 2), vol. iii. p. 188 foll.]

[Footnote 466: Cic. _Verr_. I. 10. 31; where Cicero complains of the
difficulties he experienced in conducting his case in consequence of
the number of ludi from August to November in that year.]

[Footnote 467: Fowler, _Roman Festivals_, p. 217 foll.]

[Footnote 468: See the account in Dion. Hal. vii. 72, taken from
Fabius Pictor.]

[Footnote 469: See Friedlaender in Marquardt, _Staatsverwaltung_, iii.
p. 508, note 3.]

[Footnote 470: For full accounts of this procession, and the whole
question of the Ludi Romani, see Friedlaender, _l.c._; Wissowa,
_Religion und Kultus_, p. 383 foll.; or the article "Triumphus" in
the _Dict. of Antiquities_, ed. 2. All accounts owe much to Mommsen's
essay in _Roemische Forschungen_, ii. p. 42 foll.]

[Footnote 471: On the parallelism between the Ludi Plebeii and Romani
see Mommsen, _Staatsrecht_, ii. p. 508, note 4.]

[Footnote 472: Fowler, _Roman Festivals_, p. 179 foll.]

[Footnote 473: _Ib_. p. 69.]

[Footnote 474: _Ib_. p. 72 foll.]

[Footnote 475: Fowler, _Roman Festivals_, p. 91 foll.]

[Footnote 476: Livy xxii. 10.7; Dionys. vii. 71.]

[Footnote 477: Pliny, N.S. xxxiii. 138. The same thing happened once
or twice under Augustus.]

[Footnote 478: Livy xl. 44.]

[Footnote 479: ii. 16, 57 foll.]

[Footnote 480: We have some details of the ridiculously lavish
expenditure of this aedile in Pliny, N.H. xxxvi. 114. He built a
temporary theatre, which was decorated as though it were to be a
permanent monument of magnificence.]

[Footnote 481: Verr. v. 14. 36.]

[Footnote 482: Plut. Caes. 5.]

[Footnote 483: Cio. _ad Fam_. viii. 9.]

[Footnote 484: _ad Att_. vi. I. 21.]

[Footnote 485: There is no evidence that slaves were admitted under
the Republic. Columella, who wrote under Nero, is the first to mention
their presence at the games (_R.R._ i. 8. 2), unless we consider the
vilicus of Horace, _Epist_. i. 14. 15, as a slave. See Friedlaender in
Marq. p. 491, note 4.]

[Footnote 486: See above, p. 13; Fowler, _Roman Festivals_, p. 208.]

[Footnote 487: _Roman Festivals_, p. 241.]

[Footnote 488: _Ib_. p. 77 foll.]

[Footnote 489: Dionys. Hal. in. 68 gives this number for Augustus'
time, and so far as we know Augustus had not enlarged the Circus.]

[Footnote 490: Gell. iii. 10. 16.]

[Footnote 491: Pliny, _N.H._ x. 71: he seems to be referring to an
earlier time, and this Caecina may have been the friend of Cicero. In
another passage of Pliny we hear of the red faction about the time of
Sulla (vii. 186; Friedl. p. 517). Cp. Tertullian, _de Spectaculis_,

[Footnote 492: For a graphic picture of the scene in the Circus in
Augustus' time see Ovid, _Ars Amatoria_, i. 135 foll.]

[Footnote 493: ch. 59.]

[Footnote 494: See Schol. Bob. on the _pro Sestio_, new Teubner ed.,
p. 105.]

[Footnote 495: Val. Max. ii. 3. 2. The conjecture as to the object
of the exhibition by the consuls is that of Buecheler, in _Rhein.
Mus._1883, p. 476 foll.]

[Footnote 496: The example was set, according to Livy, _Epit_. 16, by
a Junius Brutus at the beginning of the first Punic war.]

[Footnote 497: _ad Fam_. ii. 3.]

[Footnote 498: The origin of these bloody shows at funerals needs
further investigation. It may be connected with a primitive and savage
custom of sacrificing captives to the Manes of a chief, of which we
have a reminiscence in the sacrifice of captives by Aeneas, in Virg.
_Aen_. xi. 82.]

[Footnote 499: See Lucian Mueller's _Ennius_, p. 35 foll., where he
maintains against Mommsen the intelligence and taste of the Romans of
the 2nd century B.C.]

[Footnote 500: Cic. _Brutus_, 28. 107, where he speaks of having known
the poet himself.]

[Footnote 501: _ad_ Att. ii. 19.]

[Footnote 502: _Pro Sestio_, 55. 117 foll.]

[Footnote 503: _ad Q. Fratr_. iii. 5.]

[Footnote 504: It is only fair to say that this information comes from
a letter of Asinius Pollio to Cicero (_ad Fam_. x. 32. 3), and as
Pollio was one who had a word of mockery for every one, we may
discount the story of the tears.]

[Footnote 505: Tibicines, usually mistranslated flute-players; this
characteristic Italian instrument was really a primitive oboe played
with a reed, and usually of the double form (two pipes with a
connected mouthpiece), still sometimes seen in Italy.]

[Footnote 506: See above, p. 70.]

[Footnote 507: Val. Max. ii. 4. 2; Livy, _Epit_. 48.]

[Footnote 508: Tacitus, _Ann_. xiv. 20.]

[Footnote 509: Tertullian, _de Spectaculis_, 10; Pliny, _N.H._ viii.

[Footnote 510: See the excellent account in Huelsen, vol. iii. of
Jordan's _Topographie_, p. 524 foll. Some of the arches of the
supporting arcade are still visible.]

[Footnote 511: _ad Fam_. vii. I. Professor Tyrrell calls this letter a
rhetorical exercise; is it not rather one of those in which Cicero is
taking pains to write, therefore writing less easily and naturally
than usual?]

[Footnote 512: I have used Mr. Shuckburgh's translation, with one or
two verbal changes.]

[Footnote 513: Pliny, _Nat. Hist_. viii. 21.]

[Footnote 514: _de Div_. i. 37. 80. Cp. the story in Plut. _Cic_. 5.]

[Footnote 515: Hor. _Ep_. ii. 82; Quintil. ii. 3. Ill.]

[Footnote 516: Val. Max. viii. 10. 2. Cicero was said to have learnt
gesticulation both from Aesopus and Roscius.--Plut. _Cic_. 5.]

[Footnote 517: Pliny, _N.H._ vii. 128.]

[Footnote 518: _Pro Archia_, 8.]

[Footnote 519: _De Oratore_, i. 28. 129.]

[Footnote 520: _De Oratore_, iii. 27, 59.]

[Footnote 521: A useful succinct account of the literature of
this difficult subject will be found in Schanz, _Gesch. der rom.
Litteratur_, vol. i. (ed. 3) p. 21 foll.]

[Footnote 522: This is the view of Mommsen, _Hist_. iii. p. 455, which
is generally accepted. For further information see Teuffel, _Hist. of
Roman Literature_, i. (ed. 2) p. 9. That they were in fashion before
the mimus is gathered from Cic. _ad Fam_. ix. 16.]

[Footnote 523: Plut. _Sulla_, 2: ep. 36.]

[Footnote 524: Political allusions in mimes, were, however, not
unknown. Cp. Cic. _ad Alt_. xiv. 3, written in 44 B.C., after Caesar's

[Footnote 525: All the passages about Publilius are collected in Mr.
Bickford Smith's edition of his _Sententiae_, p. 10 foll. On mimes
generally the reader may be referred to Professor Purser's excellent
article in Smith's _Diet. of Antiq_. ed. 2.]

[Footnote 526: Animo aequissimo, _ad Fam_. xii. 19. He means perhaps
rather that flattering allusions to Caesar did not hurt his feelings.]

[Footnote 527: See Ribbeck, _Fragm. Comic. Lat_. p. 295 foll.]

[Footnote 528: Seneca, _Epist_. 108. 8.]

[Footnote 529: See another excellent article of Professor Purser's in
the _Dict. of Antiq_.]

[Footnote 530: See the _Hibbert Journal_ for July 1907, p. 847. In the
second sense Cicero often uses the plural "religiones," esp. in _de
Legibus_, ii.]

[Footnote 531: See Middleton, _Rome in 1887_, p. 423; Horace, _Sat_.
i. 8. 8 foll.; Nissen, _Italische Landeskunde_, ii. p. 522.]

[Footnote 532: Fowler, _Roman Festivals_, p. 336 foll.]

[Footnote 533: _Monumentum Ancyranum_ (Lat.), 4. 17.]

[Footnote 534: _de Nat. Deor._ i. 29. 82.]

[Footnote 535: Valerius Maximus, _Epit._ 3. 4; Wissowa, _Rel. und
Kult._ p. 293.]

[Footnote 536: See, e.g. Dill, _Roman Society from Nero to Marcus
Aurelius_, ch. v.]

[Footnote 537: See, e.g., _pro Sestio_, 15. 32; _in Vatinium_, 7. 18.]

[Footnote 538: Augustine, _Civ. Dei_, iv. 27.]

[Footnote 539: Cp. i. 63 foll.; iii. 87 and 894; v. 72 and 1218; and
many other passages.]

[Footnote 540: iii. 995 foll.; v. 1120 foll.]

[Footnote 541: iii. 70; v. 1126.]

[Footnote 542: ii. 22 foll.; iii. 1003; v. 1116.]

[Footnote 543: _Roman Poets of the Republic_, p. 306.]

[Footnote 544: The secret may be found in the last 250 lines of Bk.
iii., and at the beginning and end of Bk. v.]

[Footnote 545: v. 1203; ii. 48-54.]

[Footnote 546: v. 1129.]

[Footnote 547: "Philosophy has never touched the mass of mankind
except through religion" (_Decadence_, by Rt. Hon. A.J. Balfour, p.
53). This is a truth of which Lucretius was profoundly, though not
surprisingly, ignorant.]

[Footnote 548: See above, p. 115.]

[Footnote 549: e.g. xxi. 62.]

[Footnote 550: Ribbeck, _Fragm. Trag. Rom._ p. 54: Ego deum genus esse
semper dixi et dicam coelitum, Sed eos non curare opinor quid agat
humanum genus.]

[Footnote 551: See above, p. 114.]

[Footnote 552: See H.N. Fowler, _Panaetii et Hecatonis librorum
fragmenta_, p. 10; Hirzel, _Untersuchungen zu Cicero's philosophischen
Schriften_, i. p. 194 foll.]

[Footnote 553: See above, p. 115.]

[Footnote 554: Schmekel, _Die Mittlere Stoa_, p. 85 foll.; Hirzel,
_Untersuchungen_, etc., i. p. 194 foll.]

[Footnote 555: The fragments are collected by E. Agahd, Leipzig, 1898.
The great majority are found in St. Augustine, _de Civitate Dei_.]

[Footnote 556: As Wissowa says (_Religion und Kultus der Roemer_, p.
100), Jupiter does not appear in Roman language and literature as a
personality who thunders or rains, but rather as the heaven itself
combining these various manifestations of activity. The most familiar
illustration of the usage alluded to in the text is the line of Horace
in _Odes_ i. 1. 25: "manet sub Iove frigido venator."]

[Footnote 557: ap. Aug. _Civ. Dei_, iv. 11.]

[Footnote 558: _Ib._ vii. 9.]

[Footnote 559: ap. Aug. _Civ. Dei_, vii. 13: animus mundi is here so
called, but evidently identified with Jupiter.]

[Footnote 560: _Ib._ vii. 9.]

[Footnote 561: _Ib._ iv. 11, 13.]

[Footnote 562: Aug. _de consensu evangel._ i. 23, 24. Cp. _Civ. Dei_,
iv. 9.]

[Footnote 563: _Ib._ i. 22. 30; _Civ. Dei_, xix. 22.]

[Footnote 564: See Wissowa, _Religion und Kultus_, p. 103.]

[Footnote 565: _de Rep_. iii. 22. See above, p. 117.]

[Footnote 566: _de Legilus_, ii. 10.]

[Footnote 567: _de Nat. Deor._. i. 15. 40: "idem etiam legis perpetuae
et eternae vim, quae quasi dux vitae et magistra officiorum sit, Iovem
dicit esse, eandemque fatalem necessitatem appellat, sempiternam rerum
futurarum veritatem." Chrysippus of course was speaking of the Greek

[Footnote 568: e.g. _de Off._ iii. 28; _de Nat. Deor._ i. 116.]

[Footnote 569: Glover, _Studies in Virgil_, p. 275.]

[Footnote 570: It is interesting to note that in the religious revival
of Augustus Jupiter by no means has a leading place. See Carter,
_Religion of Numa_, p. 160, where, however, the attitude of Augustus
towards the great god is perhaps over-emphasised. On the relation of
Virgil's Jupiter to Fate, see E. Norden, _Virgils epische Technik_, p.
286 foll. Seneca, it is worth noting, never mentions Jupiter as the
centre of the Stoic Pantheon.--Dill, _Roman Society from Nero to M.
Aurelius_, p. 331.]

[Footnote 571: See an article by the author in _Hibbert Journal_, July
1907, p. 847.]

[Footnote 572: Plut. _Sulla_, 6.]

[Footnote 573: Valerius Maximus ii. 3.]

[Footnote 574: _de Div_. i. 32. 68.]

[Footnote 575: Plut. _Brutus_, 36, 37.]

[Footnote 576: Sall. _Cat._ 51; Cic. _Cat._ iv. 4. 7.]

[Footnote 577: Cic. _de Rep._ iv. 24.]

[Footnote 578: Reid, _The Academics of Cicero_, Introduction, p. 18.]

[Footnote 579: _ad Att._ xii. 36.]

[Footnote 580: ad Att. xii. 37.]

[Footnote 581: Suetonius, _Jul_. 88. See E. Kornemann in _Klio_, vol.
i. p. 95.]

[Footnote 582: We do not know exactly when this preface was written.
Prefaces are now composed, as a rule, when a work is finished: but
this does not seem to have been the practice in antiquity, and
internal evidence is here strongly in favour of an early date.]

[Footnote 583: _Epode_ 16. 54; cp. 30 foll.]

[Footnote 584: Sir W.M. Ramsay, quoted in _Virgil's Messianic
Eclogue_, p. 54.]

[Footnote 585: Dr. J.B. Mayor, in _Virgil's Messianic Eclogue_, p. 118

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