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Social life at Rome in the Age of Cicero by W. Warde Fowler

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Ara maxima
Ara Pacis
_Argentarii_
Argiletum, the
Arpinum, Cicero's villa at
_Ars amatoria_ (Ovid's)
Arval brothers, the
Arx, the
Asia, province of
Astura, Cicero's villa at
_Atellanae, fabulae_. See _Fabulae Atellanae_
_Atrium_
_sutorium_,
Vestae
Atticus
house of,
wealth of,
as money-lender,
the sister of,
the slave of,
Cicero's letters to, _passim_,
Augury
Augustus
alleged proposal of, to remove the capital,
attitude of towards _plebs urbana_,
water-supply under,
the grandfather of,
as a social reformer,
marriage laws of,
furthers public comfort,
restoration of temples by,
attempts at religious revival,
Aventine hill

Baiae
Balbus, Cornelius, the younger
Bankruptcy laws
Basilicae, the
Baths, public
Bath-rooms
Bauli
Bithynia, province of
_Blanditia_
Bona Dea, festival of
Boscoreale
_Brutus_ (Cicero's)
Brutus, Decimus
_Bulla_
Byzantium

Caecilius
Caelian hill
Caelius Autipater
Caelius (M.) Rufus
Caesar, Julius
alleged proposal of, to remove the capital
extends one of the Basilicae,
reduces
corn gratuities;
regulations of, for the government of the city;
debts of;
character of;
as historian;
joined by Caelius;
restores credit in Italy;
and Cleopatra;
clemency of;
sale of prisoners by;
dismisses surrendered armies;
foundation at Corinth by;
entertained by Cicero;
habits of;
as aedile;
summons Publilius to Rome;
as Pontifex Maximus;
speech of, in Sallust;
consents to be deified;
and _passim_
_Calceus_
_Caldarium_
Calvus
Camillus
Campagua, the
Campania
Campus Martius
Caninius
Capena, Porta. _See_ Porta Capena
Capital at Rome
Capitol, the
Capitoline hill
Capua
_Carceres_, the
Carinae, the
Carmentalis, Porta. _See_ Porta Carmentalis
_Castella_
Castor, temple of
Catiline
Cato major
Cato minor
Catullus
Catulus the elder
_Cena_
Censor, the
_Censoria locatio_
Ceres
Ceriales, Ludi. _See_ Ludi Ceriales
Cethegus
Chariot-racing
Chrysippus
Cicero, birthplace of;
house of;
borrows money;
as a man of business;
and the publicani;
relation of, to the governing aristocracy;
letters of;
as a philosopher;
and Clodia;
views on education;
influence of philosophers upon;
and the slave question;
and the use of slaves for seditious purposes;
villas of;
undertakes the Ludi Romani;
religious views of;
and _passim_
Cicero, Marcus
Cicero, Quintus
Cilician pirates
Circus Flaminius
Circus Maximus
Cleopatra
Clients
Clivus Capitolinus
Clivus sacer
Cloaca maxima
Clodia
Clodius
Cluvius
_Coemptio_
_Coenaculum_
Coinage
_Collegia_
Colline gate, Sulla's victory at the,
Colosseum, the
Columella
Comedy
_Comissatio_
Comitium, the
_Commercii, ius_
_Compluvium_
Concordia, temple of
_Conducticii_
_Confarreatio_
_Coniugalia praecepta_ (Plutarch's)
_Connubii, ius_
Constantine, arch of
Consul, the
Consus, altar of
_Contubernium_
_Convivium_
_Copa_ ("Virgil's")
Corfinium
Cornelia
Cornelius
Crassus
Cumae, Cicero's villa at
Curia, the
Curio

Debtors
_Declamatio_
_Deductio_
Democritus
_Deorum, De Natura_ (Cicero's)
Diana, temple of
_Die natali, De_ (Censorinus's)
_Diffarreatio_
Diomedes, villa of
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Dionysus, worship of
Di Penates. _See_ Penates
Diphilus, the actor
Divorce
_Dolia_
_Domus_
_Dos_
Drama, the
Dyrrhachium, importation of corn
into; battle of

Egypt
Emetics, use of
Ennius
Epicureanism
Epicurus
_Epulum Jovis_
Equester, Ordo. _See_ Ordo equester
Equirria
Equites. _See_ Ordo equester
_Ergastula_
Esquiline hill
Etruscans, the
Evander
_Exedra_

Fabius, arch of
_Fabri ferrarii_
_Fabulae Atellanae_; palliatae;
_togatae_
_Familiae urbanae_
Fate
_Fercula_
_Feriae_
_Festa_
_Figuli_
Figulus, Nigidius
Flaccus, Verrius
Flamen Dialis;
Quirinalis
Flaminius
_Flammeum_
Florales, Ludi. _See_ Ludi Florales
_Foeneratores_
_Foenus_
Formiae, Cicero's villa at
Forum Boarium
Forum Romanum
Friedlaender
Frontinus
_Fullones_
Funeral games
Furrina, the grove of

Gabinius
Gellius, Aulus
Genseric
Gilds. _See_ Collegia
Gladiators
Gracchus, Gaius
Gracchus, Tiberius
_Grammaticus_
_Grassatores_
Greeks

Hannibal
Hercules
Hirtius
_Honorum, ius_
Horace
Hortensius
Horti Caesaris

_Ientaculum_
_Impluvium_
_Institutio Oratoris_ (Quintilian's)
_Insulae_
_Inventione, De_ (Cicero's)
Isis, worship of
_Iura_
_Ius civile_
_Ius divinum_
_Ius gentium_

Janiculum, the
Janus, "temple" of
Julius Obsequens
Juno, temple of
Jupiter
Jupiter Farreus; Julius;
Optimus Maximus, temple of;
Stator, temple of
Juturna, spring of

"King," game of

Laberius
Lar
Lares, shrine of
_Latifundium_
Latina, Via. _See_ Via Latina
Latins, the
Latium
Law-courts, the
_Lectisternia_
_Lectus_; _consularis_
_genialis_
_Legibus, De_ (Cicero's)
Lentulus
Lepidus
Liberalia, the
_Libertinus_
Libertus
Liternum, Scipio's villa at
Livius Andronicus
Livy
Lucretius
Lucretius Vespillo, Q.
Lueullus
Ludi, Apollinares; Ceriales;
Florales;
Magni, _see_ Romani; Megalenses;
Novemdiales; Plebeii;
Romani;
Victoriae
Ludus Trojae
Lupercal, the
Lupercalia, the

_Magister_
Magna Mater
_Mancipes_
_Manes_
_Mangones_
_Manus_
Marcius Rex, Q.
Marius
Mars; temple of
Martial
_Matrimonium, iustum_
Megaleuses, Ludi. See Ludi Megalenses
_Mensa_
_Mensae_; _rationes_
_Meridiatio_
_Metae_, the
Metellus Celer
Metellus Macedonicus
Milo
Mimes
Minerva, temple of
_Missio in bona_
_Missus_
Molo
Mommsen
Money-lenders
_Moretum_ ("Virgil's")
_Mos majorum_
_Muliones_
_Munera_

_Nefas_
_Negotiatores_
_Negotium_
Nepos, Cornelius
Neptunalia, the
Nicomedes, king of Bithynia
Novemdiales, Ludi. _See_ Ludi Novemdiales
_Novas homo_
Numa
_Nummularii_

_Obaerati_
_Oecus_
_Officiis, De_ (Cicero's)
_Operarii_
_Opifices_
Oppia, lex
Oppius Mons
_Oratore, De_ (Cicero's)
Ordo equester;
senatorius
Oseans, the
Ostia
Ovid

Pacuvius
Palatine hill
_Palliatae, fabulae_. See _Fabulae
palliatae_
Panaetius
_Pantomimus_
_Participes_
_Patronus_
Paullus, L. Aemilius
_Paupereuli_
_Peculium_
Penates, the;
temple of the
Pergamum
_Peristylium_
_Permutatio_
_Pero_
_Perscriptio_
_Persona_
Phaedrus the Epicurean
Philippi, battle of
Philippus (tribune)
Philo the Academician
Philodemus
_Pietas_
Piso, Calpurnius
_Pistores_
Plaetoria, lex
Plautus
Plebeii, Ludi. _See_ Ludi Plebeii
Pliny, the elder; the younger
Plutarch
Pollio, Asinius
Polybius
Pomerium
Pompeii
Pompeius
house of
theatre of
Pomponia
Pons Aemilius
Ponte Rotto
Pontifex Maximus
Porta Capena
Carmentalis
Esquilina
Portunus
Posidonius
Praecia
_Praedes_
_Praediola_
Praetor, the
_Prandium_
Priesthoods
_Promagister_
_Pronuba_
Provinces, the
_Provocations_, _ius_
Ptolemy Auletes
_Publicani_
_Publicum_
Publilius Syrus
Punic wars
Puteoli, Cicero's villa at
_Puticulus_
Pythagoreanism

_Quaestiones Conviviales (Plutarch's)_
Quaestorship, the
Quintilian
Quirinal (hill)
Quirinus

Rabirius Postumus
_Redemptor_
Regia, the
_Religio_
Religion
_Repetundis, quaestio de_
_Republica, De_ (Cicero's)
_Res_, _mancipi_
_Rex, the_
_Rex sacrorum_
_Rhetorica ad Herennium_
Romulus
Roscius, the actor
Rostra, the
Rutilius

Sabines, the
_Saccarii_
_Sacra_,
_privata_;
_publica_;
via, _see_ Via Sacra
St. Peter, church of
Salaminians, the
Sallust
Samnium
San Gregorio, via di
Sarpedon
Sassia
Saturnalia, the
_Saturninus_
Saturnus, temple of
Scaevola, Mucius
Scaurus
Scipio Aemilianus,
Asiaticus,
Nasica,
Sempionia
Senate, the
Senatorius, ordo. _See_ Ordo senatorius
Senec,
"Servian wall"
Servilius
Sibylline books, the
Slaves
_Societates publicanorum_
_Socii_
_Sodalicia, collegia_. See _Collegia_
_Soleae_
_Somnium Scipionis_ (Cicero's)
Spanish silver mines
Spartacus
_Spina_
_Sponsalia_
_Sportula_
Stoics, the
_Stola matronalis_
Strabo
Subura, the
_Suffragii, ius_
Sulla
Sulla, P.
Sulpicius (S.), Rufus
Sun-dials
_Supplicationes_
_Synthesis_

_Tabellarii
Tabernae
Tabernae argentariae
Tablinum
Tabulae
Tabulae novae_
Tabularia, the
_Tepidarium_
Terence
Terentia
Theatre, the
Theatre, building of a
Thurii
Tiber
Tiber island
_Tibicines_
Tibur
Time, divisions of, in the day
Tiro (Cicero's slave)
_Tirocinium fori_
Titus, arch of
_Toga_; _libera_; _praetexta_; _virilis_
_Togatae, fabulae_. See _Fabulae togatae_
Tragedy
_Tributum_
_Triclinia_
Triumph, a
Trofei di Mario
Tullia (Cicero's daughter)
Tullianum, the
_Tunica_
Turia, the story of
Tusculum, Cicero's villa at
_Tutela_
_Tutor_
Twelve Tables, the

_Usus_

Valerius Maximus
Varro
Varro, Terentius (consul)
Veii
Velabrum, the
Velia, the
_Venationes_
Venus Victrix, temple of
Verres
Vesta; temple of
Vestal Virgins
Veterans, Roman
Via Aurelia; Appia; Collatina; Latina; Sacra
Victoriae, Ludi. See Ludi Victoriae
Vicus Tuscus
_Vilicus_
_Villa pseudurbana_
Vinalia, the
_Vindicta_
Virgil
Voconia, lex

Water-clocks, introduction of

THE END

APPENDIX

Page 1, l. 12. _totam aestimare Romam_: to appreciate Rome in its
entirety.

Page 3, l. 12. _Hinc ad Tarpeiam_, etc.: he leads him next to the
Tarpeian Rock and to the Capitol, now of gold, once thick with wild
bushes.

Page 4, l. 24. _Hinc septem_, etc.: from here you may see the seven
hills of the sovereign city, and appreciate Rome as a whole, the Alban
and the Tusculan hills, and all the cool suburban retreats.

Page 10, l. 1. _rerum_, etc. Rome became a supreme thing of beauty.

Page 10, l. 13. _nativa praesidia_: natural defences.

Page 10, l. 21. _regionum_, etc. A site in the middle of Italy,
singularly fitted by nature for the development of the city.

Page 17, l. 2. _nec ferrea_, etc.: nor has he seen the hardships of
the law, the mad forum, or the archives of the people.

Page 22, l. 2. _Ille, ille_, etc.: he it was, Jupiter himself, who
withstood the attack, he who willed it that the Capitol, that these
temples, that the whole city and you all should be safe.

Page 29, footnote 1. _in montibus_, etc.: built between mountains and
valleys, raised and almost suspended on high, through the stones of
its buildings, with its back streets.

Page 39, l. 6. _ubi semel_, etc.: he who has once strayed from the
right path will come to calamity.

Page 52, l. 11. _lanificium_: the working of wool.

Page 55, l. 26. _graffiti_: ancient scribblings, scratched, painted,
or otherwise marked on a wall, column, tablet, or other surface.

Page 61, l. 4. _quaestio de repetundis_: court for extortion.

Page 64, l. 15. _familiarem_, etc.: intimate with L. Lucullus,
wealthy, of intractable character.

Page 73, l. 14. _qui de censoribus_, etc.: whosoever shall have
secured a contract from the censors shall not be accepted as associate
or shareholder.

Page 73, footnote 2. _Asiatici_, etc.: of the public revenue of Asia,
he had a very small share.

Page 91, l. 3. _fortissimus_, etc.: a most powerful and important
farmer of the public revenue.

Page 93, l. 20. _insanum forum_: the forum in its maddening bustle.

Page 116, l. 12. _doctissimus_, etc.: the most learned of that time.

Page 121, l. 11. _monumentum_, etc.: a monument more enduring than
bronze.

Page 123, l. 20. _vere humanus:_ truly refined.

Page 127, l. 23. _omnia_, etc.: he transforms himself into all
portentous shapes.

Page 130, l. 20. _menager ses transitions:_ to pass gradually over to
the other side.

Page 132, l. 18. _de vi:_ of criminal violence.

Page 133, l. 9. _Uni se_, etc.: they are addicted to one and the same
practice, that they may cautiously cheat and craftily contend, outdo
each other in blandishments, feign honesty, set snares as if they were
all enemies to each other.

Page 133, l. 28. _rari nantes_, etc.: few and scattered swimmers in
the vast abyss.

Page 142 (bottom). _Claudite_, etc.: close the doors, maidens, enough
have we sung. And you, noble couple, live happily and apply your
vigorous youth to the assiduous task of wedlock.

Page 149, footnote 2. _Si quid_, etc.: if a woman act reprehensibly or
disgracefully, he punishes her; if she has drunk wine, if she has done
something wrong with a stranger, he condemns her. If you surprise your
wife in the act of adultery, you may with impunity kill her without
any form of judgment; but if she caught you in adultery, she would not
dare touch you, for she has no right.

Page 150, l. 11. _liberorum_, etc.: in order to have children.

Page 155, l. 22. _Odi_, etc.: I hate and I love. You ask perhaps how
that can be. I do not know, I feel it, and am distressed.

Page 155 (bottom). _Elle apportait_, etc.: she revealed in her private
behavior, in her affections, the same vehemence and the same passion
which her brother showed in public life. Ready for all excesses, and
not blushing to confess them, loving and hating with fury, incapable
of controlling herself, and opposed to all constraint, she did not
belie the great and haughty family from which she was sprung.

Page 178,1. 3. _rusticorum_, etc.:

The farmer-soldier's manly brood
Was trained to delve the Sabine sod,
And at an austere mother's nod
To hew and fetch the fagot wood.

Page 178, l. 20. _Maxima_, etc.: the greatest concern must be shown
for children.

Page 185, l. 8. _Avarus_, etc.:

The covetous is the cause of his own misery.
Bravery is increased by daring and fear by hesitation.
You can more easily discover fortune than cling to it.
The wrath of the just is to be dreaded.
A man dies every time that he is bereft of his kin.
Man is loaned, not given to life.
The best strife is rivalry in benignity.
Nothing is pleasing unless renewed by variety.
Bad is the plan which cannot be altered.
Less often would you err if you knew how much you don't know.
He who shows clemency always comes out victorious.
He who respects his oath succeeds in everything.
Where old age is at fault youth is badly trained.

Page 187, l. 7. _Grais_, etc.: the muse gave genius to the Greeks and
the pride of language, covetous of nothing but of praise. But the
Roman youths by long reckonings learn to split the coin into a hundred
parts. Let young Albinus say: "If you take one away from five pence,
what results?" "A groat." Good, you'll thrive.

Page 189, l. 1. In _grammaticis_, etc.: in the study of literature,
the perusal of the poets, the knowledge of history, the interpretation
of words, the peculiar tone of pronunciation.

Page 191, l. 9. _Orator est_, etc.: an orator, my son, is an upright
man skilled in speaking.

Page 191, l. 11. _Rem tene_, etc.: master the subject; the words will
follow.

Page 196, l. 9. _vir bonus_, etc.: see page 191, l. 9.

Page 196, l. 13. _Non enim_, etc.: eloquence and oratorical aptness
obtain good results if they be swayed by a right understanding and by
the discretion and control of the mind.

Page 210, footnote 1. _Mancipiis_, etc.: avoid being like the
Cappadocian monarch, rich in slaves and penniless in purse.

Page 211, footnote 1. _pone aedem_, etc.: behind the temple of Castor
are those to whom you'd be sorry to lend money.

Page 215, l. 18. _An te ibi_, etc.: would you stay there among those
harlots, prostitutes of bakers, leavings of the breadmakers, smeared
with rank cosmetics, nasty devotees of slaves?

Page 216, footnote 2. _agrum_, etc.: in cultivating the fields or in
hunting, servile occupations, etc.

Page 233, l. 5. _Nec turpe_, etc.: what a master commands cannot be
disgraceful.

Page 233, footnote 3. _Coli rura_, etc.: it is a bad practice to fill
the fields with men from the workhouse, or to have anything done by
men who are forsaken by hope.

Page 235, footnote 2. _Regum_, etc.: we have taken the tyrant's
temper.

Page 239, l. 10. _ante focos_, etc.: it was customary once to take
places in the long benches before the fireplace, and to trust that the
gods were present at our table.

Page 246, l. 5. _nunc vero_, etc.: but now from morning till evening,
on holidays and working days, the whole people, senators and
commoners, busy themselves in the forum and retire nowhere, etc. (See
page 133, l. 9, and translation of that passage.)

Page 246, footnote 2. _Urbem_, etc.: remain in the city, Rufus; stay
there and live in that light. All foreign travel is humble and lowly
for those that can work for the greatness of Rome.

Page 247, footnote 1. _Frequens_, etc.: constant change of abode is a
sign of unstable mind.

Page 248, l. 12. _contentio_, etc.: not a straining of the mind, but a
relaxation.

Page 259, l. 12. _locus_, etc.: a pleasant site, on the sea itself,
and can be seen from Antium and Circeii.

Page 265, footnote 3. _Ut illum_, etc.: may the gods confound him who
first invented the hours, and who first placed a sundial in this city.
Pity on me! They have cut up my day in compartments. Once when I was
a boy my stomach was my clock, and it was much more fitting and
reliable; it never failed to warn me except when there was nothing;
now, even when there is something, there is no eating unless it so
please the sun. For the whole city is full of sun-dials, and most of
the people crawl on in need of food and drink.

Page 269, footnote 1. _Romae_, etc.: in Rome it was for a long time a
joy and a pride to open up the house at early morning and attend to
the legal needs of the clients.

Page 275, l. 20. _Nesciit vivere_: he did not know how to live.

Page 277, l. 10. _ad noctem_: late into the night.

Page 280, l. 17. _Saepe tribus_, etc.: often you would see three
couches with four guests apiece.

Page 283, l. 21. [Greek: Emetikhaeu], etc.: he was under the
emetic cure, and consequently ate and drank freely and with much
satisfaction; and everything certainly was good and well served; nay
more, I may say that

"Though the cook was good,
'Twas Attic salt that flavored best the food."

Page 283, footnote 1. _qua lege_, etc.: which law did not determine
the expense, but the kind of victuals and the manner of cooking them.

Page 285, l. 11. _Agricolo_, etc.: the farmer is the first who after
a long day of toil in the fields adapted rustic songs to the laws of
metre; the first in satisfied leisure to modulate a song on his reed,
which he would say before the gods decked with flowers. It was the
farmer, O Bacchus, who with his face colored with reddish minium,
taught his untrained feet the first movements of the dance.

Page 287, l. 13. _Quippe etiam_, etc.: for even on holy days, divine
and human laws allow us to perform certain works. No religion has
forbidden to clear the channels, to raise a fence before the corn, to
lay snares for birds, to fire the thorns, and plunge in the wholesome
river a flock of bleating sheep.

Page 303, l. 2. _lex de ambitu_: law concerning the courting of
popular favor in canvassing.

Page 307, l. 4. _Eandem_, etc.: a time will come when you will bewail
that valor of yours.

Page 309, l. 7. _Spectatum_, etc.: they come to see, but they come
also to be seen.

Page 313, l. 27. _summuts artifex_: consummate artist.

Page 314, l. 3. _gravis_: serious.

Page 314, l. 4. _gravitas_: seriousness.

Page 315, l. 14. _Fescennina_, etc.: the rude Fescennine farce grew
from rites like these, where rustic taunts were hurled in alternate
verse; and the pleasing license, tolerated from year to year,
gambolled, etc.

Page 317, l. 18. _Nihil mihi_, etc.: know well that I lacked nothing
except company with whom to laugh in a friendly way and intelligently
over these things.

Page 324, l. 28. _mos maiorum_: the customs of our ancestors.

Page 327, l. 12. _Felix_, etc.: blessed is he who succeeded in knowing
the causes of events.

Page 327, l. 16. _Fortunatus_, etc.: fortunate he also who knows the
rustic gods.

Page 333, l. 6. _lectisternia_: a feast of the gods during which their
images on pillars were placed in the streets.

Page 333, l. 6. _supplicationes_: religious solemnities for
supplication.

Page 333, l. 6. _ludi_: games.

Page 339, l. 23. _numen_: godhead, deity.

Page 340, footnote 3. _idem etiam_, etc.: he says also that Jupiter is
the power of this law, eternal and immutable, which is the guide, so
to speak, of our life and the principle of our duties; a law which he
calls a fatal necessity, an eternal truth of future things.

Page 341, l. 15. _qua_: as.

Page 341, l. 26. _O qui res_, etc.: thou who rulest with eternal sway
the doings of men and gods.

Page 342, l. 1. _Olli_, etc.: the sire of men and gods, smiling to
her with that aspect wherewith he clears the tempestuous sky, gently
kissed his daughter's lips; then thus replies: Cytherea, cease from
fear; immovable to thee remain the fates of thy people.

Page 351, l. 13. _Iuppiter_, etc.: Jove reserved these shores for the
just, when he alloyed the golden age with brass; with brass, then with
iron he hardened the ages, from which there shall be a happy escape
according to my predictions.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 1: Martial iv. 64. 12.]

[Footnote 2: _Aen_. viii. 90. foll. The Capitoline hill, which Virgil
means by "arx" a conspicuous object from the river just below the
Aventine, and would have been much more conspicuous in the poet's
time. There is a view of it from this point in Burn's _Rome and the
Campagna_, p. 184.]

[Footnote 3: Plutarch, _Cato minor_ 39. Cato was expected to land
at the commercial docks _below_ the Aventine (see below), where the
senate and magistrates were awaiting him, but with his usual rudeness
rowed past them to the navalia.]

[Footnote 4: _Aen._ viii. 363. Possibly Virgil meant to put this
dwelling on the site of the future Regia, just below the Palatine and
between it and the Forum. See Servius _ad loc._]

[Footnote 5: The modern visitor would cross by the Ponte Rotto, which
is in the same position as the ancient bridge, just below the Tiber
island.]

[Footnote 6: Livy v. 54.]

[Footnote 7: The Fratres Arvales.]

[Footnote 8: For navigation of the river above Rome see Strabo p.
235.]

[Footnote 9: Horace _Od_. i. 2. After a bad flood in A.D. 15 proposals
were made for diverting a part of the water coming down the Tiber into
the Arnus, but this met with fatal opposition from the superstition
of the country people (Tacitus, _Ann_. i. 79). Nissen, _Italische
Landeskunde_, i. p. 324, has collected the records of these floods.]

[Footnote 10: See Nissen, i. p. 407. But it seems likely that the
Tiber valley was less malarious then than now (see Nissen's chapter on
malaria in Italy, p. 410 foll.). In an interesting paper on _Malaria
and History_, by Mr. W.H.S. Jones (Liverpool University Press), which
reached me after this chapter was written, the author is inclined to
attribute the ethical and physical degeneracy of the Romans of the
Empire partly to this cause.]

[Footnote 11: Livy v. 54.]

[Footnote 12: Horace, _Epode_ 16.]

[Footnote 13: _Reden und Aufsaetze_, p. 173 foll.]

[Footnote 14: _Ib._ p. 175.]

[Footnote 15: _De Rep_. ii. 5 and 6.]

[Footnote 16: Beloch, _Die Bewoelkerung der griechisch-roemischen Welt_,
cap. 9, approaching the problem by three several methods, puts it in
the first century A.D. at 800,000, including slaves. In Cicero's time
it was, no doubt, considerably less; but we know that in his last
years 320,000 free persons were receiving doles of corn, apart from
slaves and the well-to-do.]

[Footnote 17: Huelsen-Jordan, _Roem. Topographie_, vol. i. part iii. pp.
627, 638.]

[Footnote 18: _Ib_. 643; Cic. _ad Att_. xv. 15. Here, after the death
of his daughter Tullia, Cicero wished to buy land on which to erect
a fanum to her (Cic. _ad Att_. xii. 19). Here also were the horti
Caesaris.]

[Footnote 19: Livy xxxv. 40.]

[Footnote 20: Huelsen-Jordan, _op. cit_. p. 143 note.]

[Footnote 21: See below, p. 302. Dionysius of Halicarnassus (iii. 68)
gives an elaborate account of it in the time of Augustus, when it had
been altered and ornamented.--Huelsen-Jordan, p. 120 foll.]

[Footnote 22: Fowler, _Roman Festivals_, p. 199; Wissowa in
Pauly-Wissowa, _Real-Encyklopaedie_, s.v. Diana.]

[Footnote 23: The two roads converged just before arriving at the
city. The reader may be reminded that it was by the via Appia that St.
Paul entered Rome (Acts xxviii.). Another useful passage for this gate
is Juvenal in. 10 foll.]

[Footnote 24: It might be useful here to follow the course of the
_pomerium_, which also went round the Palatine, as described in
Tacitus, _Annals_ xii. 24.]

[Footnote 25: Cic. _de Officiis_ iii. 16. 66, and the story there
related.]

[Footnote 26: Strictly speaking, the Oppius Mons, or southern part of
the Esquiline.]

[Footnote 27: See Lanciani's admirable chapter, "A Walk through the
Sacra Via," in his _Ruins and Excavations of Ancient Rome_, p. 190
foll.]

[Footnote 28: _Georg_. ii. 502. Virgil, for all his admiration of
Rome, did not love its crowds.]

[Footnote 29: Cic. _pro Plancio_, ch. 7. Cp. Horace, _Sat_. i. 9;
Lucilius, _Frag._ 9 (ed. Baehrens), which last will be quoted in
another context.]

[Footnote 30: On the vexed question of the position of the Subura and
its history see Wissowa, _Gesammelte Abhandlungen_, p. 230 foll.]

[Footnote 31: For excavations here see Lanciani, _op. cit_. p. 221
foll.]

[Footnote 32: Cic. _Cat._ iii. 9. 21 foll.]

[Footnote 33: Formerly we may assume that it faced south or
south-east, like the temple.]

[Footnote 34: It was completed by Caesar in 46 B.C.]

[Footnote 35: Beloch, _Bewoelkerung_ p. 382.]

[Footnote 36: C.I.L. i. 206, and Dessau, _Inscr. Lat. Selectae_, ii.
1. p. 493.]

[Footnote 37: Cic. _ad Q. Fratr_. iii.I. 14 Suet. _de Grammaticis_,
15; Corn. Nepos, _Atticus_, 13.]

[Footnote 38: Huelsen-Jordan, _Roem. Topographie_, vol. i. part iii. p.
323.]

[Footnote 39: This is the number receiving corn gratis when Julius
Caesar reformed the corn-distribution.--Suetonius, _Iul_. 41.]

[Footnote 40: See Zeller, _Stoics_, etc., Eng. trans. p. 255 foll.]

[Footnote 41: cic. _de Legibus_, i. 15. 43. It was not as yet possible
to be "poor, making many rich"; to have nothing and yet to possess all
things.]

[Footnote 42: See the definition of insula in Festus. n. Ill. and
for insula generally Middleton's article "Domus" in the _Dict, of
Antiquities_, ed. 2. De Marchi (_La Religione nella vita domestica_,
i. p. 80) compares the big lodging-houses of the poor at Naples.]

[Footnote 43: Cicero (_Leg. Agr._ ii. 35. 96) describes Rome as being
(in comparison with Capua) "in montibus positam et convallibus,
coenaculis (i.e. upper rooms) sublatum atque suspensam, non optimis
viis," etc. Vitruv. ii. 17 is the _locus classicus_.]

[Footnote 44: Cic. _pro Caelio_ 17.]

[Footnote 45: In _C.I.L._ vi. 65-67 we find a Bona Dea erected "in
tutelam insulae," i.e. a common cult for all the lodgers. De Marchi
_l.c._ compares the common shrine of the Neapolitan lodging-house.
Tutela is mentioned as a protecting deity both of insulae and domus by
St. Jerome, _Com. in Isaiam_, 672.]

[Footnote 46: Cic. _de Domo_ 109.]

[Footnote 47: Cic. _ad Att._ xv. 17; cp. xiv. 9.]

[Footnote 48: Plut. _Crassus_ 2: perhaps from Fenestella.]

[Footnote 49: "Dormientem in taberna," Asconius, ed. Clark, p. 37. Cp.
Tacitus, _Hist_ i. 86, for persons sleeping in tabernae.]

[Footnote 50: Tucker, _Life in Ancient Athens_, p. 10.]

[Footnote 51: The _Moretum_ may be a translation from a Greek poet,
perhaps Parthenius, but it is certainly as well adapted to the
experience of Italians.]

[Footnote 52: e.g. Caesar, _Bell. Civ._ iii. 47. Cp. Tacitus, _Ann_.
xiv. 24.]

[Footnote 53: On this point see Salvioli, _Le Capitalisme dans le
monde antique_, ch. vi. is a book with many shortcomings, but written
by an Italian who knows his own country.]

[Footnote 54: See the author's _Roman Festivals_, p. 76 (Cerealia).]

[Footnote 55: Marquardt, _Staatsverwaltung_, ii. pp. 107, 110 foll. A
modius, which = nearly a peck, contained about 20 lb. of wheat (Pliny,
_N.H._ xviii. 66). Four and a half modii x 20=90 lb.]

[Footnote 56: Hirschfeld, _Verwaltungsbeamten_, ed. 2, p. 231; Strabo,
p. 652 (Rhodes).]

[Footnote 57: Caesar, _B.C._ iii. 42. 3.]

[Footnote 58: Marquardt, _op. cit._ p. 110.]

[Footnote 59: For Gracchus' motives see a paper by the present writer
in the _English Historical Review_ for 1905, p. 221 foll.]

[Footnote 60: Cic. _Tusc. Disp._ iii. 20. 48.]

[Footnote 61: Lex Julia municipalis, 1-20, compared with Suetonius,
_Jul_. 41.]

[Footnote 62: A good example will be found in Cic. _ad Att._ iv. 1.
6 foll.; the first letter written by Cicero after his return from
exile.]

[Footnote 63: See my _Roman Festivals_, pp. 85 and 204.]

[Footnote 64: Pliny, _Nat. Hist_. xviii. 17.]

[Footnote 65: Suet. _Aug_. 42.]

[Footnote 66: Frontinus i. 4. The date of his work is towards the end
of the first century A.D.]

[Footnote 67: See Lanciani, _Ruins and Excavations_, p. 48; Mommsen,
_Hist_. vol. i. Appendix.]

[Footnote 68: Frontinus i. 7, whose account is confirmed by the
recently discovered Epitomes of Livy's lost books.--Grenfell and Hunt,
_Oxyrhynchus Papyri_, iv. 113.]

[Footnote 69: See the useful table in Lanciani, _op. cit._ 58.]

[Footnote 70: This dates from the reign of Domitian. The nature of the
public fountain may be realised at Pompeii. See Mau, _Pompeii, its
Life and Art_, p. 224 foll.]

[Footnote 71: Cic. _de Officiis_, i. 42. 150.]

[Footnote 72: Livy xxii. 25 _ad fin_.]

[Footnote 73: It is very conspicuous, e.g., in the novels of Jane
Austen.]

[Footnote 74: G. Unwin, _Industrial Organisation_, etc., p. 2.]

[Footnote 75: Plutarch, _Numa_, 17; Ovid, _Fasti_, iii. 310 foll.]

[Footnote 76: J.B. Carter, _The Religion of Numa_, p. 48.]

[Footnote 77: Marq. iii. p. 138. See also Kornemann's article
"Collegium" in Pauly-Wissowa, _Real-Encykl._, and Waltzing,
_Corporations professionelles chez les Romains_, i. p. 78 foll.]

[Footnote 78: _Le Capitalisme_, etc., p. 144 foll.]

[Footnote 79: Cairnes, _Slave Power_, pp. 78, 143 foll. See below, p.
235.]

[Footnote 80: Pliny, _Nat. Hist._ xviii. 107.]

[Footnote 81: _C.I.L._ i. 1013. The date is possibly pre-Augustan.]

[Footnote 82: Mau's _Pompeii_, p. 380.]

[Footnote 83: See my _Roman Festivals_, p. 148. For the mills of
various kinds see also Marquardt, _Privatleben_, p. 405.]

[Footnote 84: _Privatleben_, p. 409.]

[Footnote 85: _Pseudolus_, 810 foll.]

[Footnote 86: Cp. the uncta popina of Horace, _Epist_. i. 14. 21 foll.
Scene in a wineshop at Pompeii, Mau, p. 395.]

[Footnote 87: See, e.g., the Laudatio Turiae, _C.I.L._ vi. i. 1527,
line 30.]

[Footnote 88: Only very rich families employed their own
fullers.--Marq. _Privatleben_, p. 512.]

[Footnote 89: _Menaechmi_, 404: this may, however, be only a
translation from the Greek.]

[Footnote 90: _C.I.L._ i. p. 389.]

[Footnote 91: Marquardt, _Privatleben_, p. 693 and reff.]

[Footnote 92: Cato, _de re rustica_, 135; a very interesting chapter,
which shows that of the farmer's "plant," clothing, rugs, carts as
well as dolia, were best purchased at Rome.]

[Footnote 93: Marq. _Privatleben_, p. 645.]

[Footnote 94: Strabo, p. 231.]

[Footnote 95: Lex Julia Municipalis, line 56 foll.]

[Footnote 96: Mau, _Pompeii_, p. 377.]

[Footnote 97: See Greenidge, _Roman Public Life_, p. 225.]

[Footnote 98: Lex Claudia; Livy xxi. 63.]

[Footnote 99: Plut. _Crassus_, 2; Pliny, _N.H._ xxxiii. 134:
equivalent to about L160,000.]

[Footnote 100: Cic. _ad Att_. ii. 1. 2.]

[Footnote 101: _Ib._ iv. 4.]

[Footnote 102: Corn. Nepos, _Atticus_, 5.]

[Footnote 103: Livy ixiii. 49.]

[Footnote 104: Pliny, _N.H._ xxxiii. 148; Livy xxxvii. 59.]

[Footnote 105: Polyb. xxxiv. 9, quoted by Strabo, p. 148. Cp. Livy
xlv. 18 for valuable mines in Macedonia.]

[Footnote 106: Polyb. xviii. 35, For the unwillingness to serve, Livy,
Epit. 48 and 55.]

[Footnote 107: Cunningham, _Western Civilisation (Modern)_, p. 162
foll.]

[Footnote 108: Duruy, _Hist. de Rome_, vol. ii. p. 12.]

[Footnote 109: Cic. _de Provinciis consularibus_, v. 12.]

[Footnote 110: Cic. _pro Quinctio_ 3. 12; a good case of partnership
in a res pecuaria et rustica in Gaul.]

[Footnote 111: Examples in Livy xxiii. 49; xxxii. 7 (portoria);
xxxviii. 35 (corn-supply); xliv. 16 (army); xlii. 9 (revenue of ager
Campanus).]

[Footnote 112: Festus, ed. Mueller, p. 151.]

[Footnote 113: e.g. Livy xxii. 60 praedibus et praediis cavere
populo.]

[Footnote 114: Cicero, in his defence of Rabirius Postumus, 2.4, says
that Rabirius' father magnas _partes_ habuit publicorum. One Aufidius
(Val. Max. vi. 9. 7) "Asiatici publici exiguam admodum _particulam_
habuit." Cp. Cic _in Vat._ 12. 29]

[Footnote 115: This is the view of Deloume, _Les Manieurs d'argent a
Rome_, p. 119 foll.]

[Footnote 116: Marq. _Staatsverwaltung_, ii. p.291]

[Footnote 117: Deloume, _Manieurs d'argent_, p. 317 foll.]

[Footnote 118: _pro lege Manilia_, 7. 18.]

[Footnote 119: _Ib._ 7. 19.]

[Footnote 120: _ad Att._ i. 17. 9. Crassus, no doubt a large
shareholder, urged them on.]

[Footnote 121: In a letter to his brother, then governor of this
province, Cicero contemplates the possibility of contracts being taken
at a loss (_ad Q.F._ i. 1. 33), "publicis male redemptis." And in a
letter of introduction in 46, he alludes to heavy losses suffered in
this way, _ad Fam._ xiii. 10.]

[Footnote 122: _ad Att._ v. 16. 2.]

[Footnote 123: _Ib._ vi. 1. 16.]

[Footnote 124: _ad Familiares_, xiii. 65.]

[Footnote 125: _Ib._ xiii. 9. I have not adhered quite closely to his
translation.]

[Footnote 126: "Qui est in operis ejus societatis," i.e. engaged as a
subordinate agent.--Marquardt, _Staatsverwaltung_, ii. p. 291.]

[Footnote 127: Marq. ii. p. 35 foll.]

[Footnote 128: See his article in _Dict. of Antiq._ ed. 2, s.v.
argentarii.]

[Footnote 129: Augustus' grandfather was an argentarius (Suet. _Aug._
2), yet his son could marry a Julia, and be elected to the consulship,
which, however, he was prevented by death from filling.]

[Footnote 130: The word for this cheque is _perscriptio_. Cp. Cic. _ad
Att_. ix. 12. 3 viri boni usuras perscribunt, i.e. draw the interest
on their deposits.]

[Footnote 131: Cic. _ad Att_. xii. 24 and 27.]

[Footnote 132: Cic. _ad Fam_. xvi. 4 and 9]

[Footnote 133: Cic. _ad Att_. xiii. contains many letters of interest
in this connexion.]

[Footnote 134: Cic. _ad Att._ xiii. 2. 3. Cp. xii. 25. In xii. 12
Cicero's divorced wife Terentia wishes to pay a debt by transferring
to her creditor a debt of Cicero's to herself. Another way in
which actual payment could be avoided was by paying interest on
purchase-money instead of the lump sum. Cp. xii. 22.]

[Footnote 135: A good example of this in Velleius ii. 10
(house-rent).]

[Footnote 136: Cic. _de Officiis_, ii. 24, 84.]

[Footnote 137: Caesar, _de Bell. Civ._ iii. 1 and 20 foll.]

[Footnote 138: Deloume in his _Manieurs d'argent_ has a chapter on
this (p. 58 foll.), but his details are not wholly to be relied
on. Boissier's sketch in _Ciceron et ses amis_, 83 foll., is quite
accurate.]

[Footnote 139: _ad Fam_. v. 20 fin.]

[Footnote 140: _Ib_. v. 9.]

[Footnote 141: Deloume's attempt to prove that Cicero speculated with
enormous profits seems to me to miss the mark.]

[Footnote 142: _ad Q. Fratr._ ii. 4. 3. Cp. _ad Att._ iv. 2.]

[Footnote 143: _ad Q. Fratr._ ii. 14. 3.]

[Footnote 144: _ad Att._ xii. 22. I may add in a footnote a final
startling example of recklessness we have been noting. Decimus Brutus
had, in March 44 B.C., a capital of L320,000, yet next year he writes
to Cicero that so far from any part of his private property being
unencumbered, he had encumbered all his friends with debt also (_ad
Fam._ xi. 10. 5). But this was in order to maintain troops.]

[Footnote 145: _ad Att._ xiii. 42. Cp. xvi. 5.]

[Footnote 146: What the king really wanted the money for, was to bribe
the senate to restore him.--Cic. _ad Fam._ i. 1.]

[Footnote 147: Cic. _pro Bab. Post_. 8. 22.]

[Footnote 148: Varro, _R.R._ i. 2. Ferrero (_Greatness and Decline of
Rome_) has the merit of having discerned the signs of the regeneration
of Italian agriculture at this time, but he is apt to push his
conclusions further than the evidence warrants. See the translation of
his work by A.E. Zimmern, i. p. 124; ii. p. 131 foll. The statement of
Pliny quoted by him (xv. 1. 3) that oil was first exported from Italy
in the year 52 B.C., is, however, of the utmost importance.]

[Footnote 149: The Republic was not to last long; but among the
consuls of the last years of its existence were several members of the
old families.]

[Footnote 150: _ad Fam_. xv. 12. This rather stilted letter is nearly
identical with one to the other consul-designate, another aristocrat,
Claudius Marcellus. Cicero is in each case trying to do his own
business, while writing to a man of higher social rank than his own.]

[Footnote 151: The letters of the years 58 to 54 are full of bitter
allusions to the _invidia_ of these men, which culminate in the long
and windy one to Lentulus Spinther of October 54, where he actually
accuses them of taking up Clodius in order to spite him. In a
confidential note to Atticus in the spring of 56, he told him that
they hated him for buying the Tusculan villa of the great noble
Catulus.--_ad Fam._ i. 9; _ad Att_. iv. 5.]

[Footnote 152: Plutarch, _Cato major_ 2 and 12.]

[Footnote 153: Corn. Nepos, _Cato_ 1. 4, who remarks that Cato's
return from his quaestorship in Sardinia with Ennius in his train was
as good as a splendid triumph.]

[Footnote 154: Plut. _Aem. Paul. 6 ad fin._]

[Footnote 155: Polybius, xxxii. 9-16.]

[Footnote 156: The difference between him and his father, especially
in politics, is sketched in Plutarch's _Life_ of the latter, ch.
xxxviii.]

[Footnote 157: Leo, in _Die griechische und lateinische Literatur_, p.
337.]

[Footnote 158: The best specimens, or rather the worst, are to be
found in the speeches _in Pisonem, in Vatinium_, and in the _Second
Philippic_.]

[Footnote 159: The most instructive passage on vituperatio is Cicero's
defence of Caelius, ch. 3. Cp. Quintilian iii. 7. 1 and 19. On the
custom at triumphs, etc., see Munro's _Elucidations of Catullus_, p.
75 foll. for most valuable remarks.]

[Footnote 160: We have courteous letters from Cicero both to Piso and
Vatinius, only a few years after he had depicted them in public as
monsters of iniquity.]

[Footnote 161: Plut. C. Gracchus, ch. 6 _ad fin_. Cp. Livy vii. 33.]

[Footnote 162: These characteristic figures may be most conveniently
seen in Strong's interesting volume on Roman sculpture, p. 42 foll.]

[Footnote 163: Plut. _Cato_, ch. 1. _ad fin_. Blanditia was the word
for civility in a candidate: "opus est magnopere blanditia," says
Quintus Cicero, _de pet cons_.Sec. 41.]

[Footnote 164: There is a pleasanter picture of Cato, sitting in
Lucullus' library and in his right mind, in Cic. _de Finibus_ iii. 2.
7.]

[Footnote 165: See Leo, in work already cited, p. 338 foll.]

[Footnote 166: For this remarkable writer, of whose work only a few
fragments survive, see Leo, _op. cit._ p. 340, and Schanz, _Gesch. der
roem. Literatur_, i. p. 278 foll.]

[Footnote 167: Cicero, _Brutus_, 75, 262.]

[Footnote 168: The other Caesarian writers followed him more or less
successfully; Hirtius, who wrote the eighth book of the Gallic War,
and the authors of the Alexandrian, African, and Spanish Wars (the
first possibly by Asinius Pollio).]

[Footnote 169: Leo, _op. cit._ p. 355.]

[Footnote 170: See below, ch. vi.]

[Footnote 171: The passage just cited from the _de Finibus_ (iii. 27)
introduces us to the library of Lucullus at Tusculum, whither Cicero
had gone to consult books, and where he found Cato sitting surrounded
by volumes of Stoic treatises.]

[Footnote 172: The fragments of Panaetius are collected by H.N.
Fowler, Bonn, 1885. The best account of his teaching known to me is in
Schmekel, _Philosophie der Mittleren Stoa_, p. 18 foll. But all can
read the two first books of the _de Officiis_.]

[Footnote 173: Leo, _op. cit._ p. 360. Schmekel deals comprehensively
with Posidonius' philosophy, as reflected in Varro and Cicero, p. 85
foll.]

[Footnote 174: See Professor Reid's introduction to Cicero's
_Academica_, p. 17. Cicero considered Posidonius the greatest of the
Stoics.--_Ib._ p. 5.]

[Footnote 175: Cic. _de Legibus_ i. affords many examples of this
view, which was apparently that of Posidonius, e.g. 6. 18 and 8. 25.
Cp. _de Republica_, iii. 22. 33.]

[Footnote 176: Gaius i. i; Cic. _de Officiis_ iii. 5. 23; Mommsen,
_Staatsrecht_, iii. p. 604, based on the research of H. Nettleship in
_Journal of Philology_, vol. xiii. p. 175. See also Sohm, _Institutes
of Roman Law_, ch. ii.]

[Footnote 177: _Brutus_ 41. 151, where he plainly ranks him above
Scaevola. The passage is a most interesting one, deserving careful
attention.]

[Footnote 178: The _Ninth Philippic_: the passage referred to in the
text is 5. 10 foll.]

[Footnote 179: I omit _pro Murena_, chs. vii. and xxi., for want of
space. Sulpicius was opposing Cicero in this case, and the latter's
allusions to him are useful specimens of the good breeding spoken of
above.]

[Footnote 180: See Dio Cassius xl. 59; and Cic. _ad Fam_. iv. 1 and 3,
to Sulpicius, with allusions to his consulship.]

[Footnote 181: _Tusc. Disp_. iv. 3. 6.]

[Footnote 182: The speech _in Pisonem_; cp. the _de Provinciis
consularibus_, 1-6. This Piso was the father of Caesar's wife
Calpurnia, who survives in Shakespeare.]

[Footnote 183: The difficult passage in which Cicero describes the
perversion of this character under the influence of Philodemus, has
been skilfully translated by Dr. Mahaffy in his _Greek World under
Roman Sway_, p. 126 foll.; and the reader may do well to refer to his
whole treatment of the practical result of Epicureanism.]

[Footnote 184: This chapter is also useful as illustrating the
urbanity of manners, for Lucullus and Pompeius were political
enemies.]

[Footnote 185: _ad Fam_. viii. 5 _fin_.; viii. 9. 2.]

[Footnote 186: See the introduction of Asconius to Cicero _pro
Cornelio_, ed. Clark, p. 58.]

[Footnote 187: _ad Att_. v. 21. 11, 13.]

[Footnote 188: _ad Q. frat._ ii. 1. 1; ii. 10. 1.]

[Footnote 189: The letters written immediately after Cicero's return
from exile are the best examples of this paralysis of business, e.g.
_ad Fam_. i. 4; _ad Q. F_. ii. 3. See a useful paper by P. Groebe in
_Klio_, vol. v. p. 229.]

[Footnote 190: This appears from a letter of Oaelius to Cicero in
51.--_ad Fam._ viii. 8. 8.]

[Footnote 191: Asconius _in Cornelianum_, ed. Clark, p. 59. "Ut
praetores ex edictis suis perpetuis ius dicerent."]

[Footnote 192: All his letters are in the eighth book of those _ad
Familiares_.]

[Footnote 193: Tacitus, _Annals_ xiii. 2: "voluptatibus concessis."]

[Footnote 194: Quintil. iv. 2. 123.]

[Footnote 195: Brutus 79. 273.]

[Footnote 196: e.g. _ad Fam._ ii. 13. 3.]

[Footnote 197: Exactly the same combination of real interest in, and
frivolous treatment of, politics is to be found in the early letters
of Horace Walpole to Sir H. Mann, especially those of the year 1742.]

[Footnote 198: _ad Fam._ viii. 14. 3.]

[Footnote 199: Caesar, Bell. Civ. iii. 20 foll.]

[Footnote 200: See above, p. 86; cp. p. 58.]

[Footnote 201: So for example Servaeus is disqualified, _ad Fam_.
viii. 4. I.]

[Footnote 202: _Ib_. viii. 8. 2]

[Footnote 203: _Ib_. 8. 12]

[Footnote 204: Lucilius, _Fragm_. 9, ed. Baehrens.]

[Footnote 205: This probably means that the deity was believed to
reside in the cake, and that the communicants not only entered into
communion with each other in eating of it, but also with him. It is
in fact exactly analogous to the sacramental ceremony of the Latin
festival, in which each city partook of the sacred victim, in that
case a white heifer. See Fowler, Roman _Festivals_, p. 96 and reff.]

[Footnote 206: This interesting custom is recorded by Servius (ad Aen.
iv. 374). For the whole ceremony of confarreatio see De Marchi,
_La Religione nella vita domestica_, p. 155 foll.; Marquardt,
_Privatleben_, p. 32 foll. Cp. also Gaius i. 112.]

[Footnote 207: Gaius l.c.]

[Footnote 208: Cic. _de Off_. i. 17. 54.]

[Footnote 209: i.e. ius commercii and ius connubii: the former
enabling a man to claim the protection of the courts in all cases
relating to property, the latter to claim the same protection in cases
of disputed inheritance.]

[Footnote 210: i.e. ius provocationis, ius suffragii, ius honorum.]

[Footnote 211: This is how I understand Cuq, _Institutions juridiques
des Romains_, p. 223. In the well known Laudatio Turiae we have a
curious case of a re-marriage by coemptio with manus, for a particular
purpose, connected of course with money matters. See Mommsen's
Commentary, reprinted in his _Gesammelte Schriften_, vol. i.]

[Footnote 212: Westermarck, _History of Human Marriage_, ch. x.]

[Footnote 213: See, however, the curious passage quoted by Gellius
(iv. 4. 2) from Serv. Sulpicius, the great jurist (above, p. 118
foll.), on _sponsalia_ in Latium down to 89 B.C.]

[Footnote 214: For the other details of the dress, see Marq.
_Privatleben_, p. 43.]

[Footnote 215: Cic. _de Div._ i. 16. 28.]

[Footnote 216: These lines suggested to Virgil the famous four at the
end of the fourth Eclogue. See _Virgil's "Messianic Eclogue_," p. 72.]

[Footnote 217: She was addressed as _domina_, by all members of the
family. See Marquardt, _Privatleben_, p. 57 note 3. It should be noted
that she had brought a contribution to the family resources in
the form of a dowry (dos) given her by her father to maintain her
position.]

[Footnote 218: These details are drawn chiefly from the sixth book of
Valerius Maximus, _de Pudicitia_.]

[Footnote 219: This is proved by an allusion to Cato's speech in
support of the law, in Gellius, _Noct. Att._ vi. 13.]

[Footnote 220: Livy xxxiv. 1 foll., where the speech of Cato is
reproduced in Livy's language and with "modern" rhetoric.]

[Footnote 221: De Marchi, _op. cit._ p. 163; Marq. _Privatleben_, p.
87 foll. Confarreatio was only dissoluble by diffarreatio, but this
was perhaps used only for penal purposes. Other forms of marriage
did not present the same difficulty, not being of a sacramental
character.]

[Footnote 222: Plutarch, _Aem. Paull._ 5.]

[Footnote 223: Livy xl. 37.]

[Footnote 224: Livy, _Epit._ 48.]

[Footnote 225: Livy xxxix. 8-18.]

[Footnote 226: Plutarch, _Cato the Elder_ 8.]

[Footnote 227: Gellius (x. 23) quotes a fragment of Cato's speech de
Dotibus, in which the following sentences occur: "Si quid perverse
taetreque factum est a muliere, multitatur: si vinum bibit, si cum
alieno viro probri quid fecerit, condempnatur. In adulterio uxorem
tuam si prehendisses sine indicio impune necares: illa te, si
adulterares sive tu adulterarere, digito non auderet contingere, neque
ius est." Under such circumstances a bold woman might take her revenge
illegally.]

[Footnote 228: Gellius i. 6; cp. Livy, Epit. 59.]

[Footnote 229: e.g. _ad Fam._ xiv. 2.]

[Footnote 230: The story of the relations of Cicero, Terentia,
Clodius, and Clodia, in Pint. _Cic._ 29 is too full of inaccuracies to
be depended on. In the 41st chapter what he says of the divorce and
its causes must be received with caution; it seems to come from some
record left by Tiro, Cicero's freedman and devoted friend, and as
Cicero obviously loved this man much more than his wife, we can
understand why the two should dislike each other.]

[Footnote 231: Plutarch, _Ti. Gracch._ 1; _Gaius Gracch._ 19. The
letters of Cornelia which are extant are quite possibly genuine.]

[Footnote 232: The recent edition of the _Ars amatoria_ by Paul Brandt
has an introduction in which these points are well expressed.]

[Footnote 233: Catullus 72. 75.]

[Footnote 234: _Ciceron et ses amis_, p. 175.]

[Footnote 235: Decimus Brutus, one of the tyrannicides of March 15,
44.]

[Footnote 236: Sall. _Cat_. 25.]

[Footnote 237: Plut. _Lucullus_ 6.]

[Footnote 238: Cic. _ad Fam._ viii. 7: a letter of Caelius, in which
he tells of a lady who divorced her husband without pretext on the
very day he returned from his province.]

[Footnote 239: Plut. _Cato min._ 25 and 52. Plutarch seems to be
using here the Anti-Cato of Caesar, but the facts must have been well
known.]

[Footnote 240: e.g. _ad Att._ xv. 29.]

[Footnote 241: _ad Fam._ ix. 26.]

[Footnote 242: The so-called Laudatio Turiae is well known to all
students of Roman law, as raising a complicated question of Roman
legal inheritance; but it may also be reckoned as a real fragment of
Roman literature, valuable, too, for some points in the history of
the time it covers. It was first made accessible and intelligible by
Mommsen in 1863, and the paper he then wrote about it has lately been
reprinted in his _Gesammelte Schriften_, vol. i., together with a
new fragment discovered on the same site as the others in 1898. This
fragment, and a discussion of its relation to the whole, will he found
in the _Classical Review_ for June 1905, p. 261; the laudatio without
the new fragment in _C.I.L._ vi. 1527.]

[Footnote 243: App. _B.C._ iv. 44. The identification has been
impugned of late, but, as I think, without due reason. See my article
in _Classical Rev._, 1905, p. 265.]

[Footnote 244: This is how I interpret the new fragment. See
_Classical Rev. l.c._ p. 263 foll.]

[Footnote 245: For the legal question see Mommsen, _Gesammelte
Schriften_, i. p. 407 foll.]

[Footnote 246: The account that follows is put together from Appian
iv. 44, Valerius Maximus vi. 7. 2, and the Laudatio. Appian preserved
some fifty stories of escapes at this time, and the only one that fits
with the Laudatio is that of Lucretius.]

[Footnote 247: Newman, _Politics of Aristotle_, i. p. 372.]

[Footnote 248: A list of the best authorities will be found at the
beginning of Professor Wilkins' book. Of these by far the most useful
for a student is the section in Marquardt's _Privatleben_, p. 79 foll.
The two volumes of Cramer (_Geschichte der Erziehung_, etc.), which
cover all antiquity, are, as he says, most valuable for their breadth
of view. See also H. Nettleship, _Lectures and Essays_, ch. iii.
foll.]

[Footnote 249: Plut. _Cato the Elder_, ch. xx.]

[Footnote 250: Plut. _Aem. Paul._ ch. vi.]

[Footnote 251: Plut. _Cato minor 1 ad fin._ What is told in the
earlier part of this chapter may perhaps be invention, based on the
character of the grown man; but this information at the end may be
derived from a contemporary source.]

[Footnote 252: Val. Max. iii. 1. 2.]

[Footnote 253: There is a single story of Cicero's boyhood in
Plutarch's _Life_ of him, ch. ii., that parents used to visit his
school because of his fame as a scholar, etc., but to this I do not
attach much importance.]

[Footnote 254: So in _ad Q.F._ iii. 1. 7: de Cicerone tuo quod me
semper rogas, etc.]

[Footnote 255: Ib.]

[Footnote 256: Ib. iii. 3. 4.]

[Footnote 257: Ib. iii. 9.]

[Footnote 258: See the few fragments in the Appendix to Riese's
edition of the remains of Varro's Menippean Satires, p. 248 foll.]

[Footnote 259: _De Rep._ iv. 3. 3.]

[Footnote 260: Plut. _Cato_ 20.]

[Footnote 261: There is probably an allusion to the Stoic view, that
reason is not attained till the fourteenth year, in Virgil's line in
_Ecl._ 4. 27.]

[Footnote 262: in Nonius, p. 108, s.v. ephippium. Cp. the account of
the education of Cato's young son, Plut. _Cato_, 20. Cp. also Virg.
_Aen._ ix. 602 foll.]

[Footnote 263: in Nonius, p. 156, s.v. puerae.]

[Footnote 264: p. 281, ed. Mueller.]

[Footnote 265: Her. _Odes_ iii. 6.]

[Footnote 266: Dionys. Hal. ii. 26.]

[Footnote 267: Cic. _pro Cluentio_ 60. 165; Marq. _Privatleben_, p.
87.]

[Footnote 268: See a paper by the author in _Classical Rev._ vol. x.
p. 317, in which evidence is collected in support of this view. That
the praetexta had a quasi-sacred character seems certain; see e.g.
Hor. _Epod._ 5. 7; Persius, v. 30; pseudo-Quintilian, _Declam._ 340.
See Henzen, _Acta Fratrum Arvalium_ 15, for the pueri patrimi et
matrimi, representing in that ancient cult the children of the old
Roman family.]

[Footnote 269: Cic. _de Legibus_, ii. 59.]

[Footnote 270: Polyb. vi. 53. For an account of the practice of
laudatio see Marq. _Privatleben_, p. 346 foll. This, too, degenerated
into falsification.]

[Footnote 271: A full list of games will be found in Marquardt,
_Privatleben_, p. 814 foll.]

[Footnote 272: The question is discussed by Quintilian, i. 2.]

[Footnote 273: Plut. Aem. Fault. 6.]

[Footnote 274: Full details about elementary schools in Wilkins, ch.
iv., and Marq p. 90 foll.]

[Footnote 275: Quintil. i. 3. 14.]

[Footnote 276: Plutarch is careful to tell us that Aem. Paullus
exercised this supervision himself (ch. vi.).]

[Footnote 277: _Pro Flacco_ 4, 9. Cp. _ad Quint. Fratr._ i. 2. 4.]

[Footnote 278: That the boy was not always respectful is shown in an
amusing passage in Plautus. _Bacchides_, III. iii. 34 foll.]

[Footnote 279: Sen. _Controversiae_, vii. 3. 8.]

[Footnote 280: London, O.J. Clay and Sons, 1895.]

[Footnote 281: Fortuna occurs many times, as in the so-called
sententiae Varronis printed at the end of Riese's edition of the
fragments of Varro's Menippean satires. This is characteristic of the
period.]

[Footnote 282: Hor. _Epist._ i. I. 70.]

[Footnote 283: Marq. _Privatleben_, p. 95 foll.; Wilkins, p. 53.]

[Footnote 284: There is a good example of this in the well-known case
of Brutus' loan to the Salaminians of Cyprus: see especially Cic. ad
Alt. v. 21. 12.]

[Footnote 285: Hor. Ars Poet. 323 foll.]

[Footnote 286: Mommsen, _Hist. of Rome_, iv. p. 563.]

[Footnote 287: Quintilian was of opinion that Greek authors should
precede Latin: i. I. 12.]

[Footnote 288: _De Oratore_, i. 187.]

[Footnote 289: There are many subjects in the book of other kinds, but
all are illustrated in exactly the same way.]

[Footnote 290: H. Jordan, _M. Catonis praeter librum de re rustica
quae extant_, p. 80.]

[Footnote 291: Full information on this point will be found in
Marquardt, _Privatleben_, p. 131 foll.]

[Footnote 292: See my _Roman Festivals_, p. 56. The Liberalia (March
17) was the usual day for the change, and a convenient one for the
enrolment of tirones.]

[Footnote 293: See the very interesting note (11) in Marq. p. 123, as
to the enrolment in municipal towns.]

[Footnote 294: Pro Caelio, 4. 9.]

[Footnote 295: Livy xlv. 37. 3.]

[Footnote 296: Pro Caelio, 30. 72.]

[Footnote 297: _Pro Caelio_, 31. 74.]

[Footnote 298: _Roman Education_, ch. v.]

[Footnote 299: Rhetorica ad Herenniwm, init. The date of this work was
about 82 B.C. See a paper by the author in Journal of Philology, x.
197.]

[Footnote 300: H. Nettleship, _Lectures_, etc., p. III; Wilkins, p.
85; Quintil. xii. 2.]

[Footnote 301: Wilkins, _l.c._]

[Footnote 302: Quintil. i. 4. 5; xii. 1. 1; xii. 2 and 7.]

[Footnote 303: _Ib._ xii. 1. 11.]

[Footnote 304: Plut. _Cic._ 4; _Caes._ 3.]

[Footnote 305: _ad Fam._ xvi. 21. The translation is based on Mr.
Shuckburgh's.]

[Footnote 306: See _Der Horn, Gutsbetrieb_, by H. Gummerus, reprinted
from _Klio_, 1906: an excellent specimen of economic research, to
which I am much indebted in this chapter.--E. Meyer, _Die Sclaverei im
Altertum_, p. 46.]

[Footnote 307: Strabo, p. 668.]

[Footnote 308: Livy, xlv. 34.]

[Footnote 309: Livy, _Epit._ 68.]

[Footnote 310: Caesar, _B.G._ ii. 33.]

[Footnote 311: _ad Att._ v. 20. 5.]

[Footnote 312: Wallon (_Hist. de l'Esclavage_, ii. p. 38) has noted
that Virgil alone shows a feeling of tenderness for the lot of the
captive, quoting _Aen_. iii. 320 foll. (the speech of Andromache): but
this was for the fate of a princess, and a mythical princess. No
Latin poet of that age shows any real sympathy with captives or with
slaves.]

[Footnote 313: Cic. _pro lege Manilia_ 12. 23. Plutarch, in his _Life
of Pompey_ 24, adds that Romans of good standing would join in the
pirates' business in order to make profit in this scandalous way.]

[Footnote 314: Suet. _Aug._ 32, of the period before Augustus.]

[Footnote 315: Varro, _R.R._ ii. 10; Diodorus xxxvi. 3. 1.]

[Footnote 316: Hor. _Epist_. i. 6. 39:--

"Mancipiis locuples eget aeris Cappadocum rex:
Ne fueris hic tu."
]

[Footnote 317: Varro, _R.R._ i. 17.]

[Footnote 318: _Ib_. 2. 10. 3.]

[Footnote 319: Hor. _Epode_ 2. 65. Cp. Tibull. ii. 1. 25 "turbaque
vernarum, saturi bona signa coloni."]

[Footnote 320: See Gummerus, _op. cit._ p. 63, who considers the
_obaeratus_ of Varro as the equivalent of the _addictus_ of the Roman
law of debt.]

[Footnote 321: See the well-known description of the Forum in Plautus'
_Curculio_, iv. 1: "pone aedem Castoris, ibi sunt subito quibu' credas
male"; Marq. _Privatleven_, p. 168; Wallon, _op. cit_. ch. ii.]

[Footnote 322: Gellius iv. 2 gives an extract from the edict of
the aediles drawn up with the object of counteracting such sharp
practice.]

[Footnote 323: Livy xxxix. 44.]

[Footnote 324: _N.H._. vii. 55. This story affords a good example
of the tricks of the trade: the boys were not twins, and came from
different countries, though exactly alike.]

[Footnote 325: _Bevoelkerung_, p. 403.]

[Footnote 326: Cic. _Off_. ii. 21. 73.]

[Footnote 327: Galen v. p. 49, ed. Kuhn; Galen was a native of this
great city.]

[Footnote 328: Dr. Gummerus promises it.]

[Footnote 329: Sittengeschichte, i., ed. 5, p. 264.]

[Footnote 330: Probably by Clodius in 58.]

[Footnote 331: _Asconius ad Cic. pro Cornel_., ed. Clark, p. 75;
Waltzing, _Corporations professionelles_, i. p. 90 foll.]

[Footnote 332: Baking as a trade only came in, as we saw, in 174;
Plautus died in 184; some doubt is thus thrown on the Roman character
of the passage, or the allusion may not be to a public bakery.]

[Footnote 333: See a remarkable passage of Athenaeus (vi. 104) quoted
by Marquardt, _Privatleben_, p. 156, on the use of slaves at Rome for
unproductive labour.]

[Footnote 334: Sallust, e.g., says of his own life in retirement
that he would not engage in "agrum colendo aut venando, servilibus
officiis."--_Catil._ 4.]

[Footnote 335: Wallon, _Hist. de l'Esclavage_, vol. ii. ch. iii.]

[Footnote 336: Sall. _Catil_. 12.]

[Footnote 337: iv. 3. 11 and 12. Plutarch says that as military
tribune Cato the younger had fifteen slaves with him.--Cato minor 9.]

[Footnote 338: Cato, R.R. 2. I.]

[Footnote 339: In ch. 185 he mentions towns where many other objects
may be bought best and cheapest: at Rome, e.g., clothing and rugs, at
Cales and Minturnae farm-instruments of iron, etc. See also Gummerus,
_op. cit._ p. 36.]

[Footnote 340: _R.R._ 10 and 11.]

[Footnote 341: Assiduos homines quinquaginta praebeto, i.e. the
contractor: ch. 144.]

[Footnote 342: See the discussion of this word in Gummerus, p. 62
foll. Varro defines them as those "qui suas operas in servitutem dant
pro pecunia quam debebant" (_de Ling. Lat._ vii. 105), i.e. they give
their labour as against servitude.]

[Footnote 343: _R.R._ i. 22.]

[Footnote 344: Cp. Plut. _Cato the Elder_ 21; a slave must be at work
when he is not asleep.]

[Footnote 345: This is a point on which I cannot enter, but there can
hardly be a doubt that in the long run free labour is cheaper.
See Cairnes, _Slave Power in America_, ch. iii.; Salvioli, _Le
Capitalisme_, p. 253; Columella, _Praejatio_.]

[Footnote 346: Gummerus, p. 81. At the same time the small cultivator
is an obvious fact in Columella, cultivating his bit of land without
working for others.]

[Footnote 347: For Spartacus, Appian, _B.G._ i. 116; for Caelius,
Caesar, _B.C._ iii. 22; and cp. _B.C._ i. 56.]

[Footnote 348: _R.R._ ii. 10.]

[Footnote 349: Columella i. 8.]

[Footnote 350: Gaius ii. 15.]

[Footnote 351: For examples of slaves' devotion to their masters,
Appian, _B.C._ iv. 29; Seneca, _de Benef_. iii. 25.]

[Footnote 352: _ad Fam_. xvi. 1; read also the charming letters which
follow. Tiro was manumitted by Cicero at an unknown date.]

[Footnote 353: _ad Att_. xii. 10.]

[Footnote 354: See the article "Manumissio" in _Dict. of
Antiquities_.]

[Footnote 355: Only in exercising the jus suffragii he was limited
with all his fellow libertini to one of the four city tribes.]

[Footnote 356: Val. Max. viii. 6. 2.]

[Footnote 357: Sall. _Cat_. 24 and 56; Wallon, ii. p. 318 foll.]

[Footnote 358: See, e.g., Cic. _ad Att_. ii. 24. 3; Asconius, _in
Milonianam_ (ed. Clark, p. 31); Milo's host of slaves had gladiators
among them, and were organised in military fashion (an antesignanus,
p. 32), when he fell in with Clodius.]

[Footnote 359: _Pro Sestio_, 15. 34.]

[Footnote 360: _De Pet. Consulatus_, 5. 17.]

[Footnote 361: _ad Quint. Fratr._ i. 2 _ad fin_.]

[Footnote 362: Strabo, p. 381.]

[Footnote 363: Dion. Hal. iv. 23.]

[Footnote 364: Wallon, op. cit. ii. p. 436.]

[Footnote 365: See Otto Seeck, _Geschichte des Untergangs der antiken
Welt_, ch. iv. and v.]

[Footnote 366: See Marquardt, _Privatleben_, p. 172.]

[Footnote 367: Wallon (ii. p. 255 foll.) has collected a number of
examples. Plautus' slaves are as much Athenian as Roman, but the

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