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Sketches of Natural History of Ceylon by J. Emerson Tennent

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Podura _albicollis_.

Archoreutes _coccinea_.

Lepisma nigrofasciara, _Temp_.


Buthus afer. _Linn_.
Ceylonicus, _Koch_.

Scorpio _linearis_.

Chelifer librorum.

Obisium _crassifemur_.

Phrynus lunatus, _Pall_.

Thelyphonus caudatus, _Linn._

Phalangium _bisignatum_.

Mygale fasciata, _Walck_.

Olios taprobanius, _Walck_.

Nephila ... ?

Trombidium tinctorum, _Herm_.

Oribata ... ?

Ixodes ... ?


Cermatia _dispar_.

Lithobius _umbratilis_.

Scolopendra _crassa_.
spinosa, _Newp_.
_Grayii_? _Newp_.
tuberculidens, _Newp_.
Ceylonensis, _Newp_.
flava, _Newp_.

Cryptops _sordidus_.

Geophilus _tegularius_.

Julus _ater_.
carnifex, _Fabr_.

Craspedosoma _juloides_.

Polydesmus _granulatus_.

Cambala _catenulata_.

Zephronia _conspicua_.




Neptunus pelagicus, _Linn._
sanguinolentus, _Herbst_.

Thalamlta ... ?

Thelphusa _Indica, Latr_.

_Cardisoma_ ... ?

Ocypoda ceratophthalmus, _Pall_,
_macrocera, Edw_.

Gelasimus _tetragonon, Edw_.
_annulipes, Edw_.

Macrophthalmus _carinimanus, Latr_.

Grapsus _messor, Forsk_.
strigosus, _Herbst_.

Plagusia depressa, _Fabr_.

Calappa philargus, _Linn._
_tuberculata, Fabr_.

Matota victor, _Fabr_.

Leucosia _fugax, Fabr_.



_Dromia_ ... ?

Hippa Asiatica, _Edw_.

Pagurus affinis, _Edw_.
_punctulatus, Oliv_.

_Porcellana_ ... ?


Scyllarus _orientalis, Fabr_.

Palinurus ornatus, _Fabr_.
affinis, _N.S._

_Crangon_ ... ?

_Alpheus_ ... ?

Pomonia inflata, _Edw_.

Palaemon carcinus, _Fabr_.

Steaopus ... ?

Peneus ...?


_Squilla_ ... ?

Gonodactylus chiragra, _Fabr_.







Hirudo _sanguisorba_.
Haemopsis _paludum_.
Haemadipsa Ceylana. _Blainv_.

Lumbricus ... ?

* * * * *



The _Rotifer_, a singular creature, although it can only truly live in
water, inhabits the moss on house-tops, dying each time the sun dries up
its place of retreat, to revive as often as a shower of rain supplies it
with the moisture essential to its existence; thus employing several
years to exhaust the eighteen days of life which nature has allotted to
it. These creatures were discovered by LEUWENHOECK, and have become the
types of a class already numerous, which undergo the same conditions of
life, and possess the same faculty. Besides the _Rotifera_, the
_Tardigrades_, (which belong to the _Acari_,) and certain paste-eels,
all exhibit a similar phenomenon. But although these different species
may die and be resuscitated several times in succession, this power has
its limits, and each successive experiment generally proves fatal to one
or more individuals. SPALLANZANI, in his experiments on the _Rotifera_,
did not find that any survived after the sixteenth alternation of
desiccation and damping, but paste-eels bore seventeen of those

SPALLANZANI, after thoroughly drying sand rich in _Rotifera_, kept it
for more than three years, moistening portions taken from it every five
or six months. BAKER went further still in his experiments on
paste-eels, for he kept the paste from which they had been taken,
without moistening it in any way, for twenty-seven years, and at the end
of that time the eels revived on being immersed in a drop of water. _If
they had exhausted their lives all at once and without these
intermissions, these Rotifera and paste-eels would not have lived beyond
sixteen or eighteen consecutive days._

To remove all doubt as to the complete desiccation of the animalcules
experimented on by SPALLANZANI and BAKER, M. DOYERE has published, in
the _Annales des Sciences Naturales_ for 1842, the results of his own
observation, in cases in which the mosses containing the insects were
dried under the receiver of an air-pump and left there for a week; after
which they were placed in a stove heated to 267 deg. Fahr., and yet, when
again immersed in water, a number of the _Rotifera_ became as lively as

Further particulars of these experiments will be found in the Appendix
to the _Rambles of a Naturalist, &c._, by M. QUARTREFAGE.


* * * * *

ABOU-ZEYD, his account of fish on dry land, 350 n.
Abyssinia, fishes of, 352.
_Acalephae_, 398. _See_ Radiata.
Acanthopterygii, 360.
Accipitres, 245.
_Acherontia Sathanas_, 427
Adam's Peak, elephants on the summit, 109.
AElian's account of the mermaid, 69.
his statement as to the export of elephants from Ceylon, 77 _n_., 209 _n_.
error as to the shedding of the elephant's tusks, 79 _n_.
describes elephants killing criminals with their knees. 87 _n_.
error as to elephants' joints, 102.
his account of Ceylon tortoises, 293.
his account of the superiority of the elephants of Ceylon, 209 _n_.
his description of the performances of the trained elephants at
Rome, 237.
his account of the sword-fish, 328.
describes a _Cheironectes_, 331.
African elephant, its peculiarities, 65.
not inferior to the Indian in tractability, 208.
Albino buffalo, 57.
deer, 59.
Albyrouni, on the pearl oyster, 375.
Alce, described by Pliny and Caesar, 101 _n_.
Alexandria, story of the dogs at, 34.
Alligator, 283. _See_ Crocodile.
Almeida, Manoel de, on burying fishes, 353 _n_.
Amboina, mermaids at, 70.
Ampullaria, its faculty of burying itself, 355.
_Anabas_, 354.
Daldorf's account of, doubted, 349, 350.
accidents from, 351 n.
Angling bad in Ceylon, 335 _n_., 341.
_Annelidae_, leeches, 479.
land-leech, its varieties, 482.
land-leech, its teeth and eyes, 480.
its tormenting bite, 482.
list of, 485.
Anseres, 260.
Ansted, Prof., on the geology of Ceylon, 61.
his statement as to the height of Indian elephants, 100 _n_.
Antiochus, elephants used by, 208.
Antipater, the first to bring the Indian elephant to Europe, 207.
Ant-lion, 411. _See_ Insects.
Ants, 420 _See_ Insects.
red, 420, 422.
white, 412. _See Termites_.
their faculty in discovering food, 421.
Armandi's work on the use of elephants in war, 208 _n_.
Aphaniptera, 433.
_Arachnidae_, spiders, 464.
extraordinary webs, _ib_.
_Olios Taprobanius_, 470.
_Mygale fasciata_, 465.
erroneously called "tarentula," _ib_.
anecdote of, 466.
spiders, the Mygale, 465.
birds killed by it, 468.
Galeodes, 470.
ticks, their multitude, 471.
mites, 472.
_Trombidium tinctorum_, 472.
list of, 485.
Argus cowrie, 369.
Aripo, the sea-shore, 373.
Aristotle, account of fishes migrating overland, 344.
sounds made by elephants, 97.
his error as to the elephant's knees, 101.
Armitage, Mr., story of an elephant on his estate, 139.
Articulata, list of, 485.
Athenaeus, anecdotes of fishes on dry land, 346.
Avicula, 373. _See_ Pearl Fishery.
Avitchia, story of, 244. _See_ Jackdaw.
Ayeen Akbery, elephant stomach described in, 128.

Baker, Mr., his theory of the passion for sporting, 142 n.
its accuracy questionable, 142 _n_.
Badger, the Ceylon, 38. _See_ Mongoos.
Bandicoot rat, 44.
Barbezieux, on the elephant, 104.
_Batocera rubus_, 406.
Batrachia, 318.
Bats, 13 _See_ Mammalia _and_ Cheiroptera.
orange-coloured bats, 14.
bats do not hybernate in Ceylon, 18.
horse-shoe bat, 19.
sense of smell and touch, 19.
small bat, _Scotophilus Coromandelicus_, 20.
their parasite (Nycteribia), 20-22.
Batticaloa, musical fish, 380.
Bears, 22. _See_ Mammalia.
ferocity of, 23.
charm to protect from, 25 _n_.
Beaters for elephants, 150.
Beaver, on African elephant, 234.
Beckman's account of fishes on dry land, 346.
Bees, 419. _See_ Insects.
Beetles, 405. _See_ Insects.
instincts of the scavenger beetle, 405.
coco-nut beetle, 407.
tortoise beetle, 408.
Bell, Sir Charles, on the elephant's shoulder, 108.
Benary, his derivation of the word elephant, 76 _n_.
Bengal mode of taking elephants, 164.
Bennett's account of Ceylon, _Introd_.
work on its Ichthyology, 323.
Bernier, on the Ceylon elephant, 209.
Bertolacci, on form of _chank shell_, 372.
Bestiaries, 104.
Bicho de Mar. _See_ Holothuria.
Birds of Ceylon, 241.
their number and character, _ib_.
few songsters, 242.
pea-fowl, 244.
eagles and hawks, 245.
owls, devil bird, 246, 247.
swallows, 248.
edible bird' nests, 248.
kingfisher, sun birds, 249.
bulbul, tailor bird, weaver bird, 251.
crows, anecdotes of, 253.
paroquets, 256.
pigeons, 257.
jungle-fowl, 259.
_grallae_, flamingoes, 260.
list of Ceylon birds, 265.
Bird-eating spiders, 469.
Birds' nests, edible, 248.
Blainville, De, on the age of the elephant, 232.
Blair, on the anatomy of the elephant, 123 _n_.
Bles, Marcellus, on the elephants of Ceylon. 113 _n_., 215 _n_.
Blood-suckers, 275.
Blyth, Mr., of Calcutta, his cultivation of zoology, 4.
his revision of this work, _Introd_.
Boa, 303. _See_ Python.
Boar, wild, 59.
Bochart, 68.
his derivation of the word "elephant," 76 _n_.
Bora-chung, a curious fish, 367.
Bosquez, Demas, account of a mermaid, 70.
Bowring, Sir John, on the fishes of Siam, 348.
Broderip, on the elephant, 122.
Browne, Sir Thomas, _vulgar errors_, 100, 105.
error as to elephants' joints, 102.
Brun, Le, account of the elephants at Colombo, 77 _n_.
Bruno _or_ Braun, his account of the Guinea worm, 397.
Buchanan, story of buffalo "rogues," 115 _n_.
Buffalo, 54. _See_ Mammalia.
its temper, 54.
sporting buffaloe, 55.
peculiar structure of its foot, 56.
rogue buffalo, 115 _n_.
buffalo's stomach and its water-cells, 129 _n_.
Buffon, on the elephant, 113 _n_., 215.
Bugs, 433. _See_ Insects _and_ Coffee-bug.
Buist, Dr., account of fish fallen from clouds, 362.
Bulbul, 251. _See_ Birds.
_Bulimi_, their vitality, 357.
_Bullia_, curious property of, 370.
Bullocks for draught, 50.
Burying fishes, 351.
Butterflies, 403, 425. _See_ Insects.
migration of, 403 _n_.
the spectre butterfly, 426.

Caecilia, 317. _See_ Reptiles.
Caesar's description of the "_alce_," 100 _n_.
Cajan, 373 _n_.
Caldera, in Chili, musical sounds under water, 383.
Calotes, the green, 276.
Camel, attempt to domesticate in Ceylon, 53 _n_.
stomach of, 128.
antipathy to the horse, 83 _n_.
Camper, on the anatomy of the elephant's stomach, 125.
Carawala, 296. _See_ Reptiles.
Carnivora, 74.
Carpenter bee, 418. _See_ Insects.
Caterpillars, stings of, 429.
Cats attracted by the _Cuppa-may-niya,_ 33.
Centipede, 474. _See_ Myriapoda _and_ Scolopendrae.
_Ceratophora_, 279.
_Cerithia_, 381.
probably musical, 381 _n._
_Cermatia_, 473. _See_ Myriapoda.
Cetacea, 68, 74.
described by Megasthenes and AElian, 69.
Chameleon, 278. _See_ Reptiles.
Chank shell, Turbinella rapa, 371. _See_ [Greek: Kochlious] and
Cheetah, 26. _See_ Leopard.
Cheironectes, described by AElian, 331.
Cheiroptera, 13, 74.
_Chelifer_, 475.
Chelonia, 322.
Chena cultivation, 130.
Cicada, 432. _See_ Insects.
_Cirrhipeda_, 486.
Cissa, 252.
Civet, 32. _See_ Genette.
Climbing fish (_Anabas scandens_), 349.
Cluverius, 68.
Cobra de Capello, anecdotes of, 297.
legend of, 297 _n_.
a white cobra, 298 _n_.
a tame cobra, 299 _n_.
cobra crossing the sea, 300.
curious belief as to the cobra, 300, 301.
worship of, 303.
Cobra-tel, poison, 272. _See_ Kabara-tel.
Coecilia glutinosa, 317.
attacked and killed by ants, 422.
Coco-nut beetle, 407.
Coffee-bug, _Lecanium Caffeae_, 436.
Coffee rat, 43.
Coleoptera, 405.
Columbidae, 257.
Conchology. _See_ Shells.
Cooroowe, elephant catchers, 181.
Corral for taking elephants, 156, 164. _See_ Elephant.
process of its construction, 170.
mode of conducting the capture, 156, 169.
Corse, Mr., account of elephants, 114.
Cosmas Indico pleustes, his reference to chanks at Marallo, 371.
Cotton-thief, 250. _See_ Tchitrea.
Crabs, 477. _See_ Crustacea.
Cripps, Mr., on sounds produced by elephants, 98.
his story of an elephant which feigned death, 135.
his account of fishes after rain, 343.
Crocodile, 282. _See_ Reptiles.
its sensibility to tickling, 285.
habit of the crocodile to bury itself in the mud, 286.
its flesh eaten, 284 _n._
their vitality, 288 _n_.
one killed at Batticaloa, 287.
Crows, 233. _See_ Birds.
anecdotes of, 254.
story of a crow and a dog, 255.
Cruelty to turtle, &c., 291.
_Crustacea_, calling crabs, 477.
Sand crabs (ocypode), 478.
Painted crabs, 478.
Paddling crabs, 478.
Hermit crabs, 478.
Pea crabs, 479.
List of Ceylon Crustacea, 486.
Ctesias' error as to the elephant's knee, 101.
Cumming, Mr. Gordon, on the power of the elephant in overturning trees,
218 _n_.
_Cuppa-moy niya_ plant, its attraction for cats, 33 _n_.
Cuvier, on the elephant, 133.
on the structure of its tusks, 228.
on the elephant's age, 232.

Daldorf's account of climbing fish, 350.
his story doubted, 350.
Darwin, burying-place of llamas and goats,
236 _n_.
on the coleoptera of Brazil, 405.
Davy, Dr. John, describes the reptiles of
Ceylon, 3.
stimulates study of natural history, 3.
operation on a diseased elephant, 224.
Dawson, Captain, story of an elephant, 107.
Deafness frequent in elephants, 98.
Death's-head moth, 427.
Decoy elephants, 157.
_Decapoda brachyura_, 486.
_anomura_, 486.
_macrura_, 486.
Deer, 57.
meminna, 58.
Ceylon elk, 59.
milk-white, 59 _n_.
Demon-worship, anecdote of, 408.
Denham, error as to height of elephants, 99.
Devil-bird, 246. _See_ Owls.
Mr. Mitford's account of, 247 _n_.
Diard, M., sends home an elephant for dissection, 123 _n_.
Dicuil on the elephant, 103.
Diptera, 434.
Dogs, 33.
device of, to escape fleas, 433, 434.
dog-tax, 33.
republican instincts, 34.
disliked by elephants, 82, 84.
Donne, on the elephant, 105.
Doras, fish of Guiana, 347.
Dragon-flies, 411. _See_ Insects.
Dugong, 68, 69.
abundant at Manaar, 69.
origin of the fable of the mermaid, 69.
Dutch belief in the mermaid, 70.

Eagles, 245. _See_ Birds.
Edentata, 46, 74.
Edrisi, the Arabian geographer, his account of musk, 32 _n_.
Eels, 337, 347 _n_.
Eginhard, life of Charlemagne, 103.
Elephant, 64, 75.
Sumatran species, 64.
points of distinction, 65.
those of Ceylon extolled, 209.
elephants on Adam's Peak, 109.
numbers in Ceylon, 76.
[Greek: Elephas], derivation of the word, 76 _n_.
antiquity of the trade in, 77.
numbers diminishing, 77.
mode of poisoning, 77 _n_.
tusks and their uses, 78.
disposition gentle, 81.
accidents from, 81.
antipathy to other animals, 82; to the horse, 83.
jealousy of each other, 86.
mode of attacking man, 87.
anecdote of a tame elephant, 89.
African elephant differs from that of Ceylon, 64.
skin, 91.
white elephant, 92.
love of shade, 94.
water, not heat, essential to them, 94.
sight limited--smell acute, 95.
anatomy of the brain, 95.
power of smell, 96.
sounds uttered by, 96.
subject to deafness, 98.
exaggeration as to size, 98.
source of this mistake, 98 _n_.
stealthy motions, 100.
error as to the elephant's want of joints, 100.
probable origin of this mistake, 106.
mode of lying down, 107.
ability to climb acclivities, 108.
mode of descending a mountain, 110.
a herd is a family, 111.
attachment to young, 112.
young suckled by all the females in a herd, 113.
theory of this, according to White, 113 _n_.
a rogue, what, 114.
savage attacks of rogues, 116.
character of the rogues, 116, 147.
habits of the herd, 117.
anecdote of, 118.
elephant's mode of drinking, 120.
their method of swimming, 121.
wells sunk by, 122.
receptacle in the stomach, 122.
stomach, anatomy of, 124.
food of the elephant, 129.
instinct in search of food, 130.
dread of fences, 131.
their caution exaggerated, 132.
spirit of curiosity in elephants, 132.
anecdote of Col. Hardy, 132, 133.
sagacity in freedom over-estimated, 134.
leave the forests during thunder, 134.
cunning, feign death, 135.
stories of encounters with wild elephants, 136.
sporting, numbers shot, 142.
butchery by expert shots, 142 _n_.
fatal spots in the head, 144, 145.
peculiar actions of elephants, 148.
love of retirement, 149.
elephant-trackers, 150.
herd charging, 151.
carcase useless 153.
remarkable recovery from a wound, 154. _See Lieut_. Fretz.
mode of taking in India, 157-162.
height measured by the circumference of the foot, 159.
mode of shipping elephants at Manaar, 162.
mode of shipping elephants at Galle, in 1701, 163 _n_.
_keddah_ for taking elephants in Bengal, 164.
a corral (kraal) described, 165, 166.
derivation of the word _corral_, 165 _n_.
corral, its construction, 167, 172.
corral, driving in the elephants, 173.
the capture, 177.
mode of securing, 181.
the "cooroowe," or noosers, 181.
tame elephants, their conduct, 182, 191.
captives, their resistance and demeanour, 184.
dread of white rods, 186.
their contortions, 190.
a young one, 206.
conduct in captivity, 207.
mode of training, 211.
their employment in ancient warfare, 207.
superiority of Ceylon, a fallacy, 209.
elephant driver's crook (hendoo), 212.
hairy elephants in Ceylon, 215 _n_.
Elephants, capricious disposition of, 215.
first labour intrusted to them, 217.
his comprehension of his duties, 218.
exaggeration of his strength in uprooting trees, 218 _n_.
Mahouts and their duties, 221.
Their cry of _urre!_ 222 _n_.
elephant's sense of musical notes, 223.
its endurance of pain, 224.
diseases in captivity, 225.
subject to tooth-ache, 227.
questionable economy of keeping trained elephants for labour, 229.
their cost, 230.
their food, 230 _n_.
fallacy of their alleged reluctance to breed in captivity, 231.
duration of life in the elephant, 232.
theory of M. Fleurens, 232.
instances of very old elephants in Ceylon, 233.
dead elephant never found, 234.
Sinbad's story, 236.
passage from AElian regarding the, 237.
Elk, 59. _See_ Deer; Mammalia.
Emydosauri, 321.
Emys trijuga, 290.
Englishman, anonymous, his story of a fight between elephants and horses,

Falconer, Dr., height of Indian elephant, 99 _n_.
Falkland Islands, peculiarity in the cattle there, 372 _n_.
Fauna of Ceylon, not common to India, _Introd_. 62.
peculiar and independent, _Introd_. 62.
have received insufficient attention, 3.
first study due to Dr. Davy, 3.
subsequent, due to Templeton, Layard, and Kelaart, 3, 4.
Fishes of Ceylon, little known, 323.
seir fish, and others for table, 324.
abundance of perch, soles, and sardines, 324.
explanation of Odoric's statement, 324 _n_.
sardines, said to be poisonous, 324.
shark, and sawfish, 325.
sawfish, 325.
ray, 326.
swordfish, 328.
cheironectes of AElian, 331.
fishes of rare forms, and of beautiful colours, 332.
fresh-water fishes, their peculiarities, 335.
fresh-water, little known, _ib_.; reason, 335 _n_.
eels, 337.
reappearance of fishes after the dry season, 340.
Fishes, similar mysterious re-appearances elsewhere, 342 _n_.
method of taking them by hand, 340.
a fish decoy, 342.
fish filling from clouds, 342 _n_., 362.
buried alive in mud, 347.
Mr. Yarrell's theory controverted, 344.
travelling overland, 345.
the fact was known to the Greeks and Romans, 345.
instances in Guiana and Siam, 347.
faculty of all migratory fish for discovering water, 347 _n_.
on dry land in Ceylon, 348.
fish ascending trees, 349.
excerpt from letter by Mr. Morris, 348 _n_.
Anabas scandens, 349, 350.
Daldorf's statement, anticipated by Abou-zeyd, 350 _n_.
accidents when fishing, 351 _n_.
burying fishes and travelling fish, 351.
occurrence of similar fish in Abyssinia and elsewhere, 352.
statement of the patriarch Mendes, 553 _n_.
knowledge of habits of Melania employed judicially by E.L. Layard, 355
illustrations of aestivating fish and animals, 356.
aestivating shell-fish and water-beetlea, 351.
fish in hot water, 358.
list of Ceylon fishes, 359.
Professor Huxley's memorandum on the fishes of Ceylon, 364.
Dr. Gray's memorandum, 366.
_Note_ on the _Bora-chung_, 367.
Fishing, native mode of, 340.
Fish insect, 475.
Flamingoes, 261. _See_ Birds.
Fleas, 433. _See_ Insects.
Fleurens, on the duration of life in the elephant, 232.
Flies, their instinct in discovering carrion, 196 _n_.
mosquitoes, the plague of, 434.
Flowers, fondness of monkeys for, 7.
Flying Fox. _Pteropus Edwardsii_, 14. _See_ Mammalia.
its sizes, 14.
skeleton of, 15.
food, 16.
habits, 16.
numbers, 16.
strange attitudes, 17.
food and habits, 18.
drinking toddy, 18.
Flying squirrels, 41.
Fresh-water fishes, 335.
Fretz, Lieut., his singular wound, 154.
Frogs, 318.
tree frogs, 319, 320.

Galle, elephants shipped in 1701, 163 _n_.
Gallinae, 259.
Galloperdix bicalcaratus, 259.
Gallwey, Capt. P.P., great number of elephants shot by him, 142.
Game birds, 265.
Gardner, Dr., his account of the coffee bug, 436-441.
Gaur, 49 _See_ Mammalia.
Knox's account of the gaur, 49.
Geckoes, 281.
Gemma Frisius, 68.
Genette, 32.
Geology of Ceylon, errors as to, 60.
previous accounts, 61.
traditions of ancient submersion, 61, 67.
Ceylon has a fauna distinct from India, 62.
"Golden Meadows," 211 _n_. _See_ Massoude.
Golunda rat, 43.
_Goondah_, 114. _See_ Rogue.
Gooneratne, Mr., _Introd_.
his story of the jackal, 35.
Gordon Cumming, his butchery of elephants in Africa, 146 _n_.
Gowra-ellia, 49.
Grallae, 260.
Gray, Dr. J.E., Brit. Mus., _Introd_.
notice of Ceylon fishes, 366.
Great fire-fish, 332.
Guinea worm, 397.
Guenther, Dr. A., on Ceylon reptiles, 275 _n_., 304.
Gwillim's Heraldry, error as to elephants, 105 _n_.

Hambangtotte, elephants of, 99.
Hardy, Col, anecdote of, when chased by an elephant, 133.
Hardy, Rev. Spence, describes a white monkey, 8.
Haroun Alraschid, sends an elephant to Charlemagne, 103.
Harrison, Dr., 95.
his anatomy of the elephant, 123 _n_., 126.
his account of elephant's head, 142.
of the elephant's ear, 223.
Hastisilpe, a work on elephants, 87 _n_., 91.
Hawking, 246.
Hawks. _See_ Birds, 246.
Hedge-hog, 46.
Helix haemastoma, its colouring, 372.
Hemiptera, 433, 462.
Hendoo, crook for driving elephants, 212.
Herd, a, of elephants, is a family, 111.
its mode of electing a leader, 117.
Herodotus, on mosquitoes, 435.
antipathy of the elephant to the camel, 83 _n_.
Herpestes, 38.
Herport, Albrecht, his work on India, 71 _n_.
_Hesperidae_, 426.
Hill, Sir John, error as to elephants, 98.
Hippopotamus rogues, 115 _n_.
Histiophorus, 330. _See_ Sword-fish.
Holland, Dr., his theory as to the formation of tusks, 89 _n_.
_Holothurin_, sea-slug and Trepang, 396.
Home, Sir Everard, on the elephant's stomach, 124.
error as to the elephant's ear, 223.
Home, Randal, error as to elephant, 105 _n_.
Homoptera, 462, 463.
Honey-comb, great size of, 418.
Hooker, Dr. J.D., on the elephants of the Himalaya, 110 _n_.
error as to white ants' nests, 413.
on ticks in Nepal, 471 _n_., 472.
_Hora_, 115. _See_ Rogue.
Horace, alludes to a white elephant, 92 _n_.
Hornbill, _Buceros_, 242, 243.
Horse, alleged antipathy to the elephant, 83.
to the camel, 83 _n_.
story of, and an elephant, 89.
horses taught to fight with elephants, 84.
Hotambeya, 40. _See_ Mongoos.
Hot-water fishes, 358.
Hunt, mode of conducting an elephant-hunt, 157.
Hunter, Dr. John, his theory of aestivation, 356.
Hurra! 223 _n_.
Huxley, Prof., _Introd_.
his memorandum on the fishes of Ceylon, 364.
Hydrophobia in jackals, 36.
Hymenoptera, 416.

_Ianthina_, 370.
Ichneumon, 39. _See_ Mongoos.
Iguana, 271. _See_ Reptiles.
_Infusoria_, Red, in the Ceylon seas, 400.
Insects of Ceylon, 403.
their profusion and beauty, 403.
hitherto imperfectly described, 404.
coleoptera, 405.
Beetles, scavengers, 405.
coco-nut beetle, tortoise beetle, 407.
tortoise beetle, 408.
Orthoptera, 408.
the soothsayer, leaf-insect, 410.
Neuroptera, 411.
dragon-flies, 411.
ant-lion, 411.
white ant, termites, 411.
Insects, _Hymenoptera_, mason-wasp, 416.
wasps, bees, wasps' nest, 418.
carpenter bee, 418.
ants, 420.
value of scavenger ants to conchologists, 421.
dimiya or red ant, 422.
introduced to destroy coffee-bug, 423.
_Lepidoptera_, butterflies, 424.
_lycaenidae, hesperidae_, 426.
_acherontia sathanas_, 427.
moths, silk-worm, 427.
stinging caterpillars, 429.
oiketicus, 430.
_Homoptera, cicada_, the "knife-grinder," 432.
Flata, 433.
_Aphaniptera_--fleas, 433.
_Diptera_--mosquitoes, 434.
Coffee bug, 436-441.
Mr. Walker's memorandum on Ceylon insects, 442.
list, 447.
Ivory, annual consumption, 78 _n_.
superiority of Chinese, _ib_.

Jackal, 35.
its cunning, 35.
probably the "fox" of Scripture, 35.
its sagacity in hunting, 36.
subject to hydrophobia, 36.
jackal's horn, the _narric comboo_, 37.
superstitions connected with, 37.
Jackdaw, fable of, 244. _See_ Avitchia.
Jardine, Sir W., error as to elephants shedding their tusks, 79 _n_.
Jay, the mountain, 252. _See_ Cissa.
Joinville, on the parasite of the bat, 20.
_Julus_, 477.
Jungle fowl, 259. _See_ Birds.
Juvenal's allusion to fishes on land, 346.

Kabragoya, 272, 273. _See_ Iguana.
Kabara-tel, poison, 274.
Kanats in Persia, 339 _n_.
Keddah, for taking elephants, 164.
Kelaart, Dr., work on the Zoology of Ceylon, 4.
examination of the Radiata, 395.
discoveries as to the pearl oyster, 375.
Kingfisher, 249. _See_ Birds.
Kinnis, Dr., cultivates zoology, 4.
Kite, on Egyptian sculpture, 246 _n_.
Knife-grinder, 432. _See_ Cicada.
Knox, R., account of Ceylon fauna, _Introd_.
his description of the Wanderoo, 5.
of elephants executing criminals, 87.
of the mode of catching elephants, 157.
Knox, his description of natives fishing, 340.
[Greek: Kochlious], 371.
Kombook tree, its bark, 170.
_Korahl_, 165. _See_ Kraal _and_ Corral.
derivation of the word, 165 _n_.
Kornegalle, beauty of the place, 167.
Kottiar, immense oysters, 371 _n_. _See_ Cottiar.
Kraal, 165. _See_ Corral _and_ Korahl.
Krank-bezoeker, 71 _n_.

Layard, E.A., his knowledge of Ceylon zoology, 4.
his collections of Ceylon birds, 241.
story of fish on dry land, 318.
anecdote of burying molluscs, 355.
Leaf insect. 408-410. _See_ Insects.
Leaping fish, 332. _See Salarias alticus_.
_Lecanium Caffeae_, 436.
Leeches, 479. _See Annelidae_.
land leech, 479.
medicinal leech, 483.
cattle leech, 344.
Leopard, 25.
in Ceylon confounded with the _cheetah_, 26.
superstitions regarding, 26.
anecdotes of their ferocity, 27.
attracted by the small-pox, 28.
story of Major Skinner, 29.
monkeys killed by leopards, 31.
Lepidoptera, 424.
_Lepisma_, the fish insect, 474.
Lima, General de, his account of the weight of elephants' tusks at
Mozambique, 79 _n_.
Livingstone's account of the "rogue" hippopotamus, 115 _n_.
Llama of the Andes, its stomach, 128 _n_.
Livy, account of fishes on dry land, 346.
Lizards, 271. _See_ Reptiles.
Lophobranchi, 362.
_Loris_, 12. _See_ Mammalia.
two varieties in Ceylon, 12.
torture inflicted on it, 13.
Lucan, description of the ichneumon, 39.
_Lycaenidae_, 426.
Lyre-headed lizard, 277.

Macabbees iii. Book, allusion to elephants, 87 _n_., 211 _n_.
Macacus monkey, 5.
Machlis described by Caesar, 101.
Macready, Major, account of a noise made by elephants, 97.
his opinion as to the vulnerable point in the elephant's head. 145
Mahawanso, mentions a white elephant, 93.
Mahout, an elephant driver, 181. _See_ Ponnekella.
Mahout, alleged short life, 222.
_Malacopterygii abdominales_, 362.
_sub-branchiati_, 362.
_apoda_, 362.
Mammalia, 3.
Monkeys, 5.
Wanderoo, 6.
error as to the Ceylon Wanderoo, 6, _n_.
Wanderoo, mode of flight among trees, 9.
monkeys never found dead, 11.
_Loris_, 12.
tortures inflicted on it, 13.
Bat, flying fox, 14.
skeleton of, 14.
attracted by toddy to the coco-nut palms, 18.
horse-shoe bat, 18.
parasite of the bat, Nycteribia, 20, 21.
bears, 22.
bears dreaded in Ceylon, 24.
leopards, 25.
attracted by the odour of small pox, 28.
anecdote of a leopard, 29.
lesser felines, 32.
dogs, Pariah, 34.
jackal, 34.
the jackal's horn, 36.
Mongoos, 37.
assaults of Mongoos on the serpent, 38.
squirrels, 41.
the flying squirrel, 41.
rats, the rat snake, 42.
coffee rat, 43, 44.
bandicoot, 44, 45.
porcupine, 45.
pengolin, 46-48.
the gaur, 49.
the ox, 50.
anecdote of, 51.
draft oxen, 51-53.
the buffalo, 54.
sporting buffaloes, 55.
peculiarity of the buffalo's foot, 56.
deer, 57.
meminna, 57, 58.
Ceylon elk, 59.
wild boar, 59.
elephant, 69, 75.
whale and dugong, 68, 69.
peculiarities of Ceylon mammalia, 73.
list of, 73.
Manaar, mermaid taken at, 69.
elephants shipped at, 162.
pearl fishery, 373.
Manis. _See_ Pengolin, 46.
Mantis, 410.
Massoudi, on the use of elephants in war, 211 _n_.
his account of pearl-diving, 377 _n_.
_Mastacembelus_, 338. _See_ Eels.
Megasthenes' account of the mermaid, 69.
Mehemet Ali, story of, 34.
_Melania Paludina_, its habit of burying itself, 355.
its hybernation, 355.
Melania, story of a law suit decided by, 355 _n_.
Meleagrina, 373 _n_. _See_ Pearl fishery.
Meminna deer, 58.
Mercator, 68.
Mercer, Mr., his story of an elephant fight, 86.
Mermaid, 68. _See_ Dugong.
Mermaids, at Manaar, 69.
at Amboina, 70.
at Booro, 71.
at Edam, 72.
Millipeds, _Julus_, 477.
Mites, 472.
Mollusca. _See_ Shells.
Molyneux, on the anatomy of the elephant, 122 _n_.
Mongoos, 38. _See_ Ichneumon.
species at Neuera-ellia, _Herpestes Vitticollis_, 38.
story of its antidote against the bite of serpents, 39.
its mode of killing snakes, 39.
Monkeys, 5.
never found dead, 11.
a white monkey, 8.
Moors of Galle, make ornaments of the elephant's teeth, 153.
Moors, as caravan drivers, 53.
Moose deer, 58. _See_ Meminna.
Morris, Mr., account of fishes on land, 348.
Mosquitoes, their cunning, 434.
Herodotus, account of, 436.
probably the plague of flies, 434 _n_.
Moths, 427. _See_ Insects.
Munster, Sebastian, 68.
Musical fishes, 380.
account of, at Batticaloa, 380.
similar phenomena at other places, 383 _n_.
fishes known to utter sounds, 384.
_Tritonia arborescens_, 385.
Musk, 32.
Mygale, spider, 465.
Myriapods, 472.

Narric-comboo, 37. _See_ Jackal's Horn.
Natural history neglected in Ceylon, 3.
Neela-cobeya, pigeon, 258.
Neuroptera, 411.
Nietner, on Ceylon insects, _Introd_.
_Nycteribia_, parasite of the bat, 20, 21.
its extraordinary structure, 22.

Odoric of Portenau, his cure for leech bites, 481.
his account of birds with two heads, 243.
his account of fishes in Ceylon, 324 _n_.
_Oiketicus_, 430.
Oil-bird, 269.
Ophidia, 321.
Ortelius, 68.
Orthoptera, 408.
Ouanderoo. _See_ Wanderoo.
Owen, Professor, on the structure of the elephant's tusk, 228.
on the Protopterus of the Gambia, 352.
Owls. _See_ Birds.
Oxen, their uses and diseases, 50.
anecdote of a cow and a leopard, 51.
white, eight feet high, seen by Wolf, 52 _n_.
Oysters at Bentotte, 371.
immense, at Kottiar, 371 _n_.

Pachydermata, 59, 74.
Padivil, the great tank, 262.
Pallegoix, on the elephants of Siam, 98 _n_.
on the fishes of Siam, 347.
Palm-cat, 32.
Panickeas, elephant catchers, 150, 158.
their skill, 159.
Pariah dogs, 33.
Paris, Matthew, on the elephant, 103.
Paroquets, their habits; anecdote of, 256.
Passeres, 248.
Patterson, R., Esq., _Introd_.
Pea-fowl, 244. _See_ Birds.
fable of the jackdaw, 244.
Pearl fishery of Ceylon, its antiquity, 373.
dreary scenery of Aripo, 373.
disappearances of the pearl-oyster, 374.
capable of transplantation, 376.
operation of diving, 377.
endurance of the divers under water, 377.
growth of the pearl-oyster, 379.
pearls of Tamblegam, 380.
Pelicans, 262.
strange scene at their breeding place, 263.
Pengolin, 46.
its habits and food, 47.
skeleton of, 48.
Phile, his account of the elephant, 103.
error as to its joints, 107.
describes its drinking, 121 _n_.
its dispositions, 216 _n_.
on the elephant's ear, 224.
on elephants burying their dead, 235.
Phillipe, on the elephant of Ceylon, 209.
Phyllium, 410. _See_ Leaf Insect.
Physalus urticulus, 400. _See_ Portuguese Man-of-war.
Pictet, Mon., his derivation of the word "elephant," 76 _n_.
Pigeons, 257. _See_ Birds.
Pigeons, Lady Torrington's pigeon, 258.
_Placuna placenta_, pearls of, 380.
_Planaria_, 398. _See Radiata_.
Pliny's nereids, 72 _n_.
error as to elephants shedding their tusks, 79 _n_.
error as to their antipathy to other animals, 85.
error as to elephant's joints, 100.
account of the _machlis_, 101 _n_.
his knowledge of the vulnerability of the elephant's head, 144 _n_.
of fishes on dry land, 346.
Ponnekella. _See_ Mahout.
Polybius' account of fishes on dry land, 346.
Pomponius, Mela, account of fishes on land, 346.
Porcupine, 45.
Portuguese belief in the mermaid, 69.
Man-of-war, 400.
Pott, his derivation of the word elephant, 76 _n_.
Presbytes _cephalopterus_, 7.
_ursinus_, 6, 9.
_Thersites_, 6, 10.
its fondness of attention, 10.
_Priamus_, 10.
its curiosity, 11.
Protopterus of the Gambia, 352.
Pseudophidia, 322.
Pterois volitans, 333.
_Pterophorus_, 430. _See_ Insects.
Pteropus, 14. _See_ Flying Fox.
Pyrard de Laval, on the Ceylon elephant, 209.
Python, its great size, 303.

Quadrumana, 5, 74.
Quatrefage on the Rotifera, 487.

_Radiata_, star-fish, 395.
sea-slugs, holothuria, 396.
parasitic worms, 396.
Guinea worm, 397.
_planaria_, 398.
_acalephae_, 398.
Portuguese Man-of-war, 400.
Red infusoria, 400.
Raja-kariya, forced labour, in elephant hunts, 170.
Raja-welle estate, story of an elephant at, 133 _n_.
Ramayana, Ceylon elephants mentioned in, 210.
Rats, 42.
eaten as food in Oovah and Bintenne, 43.
liable to hydrophobia, 43.
coffee rat, 43.
bandicoot, 44.
Rat snake, anecdote of, 43.
Rat-snake, domesticated, 299 _n_.
Ray, 326, 327.
Reinaud, on the ancient use of the elephant in Indian wars, 205 _n_.
Reptiles of Ceylon described by Dr. Davy, _Introd_.
lizards, iguana, 271.
kabara-tel, poison, 272.
blood-suckers, 275.
calotes, the green, 276.
lyre-headed lizard, 277.
chameleon, 278.
_ceratophora_, 279.
gecko, anecdotes of, 281, 282.
crocodile, anecdotes of, 282, 283.
crocodile and alligator, skulls of, 283.
tortoises, 289.
parasites of the tortoise, 289.
Terrapins, 290.
cruel mode of cutting up turtle, 291.
turtle, said to be poisonous, 292.
hawk's-bill turtle, 293.
cruel mode of taking tortoise-shell, 293.
snakes, few poisonous, 294.
tic-polonga, 296.
cobra de capello, 297.
legends of the cobra, 297-298 _n_.
_uropeltis_, 301.
the python, 303.
haplocercus, 304.
tree-snakes, 305.
water snakes, 308.
sea snakes, 308.
the snake-stone and its composition, 312-317.
_caecilia_, 317.
frogs, 318.
tree frogs, 319.
list of Ceylon reptiles, 321.
snakes peculiar to Ceylon, 322.
Rhinolophus, 19. _See_ Horse-shoe Bat.
Ribeyro's account of pearl-diving, 378.
Rilawa monkey, 5.
Rodentia, 41, 74.
Rogers, Major, story of his horse, 84.
his death by lightning, 84 _n_.
anecdote of an elephant killed by him, 107.
great numbers of elephants shot by him, 142.
"A Rogue" elephant. _See_ Elephant, 114.
derivation of the term "Rogue," 114.
_Ronkedor_, 114. _See_ "Rogue."
_Ronquedue_, 114. _See_ "Rogue."
dangerous encounters with, 136.
Rotifera, marvellous faculty in, 486.
Rousette. _See_ Flying-fox _and_ Pteropus, 14.
Ruminantia, 49, 74.

_Salarias Alticus_, 332.
almasius, 68.
Sardines, said to be poisonous, 324.
Saw fish, 325. _See_ Fishes.
Scaliger, Julius, 68.
Scansores, 256.
_Scarus harid_, 335.
_Schenck_, 371. _See_ Chank.
Schlegel's essay on the elephant, 208 _n_.
Schlegel, Prof., of Leyden, his account of the Sumatran elephant, 66.
Schmarda, Prof., 5.
Schomburgk, Sir R., on the fishes of Guiana, 347.
Sciurus Tennentii, 41 _n_.
_Scolopiendrae_, centipede, 474.
Scorpions, 474.
Sea slugs, _holothuria_, 397.
Sea snakes, 308.
Seir-fish, 324.
Seneca, account of fishes on dry land, 346.
Septuagint, allusion to elephants in, 87, 210 _n_.
Serpents, 294. _See_ Reptiles.
Shakspeare, on the elephant, 105.
describes its capture in pit-falls, 157 _n_.
Sharks, 325.
Shark charmer, 378.
Shaw, error as to elephants shedding their tusks, 79 _n_.
Shells of Ceylon, 369.
lanthina, 370.
Bullia vittata, 370.
chanks, 371.
oysters, immense, 371 _n_.
Helix haemastoma, 372.
Pearl fishery, 373.
Musical shells, 381.
Mr. Henley's memorandum, 386.
uncertainty as to species, 387.
list of Ceylon shells, 388.
Siam, fishes on dry land, 347.
Silk, cultivated by the Dutch, 429.
Silkworm. _See_ Insects.
Sindbad's story of the elephants burying-place, 236.
Skinner, Major, knowledge of Ceylon. _Introd_. _n_.
adventure with a leopard, 30.
great number of elephants killed by him, 142.
description of the Panickeas or elephant catchers, 158, 159 _n_.
anecdotes of elephants, 118.
collection of Ceylon fish, 339.
Small-pox attracts the leopard, 28.
native superstition, 29.
Snakes, 294. _See_ Reptiles.
few venomous, 296.
tic-polonga, 296.
cobra de capello, 297.
legends of, 297 _n_.
stories of, 298.
Snakes, tamed snakes, 299 _n_.
snakes crossing the sea, 300.
curious tradition of the cobra-de-capello, 300.
uropeltis, and explanation of the popular belief, 302.
reluctance of Buddhists to kill snakes, 303.
python or "boa," 303.
tree snakes, 305.
the _Passerita fusca_, 306.
water snakes, 308.
sea snakes, 308.
their geographical distribution, 309.
their habits, 310.
caecilia, 317.
Snake-stone, its alleged virtue, 312.
anecdotes of its use, 312.
analysis of, by Professor Faraday, 315.
Sofala, pearls at, 375 _n_.
Solinus, on the elephant, 103.
Soothsayer insect, 410.
Spectre butterfly, 426.
Spiders. _See Arachnida_, 464.
at Gampola, 465.
at Pusilawa, 471.
Squirrel, 41.
the flying squirrel, 44.
Star-fish, 396. _See Radiata_.
Stick insect, 410. _See_ Insects.
Stinging caterpillars, 429.
Strabo, his account of fishes on dry land, 346.
Strachan, Mr., account of the elephants shipped at Ceylon, 163 _n_,
210 _n_.
Stuckley, on the anatomy of the elephant, 123 _n_.
Sumatra confounded with Ceylon, 67.
elephant of, 64.
points in which it differs from that of India, 65.
Sun bird, 249. _See_ Birds.
Superstitions:--Singhalese folk-lore regarding bears, 24 _n_.
leopards, 27, 29.
mongoos, 38.
kabra-goya, 273.
cobra-de-capello, 300.
use of snake-stones, 315.
elephants' burial-place, 236.
Suriya trees, caterpillars on, 429.
Syrnum Indranee, 246. _See_ Devil-bird.
Swallows, 248. _See_ Birds.
Sword-fish, 328.

Tailor-bird, 251. _See_ Birds;
Tamblegam, lake of, 380.
pearls, 380.
Tarentula, _Mygale fasciata_, 465.
fight with a cockroach, 467.
numerous at Gampola, 465.
Tavalam, a caravan of bullocks, 53.
Tavernier, error as to Ceylon elephants, 203, 214.
Taylor, the translator of Aristotle, his error as to elephants' joints,
Tchitrea paradisi, 250.
Temminck, his discovery of the Sumatran elephant, 64.
his account of it, 65.
Templeton, Dr. R.A., his knowledge of Ceylon, _Introd_.
his valuable aid in the present work, _ib_.
his cultivation of zoology, 4.
notice of Ceylon monkeys, 6.
_Termites_, white ants, their ravages, 412.
whence comes their moisture, 412 _n_.
Terrapins, 290.
Terrier, attacks an elephant, 85.
Testudinata, 289.
Thaun, Philip de, on the elephant, 104.
Theobaldus' _Physiologus_, 104.
Theophrastus' account of fishes on dry land, 344, 345.
Thevenot, on the Ceylon elephant, 203.
Thomson's "_Seasons_," error as to the elephant, 106.
Thunberg, account of the snake-stone, 317.
_Thysdnura_, 464.
Ticks, 475.
Tic-polonga, 296. See Reptiles.
Tiger at Trincomalie, 25 _n_.
Toad, 319.
Torrington, Viscount, his tax on dogs, 33.
Tortoises, 289, 291. _See_ Turtle.
parasite of, 289.
fresh-water tortoises, 290. _See_ Terrapins.
Tortoise-shell, cruel mode of taking, 293.
Tree frogs, 320.
Tree snakes, 304.
Trepang, 396. _See_ Sea-slug.
_Tritonia arborescens_, 385. _See_ Musical Fish.
letter on, 401.
_Trombidium tinctorum. See_ Mites.
Trumpeting of elephants, 97, 201.
Trunk, elephant's, origin of the name, 97 _n_.
Tsetse fly of Africa, 40.
Turbinella rapa, 371. _See_ Chank.
Turtle, 291. _See_ Reptiles.
barbarous treatment of, 291.
Tushes, 79.
Tusks, 79. _See_ Elephant; Ivory.
fallacy that they are shed, 79.
weight of, 80.
their uses, 80.
singular shapes of, 88 _n_.
Tusks, Dr. Holland's theory of their formation, 88 _n_.
Tytler, Mr., story of an elephant, 133 _n_.

_Uropeltis_, 301.
Urre! cry of the elephant drivers, 222.

Valentyn's account of the mermaid, 70.
Dutch mode of taking elephants, 164.
Venloos Bay, its profusion of shells, 369.
Vossius, Isaac, 68.

Waloora. _See_ Wild-boar, 59.
dreaded by the Singhalese, 59.
Wanderoo monkey, 5.
Wasps, wasps' nest, 418.
mason-wasp, 416.
Water-fowl, 260, 262.
Water snakes, 308.
Weaver-bird, 251.
Whales, 68. _See_ Cetacea.
White, Adam, Esq., Brit Mus., _Introd_.
White, of Selbourne, his theory of animals suckled by strange mothers, 113
White ants, 411. _See_ Termites.
Whiting, Mr., account of buried fishes, 342 _n_., 354.
Wild-boar, 59.
Wolf, Jo. Christian, travels in Ceylon, 99 _n_., 115 _n_.
his account of elephants there, 99.
describes pitfalls for elephants, 157 _n_.
Wood-carrying moth, 430. See Insects.
Worms, parasite, 396. _See Radiata_.
Wound when elephant shooting, 154.
Wright, Thomas, Esq., F.S.A., 104.

Yarrell's theory of buried fish, 342.
Yule's embassy to Ava, 216 _n_.

Zimb fly, 434.
Zoology neglected in Ceylon, 3. _See_ Natural History.
partial extent to which it has been cultivated, _Introd_.



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