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Sinking of the Titanic and Great Sea Disasters

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the ship to remain afloat nearly an hour longer, and
thus saved hundreds of lives."

In the list of heroes who went down on the Titanic the
names of her engineers will have a high place, for not a single
engineer was saved. Many of them, no doubt, could not get
to the deck, but they had equally as good a chance as the
firemen, sixty-nine of whom were saved.

The supposition of those who manned the Titanic was that
the engineers, working below, were the first to know the desperate
character of the Titanic's injury. The watch called
the others, and from that time until the vessel was ready for
her last plunge they were too hard at work to note more than
that there was a constant rise of water in the hull, and that
the pumps were useless.

It was engineers who kept the lights going, saw to the proper
closing of bulkhead doors and kept the stoke hole at work
until the uselessness of the task was apparent. Most of them
probably died at their post of duty.

The Titanic carried a force of about sixty engineers, and in
addition she had at least twenty-five "guarantee" engineers,
representatives of Harland and Wolff, the builders, and those
who had the contract for the engineering work. This supplementary
force was under Archie Frost, the builders' chief
engineer, and the regular force was under Chief Engineer William
Bell, of the White Star Line.

On the line's ships there is the chief engineer, senior and
junior second, senior and junior third, and senior and junior
fourth engineers. The men are assigned each to his own task.
There are hydraulic, electric, pump and steam packing men,
and the "guarantee" engineers, representing the builders and
the contractors.

The duty of the "guarantee" engineers is to watch the
working of the great engines, and to see that they are tuned up
and in working order. They also watch the working of each
part of the machinery which had nothing to do with the actual
speed of the ship, principally the electric light dynamos and
the refrigerating plant.

NOBLE-HEARTED BAND

"But what of the bandsmen? Who were they?"

This question was asked again and again by all who read
the story of the Titanic's sinking and of how the brave musicians
played to the last, keeping up the courage of those who
were obliged to go down with the ship.

Many efforts were made to find out who the men were, but
little was made public until the members of the orchestra of
the steamship Celtic reached shore for the first time after the
disaster. One of their first queries was about the musicians
of the Titanic. Their anxiety was greater than that of any
New Yorker, for the members of the band of the Celtic knew
intimately the musicians of the ill-fated liner.

"Not one of them saved!" cried John S. Carr, 'cellist on
the Celtic. "It doesn't seem possible they have all gone.

"We knew most of them well. They were Englishmen, you
know--every one of them, I think. Nearly all the steamship
companies hire their musicians abroad, and the men interchange
between the ships frequently, so we get a chance to
know one another pretty well. The musicians for the Titanic
were levied from a number of other White Star ships, but
most of the men who went down with the Titanic had bunked
with us at some time."

"The thing I can't realize is that happy `Jock' Hume is
dead," exclaimed Louis Cross, a player of the bass viol. "He
was the merriest, happiest young Scotchman you ever saw.
His family have been making musical instruments in Scotland
for generations. I heard him say once that they were
minstrels in the old days. It is certainly hard to believe that
he is not alive and having his fun somewhere in the world."

At least he helped to make the deaths of many less cruel.

CHAPTER XXI

SEARCHING FOR THE DEAD

SENDING OUT THE MACKAY-BENNETT AND MINIA--BREMEN
PASSENGERS SEE BODIES--IDENTIFYING BODIES--CONFUSION
IN NAMES--RECOVERIES

A FEW days after the disaster the cable steamer Mackay-
Bennett was sent out by the White Star Line to
cruise in the vicinity of the disaster and search for
missing bodies.

Two wireless messages addressed to J. Bruce Ismay, president
of the International Mercantile Marine Company, were
received on April 21st at the offices of the White Star Line
from the cable ship Mackay-Bennett, via Cape Race, one of
which reported that the steamship Rhein had sighted bodies
near the scene of the Titanic wreck. The first message,
which was dated April 20th, read:

"Steamer Rhein reports passing wreckage and bodies 42.1
north, 49.13 west, eight miles west of three big icebergs. Now
making for that position. Expect to arrive 8 o'clock to-night.
(Signed) "MACKAY-BENNETT."

The second message read:

"Received further information from Bremen (presumably
steamship Bremen) and arrived on ground at 8 o'clock P. M.
Start on operation to-morrow. Have been considerably
delayed on passage by dense fog.
(Signed) "MACKAY-BENNETT."

After receiving these messages Mr. Ismay issued the following
statement:

"The cable ship Mackay-Bennett has been chartered by
the White Star Line and ordered to proceed to the scene of
the disaster and do all she could to recover the bodies and
glean all information possible.

"Every effort will be made to identify bodies recovered,
and any news will be sent through immediately by wireless.
In addition to any such message as these, the Mackay-Bennett
will make a report of its activities each morning by wireless,
and such reports will be made public at the offices of the
White Star Line.

"The cable ship has orders to remain on the scene of the
wreck for at least a week, but should a large number of
bodies be recovered before that time she will return to
Halifax with them. The search for bodies will not be
abandoned until not a vestige of hope remains for any more
recoveries.

"The Mackay-Bennett will not make any soundings, as
they would not serve any useful purpose, because the depth
where the Titanic sank is more than 2000 fathoms."

On April 22d the first list of twenty-seven names of bodies
recovered was made public. It contained that of Frederick
Sutton, a well-known member of the Union League of Philadelphia.
It did not contain the name of any other prominent
man who perished, although it was thought that the
name "George W. Widen" might refer to George D. Widener,
son of P. A. B. Widener, of Philadelphia. The original passenger
lists of the Titanic did not mention "Widen," which
apparently established the identity of the body as that of
Mr. Widener, who, together with his son, Harry, was lost.

The wireless message, after listing the names, concluded,
"All preserved," presumably referring to the condition
of the bodies.

A number of the names in the list did not check up with
the Titanic's passenger list, which led to the belief that a
number of the bodies recovered were members of the Titanic's
crew.

MINIA SENT TO ASSIST

At noon, April 23d, there was posted on the bulletin in the
White Star office this message from the Mackay-Bennett
dated Sunday, April 21st:

"Latitude, 41.58; longitude, 49.21. Heavy southwest swell
has interfered with operations. Seventy-seven bodies recovered.
All not embalmed will be buried at sea at 8 o'clock
to-night with divine service. Can bring only embalmed
bodies to port."

To Captain Lardner, master of the Mackay-Bennett,
P. A. S. Franklin, vice-president of the White Star Line, sent
an urgent message asking that the company be advised at
once of all particulars concerning the bodies identified, and
also given any information that might lead to the identification
of others. He said it was very important that every effort
be made to bring all of the bodies possible to port.

Mr. Franklin then directed A. G. Jones, the Halifax agent
of the White Star Line, to charter the Minia and send her to
the assistance of the Mackay-Bennett. Mr. Jones answered
this telegram, and said that the Minia was ready to proceed
to sea, but that a southeast gale, which generally brings fog,
might delay her departure. She left for Halifax.

NAMES BADLY GARBLED

On April 24th no wireless message was received from the
Mackay-Bennett, but the White Star Line officials and telegraphers
familiar with the wireless alphabet were busy trying
to reconcile some of the names received with those of
persons who went down on the Titanic. That the body of
William T. Stead, the English journalist and author, had been
recovered by the Mackay-Bennett, but through a freakish
error in wireless transmission the name of another was reported
instead, was one of the theories advanced by persons
familiar with the Morse code.

BREMEN SIGHTED MORE THAN A HUNDRED BODIES

When the German liner Bremen reached New York the
account of its having sighted bodies of the Titanic victims was
obtained.

From the bridge, officers of the ship saw more than a hun-
dred bodies floating on the sea, a boat upside down, together
with a number of small pieces of wood, steamer chairs and
other wreckage. As the cable ship Mackay-Bennett was in
sight, and having word that her mission was to look for bodies,
no attempt was made by the Bremen's crew to pick up the
corpses.

In the vicinity was seen an iceberg which answered the
description of the one the Titanic struck. Smaller bergs
were sighted the same day, but at some distance from where
the Titanic sank.

The officers of the Bremen did not care to talk about the
tragic spectacle, but among the passengers several were found
who gave accounts of the dismal panorama through which
their ship steamed.

Mrs. Johanna Stunke, a first-cabin passenger, described the
scene from the liner's rail.

"It was between 4 and 5 o'clock, Saturday, April 20th,"
she said, "when our ship sighted an iceberg off the bow to
the starboard. As we drew nearer, and could make out small
dots floating around in the sea, a feeling of awe and sadness
crept over everyone on the ship.

"We passed within a hundred feet of the southernmost
drift of the wreckage, and looking down over the rail we distinctly
saw a number of bodies so clearly that we could make
out what they were wearing and whether they were men or
women.

"We saw one woman in her night dress, with a baby clasped
closely to her breast. Several women passengers screamed
and left the rail in a fainting condition. There was another
woman, fully dressed, with her arms tight around the body
of a shaggy dog.

"The bodies of three men in a group, all clinging to one
steamship chair, floated near by, and just beyond them were
a dozen bodies of men, all of them encased in life-preservers,
clinging together as though in a last desperate struggle for
life. We couldn't see, but imagined that under them was
some bit of wreckage to which they all clung when the ship
went down, and which didn't have buoyancy enough to
support them.

"Those were the only bodies we passed near enough to
distinguish, but we could see the white life-preservers of many
more dotting the sea, all the way to the iceberg. The officers
told us that was probably the berg hit by the Titanic, and that
the bodies and ice had drifted along together."

Mrs. Stunke said a number of the passengers demanded
that the Bremen stop and pick up the bodies, but the officers
assured them that they had just received a wireless message
saying the cable ship Mackay-Bennett was only two hours
away fron{sic} the spot, and was coming for that express purpose.

Other passengers corroborated Mrs. Stunke.

THE IDENTIFED{sic} DEAD.

On April 25th the White Star Line officials issued a corrected
list of the identified dead. While the corrected list cleared
up two or more of the wireless confusions that caused so
much speculation in the original list, there still remained a
few names that so far as the record of the Titanic showed
were not on board that ship when she foundered.

The new list, however, established the fact that the body
of George D. Widener, of Philadelphia, was among those on
the Mackay-Bennett, and two of the bodies were identified
as those of men named Butt.

THE MACKAY-BENNETT RETURNS TO PORT

After completing her search the Mackay-Bennett steamed
for Halifax, reaching that port on Tuesday, April 30th.
With her flag at half mast, the death ship docked slowly.
Her crew manned the rails with bared heads, and on the aft
deck were stacked the caskets with the dead. The vessel
carried on board 190 bodies, and announcement was made
that 113 other bodies had been buried at sea.

Everybody picked up had been in a life-belt and there were
no bullet holes in any. Among those brought to port were
the bodies of two women.

THE MINIA GIVES UP THE SEARCH

When at last the Minia turned her bow toward shore only
thirteen additional bodies had been recovered, making a total
of 316 bodies found by the two ships.

Further search seemed futile. Not only had the two vessels
gone thoroughly over as wide a field as might likely
prove fruitful, but, in addition, the time elapsed made it
improbable that other bodies, if found, could be brought to
shore. Thus did the waves completely enforce the payment of
their terrible toll.

{illust. caption = ISADOR STRAUS

The New York millionaire merchant and philanthropist who lost his
life when the giant Titanic foundered at sea after hitting an iceberg.}

{illust. caption = ICEBERG PHOTOGRAPHED NEAR SCENE OF DISASTER

This photograph shows what is quite...}

LIST OF IDENTIFIED DEAD

Following is a list of those whose identity was wholly or
partially established:

ASTOR, JOHN JACOB.
ADONIS, J.
ALE, WILLIAM.
ARTAGAVEYTIA, RAMON.
ASHE, H. W.
ADAHL, MAURITZ.
ANDERSON, THOMAS.
ADAMS, J.
ASPALANDE, CARL.
ALLEN, H.
ANDERSON, W. Y.
ALLISON, H. J.

BUTT, W. (seaman).
BUTT, W. (may be Major Butt).
BUTTERWORTH, ABELJ.
BAILEY, G. F.
BARKER, E. T.
BUTLER, REGINALD.
BIRNBAUM, JACOB.
BRISTOW, R. C.
BUCKLEY, KATHERINE.

CHAPMAN, JOHN H.
CHAPMAN, CHARLES.
CONNORS, P.
CLONG, MILTON.
COX, DENTON.
CAVENDISH, TYRRELL w.
CARBINES, W.

DUTTON, F.
DASHWOOD, WILLIAM.
DULLES, W. C.
DOUGLAS, W. D.
DRAZENOUI, YOSIP (referring probably to
Joseph Draznovic).
DONATI, ITALO (waiter).

ENGINEER, A. E. F.
ELLIOTT, EDWARD.

FARRELL, JAMES.
FAUNTHORPE, H.

GILL, J. H.
GREENBERG, H.
GILINSKI, LESLIE.
GRAHAM, GEORGE.
GILES, RALPH.
GIVARD, HANS C.

HANSEN, HENRY D.
HAYTOR, A.
HAYS, CHALES M.
HODGES, H. P.
HELL, J. C.
HEWITT, T.
HARRISON, H. H.
HALE, REG.
HENDEKERIC, TOZNAI.
HINTON, W.
HARBECK, W. H.
HOLVERDON, A. O. (probably A. M.
Halverson of Troy).
HOFFMAN, LOUIS M.
HINCKLEY, G.
Hospital Attendant, no name given.

JOHANSEN, MALCOLM.
JOHANSEN, ERIC.
JOHANSSON, GUSTAF J.
JOHANSEN, A. F.
JONES, C. C.

KELLY, JAMES,

LAURENCE, A.
LOUCH, CHARLES.
LONG, MILTON C.
LILLY, A.
LINHART, WENZELL.
MARRIORTT, W. H. (no such name appears
on the list of passengers or crew).
MANGIN, MARY.
McNAMEE, MRS. N. (probably Miss
Elleen McNamee.)
MACK, MRS.
MONROE, JEAN.
McCAFFRY, THOMAS.
MORGAN, THOMAS.
MOEN, SEGURD H.

NEWELL, T. H.
NASSER, NICOLAS.
NORMAN, ROBERT D.

PETTY, EDWIN H.
PARTNER, AUSTIN.
PENNY, OLSEN F.
POGGI, ----.

RAGOZZI, A. BOOTHBY.
RICE, J. R.
ROBINS, A.
ROBINSON, J. M.
ROSENSHINE, GEORGE.

STONE, J.
STEWARD, 76.
STOKES, PHILIP J.
STANTON, W.

STRAUS, ISIDOR.
SAGE, WILLIAM.
SHEA, ----.
SUTTON, FREDERICK.
SOTHER, SIMON.
SCHEDID, NIHIL.
SWANK, GEORGE.
SEBASTIANO, DEL CARLO.
STANBROCKE, A.

TOMLIN, ETNEST P.
TALBOT, G.

VILLNER, HENDRICK K.
VASSILIOS, CATALEVAS (thought to be a
confusion of two surnames).
VEAR, W. (may be W. J. Ware or W. T.
Stead).

WIDENER, GEORGE W.
WILLIAMS, LESLIE.
WIRZ, ALBERT
WIKLUND, JACOB A.
WAILENS, ACHILLE.
WHITE, F. F.
WOODY, O. S.
WERSZ, LEOPOLD.

ZACARIAN, MAURI DER.

CHAPTER XXII

CRITICISM OF ISMAY

CRIMINAL AND COWARDLY CONDUCT CHARGED--PROPER CAUTION
NOT EXERCISED WHEN PRESENCE OF ICEBERGS WAS
KNOWN--SHOULD HAVE STAYED ON BOARD TO HELP IN
WORK OF RESCUE--SELFISH AND UNSYMPATHETIC ACTIONS
ON BOARD THE CARPATHIA--ISMAY'S DEFENSE--WILLIAM E.
CARTER'S STATEMENT

FROM the moment that Bruce Ismay's name was seen
among those of the survivors of the Titanic he became
the object of acrid attacks in every quarter
where the subject of the disaster was discussed. Bitter
criticism held that he should have been the last to leave the
doomed vessel.

His critics insisted that as managing director of the White
Star Line his responsibility was greater even than Captain
Smith's, and while granting that his survival might still be
explained, they condemned his apparent lack of heroism.
Even in England his survival was held to be the one great
blot on an otherwise noble display of masculine courage.

A prominent official of the White Star Line shook his head
meaningly when asked what he thought of Ismay's escape
with the women and children. The general feeling seemed
to be that he should have stayed aboard the sinking vessel,
looking out for those who were left, playing the man like
Major Butt and many another and going down with the
ship like Captain Smith.

He was also charged with urging a speed record and with
ignoring information received with regard to icebergs.

FEELING IN ENGLAND

The belief in England was that the captain of the Carpathia
had acted under Ismay's influence in refusing to permit any
account of the disaster to be transmitted previous to the arrival
of the vessel in New York. Ismay's telegram making arrangements
for the immediate deportation of the survivors among
the Titanic's crew was taken to be part of the same scheme to
delay if not to prevent their stories of the wreck from being
obtained in New York.

Another circumstance which created a damaging impression
was Ismay's failure to give the names of the surviving crew,
whose distraught families were entitled to as much consideration
as those whose relatives occupied the most expensive
suites on the Titanic. The anguish endured by the families
of members of the crew was reported as indescribable, and
Southampton was literally turned into a city of weeping and
tragic pathos. The wives of two members of the crew died of
shock and suspense.

CRIED FOR FOOD

Mr. Ismay's actions while on the Carpathia were also
criticised as selfish and unwarrantable.

"For God's sake get me something to eat, I'm starved.
I don't care what it costs or what it is. Bring it to me."

This was the first statement made by Mr. Ismay a few
minutes after he was landed on the Carpathia. It is vouched
for by an officer of the Carpathia who requested that his name
be withheld. This officer gave one of the most complete
stories of the events that took place on the Carpathia from
the time she received the Titanic's appeal for assistance until
she landed the survivors at the Cunard Line pier.

"Ismay reached the Carpathia in about the seventh life-
boat," said the officer. "I didn't know who he was, but afterward
I heard the other members of the crew discussing his
desire to get something to eat the minute he put his foot on
deck. The steward who waited on him reported that Ismay
came dashing into the dining room and said.

" `Hurry, for God's sake, and get me something to eat, I'm
starved. I don't care what it costs or what it is. Bring it to
me.' "

"The steward brought Ismay a load of stuff and when he
had finished it he handed the man a two dollar bill. `Your
money is no good on this ship,' the steward told him.

" `Take it,' insisted Ismay. `I am well able to afford it.
I will see to it that the boys of the Carpathia are well rewarded
for this night's work.'

"This promise started the steward making inquiries as to the
identity of the man he had waited on. Then we learned that
he was Ismay. I did not see Ismay after the first few hours.
He must have kept to his cabin."

REPLY TO CHARGES

Mr. Ismay's plans had been to return immediately to
England, and he had wired that the steamer Cedric be held
for himself and officers and members of the crew; but public
sentiment and subpoenas of the Senate's investigating committee
prevented. In the face of the criticism aimed against
him Mr. Ismay issued a long statement in which he not
only disclaimed responsibility for the Titanic's fatal collision,
but also sought to clear himself of blame for everything that
happened after the big ship was wrecked.

He laid the responsibility for the tragedy on Captain
Smith.

He expressed astonishment that his own conduct in the
disaster had been made the subject of inquiry. He denied
that he gave any order to Captain Smith. His position aboard
was that of any other first cabin passenger, he insisted, and
he was never consulted by the captain. He denied telling
anyone that he wished the ship to make a speed record. He
called attention to the routine clause in the instructions to
White Star captains ordering them to think of safety at all
times. He did not dine with the captain, he said, and when
the ship struck the berg, he was not sitting with the captain
in the saloon.

The managing director added that he was in his stateroom
when the collision occurred. He told of helping to send
women and children away in life-boats on the starboard side,
and said there was no woman in sight on deck when he and
William E. Carter, of Bryn Mawr, Pa., entered the collapsible
boat--the last small craft left on that side of the vessel. He
asserted that he pulled an oar and denied that in sending the
three messages from the Carpathia, urging the White Star
officials to hold the Cedric for the survivors of the Titanic's
officers and crew, he had any intention to block investigation
of the tragedy. Ismay asserted that he did not know there
was to be an investigation until the Cunarder docked.

Mr. William E. Carter, of Bryn Mawr, who, with his
family, was saved, confirmed Mr. Ismay's assertions.

"Mr. Ismay's statement is absolutely correct," said Mr.
Carter. "There were no women on the deck when that
boat was launched. We were the very last to leave the deck,
and we entered the life-boat because there were no women
to enter it.

"The deck was deserted when the boat was launched,
and Mr. Ismay and myself decided that we might as well
enter the boat and pull away from the wreck. If he wants
me, I assume that he will write to me.

"I can say nothing, however, that he has not already said,
as our narratives are identical; the circumstances under
which we were rescued from the Titanic were similar. We
left the boat together and were picked up together, and, further
than that, we were the very last to leave the deck.

"I am ready to go to Washington to testify to the truth
of Mr. Ismay's statement, and also to give my own account
at any time I may be called upon. If Mr. Ismay writes to
me, asking that I give a detailed account of our rescue I
will do so."

CHAPTER XXIII

THE FINANCIAL LOSS

TITANIC NOT FULLY INSURED--VALUABLE CARGO AND MAIL
--NO CHANCE FOR SALVAGE--LIFE INSURANCE LOSS--LOSS
TO THE CARPATHIA

SO great was the interest in the tragedy and so profound
the grief at the tremendous loss of life that for a time
the financial loss was not considered. It was, however,
the biggest ever suffered by marine insurance brokers.

The value of the policy covering the vessel against all
ordinary risks was $5,000,000, but the whole of this amount
was not insured, because British and Continental markets
were not big enough to swallow it. The actual amount of
insurance was $3,700,000, of which the owners themselves
held $750,000.

As to the cargo, it was insured by the shippers. The
company has nothing to do with the insurance of the cargo,
which, according to the company's manifest, was conservatively
estimated at about $420,000. Cargo, however, was a
secondary matter, so far as the Titanic was concerned. The
ship was built for high-priced passengers, and what little
cargo she carried was also of the kind that demanded quick
transportation. The Titanic's freight was for the most part
what is known as high-class package freight, consisting of
such articles as fine laces, ostrich feathers, wines, liquors
and fancy food commodities.

LOST MAIL MAY COST MILLIONS

Prior to the sailing of the vessel the postal authorities of
Southampton cabled the New York authorities that 3435
bags of mail matter were on board.

"In a load of 3500 bags," said Postmaster Morgan, of New
York, "it is a safe estimate to say that 200 contained registered
mail. The size of registered mail packages varies greatly,
but 1000 packages for each mail bag should be a conservative
guess. That would mean that 200,000 registered packages
and letters went down with the Titanic.

"This does not mean, however, that Great Britain will be
held financially responsible for all these losses. There were
probably thousands of registered packages from the Continent,
and in such cases the countries of origin will have to
reimburse the senders. Moreover, in the case of money
being sent in great quantities, it is usual to insure the registry
over and above the limit of responsibility set by the country
of origin.

"Probably if there were any shipping of securities mounting
up to thousands of dollars, it will be the insurance companies
which will bear the loss, and not the European post-
offices at all."

In the case of money orders, the postmaster explained,
there would be no loss, except of time, as duplicates promptly
would be shipped without further expense.

The postmaster did not know the exact sum which the
various European countries set as the limit of their guarantee
in registered mail. In America it is $50.

Underwriters will probably have to meet heavy claims of
passengers for luggage, including jewelry. Pearls of one
American woman insured in London were valued at $240,000.

NO CHANCE FOR SALVAGE

The Titanic and her valuable cargo can never be recovered,
said the White Star Line officials.

"Sinking in mid-ocean, at the depth which prevails where
the accident occurred," said Captain James Parton, manager
of the company, "absolutely precludes any hopes of salvage."

LIFE INSURANCE LOSS

In the life insurance offices there was much figuring over
the lists of those thought to be lost aboard the Titanic.
Nothing but rough estimates of the company's losses through
the wreck were given out.

LOSS TO THE CARPATHIA

The loss to the Carpathia, too, was considerable. It is, of
course, the habit of all good steamship lines to go out of their
way and cheerfully submit to financial loss when it comes
to succoring the distressed or the imperiled at sea. Therefore,
the Cunard line in extending the courtesies of the sea to the
survivors of the Titanic asked for nothing more than the mere
acknowledgment of the little act of kindness. The return
of the Carpathia cost the line close to $10,000.

She was delayed on her way to the Mediterranean at least
ten days and was obliged to coal and provision again, as the
extra 800 odd passengers she was carrying reduced her large
allowance for her long voyage to the Mediterranean and the
Adriatic very much.

CHAPTER XXIV

OPINIONS OF EXPERTS

CAPTAIN E. K. RODEN, LEWIS NIXON, GENERAL GREELY AND
ROBERT H. KIRK POINT OUT LESSONS TAUGHT BY TITANIC
DISASTER AND NEEDED CHANGES IN CONSTRUCTION

THE tremendous loss of life necessarily aroused a discussion
as to the cause of the disaster, and the
prevailing opinion seemed to be that the present
tendency in shipbuilding was to sacrifice safety to luxury.

Captain Roden, a well-known Swedish navigator, had
written an article maintaining this theory in the Navy, a
monthly service magazine, in November, 1910. With seeming
prophetic insight he had mentioned the Titanic by name
and portrayed some of the dangers to which shipbuilding for
luxury is leading.

He pointed out that the new steamships, the Olympic and
Titanic, would be the finest vessels afloat, no expense being
spared to attain every conceivable comfort for which men or
women of means could possibly ask--staterooms with private
shower-baths, a swimming pool large enough for diving, a
ballroom covering an entire upper deck, a gymnasium,
elaborate cafes, a sun deck representing a flower garden,
and other luxuries.

After forcibly pointing out the provisions that should be
made for the protection of life, Captain Roden wrote in
conclusion:

"If the men controlling passenger ships, from the ocean
liner down to the excursion barge, were equally disposed to
equip their vessels with the best safety appliances as they
are to devise and adopt implements of comfort and luxury,
the advantage to themselves as well as to their patrons would
be plainly apparent."

VIEW OF LEWIS NIXON

Lewis Nixon, the eminent naval architect and designer of
the battleship Oregon, contributed a very interesting comment.
He said in part:

"Here was a vessel presumed, and I think rightly so, to be
the perfection of the naval architect's art, yet sunk in a few
hours by an accident common to North Atlantic navigation.

THE UNSINKABLE SHIP

"An unsinkable ship is possible, but it would be of little
use except for flotation. It may be said that vessels cannot
be built to withstand such an accident.

"We might very greatly subdivide the forward compartments,
where much space is lost at best, making the forward
end, while amply strong for navigation purposes, of such
construction that it would collapse and take up some of the energy
of impact; then tie this to very much stronger sections farther
aft. Many such plans will be proposed by those who do not
realize the momentum of a great vessel which will snap great
cables like ribbons, when the motion of the vessel is not perceptible
to the eye.

"The proper plan is to avoid the accident, and if an accident
is unavoidable to minimize the loss of life and property."

VIEW OF ROBERT H. KIRK

The Titanic disaster was discussed by Robert H. Kirk, who
installed the compartment doors in the ships of the United
States Navy. Mr. Kirk's opinion follows:

"The Titanic's disaster will cause endless speculation as to
how similar disasters may be avoided in the future.

BULKHEAD DOORS PROBABLY OPEN

"The Titanic had bulkheads, plenty of them, for the rules
of the British Board of Trade and of Lloyds are very specific
and require enough compartments to insure floating of the
ship though several may be flooded. She also had doors in
the bulkheads, and probably plenty of them, for she was
enormous and needed easy access from one compartment to
another. It will probably never be known how _FEW_ of these
doors were closed when she struck the iceberg, but the probability
is that many were open, for in the confusion attending
such a crash the crews have a multitude of duties to perform,
and closing a door with water rushing through it is more of a
task than human muscle and bravery can accomplish.

"A Lloyds surveyor in testing one of these hand-operated
doors started two men on the main deck to close it. They
worked four hours before they had carried out his order. If
all the doors on the ship had worked as badly as this one,
what would have happened in event of accident?"

MANIA FOR SPEED

General Adolphus W. Greely, U. S. A., noted American
traveler and Arctic explorer, vehemently denounced the sinking
of the Titanic and the loss of over 1600 souls as a terrible
sacrifice to the American mania for speed. He gave his
opinion that the Titanic came to grief through an attempt on
the part of the steamship management to establish a new
record by the vessel on her maiden voyage.

The Titanic, General Greely declared, had absolutely no
business above Cape Race and north of Sable Island on the
trip on which she went to her doom. Choosing the northern
route brought about the dire disaster, in his mind, and it was
the saving of three hours for the sake of a new record that
ended in the collision with the tragic victory for the ghostlike
monster out of the far north.

It was the opinion of General Greely, capable of judging
after his many trips in quest of the pole, that neither Captain
Smith nor any of his officers saw the giant iceberg which
encompassed their ruin until they were right upon it. Then, the
ship was plunging ahead at such frightful velocity that the
Titanic was too close to avert striking the barrier lined up
across its path.

CHAPTER XXV

OTHER GREAT MARINE DISASTERS

DEADLY DANGER OF ICEBERGS--DOZENS OF SHIPS PERISH IN
COLLISION--OTHER DISASTERS

THE danger of collision with icebergs has always been
one of the most deadly that confront the mariner.
Indeed, so well recognized is this peril of the
Newfoundland Banks, where the Labrador current in the
early spring and summer months floats southward its ghostly
argosy of icy pinnacles detached from the polar ice caps, that
the government hydrographic offices and the maritime exchanges
spare no pains to collate and disseminate the latest
bulletins on the subject.

THE ARIZONA

A most remarkable case of an iceberg collision is that of the
Guion Liner, Arizona, in 1879. She was then the greyhound of
the Atlantic, and the largest ship afloat--5750 tons except
the Great Eastern. Leaving New York in November for
Liverpool, with 509 souls aboard, she was coursing across the
Banks, with fair weather but dark, when, near midnight,
about 250 miles east of St. John's, she rammed a monster
ice island at full speed eighteen knots. Terrific was the
impact.

The welcome word was passed along that the ship, though
sorely stricken, would still float until she could make
harbor. The vast white terror had lain across her course,

{illust. caption = THE SHAPE OF AN ICEBERG

Showing the bulk and formation under water and the consequent danger
to vessels even without actual contact with the visible part of the iceberg.}

stretching so far each way that, when described, it was too
late to alter the helm. Its giant shape filled the foreground,
towering high above the masts, grim and gaunt and ghastly,
immovable as the adamantine buttresses of a frowning seaboard,
while the liner lurched and staggered like a wounded
thing in agony as her engines slowly drew her back from the
rampart against which she had flung herself.

She was headed for St. John's at slow speed, so as not to
strain the bulkhead too much, and arrived there thirty-six
hours later. That little port--the crippled ship's hospital--
has seen many a strange sight come in from the sea, but never
a more astounding spectacle than that which the Arizona
presented the Sunday forenoon she entered there.

"Begob, captain!" said the pilot, as he swung himself over
the rail. "I've heard of carrying coals to Newcastle, but this
is the first time I've seen a steamer bringing a load of ice into
St. John's."

They are a grim race, these sailors, and, the danger over,
the captain's reply was: "We were lucky, my man, that we
didn't all go to the bottom in an ice box."

DOZENS OF SHIPS PERISH

But to the one wounded ship that survives collision with a
berg, a dozen perish. Presumably, when the shock comes, it
loosens their bulkheads and they fill and founder, or the crash
may injure the boilers or engines, which explode and tear out
the sides, and the ship goes down like a plummet. As long
ago as 1841, the steamer President, with 120 people aboard,
crossing from New York to Liverpool in March, vanished
from human ken. In 1854, in the same month, the City of
Glasgow left Liverpool for Philadelphia with 480 souls, and
was never again heard of. In February, 1856, the Pacific,
from Liverpool for New York, carrying 185 persons, passed
away down to a sunless sea. In May, 1870, the City of Boston,
from that port for Liverpool, mustering 191 souls, met a
similar fate. It has always been thought that these ships
were sunk by collision with icebergs or floes. As shipping
traffic has expanded, the losses have been more frequent. In
February, 1892, the Naronic, from Liverpool for New York;
in the same month in 1896, the State of Georgia, from Aberdeen
for Boston; in February, 1899, the Alleghany, from New
York for Dover; and once more in February, 1902, the
Huronian, from Liverpool for St. John's--all disappeared without
leaving a trace. Between February and May, the Grand
Banks are most infested with ice, and collision therewith is'
the most likely explanation of the loss of these steamers, all
well manned and in splendid trim, and meeting only the storms
which scores of other ships have braved without a scathe.

TOLL OF THE SEA

Among the important marine disasters recorded since 1866
are the following:

1866, Jan. 11.--Steamer London, on her way to Melbourne,
foundered in the Bay of Biscay; 220 lives lost.

1866, Oct. 3.--Steamer Evening Star, from New York to
New Orleans, foundered; about 250 lives lost.

1867, Oct. 29.--Royal Mail steamers Rhone and Wye and
about fifty other vessels driven ashore and wrecked at St
Thomas, West Indies, by a hurricane; about 1,000 lives lost.

1873, Jan. 22.--British steamer Northfleet sunk in collision
off Dungeness; 300 lives lost

1873, Nov. 23.--White Star liner Atlantic wrecked off
Nova Scotia; 547 lives lost.

1873, Nov. 23.--French line Ville du Havre, from New
York to Havre, in collision with ship Locharn and sunk in
sixteen minutes; 110 lives lost.

1874, Dec. 24.--Emigrant vessel Cospatrick took fire and
sank off Auckland; 476 lives lost.

1875, May 7.--Hamburg Mail steamer Schiller wrecked
in fog on Scilly Islands; 200 lives lost.

1875, Nov. 4.--American steamer Pacific in collision thirty
miles southwest of Cape Flattery; 236 lives lost.

1878, March 24.--British training ship Eurydice, a frigate,
foundered near the Isle of Wight; 300 lives lost.

1878, Sept. 3.--British iron steamer Princess Alice sunk
in the Thames River; 700 lives lost.

1878, Dec. 18.--French steamer Byzantin sunk in collision
in the Dardanelles with the British steamer Rinaldo; 210
lives lost.

1879, Dec. 2.--Steamer Borussia sank off the coast of Spain;
174 lives lost.

1880, Jan. 31.--British trading ship Atlanta left Bermuda
with 290 men and was never heard from.

1881, Aug. 30.--Steamer Teuton wrecked off the Cape of
Good Hope; 200 lives lost.

1883, July 3.--Steamer Daphne turned turtle in the Clyde;
124 lives lost.

1884, Jan. 18.--American steamer City of Columbus
wrecked off Gay Head Light, Massachusetts; 99 lived lost.

1884, July 23.--Spanish steamer Gijon and British steamer
Lux in collision off Finisterre; 150 lives lost.

1887, Jan. 29.--Steamer Kapunda in collision with bark
Ada Melore off coast of Brazil; 300 lives lost.

1887, Nov. 15.--British steamer Wah Young caught fire
between Canton and Hong Kong; 400 lives lost.

1888, Sept. 13.--Italian steamship Sud America and steamer
La France in collision near the Canary Islands; 89 lives
lost.

1889, March 16.--United States warships Trenton, Vandalia
and Nipsic and German ships Adler and Eber wrecked
on Samoan Islands; 147 lives lost.

1890, Jan. 2.--Steamer Persia wrecked on Corsica; 130
lives lost.

1890, Feb. 17.--British steamer Duburg wrecked in the
China Sea; 400 lives lost.

1890, March 1.--British steamship Quetta foundered in
Torres Straits; 124 lives lost.

1890, Dec. 27.--British steamer Shanghai burned in China
Seas; 101 lives lost.

1891, March 17.--Anchor liner Utopia in collision with
British steamer Anson off Gibraltar and sunk; 574 lives lost.

1892, Jan. 13.--Steamer Namehow wrecked in China Sea;
414 lives lost.

1892, Oct. 28.--Anchor liner Romania, wrecked off Portugal;
113 lives lost.

1893, Feb. 8.--Anchor liner Trinairia, wrecked off Spain;
115 lives lost.

1894, June 25.--Steamer Norge, wrecked on Rockall Reef,
in the North Atlantic; nearly 600 lives lost.

1895, Jan. 30.--German steamer Elbe sunk in collision with
British steamer Crathie in North Sea; 335 lives lost.

1898, July 4.--French line steamer La Bourgogne in collision
with British sailing vessel Cromartyshire; 571 lives lost.

1898, Nov. 27.--American steamer Portland, wrecked off
Cape Cod, Mass.; 157 lives lost.

1901, April 1.--Turkish transport Aslam wrecked in the
Red Sea; over 180 lives lost.

1902, July 21.--Steamer Primus sunk in collision with the
steamer Hansa on the Lower Elbe; 112 lives lost.

1903, June 7.--French steamer Libau sunk in collision with
steamer Insulerre near Marseilles; 150 lives lost.

1904, June 15. General Slocum, excursion steamboat, took
fire going through Hell Gate, East River; more than 1000
lives lost.

1906, Jan. 21.--Brazilian battleship Aquidaban sunk near
Rio Janeiro by an explosion of the powder magazines; 212
lives lost.

1906, Jan. 22.--American steamer Valencia lost off Cloose,
Pacific Coast; 140 lives lost.

1906, Aug. 4.--Italian emigrant ship Sirio struck a rock off
Cape Palos; 350 lives lost.

1906, Oct. 21.--Russian steamer Variag, on leaving Vladivostock,
struck by a torpedo and sunk; 140 lives lost.

1907, Feb. 12.--American steamer Larchmond sunk in collision
off Rhode Island coast; 131 lives lost.

1907, July 20.--American steamers Columbia and San
Pedro collided on the Californian coast; 100 lives lost.

1907, Nov. 26.--Turkish steamer Kaptain foundered in the
North Sea; 110 lives lost.

1908, March 23.--Japanese steamer Mutsu Maru sunk in
collision near Hakodate; 300 lives lost.

1908, April 30.--Japanese training cruiser Matsu Shima
sunk off the Pescadores owing to an explosion; 200 lives lost.

1909, Jan. 24.--Collision between the Italian steamer
Florida and the White Star liner Republic, about 170 miles
east of New York during a fog; a large number of lives were
saved by the arrival of the steamer Baltic, which received the
"C. Q. D.," or distress signal sent up by wireless by the
Republic January 22. The Republic sank while being towed;
6 lives lost.

1910, Feb. 9.--French line steamer General Chanzy off
Minorca; 200 lives lost.

1911, Sept. 25.--French battleship Liberte sunk by explosion
in Toulon harbor; 223 lives lost.

CHAPTER XXVI

DEVELOPMENT OF SHIPBUILDING

EVOLUTION OF WATER TRAVEL--INCREASES IN SIZE OF VESSELS
--IS THERE ANY LIMIT?--ACHIEVEMENTS IN SPEED--TITANIC
NOT THE LAST WORD.

THE origin of travel on water dates back to a very
early period in human history, men beginning with
the log, the inflated skin, the dug-out canoe, and
upwards through various methods of flotation; while the
paddle, the oar, and finally the sail served as means of
propulsion. This was for inland water travel, and many
centuries passed before the navigation of the sea was dreamed
of by adventurous mariners.

The paintings and sculptures of early Egypt show us boats
built of sawn planks, regularly constructed and moved both
by oars and sails. At a later period we read of the Phoenicians,
the most daring and enterprising of ancient navigators,
who braved the dangers of the open sea, and are said by
Herodotus to have circumnavigated Africa as early as 604
B. C. Starting from the Red Sea, they followed the east
coast, rounded the Cape, and sailed north along the west
coast to the Mediterranean, reaching Egypt again in the
third year of this enterprise.

The Carthaginians and Romans come next in the history
of shipbuilding, confining themselves chiefly to the Mediterranean,
and using oars as the principal means of propulsion.
Their galleys ranged from one to five banks of oars. The
Roman vessels in the first Punic war were over 100 feet
long and had 300 rowers, while they carried 120 soldiers.
They did not use sails until about the beginning of the fourteenth
century B. C.

Portugal was the first nation to engage in voyages of discovery,
using vessels of small size in these adventurous journeys.
Spain, which soon became her rival in this field, built
larger ships and long held the lead. Yet the ships with which
Columbus made the discovery of America were of a size and
character in which few sailors of the present day would care
to venture far from land.

England was later in coming into the field of adventurous
navigation, being surpassed not only by the Portuguese and
Spanish, but by the Dutch, in ventures to far lands.

Europe long held the precedence in shipbuilding and enterprise
in navigation, but the shores of America had not long
been settled before the venturous colonists had ships upon
the seas. The first of these was built at the mouth of the
Kennebec River in Maine. This was a staunch little two-
masted vessel, which was named the Virginia, supposed to
have been about sixty feet long and seventeen feet in beam.
Next in time came the Restless, built in 1614 or 1615 at
New York, by Adrian Blok, a Dutch captain whose ships
had been burned while lying at Manhattan Island. This
vessel, thirty-eight feet long and of eleven feet beam, was
employed for several years in exploring the Atlantic coast.

With the advent of the nineteenth century a new ideal in
naval architecture arose, that of the ship moved by steam-
power instead of wind-power, and fitted to combat with the
seas alike in storm and calm, with little heed as to whether
the wind was fair or foul. The steamship appeared, and grew
in size and power until such giants of the wave as the Titanic
and Olympic were set afloat. To the development of this
modern class of ships our attention must now be turned.

As the reckless cowboy of the West is fast becoming a thing
of the past, so is the daring seaman of fame and story. In his
place is coming a class of men miscalled sailors, who never
reefed a sail or coiled a cable, who do not know how to launch
a life-boat or pull an oar, and in whose career we meet the
ridiculous episode of the life-boats of the Titanic, where women
were obliged to take the oars from their hands and row the
boats. Thus has the old-time hero of the waves been transformed
into one fitted to serve as a clown of the vaudeville
stage.

The advent of steam navigation came early in the nineteenth
century, though interesting steps in this direction
were taken earlier. No sooner was the steam-engine developed
than men began to speculate on it as a moving power on sea
and land. Early among these were several Americans, Oliver
Evans, one of the first to project steam railway travel, and
James Rumsey and John Fitch, steamboat inventors of early
date. There were several experimenters in Europe also, but
the first to produce a practical steamboat was Robert Fulton,
a native of Pennsylvania, whose successful boat; the Clermont,
made its maiden trip up the Hudson in 1807. A crude
affair was the Clermont, with a top speed of about seven
miles an hour; but it was the dwarf from which the giant
steamers of to-day have grown.

Boats of this type quickly made their way over the American
rivers and before 1820 regular lines of steamboats were
running between England and Ireland. In 1817 James Watt,
the inventor of the practical steam-engine, crossed in a steamer
from England to Belgium. But these short voyages were far
surpassed by an American enterprise, that of the first ocean
steamship, the Savannah, which crossed the Atlantic from
Savannah to Liverpool in 1819.

Twelve years passed before this enterprise was repeated,
the next steam voyage being in 1831, when the Royal William
crossed from Quebec to England. She used coal for fuel,
having utilized her entire hold to store enough for the voyage.
The Savannah had burned pitch-pine under her engines, for
in America wood was long used as fuel for steam-making
purposes. As regards this matter, the problem of fuel was of
leading importance, and it was seriously questioned if a ship
could be built to cross the Atlantic depending solely upon
steam power. Steam-engines in those days were not very
economical, needing four or five times as much fuel for the
same power as the engines of recent date.

It was not until 1838 that the problem was solved. On
April 23d of that year a most significant event took place.
Two steamships dropped anchor in the harbor of New York,
the Sirius and the Great Western. Both of these had made the
entire voyage under steam, the Sirius, in eighteen and a half
and the Great Western in fourteen and a half days, measuring
from Queenstown. The Sirius had taken on board 450 tons
of coal, but all this was burned by the time Sandy Hook was
reached, and she had to burn her spare spars and forty-three
barrels of rosin to make her way up the bay. The Great
Western, on the contrary, had coal to spare.

Two innovations in shipbuilding were soon introduced.
These were the building of iron instead of wooden ships and the
replacing of the paddle wheel by the screw propeller. The
screw-propeller was first successfully introduced by the famous
Swede, John Ericsson, in 1835. His propeller was tried in a
small vessel, forty-five feet long and eight wide, which was
driven at the rate of ten miles an hour, and towed a large
packet ship at fair speed. Ericsson, not being appreciated
in England, came to America to experiment. Other inventors
were also at work in the same line.

Their experiments attracted the attention of Isambard
Brunel, one of the greatest engineers of the period, who was
then engaged in building a large paddle-wheel steamer, the
Great Britain. Appreciating the new idea, he had the engines
of the new ship changed and a screw propeller introduced.
This ship, a great one for the time, 322 feet long and of
3443 tons, made her first voyage from Liverpool to New York
in 1845, her average speed being 12 1/4 knots an hour, the
length of the voyage 14 days and 21 hours.

By the date named the crossing of the Atlantic by steamships
had become a common event. In 1840 the British
and Royal Mail Steam Packet Company was organized, its
chief promoter being Samuel Cunard, of Halifax, Nova
Scotia, whose name has long been attached to this famous
line.

The first fleet of the Cunard Line comprised four vessels,
the Britannia, Acadia, Caledonia and Columbia. The Unicorn,
sent out by this company as a pioneer, entered Boston
harbor on June 2, 1840, being the first steamship from Europe
to reach that port. Regular trips began with the Britannia,
which left Liverpool on July 4, 1840. For a number of
years later this line enjoyed a practical monopoly of the
steam carrying trade between England and the United States.
Then other companies came into the field, chief among them
being the Collins Line, started in 1849, and of short duration,
and the Inman Line, instituted in 1850.

We should say something here of the comforts and conveniences
provided for the passengers on these early lines.
They differed strikingly from those on the leviathans of recent
travel and were little, if any, superior to those on the packet
ships, the active rivals at that date of the steamers. Then
there were none of the comfortable smoking rooms, well-
filled libraries, drawing rooms, electric lights, and other modern
improvements. The saloons and staterooms were in the
extreme after part of the vessel, but the stateroom of that
day was little more than a closet, with two berths, one above
the other, and very little standing room between these and
the wall. By paying nearly double fare a passenger might
secure a room for himself, but the room given him did not
compare well even with that of small and unpretentious
modern steamers.

Other ocean steamship companies gradually arose, some
of which are still in existence. But no especial change in ship-
building was introduced until 1870, when the Oceanic Company,
now known as the White Star Line, built the Britannic
and Germanic. These were the largest of its early ships.
They were 468 feet long and 35 feet wide, constituting
a new type of extreme length as compared with their
width. In the first White Star ship, the Oceanic, the
improvements above mentioned were introduced, the saloons
and staterooms being brought as near as possible to the center
of the ship. All the principal lines built since that date have
followed this example, thus adding much to the comfort of
the first-class passengers.

Speed and economy in power also became features of
importance, the tubular boiler and the compound engine
being introduced. These have developed into the cylindrical,
multitubular boiler and the triple expansion engine, in which
a greater percentage of the power of the steam is utilized and
four or five times the work obtained from coal over that of the
old system. The side-wheel was continued in use in the older
ships until this period, but after 1870 it disappeared.

It has been said that the life of iron ships, barring disasters
at sea, is unlimited, that they cannot wear out. This
statement has not been tested, but the fact remains that the
older passenger ships have gone out of service and that steel
has now taken the place of iron, as lighter and more durable.

Something should also be said here of the steam turbine
engine, recently introduced in some of the greatest liners, and of
proven value in several particulars, an important one of these
being the doing away with the vibration, an inseparable
accompaniment of the old style engines. The Olympic and
Titanic engines were a combination of the turbine and reciprocating
types. In regard to the driving power, one of the recent
introductions is that of the multiple propeller. The twin
screw was first applied in the City of New York, of the Inman
line, and enabled her to make in 1890 an average speed of a
little over six days from New York to Queenstown. The best
record up to October, 1891, was that of the Teutonic,
of five days, sixteen hours, and thirty minutes. Triple-screw
propellers have since then been introduced in some of the
greater ships, and the record speed has been cut down to the
four days and ten hours of the Lusitania in 1908 and the
four days, six hours and forty-one minutes of the Mauretania
in 1910.

The Titanic was not built especially for speed, but in every
other way she was the master product of the shipbuilders' art.
Progress through the centuries has been steady, and perhaps
the twentieth century will prepare a vessel that will be unsinkable
as well as magnificent. Until the fatal accident the
Titanic and Olympic were considered the last words on ship-
building; but much may still remain to be spoken.

CHAPTER XXVII

SAFETY AND LIFE-SAVING DEVICES

WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY--WATER-TIGHT BULKHEADS--SUBMARINE
SIGNALS--LIFE-BOATS AND RAFTS--NIXON'S PONTOON
--LIFE-PRESERVERS AND BUOYS--ROCKETS

THE fact that there are any survivors of the Titanic
left to tell the story of the terrible catastrophe is
only another of the hundreds of instances on record
of the value of wireless telegraphy in saving life on shipboard.
Without Marconi's invention it is altogether probable that
the world would never have known of the nature of the
Titanic's fate, for it is only barely within the realm of
possibility that any of the Titanic's passengers' poorly clad,
without proper provisions of food and water, and exposed
in the open boats to the frigid weather, would have survived
long enough to have been picked up by a transatlantic liner
in ignorance of the accident to the Titanic.

Speaking (since the Titanic disaster) of the part which
wireless telegraphy has played in the salvation of distressed
ships, Guglielmo Marconi, the inventor of this wonderful
science, has said:

"Fifteen years ago the curvature of the earth was looked
upon as the one great obstacle to wireless telegraphy. By
various experiments in the Isle of Wight and at St. John's
I finally succeeded in sending the letter S 2000 miles.

"We have since found that the fog and the dull skies in
the vicinity of England are exceptionally favorable for wireless
telegraphy."

Then the inventor told of wireless messages being transmitted
2500 miles across the Abyssinian desert, and of preparation
for similar achievements.

"The one necessary requirement for continued success is
that governments keep from being enveloped in political red
tape," said he.

"The fact that a message can be flashed across the wide
expanse of ocean in ten minutes has exceeded my fondest
expectations. Some idea of the progress made may be had
by citing the fact that in eleven years the range of wireless
telegraphy has increased from 200 to 3000 miles.

"Not once has wireless telegraphy failed in calling and
securing help on the high seas. A recognition of this is shown
in the attitude of the United States Government in compelling
all passenger-carrying vessels entering our ports to be equipped
with wireless apparatus."

Of the Titanic tragedy, Marconi said:

"I know you will all understand when I say that I entertain
a deep feeling of gratitude because of the fact that wireless
telegraphy has again contributed to the saving of life."

WATER-TIGHT BULKHEADS

One of the most essential factors in making ships safe is
the construction of proper bulkheads to divide a ship into
water-tight compartments in case of injury to her hull. Of
the modern means of forming such compartments, and of
the complete and automatic devices for operating the watertight
doors which connect them, a full explanation has already
been given in the description of the Titanic's physical features,
to which the reader is referred. A wise precaution usually
taken in the case of twin and triple screw ships is to arrange the
bulkheads so that each engine is in a separate compartment,
as is also each boiler or bank of boilers and each coal bunker.

SUBMARINE SIGNALS

Then there are submarine signals to tell of near-by vessels
or shores. This signal arrangement includes a small tank
on either side of the vessel, just below the water line. Within
each is a microphone with wires leading to the bridge. If
the vessel is near any other or approaching shore, the sounds;
conveyed through the water from the distant object are
heard through the receiver of the microphone. These arrangements
are called the ship's ears, and whether the sounds come
from one side of the vessel or the other, the officers can tell the
location of the shore or ship near by. If both ears record,
the object is ahead.

LIFEBOATS AND RAFTS

The construction of life-boats adapts them for very rough
weather. The chief essentials, of course, are ease in launching,
strength in withstanding rough water and bumping when
beached; also strength to withstand striking against wreckage
or a ship's side; carrying capacity and lightness. Those
carried on board ship are lighter than those used in life-saving
service on shore. Safety is provided by air-tight tanks which
insure buoyancy in case the boat is filled with water. They
have also self-righting power in case of being overturned; likewise
self-emptying power. Life-boats are usually of the whaleboat
type, with copper air-tight tanks along the side beneath
the thwarts, and in the ends.

Life-boats range from twenty-four to thirty feet in length
and carry from thirty to sixty persons. The rafts carry from
twenty to forty persons. The old-fashioned round bar
davits can be got for $100 to $150 a set. The new style davits,
quick launchers in type, come as low as $400 a set.

According to some naval constructors, an ocean steamship
can carry in davits enough boats to take care of all the passengers
and crew, it being simply a question as to whether the
steamship owners are willing to take up that much deck room
which otherwise would be used for lounging chairs or for a
promenade.

Nowadays all life-boats are equipped with air tanks to
prevent sinking, with the result that metal boats are as
unsinkable as wooden ones. The metal boats are considered
in the United States Navy as superior to wooden ones, for
several reasons: They do not break or collapse; they do not,
in consequence of long storage on deck, open at the seams and
thereby spring a leak; and they are not eaten by bugs, as is
the case with wooden boats.

Comparatively few of the transatlantic steamships have
adopted metal life-boats. Most of the boats are of wood,
according to the official United States Government record
of inspection. The records show that a considerable
proportion of the entire number of so-called "life-boats"
carried by Atlantic Ocean liners are not actually life-boats
at all, but simply open boats, without air tanks or other special
equipment or construction.

{illust. caption = CHAMBERS COLLAPSIBLE LIFE RAFT}

Life-rafts are of several kinds. They are commonly used
on large passenger steamers where it is difficult to carry sufficient
life-boats. In most cases they consist of two or more
hollow metal or inflated rubber floats which support a wooden
deck. The small rafts are supplied with life-lines and oars,
and the larger ones with life-lines only, or with life-lines and
sails.

The collapsible feature of the Chambers raft consists of
canvas-covered steel frames extending up twenty-five inches
from the sides to prevent passengers from being pitched off.
When the rafts are not in use these side frames are folded
down on the raft.

The collapsible rafts are favored by the ship-owners because
such boats take up less room; they do not have to be carried
in the davits, and they can be stowed to any number required.
Some of the German lines stack their collapsible rafts one
above another on deck.

NIXON'S PONTOON

Lewis Nixon, the well-known ship designer, suggests the
construction of a pontoon to be carried on the after end of the
vessel and to be made of sectional air-tight compartments.
One compartment would accommodate the wireless outfit.
Another compartment would hold drinking water, and still
another would be filled with food.

The pontoon would follow the line of the ship and seem to
be a part of it. The means for releasing it before the sinking of
the vessel present no mechanical problem. It would be too
large and too buoyant to be sucked down with the wreck.

The pontoon would accommodate, not comfortably but
safely, all those who failed to find room in the life-boats.

It is Mr. Nixon's plan to instal a gas engine in one of the
compartments. With this engine the wireless instrument
would remain in commission and direct the rescuers after the
ship itself had gone down.

LIFE PRESERVERS AND BUOYS

Life-preservers are chiefly of the belt or jacket type, made
to fit about the body and rendered buoyant by slabs of cork
sewed into the garment, or by rubber-lined air-bags. The
use of cork is usually considered preferable, as the inflated
articles are liable to injury, and jackets are preferable to belts
as they can be put on more quickly.

Life-buoys are of several types, but those most common
are of the ring type, varying in size from the small one designed
to be thrown by hand to the large hollow metal buoy capable
of supporting several people. The latter are usually carried
by sea-going vessels and are fitted with lamps which are
automatically lighted when the buoy is dropped into the water.

ROCKETS

American ocean-going steamers are required to have some
approved means of firing lines to the shore. Cunningham
rockets and the Hunt gun are largely used. The inaccuracy
of the rocket is of less importance when fired from a ship than
when fired from shore.

CHAPTER XXVIII

TIME FOR REFLECTION AND REFORMS

SPEED AND LUXURY OVEREMPHASIZED--SPACE NEEDED FOR
LIFE-BOATS DEVOTED TO SWIMMING POOLS AND SQUASH-
COURTS--MANIA FOR SPEED RECORDS COMPELS USE OF DANGEROUS
ROUTES AND PREVENTS PROPER CAUTION IN FOGGY
WEATHER--LIFE MORE VALUABLE THAN LUXURY--SAFETY
MORE IMPORTANT THAN SPEED--AN AROUSED PUBLIC OPINION
NECESSARY--INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE RECOMMENDED--
ADEQUATE LIFE-SAVING EQUIPMENT SHOULD BE
COMPULSORY--SPEED REGULATIONS IN BAD WEATHER--
COOPERATION IN ARRANGING SCHEDULES TO KEEP VESSELS
WITHIN REACH OF EACH OTHER--LEGAL REGULATIONS

IT is a long time since any modern vessel of importance
has gone down under Nature's attack, and in general
the floating city of steel laughs at the wind and waves.
She is not, however, proof against disaster. The danger
lies in her own power--in the tens of thousands of horse power
with which she may be driven into another ship or into an
iceberg standing cold and unyielding as a wall of granite.
In view of this fact it is of the utmost importance that
present-day vessels should be thoroughly provided with the
most efficient life-saving devices. These would seem more
important than fireplaces, squash-courts and many other
luxuries with which the Titanic was provided. The comparatively
few survivors of the ill-fated Titanic were saved
by the life-boats. The hundreds of others who went down
with the vessel perished because there were no life-boats to
carry them until rescue came.

SURVIVORS URGE REFORM

The survivors urge the need of reform. In a resolution
drawn up after the disaster they said:

"We feel it our duty to call the attention of the public to
what we consider the inadequate supply of life-saving appliances
provided for the modern passenger steamships and
recommend that immediate steps be taken to compel passenger
steamers to carry sufficient boats to accommodate the
maximum number of people carried on board. The following
facts were observed and should be considered in this connection:
The insufficiency of life-boats, rafts, etc.; lack of
trained seamen to man same (stokers, stewards, etc., are not
efficient boat handlers); not enough officers to carry out
emergency orders on the bridge and superintend the launching
and control of life-boats; the absence of search lights.

"The Board of Trade allows for entirely too many people
in each boat to permit the same to be properly handled. On
the Titanic the boat deck was about seventy-five feet from
the water and consequently the passengers were required to
embark before lowering the boats, thus endangering the
operation and preventing the taking on of the maximum
number the boats would hold. Boats at all times should be
properly equipped with provisions, water, lamps, compasses,
lights, etc. Life-saving boat drills should be more frequent
and thoroughly carried out and officers should be armed at
both drills. There should be greater reduction of speed in fog
and ice, as damage if collision actually occurs is liable to be
less.

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE RECOMMENDED

"In conclusion we suggest that an international conference
be called to recommend the passage of identical laws providing
for the safety of all at sea, and we urge the United States
Government to take the initiative as soon as possible."

That ocean liners take chances with their passengers,
though known to the well informed, is newly revealed and
comes with a shock of surprise and dismay to most people.
If boats are unsinkable as well as fireproof there is no need
of any life-boats at all. But no such steamship has ever been
constructed.

That it is realized that life-boats may be necessary on
the best and newest steamships is proved by the fact that they
carry them even beyond the law's requirements. But if
life-boats for one-third of those on the ship are necessary,
life-boats for all on board are equally necessary. The law of
the United States requires this, but the law and trade regulations
of England do not, and these controlled the Titanic
and caused the death of over sixteen hundred people.

True, a steamship is rarely crowded to her capacity, and
ordinarily accommodations in life-boats for a full list would
not be needed. But that is no argument against maximum
safety facilities, for when disaster comes it comes unexpectedly,
and it might come when every berth was occupied. So there
must be life-boats for use in every possible emergency. Places
must be found for them and methods for handling them
promptly.

Suppose a vessel to be thus equipped, would safety be
insured? In calm weather such as the Titanic had, yes, for
all that would be needed would be to keep the small boats
afloat until help came. The Titanic could have saved everyone
aboard. In heavy weather, no. As at present arranged,
if a vessel has a list, or, in non-nautical language, has tipped
over on one side, only the boats upon the lower side can be
dropped, for they must be swung clear of the vessel to be
lowered from the davits.

So there is a problem which it is the duty of marine
designers to solve. They have heretofore turned their attention
to the invention of some new contrivance for comfort and
luxury. Now let them grasp the far more important question
of taking every soul from a sinking ship. They can do it,
and while they are about it, it would be well to supplement
life-boats with other methods.

We like to think and to say that nothing is impossible in
these days of ceaseless and energetic progress. Certainly
it is possible for the brains of marine designers to find a better
way for rescue work. Lewis Nixon, ship-builder and designer
for years, is sure that we can revolutionize safety appliances.
He has had a plan for a long time for the construction of a
considerable section of deck that could be detached and
floated off like an immense raft. He figures that such a deck-
raft could be made to carry the bulk of the passengers.

That may seem a bit chimerical to laymen, but Nixon is
no layman. His ideas are worthy of every consideration.
Certain it is that something radical must be done, and that
the maritime nations must get together, not only in the way
of providing more life-saving facilities, but in agreeing upon
navigation routes and methods.

Captain William S. Sims, of the United States Navy, who is
in a position to know what he is talking about, has made some
very pointed comments on the subject. He says:

"The truth of the matter is that in case any large passenger
steamship sinks, by reason of collision or other fatal
damage to her flotability, more than half of her passengers
are doomed to death, even in fair weather, and in case there
is a bit of a sea running none of the loaded boats can long
remain afloat, even if they succeed in getting safely away
from the side, and one more will be added to the long list
of `the ships that never return.'

"Most people accept this condition as one of the inevitable
perils of the sea, but I believe it can be shown that the terrible
loss of life occasioned by such disasters as overtook the Bourgogne
and the Titanic and many other ships can be avoided
or at least greatly minimized. Moreover, it can be shown
that the steamship owners are fully aware of the danger to
their passengers; that the laws on the subject of life-saving
appliances are wholly inadequate; that the steamship companies
comply with the law, though they oppose any changes
therein, and that they decline to adopt improved appliances;
because there is no public demand for them, the demand
being for high schedule speed and luxurious conditions of
travel.

"In addition to installing efficient life-saving appliances,
if the great steamship lines should come to an agreement to
fix a maximum speed for their vessels of various classes and
fix their dates and hours of steaming so that they would cross
the ocean in pairs within supporting distances of each other,
on routes clear of ice, all danger of ocean travel would practically
be eliminated.

"The shortest course between New York and the English
Channel lies across Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. Consequently
the shortest water route is over seas where navigation
is dangerous by reason of fog and ice. It is a notorious
fact that the transatlantic steamships are not navigated with
due regard to safety; that they steam at practically full
speed in the densest fogs. But the companies cannot properly
be blamed for this practice, because if the `blue liners' slow
down in a fog or take a safe route, clear of ice, the public will
take passage on the `green liners,' which take the shortest
route, and keep up their schedule time; regardless of the risks
indicated."

PROMPT REFORMS

The terrible sacrifice of the Titanic, however, is to have its
fruit in safety for the future. The official announcement is

{illust. caption = A diagrammatic map showing how...}

made by the International Mercantile Marine that all its
ships will be equipped with sufficient life-boats and rafts
for every passenger and every member of the crew, without
regard to the regulations in this country and England or Belgium.
One of the German liners already had this complement
of life-boats, though the German marine as a whole is sufficiently
deficient at this point to induce the Reichstag to order
an investigation.

Prompt, immediate and gratifying reform marks this action
of the International Mercantile Marine. It is doubtless
true that this precaution ought to have been taken without
waiting for a loss of life such as makes all previous marine
disasters seem trivial. But the public itself has been inert.
For thirty years, since Plimsoll's day, every intelligent passenger
knew that every British vessel was deficient in life-
boats, but neither public opinion nor the public press took
this matter up. There were no questions in Parliament and
no measures introduced in Congress. Even the legislation
by which the United States permitted English vessels reaching
American ports to avoid the legal requirements of American
statute law (which requires a seat in the life-boats for every
passenger and every member of the crew) attracted no public
attention, and occasional references to the subject by those
better informed did nothing to awake action.

But this is past. Those who died bravely without complaint
and with sacrificing regard for others did not lose their
lives in vain. The safety of all travelers for all times to come
under every civilized flag is to be greater through their sac-
rifice. Under modern conditions life can be made as safe at
sea as on the land. It is heartrending to stop and think that
thirty-two more life-boats, costing only about $16,000, which
could have been stowed away without being noticed on the
broad decks of the Titanic, would have saved every man,
woman and child on the steamer. There has never been so
great a disaster in the history of civilization due to the
neglect of so small an expenditure.

It would be idle to think that this was due simply to parsimony.
It was really due to the false and vicious notion
that life at sea must be made showy, sumptuous and magnificent.
The absence of life-boats was not due to their cost,
but to the demand for a great promenade deck, with ample
space to look out on the sea with which a continuous row of
life-boats would have interfered, and to the general tendency
to lavish money on the luxuries of a voyage instead of first
insuring its safety.

CHAPTER XXIX

THE SENATORIAL INVESTIGATION

PROMPT ACTION OF THE GOVERNMENT--SENATE COMMITTEE
PROBES DISASTER AND BRINGS OUT DETAILS--TESTIMONY
OF ISMAY, OFFICERS, CREW, PASSENGERS AND OTHER
WITNESSES

PUBLIC sentiment with regard to the Titanic disaster
was reflected in the prompt action of the
United States Government.

On April 17th the Senate, without a dissenting vote,
ordered an investigation of the wreck of the Titanic, with
particular reference to the inadequacy of life-saving boats
and apparatus. The resolution also directed inquiry into the
use by the Titanic of the northern course "over a route
commonly regarded as dangerous from icebergs."

Besides investigating the disaster, the committee was
directed to look into the feasibility of international agreements
for the further protection of ocean traffic.

The Senate Committee on Commerce, in whose charge the
investigation was placed, immediately appointed the following
sub-committee to conduct the gathering of evidence and the
examination of witnesses:

Senator William Alden Smith of Michigan, chairman;
Senator Francis Newlands of Nevada, Senator Jonathan
Bourne, Jr., of Oregon, Senator George C. Perkins of California,
Senator Theodore E. Burton of Ohio, Senator Furnifold
McL. Simmons of North Carolina and Senator Duncan U.
Fletcher of Florida.

The Senate Committee began its investigation in New
York on Friday, April 19th, the morning after the arrival of
the Carpathia.

Ismay, the first witness, came to the witness chair with
a smile upon his face. He was sworn and then told the
committee that he made the voyage on the Titanic only as
a voluntary passenger. Nobody designated him to come
to see how the newly launched monster would behave on
the initial trip. He said that no money was spared in the
construction, and as she was built on commission there
was no need for the builders to slight the work for their
own benefit. The accident had happened on Sunday night,
April 14th.

"I was in bed and asleep," he said. "The ship was not
going at full speed, as has been printed, because full speed
would be from seventy-eight to eighty revolutions, and we were
making only seventy-five. After the impact with the iceberg
I dressed and went on deck. I asked the steward what
the matter was and he told me. Then I went to Captain
Smith and asked him if the ship was in danger and he told
me he thought she was."

Ismay said that he went on the bridge and remained there
for some time and then lent a hand in getting the life-boats
ready. He helped to get the women and children into the
boats.

Ismay said that no other executive officer of the steamship
company was on board, which practically made him the
sole master of the vessel the minute it passed beyond the
control of the captain and his fellow-officers. But Ismay,
seeming to scent the drift of the questions, said that he never
interfered in any way with the handling of the ship.

Ismay was asked to give more particulars about his departure
from the ship. He said:

"The boat was ready to be lowered away and the officer
called out if there were any more women or children to go
or any more passengers on deck, but there was none, and I
got on board."

CAPTAIN ROSTRON'S TESTIMONY

Captain Rostron, of the Carpathia, followed Mr. Ismay.
He said the first message received from the Titanic was
that she was in immediate danger. "I gave the order to
turn the ship around as soon as the Titanic had given her
position. I set a course to pick up the Titanic, which was
fifty-eight miles west of my position. I sent for the chief
engineer, told him to put on another watch of stokers and
make all speed for the Titanic. I told the first officer to stop
all deck work, get out the life-boats and be ready for any
emergency. The chief steward and doctors of the Carpathia
I called to my office and instructed as to their duties. The
English doctor was assigned to the first class dining room,
the Italian doctor to the second class dining room, the Hungarian
doctor to the third class dining room. They were
instructed to be ready with all supplies necessary for any
emergency."

{illust. caption = DIAGRAM SHOWING THE PROXIMITY OF OTHER STEAMSHIPS TO
THE TITANIC ON NIGHT OF DISASTER.}

The captain told in detail of the arrangements made to
prepare the life-boats and the ship for the receipt of the
survivors.

WEEPS AS HE TELLS STORY

Then with tears filling his eyes, Captain Rostron said he
called the purser. "I told him," said Captain Rostron,
"I wanted to hold a service of prayer--thanksgiving for the
living and a funeral service for the dead. I went to Mr.
Ismay. He told me to take full charge. An Episcopal
clergyman was found among the passengers and he conducted
the services."

TITANIC WAS A "LIFE-BOAT."

Captain Rostron said that the Carpathia had twenty lifeboats
of her own, in accordance with the British regulations.

"Wouldn't that indicate that the regulations are out of
date, your ship being much smaller than the Titanic, which
also carried twenty life-boats?" Senator Smith asked.

"No. The Titanic was supposed to be a life-boat herself."

WIRELESS FAILED

Why so few messages came from the Carpathia was gone
into. Captain Rostron declared the first messages, all substantially
the same, were sent to the White Star Line, the Cunard
Line and the Associated Press. Then the first and

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