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Sinking of the Titanic and Great Sea Disasters

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THORNE, G.

VANDERHOOF, WYCKOFF.

WALKER, W. A.
WARREN, F. M.
WHITE, PERCIVAL A.
WHITE, RICHARD F.
WIDENER, G. D.
WIDENER, HARRY.
WOOD, MR. AND MRS. FRANK P.
WEIR, J.
WILLIAMS, DUANE.
WRIGHT, GEORGE.

SECOND CABIN

ABELSON, SAMSON.
ANDREW, FRANK.
ASHBY, JOHN.
ALDWORTH, C.
ANDREW, EDGAR.

BRACKEN, JAMES H.
BROWN, MRS.
BANFIELD, FRED.
BRIGHT, NARL.
BRAILY, bandsman.
BREICOUX, bandsman.
BAILEY, PERCY.
BAINBRIDGE, C. R.
BYLES, THE REV. THOMAS.
BEAUCHAMP, H. J.
BERG, MISS E.
BENTHAN, I.
BATEMAN, ROBERT J.
BUTLER, REGINALD.
BOTSFORD, HULL.
BOWEENER, SOLOMON.
BERRIMAN, WILLIAM.

CLARKE, CHARLES.
CLARK, bandsman.
COREY, MRS. C. P.
CARTER, THE REV. ERNEST.
CARTER, MRS.
COLERIDGE, REGINALD,
CHAPMAN, CHARLES.
CUNNINGHAM, ALFRED.
CAMPBELL, WILLIAM.
COLLYER, HARVEY.
CORBETT, MRS. IRENE.

ROLL OF THE DEAD--SECOND CABIN (CONTINUED)

CHAPMAN, JOHN E.
CHAPMAN, MRS. E.
COLANDER, ERIC.
COTTERILL, HARBY.

DEACON, PERCY.
DAVIS, CHARLES.
DIBBEN, WILLIAM.
DE BRITO, JOSE.
DENBORNY, H.
DREW, JAMES.
DREW, MASTER M.
DAVID, MASTER J. W.
DOUNTON, W. J.
DEL VARLO, S.
DEL VARLO, MRS.

ENANDER, INGVAR.
EITEMILLER, G. F.

FROST, A.
FYNNERY, MR.
FAUNTHORPE, H.
FILLBROOK, C.
FUNK, ANNIE.
FAHLSTROM, A.
FOX, STANLEY W.

GREENBERG, S.
GILES, RALPH.
GASKELL, ALFRED.
GILLESPIE, WILLIAM.
GILBERT, WILLIAM.
GALL, S.
GLLL, JOHN.
GILES, EDGAR.
GILES, FRED.
GALE, HARRY.
GALE, PHADRUCH.
GARVEY, LAWRENCE,

HICKMAN, LEONARD.
HICKMAN, LENVIS.
HUME, bandsman.
HICKMAN, STANLEY.
HOOD, AMBROSE,
HODGES, HENRY P.
HART, BENJAMIN.
HARRIS, WALTER.
HARPER, JOHN.
HARBECK, W. H.
HOFFMAN, MR.
HERMAN, MRS. S.
HOWARD, B.
HOWARD, MRS. E. T.
HALE, REGINALD.
HILTUNEN, M.
HUNT, GEORGE.

JACOBSON, MR.
JACOBSON, SYDNEY.
JEFFERY, CLIFFORD.
JEFFERY, ERNEST.
JENKIN, STEPHEN.
JARVIS, JOHN D.

KEANE, DANIEL.
KIRKLAND, REV. C.
KARNES, MRS. F. G.
KEYNALDO, MISS.
KRILLNER, J. H.
KRINS, bandsman.
KARINES, MRS.
KANTAR, SELNA.
KNIGHT, R.

LENGAM, JOHN.
LEVY, R. J.
LAHTIMAN, WILLIAM.
LAUCH, CHARLES.
LEYSON, R. W. N.
LAROCHE, JOSEPH.
LAMB, J. J

McKANE, PETER.
MILLING, JACOB.
MANTOILA, JOSEPEI,
MALACHARD, NOLL.
MORAWECK, DR.

ROLL OF THE DEAD--SECOND CABIN (CONTINUED)

MANGIOVACCHI, E.
McCRAE, ARTHUR G.
McCRIE, JAMES M.
McKANE, PETER D.
MUDD, THOMAS.
MACK, MRS. MARY.
MARSHALL, HENRY.
MAYBERG, FRANK H.
MEYER, AUGUST.
MYLES, THOMAS.
MITCHELL, HENRY.
MATTHEWS, W. J.

NESSEN, ISRAEL.
NICHOLLS, JOSEPH C.
NORMAN, ROBERT D.

OTTER, RICHARD.

PHILLIPS, ROBERT.
PONESELL, MARTIN.
PAIN, DB. ALFRED.
PARKES, FRANK.
PENGELLY, F.
PERNOT, RENE.
PERUSCHITZ, REV.
PARKER, CLIFFORD.
PULBAUM, FRANK

RENOUF, PETER H.
ROGERS, HARRY.
REEVES, DAVID.

SLEMEN, R. J.
SOBEY, HAYDEN.
SLATTER, MISS H. M.
STANTON, WARD.
SWORD, HANS K.
STOKES, PHILIP J.
SHARP, PERCIVAL.
SEDGWICK, MR. F. W.
SMITH, AUGUSTUS.
SWEET, GEORGE.
SJOSTEDT, ERNST.

TAYLOR, bandsman.
TURPIN, WILLIAM J.
TURPIN, MRS. DOROTHY.
TURNER, JOHN H.
TROUPIANSKY, M.
TIRVAN, MRS. A.

VEALE, JAMES.

WATSON, E.
WOODWARD, bandsman.
WARE, WILLIAM J.
WEISZ, LEOPOLD.
WHEADON, EDWARD.
WARE, JOHN J.
WEST, E. ARTHUR.
WHEELER, EDWIN.
WERMAN, SAMUEL.

The total death list was 1635. Third cabin passengers and crew are not included
in the list here given owing to the impossibility of obtaining the exact names of many.

CHAPTER XIII

THE STORY OF CHARLES F. HURD

HOW THE TITANIC SANK--WATER STREWN WITH DEAD BODIES
--VICTIMS MET DEATH WITH HYMN ON THEIR LIPS

THE Story of how the Titanic sank is told by Charles
F. Hurd, who was a passenger on the Carpathia.

He praised highly the courage of the crew, hundreds
of whom gave their lives with a heroism which equaled
but could not exceed that of John Jacob Astor, Henry B.
Harris, Jacques Futrelle and others in the long list of first-
cabin passengers. The account continues:

"The crash against the iceberg, which had been sighted
at only a quarter mile distance, came almost simultaneously
with the click of the levers operated from the bridge, which
stopped the engines and closed the water-tight doors. Captain
Smith was on the bridge a moment later, summoning all on
board to put on life preservers and ordering the life-boats
lowered.

"The first boats had more male passengers, as the men
were the first to reach the deck. When the rush of frightened
men and women and crying children to the decks began, the
`women first' rule was rigidly enforced.

"Officers drew revolvers, but in most cases there was no
use for them. Revolver shots heard shortly before the Titanic
went down caused many rumors, one that Captain Smith
had shot himself, another that First Officer Murdock had
ended his life, but members of the crew discredit these rumors.

"Captain Smith was last seen on the bridge just before the
ship sank, leaping only after the decks had been washed
away.

"What became of the men with the life-preservers was a
question asked by many since the disaster. Many of these
with life-preservers were seen to go down despite the preservers,
and dead bodies floated on the surface as the boats moved
away.

"Facts which I have established by inquiries on the Carpathia,
as positively as they could be established in view of the
silence of the few surviving officers, are:

"That the Titanic's officers knew, several hours before the
crash, of the possible nearness of the icebergs.

"That the Titanic's speed, nearly 23 knots an hour, was
not slackened.

"That the number of life-boats on the Titanic was insufficient
to accommodate more than one-third of the passengers,
to say nothing of the crew. Most members of the crew say
there were sixteen life-boats and two collapsibles; none say
there were more than twenty boats in all. The 700 escaped
filled most of the sixteen life-boats and the one collapsible
which got away, to the limit of their capacity.

"Had the ship struck the iceberg head on at whatever

{illust. caption = MRS. GEORGE D. WIDENER

Mrs. Widener was saved,....}

{illust. caption = George D. WIDENER

Who with his son....}

{illust. caption = Copyright by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y.
WILLIAM T. STEAD

The great English writer, who was a passenger on board the ill-fated
White Star Line Steamer Titanic.}

speed and with whatever resulting shock, the bulkhead system
of water-tight compartments would probably have saved the
vessel. As one man expressed it, it was the impossible that
happened when, with a shock unbelievably mild, the ship's
side was torn for a length which made the bulkhead system
ineffective."

After telling of the shock and the lowering of the boats
the account continues:

"Some of the boats, crowded too full to give rowers a
chance, drifted for a time. Few had provisions or water,
there was lack of covering from the icy air, and the only
lights were the still undimmed arcs and incandescents of the
settling ship, save for one of the first boats. There a steward,
who explained to the passengers that he had been shipwrecked
twice before, appeared carrying three oranges and
a green light.

"That green light, many of the survivors say, was to the
shipwrecked hundreds as the pillar of fire by night. Long
after the ship had disappeared, and while confusing false
lights danced about the boats, the green lantern kept them
together on the course which led them to the Carpathia.

"As the end of the Titanic became manifestly but a matter
of moments, the oarsmen pulled their boats away, and the
chilling waters began to echo splash after splash as passengers
and sailors in life-preservers leaped over and started
swimming away to escape the expected suction.

"Only the hardiest of constitutions could endure for more
than a few moments such a numbing bath. The first vigor-
ous strokes gave way to heart-breaking cries of `Help! Help!'
and stiffened forms were seen floating on the water all
around us.

"Led by the green light, under the light of the stars, the
boats drew away, and the bow, then the quarter, then the
stacks and at last the stern of the marvel-ship of a few days
before, passed beneath the waters. The great force of the
ship's sinking was unaided by any violence of the elements,
and the suction, not so great as had been feared, rocked but
mildly the group of boats now a quarter of a mile distant
from it.

"Early dawn brought no ship, but not long after 5 A. M.
the Carpathia, far out of her path and making eighteen knots,
instead of her wonted fifteen, showed her single red and black
smokestack upon the horizon. In the joy of that moment,
the heaviest griefs were forgotten.

"Soon afterward Captain Rostron and Chief Steward
Hughes were welcoming the chilled and bedraggled arrivals
over the Carpathia's side.

"Terrible as were the San Francisco, Slocum and Iroquois
disasters, they shrink to local events in comparison with this
world-catastrophe.

"True, there were others of greater qualifications and
longer experience than I nearer the tragedy--but they, by
every token of likelihood, have become a part of the tragedy.
The honored--must I say the lamented--Stead, the adroit
Jacques Futrelle, what might they not tell were their hands
able to hold pencil?

"The silence of the Carpathia's engines, the piercing cold,
the clamor of many voices in the companionways, caused me
to dress hurriedly and awaken my wife, at 5.40 A. M. Monday.
Our stewardess, meeting me outside, pointed to a
wailing host in the rear dining room and said. `From the
Titanic. She's at the bottom of the ocean.'

"At the ship's side, a moment later, I saw the last of the
line of boats discharge their loads, and saw women, some
with cheap shawls about their heads, some with the costliest
of fur cloaks, ascending the ship's side. And such joy as the
first sight of our ship may have given them had disappeared
from their faces, and there were tears and signs of faltering
as the women were helped up the ladders or hoisted aboard
in swings. For lack of room to put them, several of the
Titanic's boats, after unloading, were set adrift.

"At our north was a broad ice field, the length of hundreds
of Carpathias. Around us on other sides were sharp and
glistening peaks. One black berg, seen about 10 A. M., was
said to be that which sunk the Titanic."

CHAPTER XIV

THRILLING ACCOUNT BY L. BEASLEY

COLLISION ONLY A SLIGHT JAR--PASSENGERS COULD NOT
BELIEVE THE VESSEL DOOMED--NARROW ESCAPE OF LIFE-
BOATS--PICKED UP BY THE CARPATHIA

AMONG the most connected and interesting stories
related by the survivors was the one told by L. Beasley,
of Cambridge, England. He said:

"The voyage from Queenstown had been quite uneventful;
very fine weather was experienced, and the sea was quite
calm. The wind had been westerly to southwesterly the
whole way, but very cold, particularly the last day; in fact
after dinner on Saturday evening it was almost too cold to
be out on deck at all.

ONLY A SLIGHT JAR

"I had been in my berth for about ten minutes, when,
at about 11.15 P. M., I felt a slight jar, and then soon after a
second one, but not sufficiently violent to cause any anxiety
to anyone, however nervous they may have been. However,
the engines stopped immediately afterward, and my first,
thought was, `She has lost a propeller.'

"I went up on the top (boat) deck in a dressing gown,
and found only a few persons there, who had come up similarly
to inquire why we had stopped, but there was no sort of
anxiety in the minds of anyone.

"We saw through the smoking room window a game of
cards going on, and went in to inquire if they knew anything;
it seems they felt more of the jar, and, looking through the
window, had seen a huge iceberg go by close to the side of
the boat. They thought we had just grazed it with a glancing
blow, and that the engines had been stopped to see if
any damage had been done. No one, of course, had any
conception that the vessel had been pierced below by part
of the submerged iceberg.

"The game went on without any thought of disaster and
I retired to my cabin, to read until we went on again. I
never saw any of the players or the onlookers again.

SOME WERE AWAKENED

"A little later, hearing people going upstairs, I went out
again and found everyone wanting to know why the engines
had stopped. No doubt many were awakened from sleep
by the sudden stopping of a vibration to which they had
become accustomed during the four days we had been on
board. Naturally, with such powerful engines as the
Titanic carried, the vibration was very noticeable all the time,
and the sudden stopping had something the same effect as
the stopping of a loud-ticking grandfather's clock in a
room.

"On going on deck again I saw that there was an undoubted
list downward from stern to bows, but, knowing nothing of
what had happened, concluded some of the front compartments
had filled and weighed her down. I went down again to put
on warmer clothing, and as I dressed heard an order shouted,
`All passengers on deck with life-belts on.'

"We all walked slowly up, with the belts tied on over our
clothing, but even then presumed this was only a wise precaution
the captain was taking, and that we should return
in a short time and retire to bed.

"There was a total absence of any panic or any expressions
of alarm, and I suppose this can be accounted for by the
exceedingly calm night and the absence of any signs of the
accident.

"The ship was absolutely still, and except for a gentle
tilt downward, which I don't think one person in ten would
have noticed at that time, no signs of the approaching disaster
were visible. She lay just as if she were waiting the order
to go on again when some trifling matter had been adjusted.

"But in a few moments we saw the covers lifted from the
boats and the crews allotted to them standing by and coiling
up the ropes which were to lower them by the pulley blocks
into the water.

"We then began to realize it was more serious than had been
supposed, and my first thought was to go down and get some
more clothing and some money, but, seeing people pouring
up the stairs, decided it was better to cause no confusion to
people coming up. Presently we heard the order:

" `All men stand back away from the boats, and all ladies
retire to next deck below'--the smoking-room deck or B deck.

MEN STOOD BACK

"The men all stood away and remained in absolute silence
leaning against the end railings of the deck or pacing slowly
up and down.

"The boats were swung out and lowered from A deck.
When they were to the level of B deck, where all the women
were collected, they got in quietly, with the exception of some
who refused to leave their husbands.

"In some cases they were torn from them and pushed into
the boats, but in many instances they were allowed to remain
because there was no one to insist they should go.

"Looking over the side, one saw boats from aft already in
the water, slipping quietly away into the darkness, and
presently the boats near me were lowered, and with much
creaking as the new ropes slipped through the pulley blocks
down the ninety feet which separated them from the water.
An officer in uniform came up as one boat went down and
shouted, "When you are afloat row round to the companion
ladder and stand by with the other boats for orders.'

" `Aye, aye, sir,' came up the reply; but I don't think
any boat was able to obey the order. When they were afloat
and had the oars at work, the condition of the rapidly settling
boat was so much more a sight for alarm for those in the boats
than those on board, that in common prudence the sailors saw
they could do nothing but row from the sinking ship to save
at any rate some lives. They no doubt anticipated that
suction from such an enormous vessel would be more dangerous
than usual to a crowded boat mostly filled with women.

"All this time there was no trace of any disorder; no panic
or rush to the boats and no scenes of women sobbing hysterically,
such as one generally pictures as happening at such
times everyone seemed to realize so slowly that there was
imminent danger. When it was realized that we might all
be presently in the sea with nothing but our life-belts to
support us until we were picked up by passing steamers, it
was extraordinary how calm everyone was and how completely
self-controlled.

"One by one, the boats were filled with women and children,
lowered and rowed away into the night. Presently the word
went round among the men, `the men are to be put in boats
on the starboard side.'

"I was on the port side, and most of the men walked across
the deck to see if this was so I remained where I was and
soon heard the call:

" `Any more ladies?'

"Looking over the side of the ship, I saw the boat, No. 13,
swinging level with B deck, half full of ladies. Again the
call was repeated, `Any more ladies?'

"I saw none come on, and then one of the crew, looking up,
said:

" `Any more ladies on your deck, sir?'

" `No,' I replied.

" `Then you had better jump.'

"I dropped in, and fell in the bottom, as they cried `lower
away.' As the boat began to descend two ladies were pushed
hurriedly through the crowd on B deck and heaved over into
the boat, and a baby of ten months passed down after them.
Down we went, the crew calling to those lowering each end
to `keep her level,' until we were some ten feet from the water,
and here occurred the only anxious moment we had during
the whole of our experience from leaving the deck to reaching
the Carpathia.

"Immediately below our boat was the exhaust of the condensers,
a huge stream of water pouring all the time from the
ship's side just above the water line. It was plain we ought
to be quickly away from this, not to be swamped by it when
we touched water.

NO OFFICER ABOARD

"We had no officer aboard, nor petty officer or member of
the crew to take charge. So one of the stokers shouted:
`Someone find the pin which releases the boat from the ropes
and pull it up!' No one knew where it was. We felt on
the floor and sides, but found nothing, and it was hard to
move among so many people--we had sixty or seventy on
board.

"Down we went and presently floated, with our ropes still
holding us, the exhaust washing us away from the side of
the vessel and the swell of the sea urging us back against the
side again. The result of all these forces was an impetus
which carried us parallel to the ship's side and directly under
boat 14, which had filled rapidly with men and was coming
down on us in a way that threatened to submerge our boat.

" `Stop lowering 14,' our crew shouted, and the crew of
No. 14, now only twenty feet above, shouted the same. But
the distance to the top was some seventy feet and the creaking
pulleys must have deadened all sound to those above, for
down she came, fifteen feet, ten feet, five feet and a stoker
and I reached up and touched her swinging above our heads.
The next drop would have brought her on our heads, but just
before she dropped another stoker sprang to the ropes, with
his knife.

JUST ESCAPED ANOTHER BOAT

" `One,' I heard him say, `two,' as his knife cut through the
pulley ropes, and the next moment the exhaust stream had
carried us clear, while boat 14 dropped into the water, into
the space we had the moment before occupied, our gunwales
almost touching.

"We drifted away easily, as the oars were got out, and
headed directly away from the ship. The crew seemed to
me to be mostly stewards or cooks in white jackets, two to
an oar, with a stoker at the tiller. There was a certain
amount of shouting from one end of the boat to the other,
and discussion as to which way we should go, but finally it
was decided to elect the stoker, who was steering, as captain,
and for all to obey his orders. He set to work at once to get
into touch with the other boats, calling to them and getting
as close as seemed wise, so that when the search boats came
in the morning to look for us, there would be more chance
for all to be rescued by keeping together.

"It was now about 1 A. M.; a beautiful starlight night, with
no moon, and so not very light. The sea was as calm as a
pond, just a gentle heave as the boat dipped up and down
in the swell; an ideal night, except for the bitter cold, for
anyone who had to be out in the middle of the Atlantic
ocean in an open boat. And if ever there was a time when
such a night was needed, surely it was now, with hundreds
of people, mostly women and children, afloat hundreds of
miles from land.

WATCHED THE TITANIC

"The captain-stoker told us that he had been at sea twenty-
six years, and had never yet seen such a calm night on the
Atlantic. As we rowed away from the Titanic, we looked
back from time to time to watch her, and a more striking
spectacle it was not possible for anyone to see.

"In the distance it looked an enormous length, its great
bulk outlined in black against the starry sky, every port-hole
and saloon blazing with light. It was impossible to think
anything could be wrong with such a leviathan, were it not
for that ominous tilt downward in the bows, where the water
was by now up to the lowest row of port-holes.

"Presently, about 2 A. M., as near as I can remember, we
observed it settling very rapidly, with the bows and the
bridge completely under water, and concluded it was now
only a question of minutes before it went; and so it proved."

Mr. Beasley went on to tell of the spectacle of the sinking
of the Titanic, the terrible experiences of the survivors in
the life-boats and their final rescue by the Carpathia as already
related.

CHAPTER XV

JACK THAYER'S OWN STORY OF THE WRECK

SEVENTEEN-YEAR-OLD SON OF PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD OFFICIAL
TELLS MOVING STORY OF HIS RESCUE--TOLD MOTHER TO
BE BRAVE--SEPARATED FROM PARENTS--JUMPED WHEN
VESSEL SANK--DRIFTED ON OVERTURNED BOAT PICKED UP
BY CARPATHIA

ONE of the calmest of the passengers was: young Jack
Thayer, the seventeen-year-old son of Mr. and Mrs.
John B. Thayer. When his mother was put into
the life-boat he kissed her and told her to be brave, saying
that he and his father would be all right. He and Mr. Thayer
stood on the deck as the small boat in which Mrs. Thayer
was a passenger made off from the side of the Titanic over
the smooth sea.

The boy's own account of his experience as told to one of
his rescuers is one of the most remarkable of all the wonderful
ones that have come from the tremendous catastrophe:

"Father was in bed, and mother and myself were about
to get into bed. There was no great shock, I was on my
feet at the time and I do not think it was enough to throw
anyone down. I put on an overcoat and rushed up on A
deck on the port side. I saw nothing there. I then went
forward to the bow to see if I could see any signs of ice. The
only ice I saw was on the well deck. I could not see very
far ahead, having just come out of a brightly lighted room.

"I then went down to our room and my father and mother
came on deck with me, to the starboard side of A deck.
We could not see anything there. Father thought he saw
small pieces of ice floating around, but I could not see any
myself. There was no big berg. We walked around to the
port side, and the ship had then a fair list to port. We stayed
there looking over the side for about five minutes. The list
seemed very slowly to be increasing.

"We then went down to our rooms on C deck, all of us
dressing quickly, putting on all our clothes. We all put on
life-preservers, and over these we put our overcoats. Then
we hurried up on deck and walked around, looking out at
different places until the women were all ordered to collect
on the port side.

SEPARATED FROM PARENTS

"Father and I said good-bye to mother at the top of the
stairs on A deck. She and the maid went right out on A
deck on the port side and we went to the starboard side.
As at this time we had no idea the boat would sink we walked
around A deck and then went to B deck. Then we thought
we would go back to see if mother had gotten off safely, and
went to the port side of A deck. We met the chief steward
of the main dining saloon and he told us that mother had
not yet taken a boat, and he took us to her.

"Father and mother went ahead and I followed. They
went down to B deck and a crowd got in front of me and
I was not able to catch them, and lost sight of them. As
soon as I could get through the crowd I tried to find them
on B deck, but without success. That is the last time I
saw my father. This was about one half an hour before
she sank. I then went to the starboard side, thinking that
father and mother must have gotten off in a boat. All of
this time I was with a fellow named Milton C. Long, of
New York, whom I had just met that evening.

"On the starboard side the boats were getting away quickly.
Some boats were already off in a distance. We thought of
getting into one of the boats, the last boat to go on the forward
part of the starboard side, but there seemed to be such
a crowd around I thought it unwise to make any attempt
to get into it. He and I stood by the davits of one of the
boats that had left. I did not notice anybody that I knew
except Mr. Lindley, whom I had also just met that evening.
I lost sight of him in a few minutes. Long and I then stood
by the rail just a little aft of the captain's bridge.

THOUGHT SHIP WOULD FLOAT

"The list to the port had been growing greater all the time.
About this time the people began jumping from the stern.
I thought of jumping myself, but was afraid of being stunned
on hitting the water. Three times I made up my mind to
jump out and slide down the davit ropes and try to make the
boats that were lying off from the ship, but each time Long
got hold of me and told me to wait a while. He then sat down
and I stood up waiting to see what would happen. Even
then we thought she might possibly stay afloat.

"I got a sight on a rope between the davits and a star and
noticed that she was gradually sinking. About this time she
straightened up on an even keel and started to go down
fairly fast at an angle of about 30 degrees. As she started
to sink we left the davits and went back and stood by the rail
about even with the second funnel.

"Long and myself said good-bye to each other and jumped
up on the rail. He put his legs over and held on a minute
and asked me if I was coming. I told him I would be with
him in a minute. He did not jump clear, but slid down the
side of the ship. I never saw him again.

"About five seconds after he jumped I jumped out, feet
first. I was clear of the ship; went down, and as I came up
I was pushed away from the ship by some force. I came up
facing the ship, and one of the funnels seemed to be lifted off
and fell towards me about 15 yards away, with a mass of
sparks and steam coming out of it. I saw the ship in a sort
of a red glare, and it seemed to me that she broke in two just
in front of the third funnel.

"This time I was sucked down, and as I came up I was
pushed out again and twisted around by a large wave, coming
up in the midst of a great deal of small wreckage. As I pushed
my hand from my head it touched the cork fender of an over-

{illust. caption = READING ROOM OF THE TITANIC}

{illust. caption = Copyright, 1912. International News Service.
THE SENATORIAL INVESTIGATION--ISMAY ON THE GRILL

J. Bruce Ismay, Managing Director of the........}

turned life-boat. I looked up and saw some men on the
top and asked them to give me a hand. One of them, who was
a stoker, helped me up. In a short time the bottom was covered
with about twenty-five or thirty men. When I got on
this I was facing the ship.

{illust. caption = SKETCHES OF THE TITANIC BY "JACK" THAYER

These sketches were outlined by John B. Thayer, Jr., on the day of the
disaster, and afterwards filled in by L. D. Skidmon, of Brooklyn.}

"The stern then seemed to rise in the air and stopped at
about an angle of 60 degrees. It seemed to hold there for a
time and then with a hissing sound it shot right down out
of sight with people jumping from the stern. The stern
either pivoted around towards our boat, or we were sucked
towards it, and as we only had one oar we could not keep
away. There did not seem to be very much suction and most
of us managed to stay on the bottom of our boat.

"We were then right in the midst of fairly large wreckage,
with people swimming all around us. The sea was very calm
and we kept the boat pretty steady, but every now and then
a wave would wash over it.

SAID THE LORD'S PRAYER

"The assistant wireless operator was right next to me, holding
on to me and kneeling in the water. We all sang a hymn
and said the Lord's Prayer, and then waited for dawn to come.
As often as we saw the other boats in a distance we would
yell, `Ship ahoy!' But they could not distinguish our cries
from any of the others, so we all gave it up, thinking it useless.
It was very cold and none of us were able to move around to
keep warm, the water washing over her almost all the time.

"Toward dawn the wind sprang up, roughening up the
water and making it difficult to keep the boat balanced. The
wireless man raised our hopes a great deal by telling us that
the Carpathia would be up in about three hours. About
3.30 or 4 o'clock some men on our boat on the bow sighted
her mast lights. I could not see them, as I was sitting down
with a man kneeling on my leg. He finally got up and I stood
up. We had the second officer, Mr. Lightoller, on board.
We had an officer's whistle and whistled for the boats in the
distance to come up and take us off.

"It took about an hour and a half for the boats to draw
near. Two boats came up. The first took half and the other
took the balance, including myself. We had great difficulty
about this time in balancing the boat, as the men would
lean too far, but we were all taken aboard the already crowded
boat, and in about a half or three-quarters of an hour later
we were picked up by the Carpathia.

"I have noticed Second Officer Lightoller's statement that
`J. B. Thayer was on our overturned boat,' which would give
the impression that it was father, when he really meant it was
I, as he only learned my name in a subsequent conversation
on the Carpathia, and did not know I was `junior'."

CHAPTER XVI

INCIDENTS RELATED BY JAMES McGOUGH

WOMEN FORCED INTO THE LIFE-BOATS--WHY SOME MEN
WERE SAVED BEFORE WOMEN--ASKED TO MAN LIFE-
BOATS

SURROUNDED by his wife and members of his family,
James McGough, of Philadelphia, a buyer for the Gimbel
Brothers, whose fate had been in doubt, recited a
most thrilling and graphic picture of the disaster.

As the Carpathia docked, Mrs. McGough, a brother and
several friends of the buyer, met him, and after the touching
reunion had taken place the party proceeded to Philadelphia.

Vivid in detail, Mr. McGough's story differs essentially
from one the imagination would paint. He declared that the
boat was driving at a high rate of speed at the time of the
accident, and seemed impressed by the calmness and apathy
displayed by the survivors as they tossed on the frozen seas
in the little life-boats until the Carpathia picked them up.

The Titanic did not plunge into the water suddenly, he
declared, but settled slowly into the deep with its hundreds of
passengers.

"The collision occurred at 20 minutes of 12," said Mr.
McGough. "I was sleeping in my cabin when I felt a wrench,
not severe or terrifying.

"It seemed to me to be nothing more serious than the
racing of the screw, which often occurs when a ship plunges
her bow deep into a heavy swell, raising the stern out of water.
We dressed hurriedly and ran to the upper deck. There was
little noise or tumult at the time.

"The promenade decks being higher from the base of the
ship and thus more insecure, strained and creaked; so we went
to the lower decks. By this time the engines had been reversed,
and I could feel the ship backing off. Officers and
stewards ran through the corridors, shouting for all to be calm,
that there was no danger. We were warned, however, to dress
and put life-preservers on us. I had on what clothing I
could find and had stuffed some money in my pocket.

PARTING OF ASTOR AND BRIDE

"As I passed the gymnasium I saw Colonel Astor and his
young wife together. She was clinging to him, piteously
pleading that he go into the life-boat with her. He refused
almost gruffly and was attempting to calm her by saying that
all her fears were groundless, that the accident she feared
would prove a farce. It proved different, however.

"None, I believe, knew that the ship was about to sink.
I did not realize it just then. When I reached the upper
deck and saw tons of ice piled upon our crushed bow the full
realization came to me.

"Officers stood with drawn guns ordering the women into
the boats. All feared to leave the comparative safety of a
broad and firm deck for the precarious smaller boats. Women
clung to their husbands, crying that they would never leave
without them, and had to be torn away.

"On one point all the women were firm. They would not
enter a Life-boat until men were in it first. They feared to
trust themselves to the seas in them. It required courage to
step into the frail crafts as they swung from the creaking
davits. Few men were willing to take the chance. An officer
rushed behind me and shouted:

" `You're big enough to pull an oar. Jump into this boat
or we'll never be able to get the women off.' I was forced to
do so, though I admit that the ship looked a great deal safer
to me than any small boat.

"Our boat was the second off. Forty or more persons were
crowded into it, and with myself and members of the crew at
the oars, were pulled slowly away. Huge icebergs, larger than
the Pennsylvania depot at New York, surrounded us. As we
pulled away we could see boat after boat filled and lowered
to the waves. Despite the fact that they were new and supposedly
in excellent working order, the blocks jammed in
many instances, tilting the boats, loaded with people, at
varying angles before they reached the water.

BAND CONTINUED PLAYING

"As the life-boats pulled away the officers ordered the bands
to play, and their music did much to quell panic. It was a
heart-breaking sight to us tossing in an eggshell three-fourths
of a mile away, to see the great ship go down. First she listed
to the starboard, on which side the collision had occurred, then
she settled slowly but steadily, without hope of remaining
afloat.

"The Titanic was all aglow with lights as if for a function.
First we saw the lights of the lower deck snuffed out. A
while later and the second deck illumination was extinguished
in a similar manner. Then the third and upper decks were
darkened, and without plunging or rocking the great ship
disappeared slowly from the surface of the sea.

"People were crowded on each deck as it lowered into the
water, hoping in vain that aid would come in time. Some of
the life-boats caught in the merciless suction were swallowed
with her.

"The sea was calm--calm as the water in a tumbler. But
it was freezing cold. None had dressed heavily, and all,
therefore, suffered intensely. The women did not shriek or
grow hysterical while we waited through the awful night for
help. We men stood at the oars, stood because there was no
room for us to sit, and kept the boat headed into the swell to
prevent her capsizing. Another boat was at our side, but all
the others were scattered around the water.

"Finally, shortly before 6 o'clock, we saw the lights of the
Carpathia approaching. Gradually she picked up the survivors
in the other boats and then approached us. When we
were lifted to the deck the women fell helpless. They were
carried to whatever quarters offered themselves, while the
men were assigned to the smoking room.

"Of the misery and suffering which was witnessed on the
rescue ship I know nothing. With the other men survivors
I was glad to remain in the smoking room until New York
was reached, trying to forget the awful experience.

"To us aboard the Carpathia came rumors of misstatements
which were being made to the public. The details of the wreck
were wofully misunderstood.

"Let me emphasize that the night was not foggy or cloudy.
There was just the beginning of the new moon, but every star
in the sky was shining brightly, unmarred by clouds. The
boats were lowered from both sides of the Titanic in time to
escape, but there was not enough for all.

CHAPTER XVII

WIRELESS OPERATOR PRAISES HEROIC WORK

STORY OF HAROLD BRIDE, THE SURVIVING WIRELESS OPERATOR
OF THE TITANIC, WHO WAS WASHED OVERBOARD AND RESCUED
BY LIFE-BOAT--BAND PLAYED RAG-TIME AND "AUTUMN"

ONE of the most connected and detailed accounts of
the horrible disaster was that told by Harold Bride,
the wireless operator. Mr. Bride said:

"I was standing by Phillips, the chief operator, telling
him to go to bed, when the captain put his head in the cabin.

" `We've struck an iceberg,' the captain said, `and I'm
having an inspection made to tell what it has done for us.
You better get ready to send out a call for assistance. But
don't send it until I tell you.'

"The captain went away and in ten minutes, I should
estimate the time, he came back. We could hear a terrific
confusion outside, but there was not the least thing to indicate
that there was any trouble. The wireless was working
perfectly.

" `Send the call for assistance,' ordered the captain, barely
putting his head in the door.

" `What call shall I send?' Phillips asked.

" `The regulation international call for help. Just that.'

"Then the captain was gone Phillips began to send `C.
Q. D.' He flashed away at it and we joked while he did so.
All of us made light of the disaster.

"The Carpathia answered our signal. We told her our
position and said we were sinking by the head. The operator
went to tell the captain, and in five minutes returned and told
us that the captain of the Carpathia, was putting about and
heading for us

GREAT SCRAMBLE ON DECK

"Our captain had left us at this time and Phillips told
me to run and tell him what the Carpathia had answered.
I did so, and I went through an awful mass of people to his
cabin. The decks were full of scrambling men and women.
I saw no fighting, but I heard tell of it.

"I came back and heard Phillips giving the Carpathia
fuller directions. Phillips told me to put on my clothes.
Until that moment I forgot that I was not dressed.

"I went to my cabin and dressed. I brought an overcoat
to Phillips. It was very cold. I slipped the overcoat upon
him while he worked.

"Every few minutes Phillips would send me to the captain
with little messages. They were merely telling how the
Carpathia was coming our way and gave her speed.

"I noticed as I came back from one trip that they were
putting off women and children in life-boats. I noticed that
the list forward was increasing.

"Phillips told me the wireless was growing weaker. The
captain came and told us our engine rooms were taking
water and that the dynamos might not last much longer.
We sent that word to the Carpathia.

"I went out on deck and looked around. The water was
pretty close up to the boat deck. There was a great scramble
aft, and how poor Phillips worked through it right to the end
I don't know.

"He was a brave man. I learned to love him that night
and I suddenly felt for him a great reverence to see him standing
there sticking to his work while everybody else was raging
about. I will never live to forget the work of Phillips for
the last awful fifteen minutes.

"I thought it was about time to look about and see if there
was anything detached that would float. I remembered
that every member of the crew had a special life-belt and
ought to know where it was. I remembered mine was under
my bunk. I went and got it. Then I thought how cold
the water was.

"I remembered I had an extra jacket and a pair of boots,
and I put them on. I saw Phillips standing out there
still sending away, giving the Carpathia details of just how
we were doing.

"We picked up the Olympic and told her we were sinking
by the head and were about all down. As Phillips was sending
the message I strapped his life-belt to his back. I had
already put on his overcoat. Every minute was precious, so
I helped him all I could.

BAND PLAYS IN RAG-TIME

"From aft came the tunes of the band. It was a rag-time
tune, I don't know what. Then there was `Autumn.' Phillips
ran aft and that was the last I ever saw of him.

"I went to the place where I had seen a collapsible boat on
the boat deck, and to my surprise I saw the boat and the men
still trying to push it off. I guess there wasn't a sailor in the
crowd. They couldn't do it. I went up to them and was just
lending a hand when a large wave came awash of the deck.

"The big wave carried the boat off. I had hold of a row-
lock and I went off with it. The next I knew I was in the
boat.

"But that was not all. I was in the boat and the boat was
upside down and I was under it. And I remember realizing
I was wet through, and that whatever happened I must not
breathe, for I was under water.

"I knew I had to fight for it and I did. How I got out from
under the boat I do not know, but I felt a breath of air at last.

"There were men all around me hundreds of them. The
sea was dotted with them, all depending on their life-belts.
I felt I simply had to get away from the ship. She was a
beautiful sight then.

"Smoke and sparks were rushing out of her funnel, and there
must have been an explosion, but we had heard none. We only
saw the big stream of sparks. The ship was gradually turning
on her nose just like a duck does that goes down for a dive.
I had one thing on my mind--to get away from the suction.
The band was still playing, and I guess they all went down.

"They were playing `Autumn' then. I swam with all my
might. I suppose I was 150 feet away when the Titanic,
on her nose, with her after-quarter sticking straight up in
the air, began to settle slowly.

"When at last the waves washed over her rudder there
wasn't the least bit of suction I could feel. She must have
kept going just as slowly as she had been.

"I forgot to mention that, besides the Olympic and Carpathia,
we spoke some German boat, I don't know which,
and told them how we were. We also spoke the Baltic. I
remembered those things as I began to figure what ships would
be coming toward us.

"I felt, after a little while, like sinking. I was very cold.
I saw a boat of some kind near me and put all my strength
into an effort to swim to it. It was hard work. I was all
done when a hand reached out from the boat and pulled me
aboard. It was our same collapsible.

"There was just room for me to roll on the edge. I lay there,
not caring what happened. Somebody sat on my legs; they
were wedged in between slats and were being wrenched. I
had not the heart left to ask the man to move. It was a terrible
sight all around--men swimming and sinking.

"I lay where I was, letting the man wrench my feet out
of shape. Others came near. Nobody gave them a hand.
The bottom-up boat already had more men than it would
hold and it was sinking.

"At first the larger waves splashed over my head and I had
to breathe when I could.

"Some splendid people saved us. They had a right-side-
up boat, and it was full to its capacity. Yet they came to us
and loaded us all into it. I saw some lights off in the distance
and knew a steamship was coming to our aid.

"I didn't care what happened. I just lay, and gasped when
I could and felt the pain in my feet. At last the Carpathia
was alongside and the people were being taken up a rope
ladder. Our boat drew near, and one b{y} one the men were
taken off of it.

"The way the band kept playing was a noble thing. I
heard it first while we were working wireless, when there was a
rag-time tune for us, and the last I saw of the band, when I
was floating out in the sea, with my life-belt on, it was still
on deck playing `Autumn.' How they ever did it I cannot
imagine.

"That and the way Phillips kept sending after the captain
told him his life was his own, and to look out for himself, are
two things that stand out in my mind over all the rest."

CHAPTER XVIII

STORY OF THE STEWARD

PASSENGERS AND CREW DYING WHEN TAKEN ABOARD CARPATHIA
--ONE WOMAN SAVED A DOG--ENGLISH COLONEL
SWAM FOR HOURS WHEN BOAT WITH MOTHER CAPSIZED

SOME of the most thrilling incidents connected with the
rescue of the Titanic's survivors are told in the following
account given by a man trained to the sea, a
steward of the rescue ship Carpathia:

"At midnight on Sunday, April 14th, I was promenading
the deck of the steamer Carpathia, bound for the Mediterranean
and three days out from New York, when an urgent
summons came to my room from the chief steward, E. Harry
Hughes. I then learned that the White Star liner Titanic,
the greatest ship afloat, had struck an iceberg and was in
serious difficulties.

"We were then already steaming at our greatest power to
the scene of the disaster, Captain Rostron having immediately
given orders that every man of the crew should stand by to
exert his utmost efforts. Within a very few minutes every
preparation had been made to receive two or three thousand
persons. Blankets were placed ready, tables laid with hot
soups and coffee, bedding, etc., prepared, and hospital
supplies laid out ready to attend to any injured.

"The men were then mustered in the saloon and addressed
by the chief steward. He told them of the disaster and
appealed to them in a few words to show the world what stuff
Britishers were made of, and to add a glorious page to the
history of the empire; and right well did the men respond
to the appeal. Every life-boat was manned and ready to be
launched at a moment's notice. Nothing further could be
done but anxiously wait and look out for the ship's distress
signal.

"Our Marconi operator, whose unceasing efforts for many
hours deserve the greatest possible praise, was unable at
this time to get any reply to the urgent inquiries he was
sending out, and he feared the worst.

"At last a blue flare was observed, to which we replied
with a rocket. Day was just dawning when we observed a
boat in the distance.

ICEBERG AND FIRST BOAT SIGHTED

"Eastward on the horizon a huge iceberg, the cause of
the disaster, majestically reared two noble peaks to heaven.
Rope ladders were already lowered and we hove to near the
life-boat, which was now approaching us as rapidly as the
nearly exhausted efforts of the men at the oars could bring
her.

"Under the command of our chief officer, who worked
indefatigably at the noble work of rescue, the survivors in

{illust. caption =
Above: MAIN STAIRWAY ON TITANIC. TOP E DECK
Below: SECOND LANDING. C DECK. GRAND STAIRWAY}

{illust. caption = MRS. JOHN B. THAYER

Mrs. Thayer and her son were....}

{illust. caption = JOHN B. THAYER

Second Vice-President of the...}

the boat were rapidly but carefully hauled aboard and given
into the hands of the medical staff under the organization
of Dr. McGee.

"We then learned the terrible news that the gigantic vessel,
the unsinkable Titanic, had gone down one hour and ten
minutes after striking.

"From this time onward life-boats continued to arrive at
frequent intervals. Every man of the Carpathia's crew was
unsparing in his efforts to assist, to tenderly comfort each
and every survivor. In all, sixteen boatloads were receives,
containing altogether 720 persons, many in simply their
night attire, others in evening dress, as if direct from an
after-dinner reception, or concert. Most conspicuous was
the coolness and self-possession, particularly of the women.

"Pathetic and heartrending incidents were many. There
was not a man of the rescue party who was not moved almost
to tears. Women arrived and frantically rushed from one
gangway to another eagerly scanning the fresh arrivals in
the boats for a lost husband or brother.

A CAPSIZED BOAT

"One boat arrived with the unconscious body of an English
colonel. He had been taking out his mother on a visit,
to three others of her sons. He had succeeded in getting
her away in one of the boats and he himself had found a
place in another. When but a few-yards from the ill-fated
ship the boat containing his mother capsized before his eyes.

"Immediately he dived into the water and commenced a
frantic search for her. But in vain. Boat after boat endeavored
to take him aboard, but he refused to give up, continuing
to swim for nearly three hours until even his great
strength of body and mind gave out and he was hauled unconscious
into a passing boat and brought aboard the Carpathia.
The doctor gives little hope of his recovery.

"There were, I understand, twelve newly married couples
aboard the big ship. The twelve brides have been saved,
but of the husbands all but one have perished. That one
would not have been here, had he not been urged to assist
in manning a life-boat. Think of the self-sacrifice of these
eleven heroes, who stood on the doomed vessel and parted
from their brides forever, knowing full well that a few brief
minutes would end all things for themselves.

"Many similar pathetic incidents could be related. Sad-
eyed women roam aimlessly about the ship still looking
vainly for husband, brother or father. To comfort them is
impossible. All human efforts are being exerted on their
behalf. Their material needs are satisfied in every way.
But who can cure a broken heart?

SAVED HER POMERANIAN

"One of the earliest boats to arrive was seen to contain a
woman tenderly clasping a pet Pomeranian. When assisted
to the rope ladder and while the rope was being fastened
around her she emphatically refused to give up for a second
the dog which was evidently so much to her. He is now
receiving as careful and tender attention as his mistress.

"A survivor informs me that there was on the ship a lady
who was taking out a huge great Dane dog. When the
boats were rapidly filling she appeared on deck with her
canine companion and sadly entreated that he should be
taken off with her. It was impossible. Human lives, those
of women and children, were the first consideration. She
was urged to seize the opportunity to save her own life and
leave the dog. She refused to desert him and, I understand,
sacrificed her life with him.

"One elderly lady was bewailing to a steward that she
had lost everything. He indignantly replied that she should
thank God her life was spared, never mind her replaceable
property. The reply was pathetic:

" `I have lost everything--my husband,' and she broke
into uncontrollable grief.

FOUR BOATS ADRIFT HE SAYS

"One incident that impressed me perhaps more than any
other was the burial on Tuesday afternoon of four of the
poor fellows who succeeded in safely getting away from the
doomed vessel only to perish later from exhaustion and
exposure as a result of their gallant efforts to bring to safety
the passengers placed in their charge in the life-boats. They
were:

"W. H. Hoyte, Esq., first class passenger.

"Abraham Hornner, third class passenger.

"S. C. Siebert, steward.

"P. Lyons, sailor.

"The sailor and steward were unfortunately dead when
taken aboard. The passengers lived but a few minutes
after. They were treated with the greatest attention. The
funeral service was conducted amid profound silence and
attended by a large number of survivors and rescuers. The
bodies, covered by the national flag, were reverently consigned
to the mighty deep from which they had been, alas, vainly,
saved.

"Most gratifying to the officers and men of the Carpathia
is the constantly expressive appreciation of the survivors."

He then told of the meeting of the survivors in the cabin
of the Carpathia and of the resolution adopted, a statement
of which has already been given in another chapter.

CHAPTER XIX

HOW THE WORLD RECEIVED THE NEWS

NATIONS PROSTRATE WITH GRIEF--MESSAGES FROM KINGS
AND CARDINALS--DISASTER STIRS WORLD TO NECESSITY
OF STRICTER REGULATIONS

YOUNG and old, rich and poor were prostrated by the
news of the disaster. Even Wall Street was neglected.
Nor was the grief confined to America. European
nations felt the horror of the calamity and sent expressions of
sympathy. President Taft made public cablegrams received
from the King and Queen of England, and the King of Belgium,
conveying their sympathy to the American people in
the sorrows which have followed the Titanic disaster. The
President's responses to both messages were also made public.

The following was the cablegram from King George, dated
at Sandringham:

"The Queen and I are anxious to assure you and the American
nation of the great sorrow which we experienced at
the terrible loss of life that has occurred among the American
citizens, as well as among my own subjects, by the foundering
of the Titanic. Our two countries are so intimately
allied by ties of friendship and brotherhood that any mis-
fortunes which affect the one must necessarily affect the
other, and on the present terrible occasion they are both
equally sufferers.
"GEORGE R. AND I."

President Taft's reply was as follows:

"In the presence of the appalling disaster to the Titanic
the people of the two countries are brought into community
of grief through their common bereavement. The American
people share in the sorrow of their kinsmen beyond the sea.
On behalf of my countrymen I thank you for your sympathetic
message.
"WILLIAM H. TAFT."

The message from King Albert of Belgium was as follows:

"I beg Your Excellency to accept my deepest condolences
on the occasion of the frightful catastrophe to the Titanic,
which has caused such mourning in the American nation."

The President's acknowledgment follows:

"I deeply appreciate your sympathy with my fellow-countrymen
who have been stricken with affliction through the
disaster to the Titanic."

MESSAGE PROM SPAIN

King Alfonso and Queen Victoria sent the following cablegram
to President Taft:

"We have learned with profound grief of the catastrophe
to the Titanic, which has plunged the American nation in
mourning. We send you our sincerest condolence, and wish
to assure you and your nation of the sentiments of friendship
and sympathy we feel toward you."

A similar telegram was sent to the King of England.

The many expressions of grief to reach President Taft
included one signed jointly by the three American Cardinals,
who were in New York attending the meeting of the trustees
of the Catholic University. It said:

"TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES:

"The archbishops of the country, in joint session with the
trustees of the Catholic University of America, beg to offer
to the President of the United States their expression of their
profound grief at the awful loss of human lives attendant
upon the sinking of the steamship Titanic, and at the same
time to assure the relatives of the victims of this horrible disaster
of our deepest sympathy and condolence.

"They wish also to attest hereby to the hope that the law-
makers of the country will see in this sad accident the obvious
necessity of legal provisions for greater security of ocean travel.
"JAMES CARDINAL GIBBONS," Archbishop of Baltimore.
"JOHN CARDINAL FARLEY," Archbishop of New York.
"WILLIAM CARDINAL O'CONNELL," Archbishop of Boston.

HOUSE ADJOURNED

Formal tribute to the Titanic's dead was paid by the House
of Representatives when it adjourned for twenty-four hours.

The prayer of the Rev. Henry N. Couden in opening the
House session was, in part:

"We thank Thee that though in the ordinary circumstances
of life selfishness and greed seem to be in the ascendancy,
yet in times of distress and peril, then it is that the nobility
of soul, the Godlike in man, asserts itself and makes heroes."

The flags on the White House and other Government
buildings throughout the country were at half-staff.

ROME MOURNED MAJOR BUTT

A special telegram from Rome stated that one of the victims
most regretted was Major Butt, whose jovial, bright
character made many friends there. Besides autograph
letters from the Pope and Cardinal Merry del VaI{sic?} to President
Taft, the major had with him a signed photograph of the
Pontiff, given by him personally.

Cardinal Merry del Val had several conversations with
Major Butt, who declared that the cardinal was "the first
gentleman of Europe." Shortly before he was leaving Rome,
regretting that he had not a signed picture of Cardinal Merry
del Val, Major Butt entrusted a friend to ask for one. The
cardinal willingly put an autograph dedication on a picture,
recalling their pleasant intercourse.

LONDON NEWSPAPERS CONDEMN LAXITY OF LAW

British indignation, which is not easily excited, was aroused
over the knowledge that an antiquated law enables steamship
companies to fail to provide sufficient life-boats to accommodate
the passengers and crew of the largest liners in the event of
such a disaster as that which occurred to the Titanic. It will
be insisted that there be an investigation of the loss of life
in the Titanic and that the shortage of boats be gone into
thoroughly.

The newspapers commented adversely on the lack of boats
and their views were emphasized by the knowledge that no
attempt has been made to change the regulations in the face
of the fact that the inadequacy of boats in such an emergency
was called to the attention of Parliament at the time of the
collision between the White Star liner Olympic and the cruiser
Hawke. It was pointed out at this time that German vessels,
much smaller in size than the Olympic, carried more boats
and also that these boats were of greater capacity.

T. W. Moore, Secretary of the Merchant Service Guild,
when seen at the guild's rooms in Liverpool, said:

"The Titanic disaster is an example, on a colossal scale,
of the pernicious and supine system of officials, as represented
by the Board of Trade. Modern liners are so designed that
they have no accommodations for more life-boats. Among
practical seamen it has long been recognized that the modern
passenger ship has nothing like adequate boat capacity.

"The Board of Trade has its own views, and the shipowners
also have their views, which are largely based upon the economical
factor. The naval architects have their opinions,
but the practical merchant seaman is not consulted.

"The Titanic disaster is a complete substantiation of the
agitation that our guild has carried on for nearly twenty
years against the scheme that has precluded practical seamen
from being consulted with regard to boat capacity and
life-saving appliances.

HOUSE OF COMMONS INVESTIGATION

Immediate and searching inquiry into the Titanic disaster
was promised on the floor of the House of Commons April
18th, by President Sidney Buxton, of the Board of Trade,
which controls all sea-going vessels.

Buxton, in discussing the utterly inadequate life-saving
equipment of the big liner, declared that the committee of
the board in charge of life-saving precautions had recently
recommended increased life-boats, rafts and life-preservers
on all big ships, but that the requirements had been found
unsatisfactory and had not been put in force. He frankly
admitted the necessity for increased equipment without
delay.

The board, he said, was utterly unable to compel the transatlantic
vessels to reduce their speed in the contest for "express
train" ships. He also said the board could not force
ships to take the southerly passage in the spring to avoid ice.

The regulations under which the Titanic carried life-boat
accommodations for only about one-third of her passengers
and crew had not been revised by the committee since 1894.
At that time the regulations were made for ships of "10,000
tons or more." The Titanic's tonnage was 45,000, for which
the present requirements are altogether insufficient.

WORK OF RAISING RELIEF FUNDS PROMPT

Several foreign governments telegraphed to the British
Government messages of condolence for the sufferers. The
King sent a donation of $2625 to the Mansion House fund.
Queen Mary donated $1310 and Queen Alexandra $1000
to the same fund.

Oscar Hammerstein proffered, and the lord mayor accepted,
the use of his opera house for an entertainment in aid of the
fund.

The Shipping Federation donated $10,500 to the Mayor
of Southampton's fund, taking care to explain that the White
Star Line was not affiliated with the Federation.

Some public institutions also offered to take care of the
orphaned children of the crew.

Large firms contributed liberally to the various relief funds,
while Covent Garden and other leading theaters prepared
special performances to aid in the relief work.

INDIGNANT GERMANY DEMANDS REFORMS

All Germany as well as England was stunned and grieved
by the magnitude of the horror of the Titanic catastrophe.
Anglo-German recriminations for the moment ceased, as far
as the Fatherland was concerned, and profound and sincere
compassion for the nation on whom the blow had fallen more
heavily was the supreme note of the hour.

The Kaiser, with his characteristic promptitude, was one
of the first to communicate his sympathy by telegraph to
King George and to the White Star Line. Admiral Prince
Henry of Prussia did likewise, and the first act of the
Reichstag, after reassembling on Tuesday, was to pass a
standing vote of condolence with the British people in their
distress.

GERMAN LAWS ALSO INADEQUATE

The German laws, governing the safety appliances on board
trans-oceanic vessels, seem to be as archaic and inadequate
as those of the British Board of Trade. The maximum
provision contained in the German statutes refers to vessels
with the capacity of 50,000 cubic metres, which must carry
sixteen life-boats. The law also says that if this number of
life-boats be insufficient to accommodate all the persons on
board, including the crew, there shall be carried elsewhere
in the vessel a correspondingly additional number of collapsible
life-boats, suitable rafts, floating deck-chairs and life-buoys,
as well as a generous supply of life-belts.

A vessel of 10,000 tons was a "leviathan" in the days when
the German law was passed, and it appears to have undergone
no change to meet the conditions, imposed by the construction
of vessels twice or three times 10,000 tons, like the
Hamburg-American Kaiserin Auguste Victoria, or the North
German Lloyd George Washington, to say nothing of the
50,000-ton Imperator, which is to be added to the Hamburg
fleet next year.

The German lines seem, like the White Star Company, to
have reckoned simply with the practical impossibility of a
ship like the Titanic succumbing to the elements

PERSONAL ANXIETY

Although Germany's and Berlin's direct interest in the
passengers aboard the Titanic was less than that of London,
New York or Paris, there was the utmost concern for their
fate.

Ambassador Leishman and other members of the American
Embassy were particularly interested in hearing about Major
"Archie" Butt, who passed through Berlin, less than a month
before the disaster, en route from Russia and the Far East.
Vice-president John B. Thayer and family, of Philadelphia,
were also in Berlin a fortnight ago and were guests of the
American Consul General and Mrs. Thackara. A score of
other lesser known passengers had recently stayed in Berlin
hotels, and it was local friends or kinsmen of theirs who were
in a state of distressing unrest over their fate.

Their anxiety was aggravated by the old-fogey methods of
the German newspapers, which are invariably twelve or fifteen
hours later than journals elsewhere in Europe on world news
events. Although New York, London and Paris had the
cruel truth with their morning papers on Tuesday, it was
not until the middle of the forenoon that "extras" made the
facts public in Berlin.

William T. Stead was well and favorably known in Germany,
and his fate was keenly and particularly mourned.
Germans have also noted that many Americans of direct
Teutonic ancestry or origin were among the shining
marks in the death list. Colonel John Jacob Astor is claimed
as of German, extraction, as well as Isidor Straus, Benjamin
Guggenheim, Washington Roebling and Henry B. Harris.
All of them had been in Germany frequently and had a wide
circle of friends and acquaintances.

Only one well-known resident of Berlin was aboard the
Titanic, Frau Antoinette Flegenheim, whose name appears
among the rescued.

CHAPTER XX

BRAVERY OF THE OFFICERS AND CREW

ILLUSTRIOUS CAREER OF CAPTAIN E. J. SMITH--BRAVE TO THE
LAST--MAINTENANCE OF ORDER AND DISCIPLINE--ACTS OF
HEROISM--ENGINEERS DIED AT POSTS--NOBLE-HEARTED
BAND

IN the anxious hours of uncertainty, when the air cracked
and flashed with the story of disaster, there was never
doubt in the minds of men ashore about the master of
the Titanic. Captain Smith would bring his ship into port
if human power could mend the damage the sea had wrought,
or if human power could not stay the disaster he would never
come to port. There is something Calvinistic about such men
of the old-sea breed. They go down with their ships, of their
own choice.

Into the last life-boat that was launched from the ship Captain
Smith with his own hand lifted a small child into a seat
beside its mother. As the gallant, officer performed his simple
act of humanity several who were already in the boat tried
to force the captain to join them, but he turned away resolutely
toward the bridge.

That act was significant. Courteous, kindly, of quiet
demeanor and soft words, he was known and loved by thousands
of travelers.

When the English firm, A. Gibson & Co.9 of Liverpool,
purchased the American clipper, Senator Weber, in 1869,
Captain Smith, then a boy, sailed on her. For seven years
he was an apprentice on the Senator Weber, leaving that vessel
to go to the Lizzie Fennell, a square rigger, as fourth officer.
From there he went to the old Celtic of the White Star Line
as fourth officer and in 1887 he became captain of that vessel.
For a time he was in command of the freighters Cufic and
Runic; then he became skipper of the old Adriatic.
Subsequently he assumed command of the Celtic, Britannic,
Coptic (which was in the Australian trade), Germanic, Baltic,
Majestic, Olympic and Titanic, an illustrious list of vessels
for one man to have commanded during his career.

It was not easy to get Captain Smith to talk of his
experiences. He had grown up in the service, was his comment,
and it meant little to him that he had been transferred from a
small vessel to a big ship and then to a bigger ship and finally
to the biggest of them all.

"One might think that a captain taken from a small ship
and put on a big one might feel the transition," he once said.
"Not at all. The skippers of the big vessels have grown up
to them, year after year, through all these years. First there
was the sailing vessel and then what we would now call small
ships--they were big in the days gone by--and finally the
giants to-day."

{illust. caption = VESSEL WITH BOTTOM OF HULL RIPPED OPEN

A view of the torpedo destroyer Tiger, taken in drydock after her
collision with the Portland Breakwater last September; the damage to the
Tiger, which is plainly shown in the photograph, is of the same character,
though on a smaller scale, as that which was done to the Titanic.}

{illust. caption = A VIEW OF THE OLYMPIC

The sister-ship of the Titanic, showing the damage done to her hull in
the collision with British war vessel, Hawke, in the British Channel.}

DISASTER TO OLYMPIC

Only once during all his long years of service was he in
trouble, when the Olympic, of which he was in command, was
rammed by the British cruiser Hawke in the Solent on September
20, 1911. The Hawke came steaming out of Portsmouth
and drew alongside the giantess. According to some
of the passengers on the Olympic the Hawke swerved in the
direction of the big liner and a moment later the bow of the
Hawke was crunching steel plates in the starboard quarter
of the Olympic, making a thirty-foot hole in her. She was
several months in dry dock.

The result of a naval court inquiry was to put all the blame
for the collision on the Olympic. Captain Smith, in his testimony
before the naval court, said that he was on the bridge
when he saw the Hawke overhauling him. The Olympic
began to draw ahead later or the Hawke drop astern, the
captain did not know which. Then the cruiser turned very
swiftly and struck the Olympic at right angles on the quarter.
The pilot gave the signal for the Olympic to port, which was
to minimize the force of the collision. The Olympic's engines
had been stopped by order of the pilot.

Up to the moment the Hawke swerved, Captain Smith
said, he had no anxiety. The pilot, Bowyer, corroborated
the testimony of Captain Smith. That the line did not believe
Captain Smith was at fault, notwithstanding the verdict of
the board of naval inquiry, was shown by his retention as the
admiral of the White Star fleet and by his being given the
command of the Titanic.

Up to the time of the collision with the Hawke Captain
Smith when asked by interviewers to describe his experiences
at sea would say one word, "uneventful." Then he would
add with a smile and a twinkle of his eyes:

"Of course there have been winter gales and storms and
fog and the like in the forty years I have been on the seas, but
I have never been in an accident worth speaking of. In all
my years at sea (he made this comment a few years ago) I
have seen but one vessel in distress. That was a brig the crew
of which was taken off in a boat by my third officer. I never
saw a wreck. I never have been wrecked. I have never been
in a predicament that threatened to end in disaster of any
sort."

THE CAPTAIN'S LOVE OF THE SEA

Once the interviewer stopped asking personal questions,
Captain Smith would talk of the sea, of his love for it, how its
appeal to him as a boy had never died.

"The love of the ocean that took me to sea as a boy has
never died." he once said. "When I see a vessel plunging up
and down in the trough of the sea, fighting her way through
and over great waves, and keeping her keel and going on and
on--the wonder of the thing fills me, how she can keep afloat
and get safely to port. I have never outgrown the wild
grandeur of the sea."

When he was in command of the Adriatic, which was built
before the Olympic, Captain Smith said he did not believe a
disaster with loss of life could happen to the Adriatic.

"I cannot conceive of any vital disaster happening to the
Adriatic," he said. "Modern shipbuilding has gone beyond
that. There will be bigger boats. The depth of harbors
seems to be the great drawback at present. I cannot say, of
course, just what the limit will be, but the larger boat will
surely come. But speed will not develop with size, so far as
merchantmen are concerned.

"The traveling public prefers the large comfortable boat
of average speed, and anyway that is the boat that pays.
High speed eats up money mile by mile, and extreme high
speed is suicidal. There will be high speed boats for use as
transports and a wise government will assist steamship companies
in paying for them, as the English Government is now
doing in the cases of the Lusitania and Mauretania, twenty-
five knot boats; but no steamship company will put them out
merely as a commercial venture."

Captain Smith believed the Titanic to be unsinkable.

BRAVE TO THE LAST

And though the ship turned out to be sinkable, the captain,
by many acts of bravery in the face of death, proved that his
courage was equal to any test.

Captain Inman Sealby, commander of the steamer Republic,
which was the first vessel to use the wireless telegraph to
save her passengers in a collision, spoke highly of the commander
of the wrecked Titanic, calling him one of the ablest
seamen in the world.

"I am sure that Captain Smith did everything in his power
to save his passengers. The disaster is one about which he
could have had no warning. Things may happen at sea that
give no warning to ships' crews and commanders until the
harm comes. I believe from what I read that the Titanic hit
an iceberg and glanced off, but that the berg struck her from
the bottom and tore a great hole."

Many survivors have mentioned the captain's name and
narrated some incident to bring out his courage and helpfulness
in the emergency; but it was left to a fireman on
board the Titanic to tell the story of his death and to record
his last message. This man had gone down with the White
Star giantess and was clinging to a piece of wreckage for
about half an hour before he finally joined several members of
the Titanic's company on the bottom of a boat which was
floating about among other wreckage near the Titanic.

Harry Senior, the fireman, with his eight or nine companions
in distress, had just managed to get a firm hold in the
upturned boat when they saw the Titanic rearing preparatory
to her final plunge. At that moment, according to the fireman's
story, Captain Smith jumped into the sea from the
promenade deck of the Titanic with a little girl clutched in
his arms. It took only a few strokes to bring him to the
upturned boat, where a dozen hands were stretched out to take
the little child from his arms and drag him to a point of
safety.

"Captain Smith was dragged onto the upturned boat," said
the fireman. "He had a life-buoy and a life-preserver. He
clung there for a moment and then he slid off again. For a
second time he was dragged from the icy water. Then he took
off his life-preserver, tossed the life-buoy on the inky waters,
and slipped into the water again with the words: "I will
follow the ship."

OTHER FAITHFUL MEN

Nor was the captain the only faithful man on the ship. Of
the many stories told by survivors all seem to agree that both
officers and crew behaved with the utmost gallantry and that
they stuck by the ship nobly to the last.

"Immediately after the Titanic struck the iceberg," said
one of the survivors, "the officers were all over the ship
reassuring the passengers and calming the more excitable.
They said there was no cause for alarm. When everything
was quieted they told us we might go back to bed, as the ship
was safe. There was no confusion and many returned to
their beds.

"We did not know that the ship was in danger until a
comparatively short time before she sank. Then we were called
on deck and the life-boats were filled and lowered.

"The behavior of the ship's officers at this time was wonderful.
There was no panic, no scramble for places in the boats."

Later there was confusion, and according to most of the
passengers' narratives, there were more than fifty shots fired
upon the deck by officers or others in the effort to maintain
the discipline.

FIFTH OFFICER LOWE

A young English woman who requested that her name be
omitted told a thrilling story of her experience in one of the
collapsible boats which had been manned by eight of the crew
from the Titanic. The boat was in command of the fifth
officer, H. Lowe, whose actions she described as saving the
lives of many people. Before the life-boat was launched he
passed along the port deck of the steamer, commanding the
people not to jump in the boats, and otherwise restraining
them from swamping the craft. When the collapsible was
launched Officer Lowe succeeded in putting up a mast and a
small sail. He collected the other boats together, in some
cases the boats were short of adequate crews, and he directed
an exchange by which each was adequately manned. He
threw lines connecting the boats together, two by two, and
thus all moved together. Later on he went back to the wreck
with the crew of one of the boats and succeeded in picking up
some of those who had jumped overboard and were swimming
about. On his way back to the Carpathia he passed one of
the collapsible boats which was on the point of sinking with
thirty passengers aboard, most of them in scant night-clothing.
They were rescued just in the nick of time.

ENGINEERS DIED AT POSTS

There were brave men below deck, too. "A lot has been
printed in the papers about the heroism of the officers," said
one survivor, "but little has been said of the bravery of the
men below decks. I was told that seventeen enginemen who
were drowned side by side got down on their knees on the
platform of the engine room and prayed until the water surged
up to their necks. Then they stood up, clasped hands so as
to form a circle and died together. All of these men helped
rake the fires out from ten of the forward boilers after the
crash. This delayed the explosion and undoubtedly permitted

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