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Select Poems of Sidney Lanier

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"The poet represents himself as having spent the day in the forest
and coming at sunset into full view of the length and the breadth
and the sweep of the marshes. The glooms of the live-oaks
and the emerald twilights of the `dim sweet woods, of the dear dark woods,'
have been as a refuge from the riotous noon-day sun. More than that,
in the wildwood privacies and closets of lone desire he has known
the passionate pleasure of prayer and the joy of elevated thought.
His spirit is grown to a lordly great compass within, -- he is ready
for what Wordsworth calls a `god-like hour'."

Mr. Callaway also treats the poem in Part III of the `Introduction'.

Remonstrance

Opinion, let me alone: I am not thine. [1]
Prim Creed, with categoric point, forbear
To feature me my Lord by rule and line.
Thou canst not measure Mistress Nature's hair,
Not one sweet inch: nay, if thy sight is sharp,
Would'st count the strings upon an angel's harp?
Forbear, forbear.

Oh let me love my Lord more fathom deep
Than there is line to sound with: let me love
My fellow not as men that mandates keep:
Yea, all that's lovable, below, above, [11]
That let me love by heart, by heart, because
(Free from the penal pressure of the laws)
I find it fair.

The tears I weep by day and bitter night,
Opinion! for thy sole salt vintage fall.
-- As morn by morn I rise with fresh delight,
Time through my casement cheerily doth call,
"Nature is new, 'tis birthday every day,
Come feast with me, let no man say me nay,
Whate'er befall." [21]

So fare I forth to feast: I sit beside
Some brother bright: but, ere good-morrow's passed,
Burly Opinion wedging in hath cried,
"Thou shalt not sit by us, to break thy fast,
Save to our Rubric thou subscribe and swear --
`Religion hath blue eyes and yellow hair':
She's Saxon, all."

Then, hard a-hungered for my brother's grace
Till well-nigh fain to swear his folly's true,
In sad dissent I turn my longing face [31]
To him that sits on the left: "Brother, -- with you?"
-- "Nay, not with me, save thou subscribe and swear
`Religion hath black eyes and raven hair':
Nought else is true."

Debarred of banquets that my heart could make
With every man on every day of life,
I homeward turn, my fires of pain to slake
In deep endearments of a worshiped wife.
"I love thee well, dear Love," quoth she, "and yet
Would that thy creed with mine completely met, [41]
As one, not two."

Assassin! Thief! Opinion, 'tis thy work.
By Church, by throne, by hearth, by every good
That's in the Town of Time, I see thee lurk,
And e'er some shadow stays where thou hast stood.
Thou hand'st sweet Socrates his hemlock sour;
Thou sav'st Barabbas in that hideous hour,
And stabb'st the good

Deliverer Christ; thou rack'st the souls of men;
Thou tossest girls to lions and boys to flames; [51]
Thou hew'st Crusader down by Saracen;
Thou buildest closets full of secret shames;
Indifferent cruel, thou dost blow the blaze
Round Ridley or Servetus; all thy days
Smell scorched; I would

-- Thou base-born Accident of time and place --
Bigot Pretender unto Judgment's throne --
Bastard, that claimest with a cunning face
Those rights the true, true Son of Man doth own
By Love's authority -- thou Rebel cold [61]
At head of civil wars and quarrels old --
Thou Knife on a throne --

I would thou left'st me free, to live with love,
And faith, that through the love of love doth find
My Lord's dear presence in the stars above,
The clods below, the flesh without, the mind
Within, the bread, the tear, the smile.
Opinion, damned Intriguer, gray with guile,
Let me alone.

____
Baltimore, 1878-9.

Notes: Remonstrance

This is the first and the greatest of the `Street-cries':
see the introductory note to `Life and Song'.

For an interpretation of the poem see `Introduction', pp. xxix [Part III],
xlv, xlvii [Part IV].

26, 33. Amusing illustrations of such intolerance may be found
in `Jack-knife and Brambles' (Nashville, 1893), by Bishop Atticus G. Haygood,
of the Methodist Church, South. One brother, we are told (p. 278),
objected to hearing Bishop Haygood in 1859 because of his wearing a beard;
while another (p. 281), along in the thirties, voted against licensing
Bishop George F. Pierce because his hair was "combed back from his forehead"!

46. For an account of Socrates, the Greek philosopher, poisoned in 399 B.C.,
see Xenophon's `Memorabilia' and Plato's dialogues.

47. See St. Matthew 27:20.

54. For the burning of Nicholas Ridley, an English Bishop,
on October 16, 1555, see Green's `Shorter History of England'.
Michael Servetus, a Spanish scientific and theological writer,
was burned as a heretic at Geneva, October 27, 1553.

Opposition

Of fret, of dark, of thorn, of chill, [1]
Complain no more; for these, O heart,
Direct the random of the will
As rhymes direct the rage of art.

The lute's fixt fret, that runs athwart
The strain and purpose of the string,
For governance and nice consort
Doth bar his willful wavering.

The dark hath many dear avails;
The dark distils divinest dews;
The dark is rich with nightingales, [11]
With dreams, and with the heavenly Muse.

Bleeding with thorns of petty strife,
I'll ease (as lovers do) my smart
With sonnets to my lady Life
Writ red in issues from the heart.

What grace may lie within the chill
Of favor frozen fast in scorn!
When Good's a-freeze, we call it Ill!
This rosy Time is glacier-born.

Of fret, of dark, of thorn, of chill, [21]
Complain thou not, O heart; for these
Bank-in the current of the will
To uses, arts, and charities.

____
Baltimore, 1879-80.

Notes: Opposition

As an introduction to this poem I quote a sentence from Dr. Gates's
excellent essay: "As we look at the circumstances of his life,
let us carry with us the strains of this poem, which interprets
the use of crosses, interferences, and attempted thwartings of one's purpose;
for the ethical value of Lanier's life and writings can be fully understood
only by remembering how much he overcame and how heroically he persisted
in manly work in his chosen art through years of such broken health
as would have driven most men to the inert, self-indulgent life of an invalid.
The superb power of will which he displayed is a lesson as valuable
as the noble poems which it illustrates and enforces."

Marsh Song -- At Sunset

Over the monstrous shambling sea, [1]
Over the Caliban sea,
Bright Ariel-cloud, thou lingerest:
Oh wait, oh wait, in the warm red West, --
Thy Prospero I'll be.

Over the humped and fishy sea,
Over the Caliban sea,
O cloud in the West, like a thought in the heart
Of pardon, loose thy wing, and start,
And do a grace for me.

Over the huge and huddling sea, [11]
Over the Caliban sea,
Bring hither my brother Antonio, -- Man, --
My injurer: night breaks the ban;
Brother, I pardon thee.

____
Baltimore, 1879-80.

Notes: Marsh Song -- At Sunset

At the first reading, no doubt, this song appears indistinct, though poetical.
On a second reading, however, with Shakespeare's `Tempest' fresh in mind,
it seems, as it is, highly artistic; and we wonder at the happy use
made of the Shakespearean characters: the gracious, forgiving Prospero,
the rightful Duke of Milan; Antonio, his usurping brother,
forgiven notwithstanding; Caliban, the savage, deformed, fish-like slave;
and Ariel, the ministering spirit of the air.

With `At Sunset' compare Lanier's `Evening Song', another and a more agreeable
sunset picture.

A Ballad of Trees and the Master

Into the woods my Master went, [1]
Clean forspent, forspent.
Into the woods my Master came,
Forspent with love and shame.
But the olives they were not blind to Him,
The little gray leaves were kind to Him:
The thorn-tree had a mind to Him
When into the woods He came.

Out of the woods my Master went,
And He was well content.
Out of the woods my Master came, [11]
Content with death and shame.
When Death and Shame would woo Him last,
From under the trees they drew Him last:
'Twas on a tree they slew Him -- last
When out of the woods He came.

____
Baltimore, November, 1880.

Notes: A Ballad of Trees and the Master

In the `Introduction' (p. xxxi ff. [Part III]) I have tried to show
the intensity and the breadth of Lanier's love of nature in general.
President Gates gives a separate section to Lanier's love
of trees and plant-life; and, after quoting some lines
on the soothing and inspiring companionship of trees,
thus speaks of our Ballad: "This ministration of trees to a mind and heart
`forspent with shame and grief' finds its culmination in the pathetic lines
upon that olive-garden near Jerusalem, which to those of us
who have sat within its shade must always seem the most sacred spot on earth.
The almost mystic exaltation of the power of poetic sympathy
which inspired these intense lines, `Into the Woods my Master went',
may impair their religious effect for many devout souls.
But to many others this short poem will express most wonderfully
that essential human-heartedness in the Son of Man, our Divine Saviour,
which made Him one with us in His need of the quiet,
sympathetic ministrations of nature -- perhaps the heart of the reason
why this olive-grove was `the place where He was wont to go' for prayer."
See St. Luke 22:39.

For Lanier's other poems on Christ see `Introduction',
p. xxxvii f. [Part III].

Sunrise

In my sleep I was fain of their fellowship, fain [1]
Of the live-oak, the marsh, and the main.
The little green leaves would not let me alone in my sleep;
Up-breathed from the marshes, a message of range and of sweep,
Interwoven with waftures of wild sea-liberties, drifting,
Came through the lapped leaves sifting, sifting,
Came to the gates of sleep.
Then my thoughts, in the dark of the dungeon-keep
Of the Castle of Captives hid in the City of Sleep,
Upstarted, by twos and by threes assembling:
The gates of sleep fell a-trembling [11]
Like as the lips of a lady that forth falter "yes",
Shaken with happiness:
The gates of sleep stood wide.

I have waked, I have come, my beloved! I might not abide:
I have come ere the dawn, O beloved, my live-oaks, to hide
In your gospelling glooms, -- to be
As a lover in heaven, the marsh my marsh and the sea my sea.

Tell me, sweet burly-bark'd, man-bodied Tree
That mine arms in the dark are embracing, dost know
From what fount are these tears at thy feet which flow? [21]
They rise not from reason, but deeper inconsequent deeps.
Reason's not one that weeps.
What logic of greeting lies
Betwixt dear over-beautiful trees and the rain of the eyes?

O cunning green leaves, little masters! like as ye gloss
All the dull-tissued dark with your luminous darks that emboss
The vague blackness of night into pattern and plan,
So,
(But would I could know, but would I could know,)
With your question embroid'ring the dark of the question of man, -- [31]
So, with your silences purfling this silence of man
While his cry to the dead for some knowledge is under the ban,
Under the ban, --
So, ye have wrought me
Designs on the night of our knowledge, -- yea, ye have taught me,
So,
That haply we know somewhat more than we know.

Ye lispers, whisperers, singers in storms,
Ye consciences murmuring faiths under forms,
Ye ministers meet for each passion that grieves, [41]
Friendly, sisterly, sweetheart leaves,
Oh, rain me down from your darks that contain me
Wisdoms ye winnow from winds that pain me, --
Sift down tremors of sweet-within-sweet
That advise me of more than they bring, -- repeat
Me the woods-smell that swiftly but now brought breath
From the heaven-side bank of the river of death, --
Teach me the terms of silence, -- preach me
The passion of patience, -- sift me, -- impeach me, --
And there, oh there [51]
As ye hang with your myriad palms upturned in the air,
Pray me a myriad prayer.

My gossip, the owl, -- is it thou
That out of the leaves of the low-hanging bough,
As I pass to the beach, art stirred?
Dumb woods, have ye uttered a bird?

. . . . .

Reverend Marsh, low-couched along the sea,
Old chemist, rapt in alchemy,
Distilling silence, -- lo,
That which our father-age had died to know -- [61]
The menstruum that dissolves all matter -- thou
Hast found it: for this silence, filling now
The globed clarity of receiving space,
This solves us all: man, matter, doubt, disgrace,
Death, love, sin, sanity,
Must in yon silence clear solution lie.
Too clear! That crystal nothing who'll peruse?
The blackest night could bring us brighter news.
Yet precious qualities of silence haunt
Round these vast margins, ministrant. [71]
Oh, if thy soul's at latter gasp for space,
With trying to breathe no bigger than thy race
Just to be fellow'd, when that thou hast found
No man with room, or grace enough of bound
To entertain that New thou tell'st, thou art, --
'Tis here, 'tis here thou canst unhand thy heart
And breathe it free, and breathe it free,
By rangy marsh, in lone sea-liberty.

The tide's at full: the marsh with flooded streams
Glimmers, a limpid labyrinth of dreams. [81]
Each winding creek in grave entrancement lies
A rhapsody of morning-stars. The skies
Shine scant with one forked galaxy, --
The marsh brags ten: looped on his breast they lie.

Oh, what if a sound should be made!
Oh, what if a bound should be laid
To this bow-and-string tension of beauty and silence a-spring, --
To the bend of beauty the bow, or the hold of silence the string!
I fear me, I fear me yon dome of diaphanous gleam
Will break as a bubble o'er-blown in a dream, -- [91]
Yon dome of too-tenuous tissues of space and of night,
Over-weighted with stars, over-freighted with light,
Over-sated with beauty and silence, will seem
But a bubble that broke in a dream,
If a bound of degree to this grace be laid,
Or a sound or a motion made.

But no: it is made: list! somewhere, -- mystery, where?
In the leaves? in the air?
In my heart? is a motion made:
'Tis a motion of dawn, like a flicker of shade on shade. [101]
In the leaves 'tis palpable: low multitudinous stirring
Upwinds through the woods; the little ones, softly conferring,
Have settled my lord's to be looked for; so; they are still;
But the air and my heart and the earth are a-thrill, --
And look where the wild duck sails round the bend of the river, --
And look where a passionate shiver
Expectant is bending the blades
Of the marsh-grass in serial shimmers and shades, --
And invisible wings, fast fleeting, fast fleeting,
Are beating [111]
The dark overhead as my heart beats, -- and steady and free
Is the ebb-tide flowing from marsh to sea --
(Run home, little streams,
With your lapfuls of stars and dreams), --
And a sailor unseen is hoisting a-peak,
For list, down the inshore curve of the creek
How merrily flutters the sail, --
And lo, in the East! Will the East unveil?
The East is unveiled, the East hath confessed
A flush: 'tis dead; 'tis alive: 'tis dead, ere the West [121]
Was aware of it: nay, 'tis abiding, 'tis unwithdrawn:
Have a care, sweet Heaven! 'Tis Dawn.

Now a dream of a flame through that dream of a flush is uprolled:
To the zenith ascending, a dome of undazzling gold
Is builded, in shape as a bee-hive, from out of the sea:
The hive is of gold undazzling, but oh, the Bee,
The star-fed Bee, the build-fire Bee,
Of dazzling gold is the great Sun-Bee
That shall flash from the hive-hole over the sea.

Yet now the dew-drop, now the morning gray, [131]
Shall live their little lucid sober day
Ere with the sun their souls exhale away.
Now in each pettiest personal sphere of dew
The summ'd morn shines complete as in the blue
Big dew-drop of all heaven: with these lit shrines
O'er-silvered to the farthest sea-confines,
The sacramental marsh one pious plain
Of worship lies. Peace to the ante-reign
Of Mary Morning, blissful mother mild,
Minded of nought but peace, and of a child. [141]

Not slower than Majesty moves, for a mean and a measure
Of motion, -- not faster than dateless Olympian leisure
Might pace with unblown ample garments from pleasure to pleasure, --
The wave-serrate sea-rim sinks unjarring, unreeling,
Forever revealing, revealing, revealing,
Edgewise, bladewise, halfwise, wholewise, -- 'tis done!
Good-morrow, lord Sun!
With several voice, with ascription one,
The woods and the marsh and the sea and my soul
Unto thee, whence the glittering stream of all morrows doth roll, [151]
Cry good and past-good and most heavenly morrow, lord Sun.

O Artisan born in the purple, -- Workman Heat, --
Parter of passionate atoms that travail to meet
And be mixed in the death-cold oneness, -- innermost Guest
At the marriage of elements, -- fellow of publicans, -- blest
King in the blouse of flame, that loiterest o'er
The idle skies yet laborest fast evermore, --
Thou, in the fine forge-thunder, thou, in the beat
Of the heart of a man, thou Motive, -- Laborer Heat:
Yea, Artist, thou, of whose art yon sea's all news, [161]
With his inshore greens and manifold mid-sea blues,
Pearl-glint, shell-tint, ancientest perfectest hues
Ever shaming the maidens, -- lily and rose
Confess thee, and each mild flame that glows
In the clarified virginal bosoms of stones that shine,
It is thine, it is thine:

Thou chemist of storms, whether driving the winds a-swirl
Or a-flicker the subtiler essences polar that whirl
In the magnet earth, -- yea, thou with a storm for a heart,
Rent with debate, many-spotted with question, part [171]
From part oft sundered, yet ever a globed light,
Yet ever the artist, ever more large and bright
Than the eye of a man may avail of: -- manifold One,
I must pass from thy face, I must pass from the face of the Sun:
Old Want is awake and agog, every wrinkle a-frown;
The worker must pass to his work in the terrible town:
But I fear not, nay, and I fear not the thing to be done;
I am strong with the strength of my lord the Sun:
How dark, how dark soever the race that must needs be run,
I am lit with the Sun. [181]

Oh, never the mast-high run of the seas
Of traffic shall hide thee,
Never the hell-colored smoke of the factories
Hide thee,
Never the reek of the time's fen-politics
Hide thee,
And ever my heart through the night shall with knowledge abide thee,
And ever by day shall my spirit, as one that hath tried thee,
Labor, at leisure, in art, -- till yonder beside thee
My soul shall float, friend Sun, [191]
The day being done.

____
Baltimore, December, 1880.

Notes: Sunrise

In the words of Mrs. Lanier, "`Sunrise', Mr. Lanier's latest completed poem,
was written while his sun of life seemed fairly at the setting,
and the hand which first pencilled its lines had not strength
to carry nourishment to the lips." See `Introduction', p. xviii [Part I].
Lanier has two other poems on the same theme, both short:
`A Sunrise Song' and `Between Dawn and Sunrise' (entered under `Marsh Hymns').

As already pointed out (`Introduction', pp. xxxi [Part III], xlvii [Part IV]),
`Sunrise' shows in a powerful way the delicacy and the comprehensiveness
of Lanier's love for nature. True, as I have elsewhere stated
(`Introduction', p. xlvi [Part IV]), the poem has some serious limitations,
more I think than has `The Marshes of Glynn'; but, despite its shortcomings,
`Sunrise' is from an absolute stand-point a great poem;
while, if we consider the circumstances under which it was produced,
it is, in the words of Professor Kent, "a world-marvel".

Aside from the numerous unapproachable snatches in Shakespeare,*
I know of nothing on the subject in English literature
comparable to `Sunrise'. Mr. W. W. Story's `Sunrise' is perhaps
the closest parallel, and yet it is far inferior to Lanier's,
as every reader of the two will admit. If one wishes to make
further comparisons, he may find sunrise poems in the following authors:
Blake, Cowper, Emerson, Hood, Keats, Longfellow, Southey, Thompson,
Willis, etc. I may add that an interesting, though superficial article
on `The Poetry of Sunrise and Sunset' may be found in
`Chambers's Edinburgh Journal', 22, 234, October 7, 1854.

--
* Among others I may cite the following passages:

"Hark! hark! the lark at heaven's gate sings,"

in `Cymbeline', 2, 3;

"But look the morn in russet mantle clad
Walks o'er the dew of yon high eastern hill,"

in `Hamlet', 1, 1;

"Night's candles are burnt out, and jocund day
Stands tiptoe on the misty mountain-tops,"

in `Romeo and Juliet', 3, 5; and

"Full many a glorious morning have I seen" etc.,

`Sonnet xxxiii'.
--

3, 13-14. See `Introduction', p. xxxii [Part III], and compare l. 26.

39-53. See `Introduction', p. xxxiii [Part III].

42. I had made the comparison between Lanier and St. Francis
before reading Dr. Gates's essay on Lanier, and was delighted to find
my judgment confirmed by so competent a critic. Dr. Gates is quite emphatic:
"Since St. Francis, no soul has seemed so heavily overcharged
with this feeling of brotherhood for all created things."
`The Canticle of the Sun', otherwise known as `The Song of the Creatures',
may be found in metrical form in Mrs. Oliphant's life of St. Francis
(New York, 1870) and in prose in Sabatier's (Scribners, New York, 1894).

54. Lanier has an `Owl against Robin'.

57. See `Introduction', p. xli [Part IV].

80-85. See `Introduction', p. xliii [Part IV].

86-152. See `Introduction', p. xlvii [Part IV]. Mr. F. F. Browne says
that in lyric sweetness ll. 86-97 recall the best of Keats and Shelley.

114-115. See `Introduction', p. xliv [Part IV].

127. Lanier has a poem entitled `The Bee'.

134-136. See `Introduction', p. xliii [Part IV].

181. Compare Mrs. Easter's tribute, `Lit with the Sun'.

189-192. See `Introduction', p. xxi [Part I], and compare Cowdin's tribute,
`Hopeset and Sunrise', and the closing stanza of Hamlin Garland's:

"While heart's blood ebbed at every breath
He passed life's head-land bleak and dun,
Flew through the western gate of Death
And took his place beside the sun."

Bibliography

I. Collected Prose Works

Tiger-lilies: A Novel. 16mo, pp. v, 252. Hurd & Houghton, New York, 1867.
Out of print.

Florida: Its Scenery, Climate, and History. 12mo, pp. 336.
J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1876.

The Boy's Froissart. Being Sir John Froissart's Chronicles of Adventure,
Battle, and Custom in England, France, Spain, etc. Edited for Boys.
Crown 8vo, pp. xxviii, 422. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1878.

The Science of English Verse. Crown 8vo, pp. xv, 315.
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The Boy's King Arthur. Being Sir Thomas Malory's History of King Arthur
and his Knights of the Round Table. Edited for Boys. Crown 8vo,
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The Boy's Mabinogion. Being the Earliest Welsh Tales of King Arthur
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The Boy's Percy. Being Old Ballads of War, Adventure, and Love,
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The English Novel and the Principles of its Development. Crown 8vo, pp. 293.
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Poems of Sidney Lanier, Edited by his Wife, with a Memorial
by William Hayes Ward. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1884,
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Three Waterfalls: `Scott's Magazine' (Atlanta, Ga.), August, September, 1867.

Address before the Furlow Masonic Female College (Ga.), June 30, 1869:
`Catalogue' of the College for 1869.

Confederate Memorial Address at Macon, Ga., April 26, 1870:
`Macon Daily Telegraph' of April 27, 1870, and reprinted in same
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Retrospects and Prospects: `Southern Magazine' (Baltimore) 8. 283-290,
446-456, March, April, 1871.

Nature-Metaphors: `Southern Magazine' 10. 172-182, February, 1872.

San Antonio de Bexar: `Southern Magazine' 13. 83-99, 138-152,
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Peace: `Southern Magazine' 15. 406-410, October, 1874.

Review of Hayne's Poems: `Southern Magazine', 1874.

The Ocklawaha in May: `Lippincott's Magazine' (Philadelphia) 16. 403-413,
October, 1875.

St. Augustine in April: `Lippincott's Magazine' 16. 537-550, November, 1875.

Sketches of India, published anonymously: `Lippincott's Magazine' 17. 37-51,
172-183, 283-301, 409-427, January-April, 1876.

Defence of Centennial Cantata: `The Tribune' (New York), 1876.

Musical Festival in Baltimore: `The Sun' (Baltimore), May 28, 29, 30, 1878.

Criticism of Rubinstein's Ocean Symphony: `The Sun' (Baltimore),
January 31, 1880.

The Story of a Proverb: `Lippincott's Magazine' 23. 109-113, January, 1879.

Letter to Mr. J. F. D. Lanier, a banker of New York,
giving an account of the Laniers in Europe and of their coming to America:
privately printed, Baltimore, April 2, 1879, pp. 17.

A Fairy Tale for Grown People: `St. Nicholas Magazine', 1879.

The Orchestra of To-day: `Scribner's Monthly' (New York) 19. 897-904,
April, 1880.

The New South: `Scribner's Monthly' 20. 840-851. October, 1880.

Bob: `The Independent' (New York) 34. 1-3, August 3, 1882.

Moral Purpose in Art: `The Century Magazine' (New York) 4. 131-137,
May, 1883.

Two Letters to Bayard Taylor: Taylor (M. H.) and Scudder's
`Life and Letters of Bayard Taylor' (Boston, 1884), vol. ii., 677, 693-94.

The Legend of St. Leonor, a Fragment from an Unfinished Lecture
on "The Relations of Poetry and Science": `The Independent' 37. 1627,
December 17, 1885.

The Happy Soul's Address to the Dead Body, from Shakespeare
Course of Lectures: `The Independent', 1886.

A Great Man Wanted, Extract from Letter of November 15, 1874,
to Judge L. E. Bleckley, of Georgia: `The Acorn' (Towson, Md.), June, 1887;
reprinted in `The Critic' (New York) 7. 309, June 18, 1887.

From Bacon to Beethoven, published anonymously: `Lippincott's Magazine'
41. 643-655, May, 1888.

Chaucer and Shakespeare: `The Independent' 43. 1337-1338, 1371-1372,
September 10 and 17, 1891.

Chaucer and Shakespeare Compared: `The Independent' 43. 1401-1402,
September 24, 1891.

What I Know about Flowers, a S. S. address delivered about 1868,
but first published in `The Sunday-school Times' (Philadelphia) 33. 739,
November 21, 1891.

How to Read Chaucer: `The Independent' 43. 1748, November 26, 1891.

Blood-red Flower of War, an extract from `Tiger-lilies' (pp. 115-121):
`The Sunday News' (Baltimore), November 27, 1892.

Letters to Mr. and Mrs. Gibson Peacock, from January 26, 1875,
to June 1, 1880, edited by Wm. R. Thayer: `The Atlantic Monthly' (Boston)
74. 14-28, 181-193, July, August, 1894.

IV. Uncollected Poems

Laughter in the Senate: `The Round Table' (New York), 1868.

Civil Rights: `The Herald' (Atlanta, Ga.), 1874.

Songs Against Death (five stanzas, the last fragmentary):
`The Century Magazine' 10. 377, July, 1886.

One in Two: `Century Magazine' 12. 417, July, 1887.

Two in One: `Century Magazine' 12. 417, July, 1887.

To "The White Flower" of The English Novel, written in 1878,
but printed in 1890 by L. Prang (Boston) on an illustrated Christmas Card.

On the Receipt of a Jar of Marmalade, written for Mrs. C. N. Hawkins in 1877,
but printed in her husband's paper, `The New Castle (Va.) Record',
April 11, 1891.

The Lord's Romance of Time, an Outline: `Sunday-school Times'
(Philadelphia), 1892.

To Lucie, written on St. Valentine's Day, 1880, published in `From Dixie',
Richmond, Va., 1893.

V. Poems in Anthologies

Blackman, O.: see `Lawrence, W. M.'

Hutchinson, Ellen M.: see `Stedman, E. C.'

Lawrence (W. M.) and Blackman (O.): `The Riverside Song Book' (Boston, 1893)
has `Baby Charley' (p. 91) and `May the Maiden' (p. 97), both set to music.

Putnam, S. A. Brock: `The Poetry of America' (New York, 1894)
has `Life and Song', `Nirvana', `Ballad of Trees and the Master',
and `Sunrise'.

Roberts, C. G. D.: `Poems of Wild Life' (London, 1888)
has `The Revenge of Hamish' (pp. 57-62).

Sladen, Douglas: `Younger American Poets' (New York, 1891)
gives (pp. 131-145) `Sunrise', `The Marshes of Glynn',
`Song of the Chattahoochee', `A Ballad of Trees and the Master',
an extract from `The Symphony', and `The Crystal'.

Stedman (E. C.) and Hutchinson (Ellen M.): `A Library of American Literature'
(New York, 1891) gives (vol. x., pp. 145-151) `The Marshes of Glynn',
`Song of the Chattahoochee', `The Mocking-bird', `The Revenge of Hamish',
`Night and Day', and a portrait.

VI. Criticisms* of Lanier's Life and Works

* Unless the title of the criticism is given, the article treats
Lanier's life and works in general. Except in special cases
no account is made of articles in the daily papers. -- For brevity's sake
I cite under this head the music composed for several of Lanier's poems.

American Youth (Chicago): 3. 102.

Appleton's Annual Cyclopaedia (New York): 1881, p. 685: `Obituary'.

Black, G. D.: `The Antiochian' (Yellow Springs, O.) 2: 4. 4-6,
February, 1886.

Black, G. D.: `Belford's Magazine' (Chicago) 6. 187-190, January, 1891.

Blackman, O.: see `Lawrence' under `V'.

Boykin, Laurette N.: `Home Life of Sidney Lanier', Atlanta, Ga., 1889, 12 pp.

Browne, F. F.: `The Dial' (Chicago) 5. 244-246, January, 1885.

Browne, Wm. H.: `Memorial Address' before the Johns Hopkins University,
October 22, 1881, 8 pp. Privately printed.

Browne, Wm. H.: `Letter at the Unveiling of a Bust of the Poet
at Macon, Ga.', October 17, 1890, in `The Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution'
of October 19, 1890.

Browne, Wm. H.: `From Dixie' (Richmond, Va., 1893), pp. 40-51.

Buck, Dudley: Music to Lanier's `Centennial Cantata'.
New York: G. Schirmer, 1876.

Buck, Dudley: `Sunset', music to Lanier's `Evening Song'.
New York: G. Schirmer, 1877.

Buckham, J.: `An Account of the Hopkins Memorial Meeting
of February 3, 1888', `Literary World' (Boston) 19. 56-57, February 18, 1888.

Burton, R. E.: `An Account of the Hopkins Memorial Meeting
of February 3, 1888', `The Critic' (New York), 9. 63-64, February 11, 1888;
also in Gilman's `Memorial of Sidney Lanier', pp. 47-50.

Burton, Richard E.: `Lanier Bibliography', in Gilman's
`Memorial of Sidney Lanier' (Baltimore, 1888), pp. 51-56.

Calvert, G. H.: `The Golden Age', June 12, 1875.

Carmichael, Mary: `A May Song', music to Lanier's `Song for the Jacquerie'.
London: Stanley, Lucas, Weber & Co., 1889.

Century Magazine (New York): 1. 475, January, 1882: `Boy's Mabinogion'.

Chamberlain, D. H.: `The New Englander' (New Haven, Conn.) 44. 227-238,
March, 1885.

Coleman, C. W., Jr.: `Homes of Some Southern Authors IV.',
`The Chautauquan' (Meadville, Pa.) 8. 343-344.

Critic, The (New York): 3. 3-4, January 3, 1885: `Poems';
9. 97, February 28, 1888: `Professor J. H. Gilmore's Lecture on Lanier';
9. 224, May 5, 1888; 9. 245, May 19, 1888; 15. 130, March 7, 1891;
16. 197, October 17, 1891: `Poems' (ed. of 1891); 20. 95, August 5, 1893:
`Professor W. D. McClintock's Lecture on Lanier'.

Cummings, Miss M. A.: `Catholic Mirror' (Baltimore), May 7, 1892.

Dewey, T. E.: `Address before the Kansas Academy of Language and Literature',
at Baker University, Baldwin, April 7, 1892, 34 pp.

Dial, The (Chicago): 2. 182-3, December, 1881: `Boy's Mabinogion';
3. 176, December, 1882: `Boy's Percy'; 4. 40, June, 1883.

Fiske, John: see `Wilson, J. G.'

Gates, M. E.: `Sidney Lanier's Moral Earnestness', `The Critic' 3. 227,
May 9, 1885, as quoted from the Rutgers College `Targum'.

Gates, M. E.: `Presbyterian Review' (New York), 8. 669-701, October, 1887;
also in pamphlet form; summarized in Sladen's `Younger American Poets'
(pp. 635-644).

Gates, M. E.: `On the Ethical Influence of Lanier', in Gilman's `Memorial',
pp. 31-36.

Gilder, R. W.: `Letter to President Gilman', in latter's `Memorial',
pp. 27-29.

Gilman, D. C.: `Our Continent' (Chicago), February, 1882.

Gilman, D. C. (ed.): `A Memorial of Sidney Lanier' (Baltimore, 1888), 52 pp.

Gilman, D. C.: `Letter at the Unveiling of a Bust of the Poet at Macon, Ga.',
October 17, 1890, in `The Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution' of October 19, 1890.

Gosse, Edmund: `Questions at Issue', London, 1893, pp. 78-81.

Hankins, V. W.: `Southern Bivouac' (Louisville, Ky.), 2. 760-61, May, 1887.

Harper's Magazine (New York): 54. 617, March, 1877: `Poems' (1877 ed.);
60. 474, February, 1880: `Boy's Froissart'; 61. 796-97, October, 1880:
`Science of English Verse'; 62. 315, January, 1881: `Boy's King Arthur';
64. 316, January, 1882: `Boy's Mabinogion'; 66. 316, January, 1883:
`Boy's Percy'; 67. 798-99, October, 1883: `The English Novel'.

Harris, Joel Chandler: `The Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution'
of September 12, 1881.

Harris, J. C.: `Letter at Unveiling of a Bust of the Poet at Macon, Ga.',
October 17, 1890, `The Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution' of October 19, 1890.

Hawthorne (J.) and Lemmon (L.): `American Literature', Boston, 1893,
pp. 276-77.

Hayne, Paul H.: `A Poet's Letters to a Friend', `The Critic' 5. 77-78, 89-90,
February 13, 20, 1886.

Higginson, T. W.: `The Chautauquan' (Meadville, Pa.) 7. 416-418, April, 1887.

Higginson, T. W.: `Women and Men', Boston, 1888, chap. 58.

Hill, Mrs. K.: `Marie', music to Lanier's `Song for the Jacquerie',
Riga, P. Neldner, 1891.

Hill, W. B.: `Address in Presenting Bust of the Poet to City of Macon, Ga.',
`The Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution' of October 19, 1890.

Hubner, Chas. W.: `The American', Atlanta, Ga., November 29, 1888.

Kent, C. W.: `A Study of Lanier's Poems, in Publications of
the Modern Language Association' (Baltimore) 7: 2. 33-63, April-June, 1892.

Kirk, J. F.: `A Supplement to Allibone's Dictionary of English Literature'
(Philadelphia), 1891, vol. ii., 973, has a brief sketch of Lanier.

Kirkus, Wm.: `American Literary Churchman', October, 1881.

Lanier, Charles: `Letter at Unveiling of Poet's Bust at Macon, Ga.',
October 17, 1890, `The Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution' of October 19, 1890.

Lanier, Clifford: `Letter at Unveiling of Poet's Bust at Macon, Ga.',
October 17, 1890, `The Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution' of October 19, 1890.

Lawrence, W. M.: see under `V'.

Lemmon, L.: see `Hawthorne'.

Lind, W. Murdoch: `Sidney Lanier's Library', `The Daily News' (Baltimore),
July 24, 1892.

Link, S. A.: `New England Magazine' (Boston) 10. 14-19, March, 1894.

Literary World, The (Boston): 6. 116, January, 1876: `Florida';
7. 103, December, 1876: `Poems' (Lippincott ed.); 11. 227, July 3, 1880:
`Science of English Verse'; 11. 441, December 4, 1880: `Boy's King Arthur';
12. 215, June 18, 1881: `Florida'; 12. 449, December 3, 1881:
`Boy's Mabinogion'; 14. 204-205, June 30, 1883: `English Novel';
16. 40-41, February 7, 1885: `Poems'; 16. 350-352, April 10, 1885: `Poems'.

Lowell, James Russell: `Letter to President Gilman' in latter's `Memorial',
p. 25.

Macmechan, A.: `The Varsity' (Toronto), March 3, 1888.

Marble, E.: `Cottage Hearth' (Boston), 4. 141-142, June, 1877.

Morris, H. S.: `The Poetry of S. L.', `The American' (Philadelphia),
No. 393, pp. 284-285, February 18, 1888.

Nation, The (New York): 31. 310-311, October 28, 1880:
`Science of English Verse'; 33. 216, September 15, 1881;
33. 994, November 17, 1881; 35. 468, November 30, 1882: `Boy's Percy';
37. 38, July 12, 1883: `English Novel'; 39. 528, December 18, 1884: `Poems';
46. 51-52, February 9, 1888; 53. 297, October 15, 1891: `Poems' (1891 ed.).

Newell, A. C.: `Lanier's Life at Oglethorpe College',
`The Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution' of February 27, 1894.

New Englander (New Haven, Conn.): 39. 566, July, 1880:
`Science of English Verse'.

Penn, A.: `S. L. on the English Novel', `Century Magazine', 5. 957-958,
April, 1884.

Pitts, W. A.: `Wofford College Journal' (Spartanburg, S.C.) 4. 307-312,
June, 1893.

Poet-lore (Philadelphia): 2. 303, 1890; 3. 369, 1891.

Putnam, S. A. Brock: `The Poetry of America', New York, 1894,
has a short Sketch of Lanier.

Richardson, Charles F.: `American Literature' (1607-1885), 2 vols.,
New York, 1889-1891; vol. 2. 231-2, 242, 398.

Roberts, Chas. G. D.: `St. John (N. B.) Globe', April 25, 1885.

Roberts, Chas. G. D. (ed.): `Poems of Wild Life', London, 1888,
has a short sketch of Lanier.

Roberts, C. G. D.: `Letter at Unveiling of Poet's Bust at Macon, Ga.',
October 17, 1890, `The Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution' of October 19, 1890.

Rutherford, Mildred: `American Authors', Atlanta, Ga., 1894, pp. 368-375.

Scott, W. J.: `Quarterly Review of M. E. Church, South' (Nashville),
New Series, 5. 157-171, October, 1888.

Scribner's Monthly (New York): 20. 473-4, July, 1880:
`Science of English Verse'; 21. 322, December, 1880: `Boy's King Arthur'.

Semple, Patty B.: `Southern Bivouac' (Louisville) 2. 661-7, April, 1887.

Sladen, Douglas: `Some Younger American Poets I.', `The Independent'
(New York) 42. 806, June 12, 1890.

Sladen, Douglas: `Younger American Poets', New York, 1891,
pp. xxvi-xxviii, 635-655: a slightly expanded form of the preceding.
See, too, `Gates' and `Turnbull'.

Sladen, Douglas: `The American Rossetti', `Literary World' (London),
pp. 378-9, November 17, 1893.

Smyth, A. H.: `American Literature', Philadelphia, 1889, p. 132.

Spann, Minnie: `Sidney Lanier's Youth, S. L.'s Manhood',
`The Independent' (New York) 46. 800, 821-2, June 21, 28, 1894.

Spectator, The (London): 65. 828-9, December 6, 1890.

Stedman, E. C.: `Letter to President Gilman', pp. 12-14 of Browne's
`Memorial Address'.

Stedman, E. C.: `The Critic' (New York), 1. 298, 1881.

Stedman, E. C.: `Poets of America', Boston, 1885, pp. 449-451.

Stedman, E. C.: `Letter to President Gilman' in latter's `Memorial',
pp. 25-27.

Stedman (E. C.) and Hutchinson (Ellen M.): `Library of American Literature'
(New York, 1891), vol. xi., 542, gives brief sketches
of Sidney and Clifford Lanier.

Stoddard, F. H.: `Review of The English Novel', `New Englander'
(New Haven, Conn.) 43. 97-104, January, 1884.

Tabb, J. B.: `Sidney Lanier's Last Lines', `The Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution'
of October 19, 1890.

Tait, John R.: `Lippincott's Magazine' (Phila.) 40. 723-724, November, 1887.

Taylor, Bayard: `The Tribune' (New York), 1876.

Taylor (M. H.) and Scudder's `Life and Letters of Bayard Taylor',
vol. 2. 669-723, has several letters from B. T. to S. L.

Thayer, W. R.: `The Independent' (New York), 1883; March, 1884;
June 12, 1884; December 18, 1884; 1886: `Stedman's Poets of America'.

Thayer, W. R.: `The American' (Phila.) December 20, 1884; February 18, 1888.

Thayer, W. R. (ed.): `Letters of Sidney Lanier' [to Mr. and Mrs.
Gibson Peacock], `The Atlantic Monthly' (Boston) 74. 14-28, 181-193,
July and August, 1894.

Tolman, A. H.: `Lanier's Science of English Verse', in Gilman's `Memorial',
pp. 37-45.

Travelers' Record, The (Hartford, Conn.): October, 1885:
`Owl against Robin'.

Turnbull, Mrs. Lawrence: `The Catholic Man: A Study', Boston, 1890,
gives, in Paul, the poet, an imaginative study of the character of Mr. Lanier,
with whom the author was intimately acquainted and to whom she was devoted.

Turnbull, Francese L. (= Mrs. Lawrence T.): `Sidney Lanier: A Study',
in Sladen's `Younger American Poets', New York, 1891, pp. 645-655.

Urban, Francis: Music to Lanier's `A Ballad of Trees and the Master'.
Baltimore: Otto Sutro & Co., 1886.

Von Sturmer, H. H.: `A Soldier-poet', `Excelsior' (Barbados) 1. 233-236,
October, 1890.

Walker, Geo. W.: `Quarterly Review of M. E. Church, South' (Macon, Ga.)
7. 193-206, April, 1885.

Ward, Wm. Hayes: `Sidney Lanier on Moral Purpose in Art',
`The Independent' (New York), May 3, 1883.

Ward, Wm. Hayes: `Sidney Lanier, Poet', `Century Magazine' 5. 816-821,
April, 1884.

Ward, Wm. Hayes: `Memorial', prefixed to `Poems of Sidney Lanier',
edited by his wife, pp. xi-xl.

Warner, Charles Dudley: `Letter at Unveiling of Poet's Bust at Macon, Ga.',
October 17, 1890, `The Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution' of October 19, 1890.

Washington, Hugh V.: `Address on Accepting the Bust of Lanier for
the City of Macon, Ga.', October 17, 1890, `The Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution'
of October 19, 1890.

West, Charles N.: `Address before the Georgia Historical Society',
Savannah, December 5, 1887, 25 pp.

Wilkinson, W. C.: `The Independent' (New York), September, 1886.

Wilson, Heileman: `Fetter's Southern Magazine' (Louisville, Ky.) 2. 11-15,
February, 1893.

Wilson (J. G.) and Fiske (J.), eds.: `Appleton's Cyclopaedia
of American Biography', New York, 1888, vol. iii., 613,
has brief sketches of S. and C. Lanier.

Wray, J. E.: `Song of the Chattahoochee', `Quarterly Review
of M. E. Church, South' (Nashville), New Series, 16. 157-163, April, 1894.

VII. Poetical Tributes

Andrews, Maude Annulet: `Literary World' (Boston) 18. 184, June 11, 1887.

Barbe, Waiteman: in his `Ashes and Incense', Philadelphia, 1892.

Burroughs, Ellen: `Literary World' (Boston) 21. 40, February 1, 1890.

Burton, Richard E.: Gilman's `Memorial', p. 12.

Clark, Simeon Tupper: `The Buffalo (N. Y.) Courier', November, 1881.

Colquitt, Mel R.: `The Period', Atlanta, Ga.

Cowdin, Jasper Barnett: `Hopeset and Sunrise', `Southern Bivouac'
(Louisville, Ky.) 1. 614-615, March, 1886.

Cummings, James: Gilman's `Memorial', pp. 13-17.

Dandridge, Danske: in her `Joy and Other Poems', New York and London, 1888.

Easter, Marguerite E.: in her `Clytie and Other Poems', Boston, 1891.

Edwards, Harry S.: `The Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution' of October 19, 1890.

Garland, Hamlin: `Southern Bivouac' (Louisville, Ky.) 2. 759, May, 1887.

Gates, Mrs. Merrill E.: `Home Journal' (New York), April 16, 1890.

Hayne, Paul Hamilton: `The Pole of Death', in `Poems' (Boston, 1882), p. 322.

Hayne, Wm. H.: `Poem for the Unveiling of the Bust of S. L. at Macon, Ga.,
October 17, 1890', `The Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution' of October 19, 1890;
`Sidney Lanier', in his `Sylvan Lyrics and Other Verses' (New York), 1893.

Hubner, Charles W.: `The Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution' of September 12, 1881.

Lanier, Clifford: `Acknowledgment, To all who love S. L.',
`The Independent' (New York), April 9, 1885.

Reese, Lizette Woodworth: `Southern Bivouac' (Louisville, Ky.) 2. 488,
January, 1887; `With a Copy of Lanier's Poems', `The Independent' (New York)
44. 322, March 3, 1892.

Roberts, Charles G. D.: `To the Memory of S. L.', in his `In Divers Tones',
Boston, 1886, pp. 95-96; `On Reading the Poems of S. L.', ib., p. 97;
`For a Bust of L.', `The Independent' (New York) 43. 625, April 30, 1891.

Scollard, Clinton: `Literary World' (Boston), vol. 18, May 14, 1886.

Tabb, John B.: `To Sidney Lanier', in Gilman's `Memorial', p. 11;
`Sidney Lanier', `The Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution' of October 19, 1890;
`Greeting to S. L.', in `The Times-Democrat' (New Orleans) of December, 1891,
and quoted by Spann in `The Independent' (New York) 46. 822, June 28, 1894.

Thomas, Edith M.: Gilman's `Memorial', pp. 22-23.

Turnbull, Francese E.: Gilman's `Memorial', pp. 18-21.

[End of original text.]

Other sources relating to Sidney Lanier:

(No attempt has been made to be complete. This only serves
as a pointer to other materials.)

Centennial Edition of the Works of Sidney Lanier (in 10 volumes),
ed. Charles R. Anderson and others (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1945).

Flute Concerto of Sidney Lanier, by Myrtle Whittemore
(New York: Pageant Press, 1953). *

The Life of Sidney Lanier, by Lincoln Lorenz (New York: Coward-McCann, 1935).

A Living Minstrelsy: The Poetry and Music of Sidney Lanier,
by Jane S. Gabin (Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 1985). *

Sidney Lanier, by Jack De Bellis (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1972).

Sidney Lanier, by Edwin Mims (Boston & New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co.,

Book of the day: