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Seaward Sussex by Edric Holmes

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the nave is another picture of the nativity. A destructive fire, a few
years ago, greatly damaged these and also the fabric of the church.
Careful repair, however, has to a great extent restored the building to
its original condition The altar consists of a seventeenth century
tomb. The old font was taken away to St. Saviour's Church, but has been
very properly replaced.

Brighton is not the best centre for the exploration of the central Down
country. If a coast town is chosen Worthing is much better; from there
the real country is quickly reached, although the hills themselves are
farther away. But there are one or two excursions which obviously
belong to Brighton, the most important being that to the Devil's Dyke
and Poynings. A rather dull walk of over five miles from the Steyne,
retrieved during the last two by fine views on the left hand, will
bring us to the old stone posts labelled "The Dyke." This road passes
an interesting Museum of Ornithology collected by the late E.T. Booth.
Here are to be seen cases of wild birds in their natural surroundings
planned with greatest care by Mr. Booth, who gave a lifelong study to
the habits and environment of British birds. On the occasions on which
the writer has visited the collection no other persons were present,
and few residents seem to have heard of it.

Trains run at frequent intervals from Brighton Central to the Dyke and
public conveyances from the Aquarium. The excursion should not be
missed, though the visitor who is a stranger must be prepared for a
regrettable amount of waste paper and broken bottles left about to mar
what would otherwise be one of the finest scenes in the Downs.
Refreshment stalls and tea gardens help to vulgarize the surroundings,
though the added desecration of aerial railway across the Dyke has been

The local legend is almost too well known to bear repetition. The
Sussex native has a dislike, probably derived from his remote
ancestors, to refer directly to the Devil, so the story has it that the
"Poor Man," becoming enraged at the number of churches built in the
Weald, conceived the idea of drowning them by letting in the sea; he
had half finished the great trench, being forced (like his remote
prototype) to work at night, when an old lady, hearing the noise of
digging, put her candle in a sieve and looked out of the window. The
Devil took it for sunrise and disappeared, a very simple fiend indeed!

[Illustration: POYNINGS.]

The view from the edge of the escarpment with Poynings just below to
the right is very beautiful; away to the south-west is an eminence
called "Thunder's Barrow," probably Thor's Barrow; at the lower end of
the Dyke is the Devil's Punch Bowl, here are two more barrows "The
Devil's Grave" and "The Devil's Wife's Grave."

A visit to Poynings (locally "Punnings") should be combined with this
excursion; this is a really pleasant and, as yet, unspoilt village. One
feels nervous for its future, but the good taste of the inhabitants,
combined with the formidable barrier of the hills, will, it is hoped,
prevent it ever becoming a mere congeries of tea gardens and like
amenities. The fine cruciform church has a central tower and is Early
Perpendicular; built by Baron de Poynings in the late fourteenth
century it has many interesting details. Note the old thurible used as
an alms box. The great south window was brought here from Chichester
Cathedral. There is some good carved wood in the pulpit and rails. The
ruins of Poynings Place, the one-time home of the Fitz-Rainalts, Barons
of Poynings, may still be seen.

Newtimber Hill immediately east of the village is rarely visited and
therefore is not rendered unsightly in the manner of the Dyke. The view
is equally good and the Downs westward appear to even better advantage
from this outlying point. A return could be made from Newtimber to
Pycombe, once famous for its manufacture of shepherds crooks--"Pycoom
Hooks." The village lies in the pass by which the London-Brighton road
crosses the Downs. The old church has a twelfth century leaden font and
a double piscina and is one of the highest in Sussex, being situated
400 feet above the sea. This walk could very well be extended to
include Wolstonbury Hill and Hurstpierpoint.

The road running west from Poynings at the foot of the Downs would
bring us to Fulking where is a memorial fountain to John Ruskin erected
by a brewer. Another two miles along it is Edburton, an unspoilt
village under the shadow of Trueleigh Hill; the fine Early English
church has a pulpit and altar rails presented by Archbishop Laud and a
leaden font of the early twelfth century. Nine miles north of Brighton
by road, and about half-way between the two London highways, either of
which may be taken, lies the large village or small town locally called
"Hurst" and by the world at large, more romantically, Hurstpierpoint.
The situation, with its wide and beautiful views over the surrounding
country from Leith Hill and Blackdown to the ever present line of the
Downs on the south, make it one of the pleasantest places in Sussex for
a prolonged stay. St. John's College is one of the Woodard schools in
connexion with Lancing foundation (see page 103); it is a fine building
with an imposing chapel. The church is modern and was designed by Sir
Charles Barry. In the south transept is an effigy of an unknown
crusader and another of a knight in the north aisle. A brass in the
chapel commemorates the fact that the martyred Bishop Hannington was
born and held a curacy here. There are a number of memorials to the
Campions, local squires and present owners of Danny; one of them runs

"Reader, bewail thy country's loss in the death of Henry Campion. In
his life admire a character most amiable and venerable, of the Friend
and Gentleman, and Christian."

[Illustration: DANNY.]

Danny is a beautiful specimen of the Elizabethan mansion at its best;
it is built under the shadow of Wolstonbury Hill, one of the finest in
shape of the outstanding bastions of the Downs, on the top of which is
a circular camp with several pits within the vallum. The twin woods on
the slope of the hill are locally known as "Campion's Eyebrows," they
are well seen in the accompanying sketch.

[Illustration: HURSTPIERPOINT.]

Hurstpierpoint may also be easily visited from Hassocks Station (2
miles), from which we may also start on the last stage of our return to
Lewes. One mile east of the station is Keymer, a pleasant little place
with an uninteresting church which has been practically rebuilt.
Ditchling, a mile further, has a very fine Transitional and Early
English church which will repay a visit. The nave is severely plain in
the older style; the chancel shows some untouched and very beautiful
workmanship. The east window is Geometrical, as are several in the
nave, others are Decorated and, in the transept, Perpendicular. Note
the old font which was evidently at one time coloured; also the aumbry,
piscina and sedile. The chalk arches are finely worked. In the village
are several old timber houses, including one said to have been
inhabited by Anne of Cleves.

A walk of about two miles past Wick Farm or by Westmeston, over half a
mile farther, brings the traveller to the summit of this section of the
Downs--Ditchling Beacon (813 feet). Until more accurate surveys were
made this was supposed to be the highest point of the whole range.

"This most commanding down is crowned with the grassy mound and
trenches of an ancient earthwork, from whence there is a noble view of
hill and plain. The inner slope of the green fosse is inclined at an
angle pleasant to recline on, with the head just below the edge, in the
summer sunshine. A faint sound as of a sea heard in a dream--a sibilant
'sish, sish'--passes along outside, dying away and coming again as a
fresh wave of the wind rushes through the bennets and the dry grass."
(Richard Jefferies.)

[Illustration: WOLSTONBURY.]

The views from Ditchling, though fine, are not nearly the best, for
there is a tameness in the immediate country to the north. A glorious
walk, however, can be taken by keeping along the edge past "Black Cap,"
the clump of trees about two miles east, and then either over or round
Mount Harry to Lewes. Those who must see all the settlements of men
should proceed downwards to Westmeston, a beautiful little place
embowered in trees, some of which are magnificent in shape and size,
particularly the great ash at the east of the church which is literally
overshadowed by the Beacon. The building is uninteresting and the mural
paintings dating from the twelfth century, which were discovered about
fifty years ago, have not been preserved. It was near here that Baring
Gould speaks of seeing the carcasses of two horses and three calves
hanging in a elm; on inquiry he was informed that this was considered
"lucky for cattle."

About a mile and a half north and two miles east of Ditchling village
is the lonely hamlet of Street. The "Place" is a grand old house dating
from the reign of the first James; behind the chimney of the hall was
once a spacious hiding place and a story is told of a Royalist fugitive
who _rode into it on his horse_ and was never again seen. The restored
church has a number of iron grave slabs and a monument to Martha
Cogger, who was a "Pattern of Piety and Politeness."

Nearly two miles on the Lewes road is Plumpton, chiefly famed for its
steeplechases which are held two miles away in the Weald and close to
Plumpton station. The church is uninteresting. The "Place" is an old
moated house, the property of Lord Chichester. The Leonard Mascall who
lived here in the sixteenth century is said to have introduced the
first carp from the Danube, the moat being used as their nursery.
Notice the great V in firs on the face of the Downs; this is a memorial
of the Victorian Jubliee; not particularly beautiful and leading one to
speculate upon its permanence. A cutting in the chalk would probably
recommend itself to the pious care of coming ages when the personage
commemorated had either been entirely forgotten or had developed into a
legendary heroine of fictitious character. That even cuttings are not
always permanent is proved close by, for only occasionally can the
cross cut to commemorate the great battle of Lewes be seen; the turf
shows but a different shade of green at certain times and under certain
atmospheric conditions.

The road to Lewes continues under the shadow of Mount Harry and
eventually drops to the Lewes-London highway near Offham, remarkable as
being the first place in the south where a line of rails was used for
the passage of goods. A turn to the right and we soon reach Lewes near
St. Anne's Church.



Public conveyances run from Brighton to Shoreham several times each day
by Portslade and Southwick; the railway to Worthing also follows the
road and little will be lost if the traveller goes direct to New
Shoreham. Portslade and Southwick churches have some points of
interest, the latter a one time church of the Knights Templar, but they
are not sufficient compensation for the melancholy and depressing
route. After passing Hove the road is cut off from the sea by the
eastern arm of Shoreham Harbour, and there follows a line of gas works,
coal sidings and similar eyesores, almost all the way to Shoreham town.
However, the explorer will be amply recompensed when he arrives at the
old port at the mouth of the Adur.

The original Saxon town had its beginnings at Old Shoreham, but, as the
harbour silted up, the importance of the new settlement under Norman
rule, exceeded all other havens between Portsmouth and Rye. The
overlords were the powerful De Braose family, who have left their name
and fame over a great extent of the Sussex seaboard.

[Illustration: PORTSLADE HARBOUR.]

King John is known to have landed here after the death of Richard, and
Charles II sailed from Shoreham after the Battle of Worcester. The
fugitive came across country accompanied by Lord Wilmot, and at
Brighton fell in with the Captain Tattersell, whose grave we have seen
there. An arrangement was made by which he was to leave Shoreham in the
captain's vessel; this was done the next morning and the King in due
time reached Fecamp safely. At the restoration the gallant captain
received an annual pension of one hundred pounds.

Shoreham is decidedly not the town to visit for an hour or two or for
half a day. No one can possibly gain a correct impression of these
smaller English towns by a casual call, as it were, between trains. A
short stay, or two or three day visits (_not_ on "early closing" day)
is the least one can do before claiming to know the place.

New Shoreham is almost certain to disappoint on first acquaintance. In
fact it may be described as mean and shabby! Other and competent judges
have felt the charm of this old Seagate and one--Algernon Charles
Swinburne--has immortalized it in his glowing lines "On the South

"Shoreham, clad with the sunset glad and grave with glory that death

Shoreham church is second only to the Cathedral at Chichester and
Boxgrove Priory in interest. As will be seen by the fragments in the
churchyard a nave once made the building cruciform, and its proportions
then would not have disgraced a small cathedral. A movement has been on
foot for some time to rebuild the nave on the old site and an offertory
box for this purpose will be seen within the church.

[Illustration: SHOREHAM AND THE ADUR.]

The prevailing effect of both exterior and interior is of solemn and
stately age. The upper part of the tower is Transitional with certain
later additions. The base of the tower, the choir transepts, and the
fragment still remaining of the nave are Norman and Transitional of
very noble and dignified proportions.

The vaulting will be noticed. This is Early English, also the beautiful
ornament on the capitals and the interesting mason's marks on the
pillars. The marble font is a very good specimen of the square type
common in this locality. A brass in the nave of a merchant and his lady
should be noticed, also a piscina with trefoil ornament and a modern
window in the north transept to the infants who died between 1850 and
1875. There are a number of memorials to the Hooper family hereabouts.
In this portion of the building the election of parliamentary
candidates once took place.

The church owes nothing of its stateliness to a past connected with
priory or monastery, it has always been a parish church and is of
additional interest thereby. That it always will hold this rank is
another matter; in these days of new sees one cannot tell that the
parish church of to-day will not be the cathedral of to-morrow.
Certainly Shoreham would wear the title with dignity.

There are many quaint corners left in the town (which since 1910 has
been officially styled "Shoreham by Sea "), but the individuality of
the place is best seen on the quay where a little shipbuilding is still
carried on; in the reign of Edward III it supplied the Crown with a
fleet of twenty-six sail. The figure-head sign of the "Royal George"
Inn may be noticed; this was salvaged from the ill-fated ship of that
name which sunk in Portsmouth Harbour.

The Norfolk Suspension Bridge, still retaining its old-fashioned toll,
carries the Worthing road across the river, at high tide a fine
estuary, but at low a feeble trickle lost in a waste of mud. The view
of the town from the bridge is very charming, especially in the evening


At Old Shoreham, a mile up stream, is another bridge which, with the
church, is the most painted, sketched and photographed of all Sussex
scenes; few years pass without it being represented on the walls of the
Academy. This bridge is a very ancient wooden structure which has been
patched and mended from time to time into a condition of extreme
picturesqueness. The bridge leads to the "Sussex Pad," a noted
smuggling hostelry in a situation ideal for the purpose, and then on to
Lancing and Sompting.

The sturdy and grey old church which has seen so many centuries of
change and decay in the life around it, which has even seen the very
face of nature alter in the haven beneath, has not changed in any
essential since the great De Braose of the eleventh century built it on
the foundations of its Saxon predecessor, whose massive walls still
support a goodly part of the Norman building. Almost the whole of the
upper part of the church is Norman, though the chancel appears to have
been restored at a later date. Note the fine pointed screen and the
rich moulding of the arches and door, also the carved tye-beam above
the great arch which leads to the crossing. The nave is curiously dark,
through the absence of windows; here may be seen the remains of the
Saxon wall projecting beyond the line of the newer work. A low side
window near the southwest corner has been variously described as a
confessional, a hagioscope, and a leper window.

The few small houses to the south of the church are all that now remain
to show where the one time port stood; though none of the existing
buildings are contemporary with that period.

[Illustraton: NEW SHOREHAM.]

There is now a choice of ways. The direct route to Worthing goes across
the Norfolk Bridge and then by South Lancing ("Bungalow Town ") and
calls for no comment other than its fine marine views. The valley road
to Bramber and Steyning we propose to travel presently, and we will now
cross the old bridge by the "Sussex Pad," lately rebuilt. Half a mile
from the inn the Down road to the right leads direct to the prominent
group of buildings on a spur of the Downs which have been constantly in
view during the walk from Shoreham. St. Nicholas', or Lancing, College
was founded in 1849 by Nicholas Woodard, an Anglican priest. It is part
of a larger scheme, other colleges in connexion being at Hurstpierpoint
and Ardingly. The original school, established in 1848 at Shoreham, may
still be seen at the corner of Church Street; it is now a laundry. The
buildings are dominated most effectively by the great pile of the
college chapel 97 feet from roof to floor. The general effect is most
un-English and gives the west side of the Adur an air reminiscent of
Normandy or Picardy.

Lancing is supposed to be derived from Wlencing, one of the sons of
Ella. The church, originally Norman, has been much altered at various
times and is mainly Early English. The remains of an Easter Sepulchre
may be seen in the north wall of the chancel and at the door the
mutilated fragment of a stoup.

[Illustration: OLD SHOREHAM.]

At the third mile from Shoreham is Sompting, famous for its church and
well known to Worthing visitors, who have a pleasant walk of about two
and a half miles by shady road and field path through Broadwater. The
church stands in a group of elms on the slope to the north of the
village. The tower and part of the chancel are undoubtedly Saxon, the
remainder of the church having been rebuilt in Norman and Early English
times. Notice the characteristic bands of stonework which run round the
tower and the long capitals of the central ribs. The gabled spire is
almost unique in this country and will awaken memories of Alsace for
those who know that land. A similar spire may be seen in another Down
country, at Sarratt in Hertfordshire, and a modern example at
Southampton. Between the north side of the tower and the nave are the
remains of a chapel erected by the Peverells. The interior of the
church is equally uncommon and interesting, and the distressing newness
which follows most restorations is not seen here, the work of the
restorer, Mr. Carpenter, having been most careful and sympathetic. The
outline of the original windows may be traced in the chancel which is
now lit by Perpendicular openings. Over the altar is a tabernacle, not
very well seen. Notice the piscina with triangular arch, and a tomb, it
is supposed, of Richard Bury, dating from the time of Henry VII; also
the curious corbel face in the east aisle of the vaulted north
transept. The south transept is below the level of the nave; here are
two mutilated pieces of sculpture, representing Our Lord with a book
and a seated bishop with his crozier. The font is placed in a recess
which formerly held an altar. The church became the property of the
Knights Templar and a portion of the manor was held by the Abbey of
Fecamp; the adjoining manor-house being still known as Sompting
Abbotts; this house was for a short period the home of Queen Caroline.

[Illustration: SOMPTING.]

Enjoyable rambles may be taken by any of the numerous by-roads which
lead northwards into the heart of the Downs by Roman Ditch, Beggar's
Bush and Cissbury. It is proposed, however, to leave a more particular
description of this country to that portion of our longer route to
Worthing via Washington, for which we must return to Shoreham, and now
to take the road which runs by the Adur to Upper Beeding. On the way
will be noticed the little church at Coombe backed by the Downs; this
has an unmistakable Saxon window in the nave, and a medieval crucifix
discovered in 1877. Higher up the river is the little old church of
Botolph's, which may be Saxon so far as the chancel arch is concerned,
Both these churches are very old and quite untouched by the restorer.
At Upper Beeding the Priory of Sele once stood where is now the
vicarage; the Early English church is of small interest and need not
detain us.

[Illustration: COOMBES.]

Bramber (Brymburgh) Castle holds the same position for the valley of
the Adur that Lewes does for the Ouse and Arundel for the Arun. The
stronghold antedates by many centuries the great Norman with whose name
it is always coupled. Some authorities claim Bramber to have been the
Portus Adurni that we have already connected with Aldrington; however
that may be, Roman remains have been discovered here in the form of
bridge foundations and it is more than possible that a British fort
stood either on or near the hillock where William de Braose improved
and rebuilt the then existing castle; this, with the barony, was
granted to him by the Conqueror, and the family continued for many
years to be the most powerful in Mid-Sussex. After the line failed, the
property went to the Mowbrays and afterwards to the Howards, in whose
hands it still remains. It was through this connexion that the title of
Duke of Norfolk came to the holders of Arundel. Thomas Mowbray was made
first Duke in 1388, and when the line ceased and the property changed
hands the title went with it. It is possible that the army of the
Parliament destroyed the castle in the Civil War, though no actual
records prove this. A skirmish took place here between the Royalists
and their opponents and is described in a letter addressed to a certain
Samuel Jeake of Rye by one of the latter:--

"The enemy attempted Bramber Bridge, but our brave Carleton and
Evernden with his Dragoons and our horse welcomed them with drakes and
muskets, sending some eight or nine men to hell, I feare, and one
trooper to Arundell prisoner, and one of Captain Evernden's Dragoons to
heaven." It was the scene of a narrow escape for Charles II in his
flight to Brighton. The poor remnants of the Castle are now an excuse
for picnickers who are not always reverent, in point of tidiness,
towards what was once a palace of the Saxon Kings.

[Illustration: UPPER BEEDING.]

Bramber village is most picturesque and attractive; its size renders it
difficult to believe that within living memory it returned two members
to Parliament. Some amusing stories are told of the exciting elections
in olden days, when as much as L1,000 were offered and refused for a
single vote. This "borough" once returned Wilberforce the Abolitionist,
of whom it is told that on passing through and being acquainted with
the name of the village exclaimed "Bramber? why that's the place I'm
member for."

[Illustration: BRAMBER.]

The church lies close under the south wall of the castle; only the nave
and tower remain of the original cruciform building. Although the
arches are Norman and show the original frescoes, a claim was made by
Dr. Green, Rector in 1805, that "in rebuilding the church at his own
expense about twenty years before, he had no assistance except that the
Duke of Rutland and Lord Calthorpe, joint proprietors of the borough,
each gave L25, Magdalen College L50 and Mr. Lidbetter, an opulent local
farmer, L20; but the Duke of Norfolk, Lord of the Manor, nothing!" This
"rebuilding" refers to the re-erection of the tower arches, the space
between being converted into a chancel. New windows in Norman style
were inserted in 1871 to bring the east end into harmony with the nave.

[Illustration: ST. MARY'S, BRAMBER.]

St. Mary's is the first house to be seen on approaching the village
from the east. It is a beautiful specimen of a timber-built Sussex
house; notice the open iron-work door with its queer old bell-pull.

Every visitor should inspect the quaint museum of taxidermy in the
village street; here guinea-pigs may be seen playing cricket, rats
playing dominoes and rabbits at school; the lifelike and humorous
attitudes of the little animals reflect much credit on the artist.

Steyning is a short mile farther on our way (both Bramber and Steyning
are stations on the Brighton Railway). This was another borough until
1832 but, unlike its neighbour, it was of considerable importance in
the early middle ages and at the Domesday survey there were two
churches here. The one remaining is of great interest; built by the
Abbey of Fecamp to whom Edward the Confessor gave Steyning, it was
evidently never completed; preparations were made for a central tower
and the nave appears to be unfinished. The styles range from Early
Norman to that of the sixteenth century when the western tower was
built. Particular notice should be taken of the pier-arches which are
very beautifully decorated; also the south door.

The original church was founded by St. Cuthman. Travelling from the
west with his crippled mother, whom he conveyed in a wheelbarrow, he
was forced to mend the broken cords with elder twigs. Some haymakers in
a field jeered at him, and on that field, now called the Penfold, a
shower has always fallen since whenever the hay is drying. The elder
twigs finally gave way where Steyning was one day to be and here
Cuthman decided to halt and build a shelter for his mother and himself.
Afterwards he raised a wooden church and in this the saint was buried.
The father of the great Alfred was interred here for a time, his
remains being afterwards taken to Winchester when his son made that
city the capital of united England, though the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
asserts that the King was buried at Worcester.

[Illustration: STEYNING.]

Steyning was once known as Portus Cuthmanni and to this point the tidal
estuary of the Adur then reached. There are a number of fine old houses
in the little town, some with details which show them to date from the
fifteenth century. The gabled house in Church Street was built by
William Holland of Chichester as a Grammar School in 1614; it is known
as "Brotherhood Hall." The vicarage has many interesting details of the
sixteenth century and in the garden are two crosses of very early date,
probably Saxon.


The bygone days of Steyning seem to have been almost as quiet as its
modern history. A burning of heretics took place here in 1555; and the
troops of the Parliament took quiet possession of the town when
besieging near-by Bramber, but Steyning had not the doubtful privilege
of a castle and so its days were comparatively uneventful.

[Illustration: OLD HOUSES, STEYNING.]

The main road may be left at the north end of Steyning by a turning on
the left which rises in a mile and a half to Wiston ("Wisson") Park and
church; this is the best route for the ascent of Chanctonbury. The park
commands fine views and is in itself very beautiful; the house dates
from 1576, though several alterations have spoilt the purity of its
style. This manor was once in the hands of the de Braose family, from
whom it passed by marriage to the Shirleys, another famous family. Sir
Thomas Shirley built the present house about 1578. It was Sir Hugh
Shirley to whom Shakespeare referred in _King Henry IV_.

"Hold up thy head, vile Scot, or thou art like
Never to hold it up again. The spirits
Of Shirley, Stafford, Blount, are in my arms."

His great-grandsons were the famous Shirley brothers, whose adventures
were so wonderful that their deeds were acted in a contemporary play.
One went to Persia to convert the Shah and bring him in on the side of
the Christian nations against the Ottomans. On the way he discovered
coffee! His younger brother, who accompanied him, remained in Persia
and married a Circassian princess. The elder, after being taken
prisoner by the Turks, was liberated by the efforts of James I and then
imprisoned in the Tower by the same King for his interference in the
Levant trade. Ruined in pocket and with a broken heart he sold Wiston
and retired to the Isle of Wight. The estates soon afterwards passed to
the Gorings, who still own them.

Wiston church, which stands in the park and close to the house,
contains several monuments to the Shirleys and one of a child, possibly
a son of Sir John de Braose; a splendid brass of the latter lies on the
floor of the south chapel; it is covered with the words 'Jesu Mercy.'
There are a number of dilapidated monuments and pieces of sculpture
remaining in the church, which has been spoilt, and some of the details
and monuments actually destroyed, by ignorant and careless

To the north-west of Wiston Park is Buncton Chapel, a little old
building in which services are occasionally held. The walls show
unmistakable Roman tiles.

Chanctonbury (locally "Chinkerbury"), one of the most commanding and
dignified of the Down summits, rises 783 feet on the west of Wiston;
the climb may be made easier by taking the winding road opposite the
church. The "ring" which is such a bold landmark for so many miles
around makes a view from the actual top difficult to obtain. The whole
of the Weald is in sight and also the far-off line of the North Downs
broken by the summits of Holmbury and Leith Hill with Blackdown to the
left. In the middle distance is St. Leonard's Forest, and away to the
right Ashdown Forest with the unmistakable weird clump of firs at Wych
Cross. But it is the immediate foreground of the view which will be
most appreciated. The prehistoric entrenchment is filled with the
beeches planted by Mr. Charles Goring of Wiston when a youth (about
1760). In his old age (1828) Mr. Goring wrote the following:--

"How oft around thy Ring, sweet Hill,
A Boy, I used to play,
And form my plans to plant thy top
On some auspicious day.
How oft among thy broken turf
With what delight I trod,
With what delight I placed those twigs
Beneath thy maiden sod.
And then an almost hopeless wish
Would creep within my breast,
Oh! could I live to see thy top
In all its beauty dress'd.
That time's arrived; I've had my wish,
And lived to eighty-five;
I'll thank my God who gave such grace
As long as e'er I live.
Still when the morning sun in Spring,
Whilst I enjoy my sight,
Shall gild thy new-clothed Beech and sides,
I'll view thee with delight."

Chanctonbury must have had an overpowering effect on our ancestors; the
correspondent quoted below perhaps saw the hill through one of the
mists which come in from the sea and render every object monstrous or

"Chanckbury, the Wrekin or Cenis of the South Downs, is said to be
1,000 _perpendicular yards_ above the level of the sea; on the summum
jugum, or vertex, is a ring of trees planted by Mr. Goring of Whiston,
and if they were arrived at maturity, would form no indifferent
imitation of an ancient Druidical grove." (_Gentleman's Magazine_,

The descent from the ring is made past a pond whose origin is unknown;
judging by its appearance it may well have supplied the men who first
occupied the fortifications on the hill top. The white path below
eventually leads, by a narrow and steep gully, very slippery after
rain, directly to the village of Washington on the Horsham-Worthing
high road. The church stands above the village in a picturesque
situation, but is of little interest. With the exception of the tower,
it was rebuilt in 1866. Here is a sixteenth-century tomb of John Byne
from the old building, and in the churchyard may be seen the grave of
Charles Goring. Hillaire Belloc has immortalized the village inn

"They sell good beer at Haslemere
And under Guildford Hill;
At little Cowfold, as I've been told,
A beggar may drink his fill.
There is good brew at Amberley too.
And by the bridge also;
But the swipes they takes in at the Washington Inn
Is the very best beer I know."

A great find of silver coins of the time of the last Saxon Kings was
made in 1866 on Chancton Farm; a ploughman turning up an urn containing
over three thousand. This was an effective rebuke to those who laugh at
"old wives' tales," for a local tradition of buried treasure must have
been in existence for eight hundred years.

[Illustration: CHANCTONBURY RING.]

A motor-bus runs here from Worthing and then westwards as far as
Storrington on the branch road to Pulborough. Storrington has almost
the status of a small town and lays claim to fame as the birthplace of
Tom Sayers, the prize-fighter, and of an equally famous prince of
commerce in whose honour a metropolitan street has recently been
renamed "Maple" (late "_London_") Street. The church has been almost
spoilt by "restorers," but there are fine tombs by Westmacott and a
brass of the sixteenth century. Near the church is a modern Roman
Catholic Priory; the beautiful chapel is always open and should be
seen. It is, however, for its fine situation opposite Kithurst Hill
and its convenience as a centre from which to explore this beautiful
section of the Down country that Storrington is important to the
explorer of Downland. Within easy reach are the quiet stretches of the
Arun at Pulborough and Amberley, and Parham (p. 191) is within three
miles. The line of lofty hills on the south are seldom visited, most
tourists being content with Chanctonbury. Near the Downs, about a mile
south-east, lies the little church of Sullington under its two great
yews, very primitive and at present unrestored; most of the work seems
to be Early English. Here is an effigy of an unknown knight, also an
old stone coffin. A footpath leads direct to Washington where we turn
towards the sea, climbing by the Worthing road the narrow pass which
cuts between the Downs and drops to Findon. This is another beautifully
placed village with a Transitional and Early English church in an
adjacent wood and, for strangers, rather difficult to find. In the
chancel is a doorway in a curious position between two seats. A Norman
arch, probably the relic of an older building, fills the opening of a
transept on the south side. A former rector in 1276 must have broken
all records in the matter of pluralities; besides Findon he held
livings in Salisbury, Hereford, Rochester, Coventry, two in
Lincolnshire, and seven in Norfolk, also holding a canonry of St.
Paul's and being Master of St. Leonard's Hospital in York.

[Illustration: FINDON.]

Findon is noted for its racing stables; the hills and combes on the
east forming an ideal galloping ground. The walks over Black Patch and
Harrow Hill are among the best in the central Downs. East of the
village a path leads to Cissbury Ring (603 feet). "Cissa's Burgh" was
the Saxon name for this prehistoric fortress which was adapted and used
by the Romans, as certain discoveries have proved. Cissa was a son of
Ella and has given his name to Chichester also. The foundations of a
building may be seen in dry summers within the rampart; this is
probably Roman. On the western slopes are some pits which may be the
remains of a British village. But stone weapons, some of rude form and
others highly finished, prove the greater antiquity of the camp. About
sixty acres are enclosed within the trench, and approaches to it were
made on the north, east and south. Cissbury is thus the largest
entrenchment on the Downs and must have been one of the most important
in the south. The views seawards are very fine and the stretch of coast
is one of the longest visible from any part of the range Below the
southern side of the fosse, on the slope that brings us down to
Broadwater, is the reputed site of a Roman vineyard; the locality still
goes by this name and certainly the situation, a slope facing south and
protected from cold winds, is an ideal one for the culture of the

Broadwater is now a suburb of Worthing. Here is a very interesting
Transitional-Norman cruciform church, at one time magnificent in its
appurtenances, no fewer than six chantry chapels being attached; the
remains of these were done away with in the early nineteenth century.
Note the old altar stone in the floor of the chancel, also on the
exterior north wall a dedication cross in flints. In the chancel is a
brass to John Mapleton, 1432, chancellor of Joan of Navarre, and there
are two fine tombs, one of Thomas Lord de la Warre (1526) and the other
of the ninth of that line (1554). John Bunnett, interred in 1734, aged
109, had six wives, three of whom he married and buried after he was
100! The church has a modern association which will be of interest to
all lovers of wild nature; here in 1887 Richard Jeffries was buried.
One cannot but think that the great naturalist would have been more
fittingly laid to rest in one of the lonely little God's-acres which
nestle in the Downs he loved so well.

[Illustration: BROADWATER.]

Worthing until the end of the eighteenth century was a mere suburb of
Broadwater; its actual beginnings as a watering place were nearly
contemporary with those of Brighton. When the Princess Amelia came here
in 1799 the fortunes of the town were made, and ever since it has
steadily, though perhaps slowly, increased in popular favour. The three
miles of "front," which is all that fifty per cent, of its visitors
know of Worthing, are unimposing and in places mean and rather
depressing in architecture, but this is atoned for by the stretch of
hard clean sands laid bare at half tide, a pleasant change after the
discomfort of Brighton shingle. As a residential town, pure and simple,
Worthing is rapidly overtaking its great rival, and successful business
men make their money in the one and live in the other, as though the
Queen of Watering-places were an industrial centre. Worthing has a
great advantage in its fine old trees; as a matter of fact the place
would be unbearably arid and glaring without them in the summer months,
for it has undoubtedly proved its claim to be the sunniest south coast
resort; a claim at one time or other put forth by all. The most
convincing proof to the sceptical stranger will be the miles of glass
houses for the culture of the tomato with which the town is surrounded.
Its chief attraction lies in the number of interesting places which can
easily be reached in a short time and with little trouble. The Downs
here are farther off than those at Brighton, but are of much greater
interest, and public motors take one easily and cheaply into their
heart as we have already shown. The South Coast Railway runs east and
west to Shoreham and Arundel, reaching those super-excellent towns in
less than half an hour; and of the walks in the immediate
neighbourhood, all have goals which well repay the effort expended in
reaching them.

Sompting, which can be combined with Broadwater as an excursion, has
already been described; we therefore turn westward again and passing
the suburb of Heene, now called West Worthing, arrive, in two and a
half miles from the Town Hall, at the village of Goring. Its rebuilt
church is of no interest. Here Richard Jeffries died in the August of
1887. A mile farther is West Ferring with a plain Early English church;
notice the later Perpendicular stoup at the north door and the piscina,
which has a marble shelf. The Manor House is on the site of an ancient
building in which St. Richard of Chichester lived after his banishment
by Henry III, and here the saint is said to have miraculously fed
three-thousand poor folk with bread only sufficient for a thirtieth of
that number.

[Illustration: SALVINGTON MILL.]

A pleasant ramble through the lanes north of the village leads to
Highdown Hill, perhaps the most popular excursion from Worthing; the
top has an earthwork probably dating from the stone age. Human remains
of a later date were found here in 1892, also coins, weapons and
personal ornaments belonging to the time of the Roman occupation. The
"Miller's Tomb" is on the side nearest Worthing; it has representations
of Time and Death with some verses composed by the miller, John
Olliver. A cottage on the other side of the hill stands on the site of
the mill. The view is particularly fine both Downwards and seawards,
though the hill is not half the altitude of Cissbury. Northwards are
the beautiful woods of Castle Goring, once the residence of the
Shelleys, through which we may walk to Clapham and Patching, villages
on southern spurs of the Downs; the latter has a restored Early English
church with a very beautiful modern reredos. Clapham has a Transitional
church containing memorials of the Shelley family. Notice the
blocked-up Norman arch which proves the existence of an earlier
building. On the south is a venerable farmhouse, ancient and

[Illustration: OLD HOUSES AT LARRING.]

The return journey to Worthing may be taken through Salvington, passing
the ruins of Durrington chapel; at the south end of the village at the
cottage named "Lacies" John Selden was born in 1584. On the door post
is a Latin inscription said to have been composed by him when ten years
old; it runs thus:--

Gratus, honeste, mihi, non claudar, initio sedebis,
Fur abeas non sum facta soluta tibi.

Translated by Johnson:--

Walk in and welcome; honest friends, repose;
Thief, get thee hence, to thee I'll not unclose.

Selden's father was a wandering minstrel and the birthplace of the
great jurist was humble even for those days.


A short walk southwards brings us to West Tarring, which is practically
a suburb of Worthing. Here is a very fine Early English and
Perpendicular church with a lofty spire. Notice the beautiful modern
mosaics depicting the Prophets and Apostles. Also the old miserere
seats and an ancient muniment chest. The window under the tower is in
memory of Robert Southey whose daughter married a onetime vicar of
Tarring. Another incumbent here was Stripe the historian.

A peculiarity noticeable in many country churchyards may be remarked
here--the reluctance to bury on the north side of the church (though
strangely enough this has been reversed at near-by Ferring). In many
churchyards, where the ground is as extensive on the north side as on
the others, the grave digger's spade has left it either quite untouched
or the graves are few in number and mostly of recent date.

West Tarring was once a market town and several good specimens of
medieval and Tudor domestic architecture still exist. It was once a
"peculiar" of the Archbishops of Canterbury, and the remains of the
archiepiscopal palace may be seen in the school house on the east of
the church. In the rectory orchard close by is the "columbarium," or
all that is left of it. Becket is said to have occupied the palace. The
celebrated fig orchard is supposed to have been raised from slips
planted by him, though another story has it that the original planter
was St. Richard. The present orchard is of much interest and dates from
the year of the "forty-five," though it can well be believed that some
of the trees are older; the venerable patriarch in the centre is known
as "St. Thomas," but this is of course impossible. A most remarkable
occurrence takes place annually at the ripening of the fruit; a small
bird similar to, if not identical with the _Beccafico_ ("Figeater") of
Italy visits the orchards here and at Sompting, stays a few weeks and
then departs until the next season; it is seen in no other part of



There is a choice of roads between Worthing and Arundel: that which
keeps to the low lands has been partly traversed in the journey to West

About two miles east of this village, and close to Angmering station,
are the twin villages of East and West Preston; the former has a Norman
and Transitional church with one of the four stone spires in Sussex. At
Rustington, a mile farther, is a more interesting Early English church
with a Transitional tower. Note the ancient sculpture in the north
transept, also the squint and rood-loft steps. This village is but a
short distance from Littlehampton, which may be approached by the shore

The country about here seen from the flats appears to be thickly
wooded, an effect that is produced by the screen of tall trees in every
hedgerow, untouched until time levels them, in return for their
protection of the growing crops from the searching sea winds which
sweep across the level fields to the Downs. Vegetation here has a
different aspect from that on the other side of the wall of hills. In
May and early June one may come from the tender green of the Washington
lanes over the pass through Findon and find the spring livery of the
lowland hedgerows temporarily blackened and withered.

[Illustration: THE VALLEY OF THE ARUN.]

The direct way to Arundel, and also the most interesting and beautiful,
is by Castle Goring, reached by the Broadwater road. A short distance
past the Goring woods a side road on the left leads to Angmering. Here
the rebuilt church retains its old chancel and tower with an inscribed
stone over the doorway. Returning by a shorter lane northwards to the
main road we pass New Place, once a mansion but now converted into a
group of cottages; it is famous as the birthplace of the three sons of
Sir Edward Palmer, who were born on three consecutive Sundays, a
circumstance probably unique in natal annals. All three were afterwards
knighted by Henry VIII.

The foothills of the Downs to the right are hereabouts very beautiful;
one of the spurs is occupied by Angmering Park belonging to the Duke of
Norfolk. At Poling, on a tributary of the Arun southwards, is a decoy
for wild fowl. Here is a Perpendicular church containing a
fourteenth-century brass to a former priest, one Walter Davey. A chapel
belonging to a commandery of the Knights of St. John still stands near
the church; it has been converted into a modern dwelling house.


The first view of Arundel as it is approached from the Worthing road or
from the railway station is almost unique in England. Bridgnorth, the
northern Richmond, Rye, all cities set on a hill, come to the mind for
comparison, but none have the "foreign" look of Arundel; this is to a
large extent helped by the towering church of St. Philip Neri; the
apsidal end and the great height of the building in proportion to its
length, appear more in keeping with northern France than southern
England. The town, when one comes to close quarters with it, has a
feudal air, and indeed this is as much a matter of fact as of fancy.
Arundel is a survival, and depends for its existence on the magnificent
home of the Howards which dominates domestically and ecclesiastically
the town at its feet. The castle has the same relation to the pass of
the Arun that Bramber and Lewes have to the Adur and Ouse, but the fact
that it is still the ancestral home of an ancient and historic family
gives it a far greater interest than either of the others possesses.
The castle is mentioned in Domesday Book, and prior to this in the will
of Alfred the Great. The earldom was given by the Conqueror to Roger of
Montgomery; in addition to the castle and its immediate neighbourhood
it comprised wide and rich possessions in the surrounding country. By
their treason to the Crown the Montgomerys soon forfeited the estates
and the Earldom passed through the hands of Queen Adeliza, and her son
de Albrin, and then to the Fitz-Alans, who held it for over three
hundred years. The daughter of the last Earl married the fourth Duke of
Norfolk and this family have held it ever since. They have made it
their principal home and have built in recent years the magnificent
temple of the older faith which dwarfs and overshadows the parish
church. This itself has felt the might of the great family who, as we
shall presently see, imposed their will on the representatives of the

[Illustration: ARUNDEL CASTLE.]

"What house has been so connected with our political and religious
annals as that of Howard? The premiers in the roll-call of our nobility
have been also among the most persecuted and ill-fated. Not to dwell on
the high-spirited Isabelle, Countess Dowager of Arundel, and widow of
Hugh, last earl of the Albini family, who upbraided Henry III to his
face with 'vexing the church, oppressing the barons, and denying all
his true born subjects their right'; or Richard, Earl of Arundel, who
was executed for conspiring to seize Richard II--we must think with
indignation of the sufferings inflicted by Elizabeth on Philip, Earl of
Arundel, son of the 'great' Duke of Norfolk, beheaded by Elizabeth in
1572 for his dealings with Mary Queen of Scots. In the biography of
Earl Philip, which, with that of Ann Dacres his wife, has been well
edited by the fourteenth Duke, we find that he was caressed by
Elizabeth in early life, and steeped in the pleasures and vices of her
court by her encouragement, to the neglect of his constant young wife,
whose virtues, as soon as they reclaimed him to his duty to her,
rendered him hated and suspected by the Queen, so that she made him the
subject of vindictive and incessant persecution, till death released
him at the age of thirty-eight. To another Howard, Thomas, son of Earl
Philip, the country is indebted for those treasures of the East, the
Arundel marbles."

(_Quarterly Review_: Hare.)

[Illustration: THE KEEP, ARUNDEL.]

The castle, though not that portion at which we have been looking, has
been besieged on three important occasions; in 1102 by Henry I, to whom
it surrendered. By Stephen, on its giving hospitality to the Empress
Maud; and by Waller, who captured it after seventeen days' siege with a
thousand prisoners. Artillery mounted on the tower of the church played
great havoc with the building and it remained in a ruinous condition
until practically rebuilt by the tenth Duke in the latter part of the
eighteenth century.

We commence the ascent of the keep, which is the only part shown to the
public (usually on Mondays only) by way of the clock tower which once
formed the entrance to the inner courts. We can now see the remnants of
Richard Fitz-Alan's buildings (1290). A flight of steps leads to the
Keep, the older portion of which was built by the same Earl; the walls
are in places ten feet thick. In the centre a well descends to the
storeroom of the garrison, which is cut out of the solid chalk. Over
the entrance note the remains of St. Martin's chapel; from the window
is a magnificent view towards Littlehampton. The openings in the floor
suggest the use of boiling liquid for the heads of besiegers.

The Keep was once famous for its owls, the older members of the colony
being known by appropriate names, such as that recorded in the story of
the Ducal butler who convulsed the guests one evening by announcing,
"Please, your Grace, Lord Thurlow has laid an egg."

[Illustration: ARUNDEL GATEWAY.]

The views in every direction are very fine and the nearer prospect
proves to the observer the unrivalled position which the fortress held
as guardian of one of the most important of the routes between London
and the Continent by way of the Port of Littlehampton. In the distant
view "The Island" is conspicuous on clear days with Chichester
Cathedral spire in the middle distance. Eastwards is Highdown Hill and
the country round Worthing, North the beautiful valley of the Arun and
the lovely tree-clad slopes of the Downs of which the nearer spurs form
Arundel Park.

The "state" and residential portions of the castle are never shown to
the general public. In the fine collection of pictures are a number of
Van Dycks and Holbeins, mostly portraits of the Fitz-Alans and Howards.

The entrance to the chancel of Arundel Church, now the Fitz-Alan
Chapel, is from the castle grounds. Permission to inspect the famous
tombs is rarely given. A lawsuit in the last century attempted the
recovery of the chancel for the parishioners of Arundel, but was
ineffectual owing to the fact that the chapel was originally that of
the college of Holy Trinity, founded in 1380 by Richard Fitz-Alan; this
passed to its present possessors at the Dissolution. The Lady Chapel
retains its old altar stone with consecration crosses, and above is a
window with some fragments of stained glass. In the centre is the tomb
of the sixteenth Earl (1421) and a modern tomb of Lord Henry Howard. A
number of interesting brasses may also be seen. The main portion of the
chapel contains the more famous tombs, the effigies being highly
interesting studies of the state dress of various periods. Earl Thomas
and his Countess, daughter of King John of Portugal, (1415) occupy the
centre; the others are Earl John (1435) under the east arch. William,
nineteenth Earl (1488), in a chantry on the south side. On the north
are Thomas (1524) and William (1544). A tablet over Earl William's
chantry is in memory of the last Fitz-Alan, Earl Henry (1580).

[Illustration: ARUNDEL CHURCH.]

The fine parish church is separated from the chancel by a screen wall.
It dates from 1380 and now consists of nave and transepts, the space
under the tower being used as the choir. An ancient canopied pulpit is
placed against the south-west pier. On the north side are frescoes of
the Seven Deadly Sins and the Seven Works of Mercy. The modern ornate
reredos shows with great effect against the curious arrangement of iron
grill and bare brick which forms the screen wall. The church was once
attached to the Monastery of Seez in Normandy.

The magnificent modern Roman Catholic church of St. Philip Neri is open
to visitors between the services. It is built in the purest style of
Decorated Gothic and has already cost over one hundred thousand pounds.
Notice, before entering, the statues of the Twelve Apostles at the west
end beneath the fine "rose" window. On entering, the imposing effect of
the clustered columns and beautiful apse will be admired. Unlike most
Roman churches there is but little colour displayed, the "Stations of
the Cross" being bas-reliefs in the aisle walls. The subdued yet
glowing tints in the stained glass help the general effect of
restrained dignity.


In the lower portion of the town, the scanty remains of Maison Dieu
show the position of that retreat, founded by Earl Richard, who built
the church; the house provided for twenty inmates. The piers of Arun
bridge were built out of the ruins in 1742.

The park will probably prove the most satisfactory of the sights of
Arundel to the ordinary visitor, who is here allowed to wander where he
will. The road passing under the castle to the right should be taken as
far as a small gate on the left, by the mill, entering which we
immediately see the Swanbourne Lake in all its beauty.

"The mill is situated beneath the castle, on the east side, at the head
of the stream by which the ancient Swanbourne Lake discharges itself
into the river, and most probably occupies the site of the original
building mentioned in _Domesday_. Perhaps, of all the beautiful spots
in the neighbourhood of Arundel, none comprises more real beauty than
this. The valley in front, shaded by the willows and the ash which
adorn the little islands of the lake, and winding its way in the
distance among the hills; the castle projecting boldly from the
eminence on the left; the steep acclivities on each hand, clothed to
their summit with luxuriant forest trees ... present a scene in whose
presence the lapse of centuries will be easily forgotten." (Tierney.)

The charm of the spot is not in any way spoilt, obvious care being
taken to keep the surroundings spotless; although picnickers are
allowed where they will, here are no scraps of paper or broken bottles,
the efficient service of "clearing up" is at work in the early hours of
the morning, which is the right time to see the park. The visitor
should continue round the left bank and up the hill to Hiorne's Tower,
from which a magnificent view of the Arun valley and the surrounding
Downs is to be had. Equally beautiful is that from the brow of the hill
overlooking the Arun, from which point the castle makes an effective
picture with the broad sweep of the sea and lowlands behind. The Downs
are here at their best and the glorious woods of beech and oak are
superb in October, and that month, with late May as an alternative, is
the best time to see the western Downs. The Castle Dairy is open to the
public, usually on the same days that the Keep may be seen. The Dairy
dates from 1847 and has the appearance more of a monastic establishment
than of farm buildings.

[Illustration: LYMINSTER.]

The exploration of the valley of the Arun must be commenced by turning
down the stream to see that least interesting section which lies
between Arundel and the sea. At the mouth of the river stands the old
port of Littlehampton, the direct road to which leaves the Arun to the
right and passing Lyminster (Lemster), sometimes spelt Leominster,
which has a restored Transitional church, enters Littlehampton near the
Railway station. The river road goes by way of Ford, where there is a
little church interesting by reason of its many styles. According to
Mr. P.M. Johnson they range from Norman (and perhaps Saxon) right
through to Caroline. Nearly two miles west is another interesting
church at Yapton, which has a black granite font, ornamented with
crosses and probably pre-Norman. The interior of the church shows work
of an archaic character usually described as early Norman. The inn here
has a sign--"The Shoulder of Mutton and Cucumbers"--which must be as
unique as it is mysterious.

[Illustration: CLYMPING.]

Continuing south we reach in another mile the very fine Early English
church at Clymping. The tower is Transitional. The artist has sketched
the beautiful doorway, one of the finest in Sussex. Notice also the old
stone pulpit and ancient chest. The road running directly south leads
to the coast at Atherington, where are the remains of a chapel attached
to the "Bailiff's Court House," a moated mediaeval building with
portions of a cloister. The Bailiff was the local representative of the
Abbey of Seez already referred to. The Littlehampton road turns east
half a mile beyond Clymping and after a dull stretch of over a mile
crosses the Arun by Littlehampton (swing) Bridge.

The ancient seaport, never of more than local importance, has given way
to a watering place almost entirely devoted to children. From the
number of nursemaids seen on the beach on an average summer day and the
scarcity of other adults one is forced to the conclusion that patrons
of this resort use it as a dumping ground for their offspring while
they enjoy themselves elsewhere. The firm clean sands are ideal for
paddling and castle building, and many ephemeral Arundels arise between
tides. The ebb and flow in the Arun interfere with what would otherwise
be an enjoyable trip up stream, but with skill and care there is little
danger. Littlehampton shows few traces of its antiquity, the church was
rebuilt in the last century and is of no interest, but there are many
good walks in the neighbourhood and the immediate country is
beautifully wooded, with the distant Downs as an occasional background.


To explore the valley of the Arun to the north a return must be made to
Arundel, and either the path through the park or the road to South
Stoke may be taken. The latter runs between park and river and soon
reaches the two villages of North and South Stoke, both charming little
hamlets without any communication by road, though a footpath unites the
two. The first village, South Stoke, has an Early English church with
sedilia and other details. North Stoke has a fine Norman door worthy of
inspection. Here a British canoe was discovered in the last century; it
may be seen in the Lewes Museum. Across the river, and only to be
approached by a detour past Amberley Station, is Houghton. From the
bridge over the Arun is a very beautiful retrospect of the valley
towards Arundel with the hills falling in graceful curves to the river.
The church is Early English of a severe type; here is a fifteenth
century brass but nothing more of much interest.

A mile from Houghton Bridge will bring us to Amberley. The village is
built on a low hill or cliff immediately above the "wild brooks" or
water meadows of the Arun, and is famous for the picturesque remains of
the palace of the Bishops of Chichester, which still edge the sandy
hill in front of the village. Amberley Castle, as the residence has
always been called, was built in the reign of Richard II, about 1379,
and then consisted of a crenellated building with square corner towers
and two round gate towers; the present house, which stands within the
walls, was erected in the early sixteenth century by Bishop Sherbourne.
This has probably been the site of an episcopal residence since before
the Conquest and is in as beautiful a situation as is to be found in
Sussex, though judging by a local saying quoted by Lower, it would not
appear to be as perfect in the winter. An Amberley man when asked from
where he comes then answers "Amberley, God help us," but in the
summer--"Amberley, where _would_ you live?" "Amerley" is immortalized by
Izaac Walton for its trout, and by Fuller, who speaks of them as "one
of the four good things of Sussex."


Amberley Church is a small Norman building with Early English
additions; note the brass to John Wantle (1424) and the beautifully
ornamented door in the south aisle. There is an hour-glass stand in the
pulpit. Notice also the ancient font and the remains of frescoes at the
east end of the nave.

The road now runs eastwards with the fine escarpment of Rackham Hill to
the right and in about two miles reaches Parham Park, the seat of Lord
Zouche. A short distance further east is Storrington, which we have
seen on our way to Worthing. Delightful walks may be taken across the
park, which is freely open to the pedestrian. This stretch of sandy and
picturesque wild land is undoubtedly one of the most beautiful domains
in the south. Its fir-trees are characteristic of the sandstone
formation which here succeeds the chalk. Visitors should make their way
to the lake where the scene, with the Downs as a background, is one of
extreme beauty. The Heronry here is famous; the birds were originally
brought from Wales to Penshurst, from which locality they migrated to
Angmering and then to Parham.

Lady Dorothy Nevill, in her interesting "Leaves," refers to Parham as a
favourite resort of smugglers. A former Lady de la Zouche, while a
little girl, was made to open a gate for the passage of a long
procession of pack-horses laden with kegs.

Parham House is a fine Elizabethan manor, although partly spoilt by
some modern additions; built by Sir Thomas Palmer about 1520 it passed
to the present family in 1597. The house is famous for the magnificent
collection of works of art, early printed books and ancient illuminated
MS.; permission to inspect these may be obtained by written application
when the family are not in residence and for purposes of research this
important collection is always available. Some time since the most
valuable items were removed to the British Museum for safety. The house
contains a priest's hole, the entrance to which is from a window seat
in the long gallery; one of the Babington conspirators--Charles
Paget--was hidden here. South of the house is Parham Church, possessing
one of the three leaden fonts of Sussex.

[Illustration: AMBERLEY CASTLE.]

It is now proposed to visit Pulborough and the valley of the Rother.
Though rather far afield from Seaward Sussex and the chalk lands, this
district comes naturally within the Down country, but must have a
chapter to itself. From Parham we may either go direct to Pulborough by
the highroad or, more profitably, by Greatham to Coldwaltham on the
Roman Stane Street, the great highway from Chichester to London; here
we turn north east and in a mile (just past the railway) note the
scanty ruins of Hardham Priory on the right; another mile and, crossing
the old Arun bridge, we are in Pulborough.

[Illustration: STOPHAM BRIDGE.]



Pulborough on Stane Street was once a Roman station. Relics of the
occupation are constantly turning up in the neighbourhood. Near the
church is a mound, on which stood the "castellum." A glance at the map
will show the commanding position the station held over the meeting of
the Arun and Rother. There are traces of a Roman villa at Borough Hill
north-east of the village.

The fine church is mostly Perpendicular, though there are Early English
portions. Note the archaic Norman font and several interesting brasses,
especially that of Thomas Harlyng, Canon of Chichester and rector here
in 1420; also the restored sedilia and beautiful modern reredos.

Not far from the church are the remains of the ancient "Old Place" once
belonging to the Apsleys; the neighbouring barn is even older than the
house; "New Place," a little farther north, is another picturesque
house with a fine hall.

Pulborough is, with Amberley, a Mecca for weekend anglers; it has a
famous inn, the "Swan," and is a good halting place before proceeding
westwards, in which direction our road now runs. A mile out of the town
we take final leave of the Arun at Stopham Bridge, a fine medieval
structure of many arches. The Rother joins the larger river just below
the bridge and between the two streams may be seen Stopham House, the
home of the Bartelotts, seneschals of the Earls of Arundel; their
monuments and brasses for several centuries are in the church, an
ancient building among trees some distance from the bridge.

We now approach Fittleworth, another favourite place for anglers, whose
rendezvous must be looked for nearly a mile away near the bridge and
station. The Early English church, unrestored and interesting, has in
the vestry a curious stone coffin lid with a Greek cross upon it. The
famous "Swan" Inn is a well-known feature of the little town and a
great resort for artists, who find endless subjects in the beautiful
district we are now traversing.

Egdean has a church dating from the early seventeenth century. About
fifty or more years ago it was "restored" in a way which even among
restorers must be unique, "Early English" details being imposed upon
the original work. Byworth is picturesque, as Miss Vigers sketch will
show; but, apart from its situation, it calls for no other comment.

The scenery around Petworth is characteristic of the Lower Greensand
country and the picturesque wooded outcrop north-east of Byworth is
perhaps as beautiful as any other part of this distinctive belt. In no
part of this miniature range, about three miles long, is the altitude
over 450 feet, but the charm of the woodland dells and meandering
tracks which cross and traverse the heights between the "Fox" on the
north-west and the Arun at Hardswood Green, is quite as great as in
localities of more strongly marked features and greater renown.

[Illustration: BYWORTH.]

The road trends north-west by Egdean and Byworth to Petworth. Petworth
town consists of a number of old-world streets extremely crooked,
narrow, and picturesque. Seen from any near point the grouping of roofs
is as artistically good as any in Sussex. Petworth Church has been
practically rebuilt. The north chantry contains the tombs of some of
the Percy family, including that of the ninth Earl, who was imprisoned
in the Tower on suspicion of being concerned in the Gunpowder Plot.
Here is also the monument to Lord Egremont (1840), a fine seated
figure. Notice several interesting brasses and a sixteenth century tomb
of the Dawtreys. Near the church is an old house belonging to this
family. One of the rectors of Petworth was Francis Cheynell, the
antagonist of Chillingworth. Just below the church is the Somerset
Hospital, eighteenth century almshouses founded by a Duke of Somerset.
In North Street is Thompson's Hospital, another picturesque group. In
the centre of the town stands the Market House built by the Earl of
Egremont. In its front is a bust of "William the Deliverer."

[Illustration: PETWORTH CHURCH.]

Petworth is another instance of feudal foundation. The manor, at
present owned by Lord Leconfield, was for centuries in the possession
of the Percy family. The house is said to have the finest private
collection of pictures in the kingdom, most of which are due to the
collecting zeal of the third Earl of Egremont; they are usually shown
on Tuesdays and Thursdays, and visitors are handed a list of the
paintings by the guides. The hurried round of the pictures takes about
an hour. A wide range of schools are represented, but the most
interesting is perhaps the splendid show of Turners.

[Illustration: PETWORTH HOUSE.]

The present mansion is one of the ugliest in the county and replaced in
1730 a beautiful medieval pile; the latter had been the scene of some
historic visits, notably that of Edward VI, and in 1703 Charles III of
Spain, who was met by Prince Consort George of Denmark. The Prince
Regent with the Allied Rulers visited the Earl of Egremont in 1814.
Three interesting relics shown are a piece of needlework made by Lady
Jane Grey, the sword of Hotspur used at the battle of Shrewsbury, and
an illuminated Chaucer MS. The chapel is the only portion of the old
building remaining.

Petworth Park is quite free and open to the pedestrian. The entrance is
in the Tillington road. Although of an entirely different character
from the scenery we have already passed through, partaking more of the
nature of an East Midland demesne, especially in the lower, or south
end, the magnificent stretches of sward interspersed with noble groups
of native trees will amply repay the visit. For those who have time to
extend the ramble to the Prospect Tower in the northern portion of the
park there is a magnificent view in store, especially south and west.
Herds of deer roam the glades and there are two fine sheets of water.

[Illustration: SADDLER'S ROW, PETWORTH.]

The author of _Rural Rides_ thus describes Petworth: "The park is very
fine and consists of a parcel of those hills and dells which nature
formed here when she was in one of her most sportive moods. I have
never seen the earth flung about in such a wild way as round about
Hindhead and Blackdown, and this park forms a part of this ground. From
an elevated part of it, and, indeed, from each of many parts of it, you
see all around the country to the distance of many miles. From the
south-east to the north-west the hills are so lofty and so near that
they cut the view rather short; but for the rest of the circle you can
see to a very great distance. It is, upon the whole, a most magnificent
seat, and the Jews will not be able to get it from the _present_ owner,
though if he live many years they will give even him a _twist_."

The road now goes directly west and in a mile reaches Tillington, which
has a Transitional church modernized and practically rebuilt by the
Earl of Egremont; here are several interesting tombs and brasses. A
divergence two miles further will take us downhill across the Rother to
Selham (with a station close to the village). The Norman and Early
English church has a chancel arch with finely carved and ornamented
capitals. Proceeding westwards between high banks of red sandstone our
road soon approaches Cowdray Park, across which it runs without hedge
or fence.

[Illustration: COWDRAY.]

The park is a beautiful pleasaunce for the inhabitants of Midhurst;
thickly carpeted with bracken and heather and broken by many
picturesque knolls and hollows. The famous burned and ruined mansion
lies on the west, close to the town and river. This beautiful old house
was destroyed in 1793 through the carelessness of some workmen employed
in repairing the woodwork of some of the upper rooms. Within a month of
the calamity the last of the Montagues, a young man of 22, was drowned
while shooting the falls of the Rhine at Schaffhausen. These tragic
happenings were supposed to fulfil a curse of the last monk of Battle
pronounced against Sir Anthony Browne when he took possession of the
Abbey. "Thy line shall end by fire and water and utterly perish."

The following is a contemporary account of the tragedy: "Lord Montague
was engaged to the eldest daughter of Mr. Coutts (the present Countess
of Guildford) and, with a view to his marriage on his return to
England, the mansion house had been for several months undergoing a
complete repair and fitting up. The whole was completed on the day
preceding the night on which it was consumed, and the steward had been
employed during the afternoon in writing the noble owner an account of
its completion. This letter reached his hands. On the following day the
steward wrote another letter announcing its destruction: but in his
hurry of spirits, he directed it to Lausanne instead of Lucerne, by
which accident it was two days longer in its passage to his lordship's
place of abode than it otherwise would have been. Had it not been for
that fatal delay, in all human probability this noble family would not
have had to deplore the double misfortune by which its name and honours
have become extinguished; for the letter arrived at his lordship's
lodging on the morning of his death, about an hour after he had left
them, and, as nearly as can be computed at the very moment in which he
was overwhelmed by the torrent of the Rhine."

[Illustration: THE GRANARY, COWDRAY.]

The turreted entrance gateway is less ruinous than the remainder of the
buildings and, with the banqueting hall, is as fine a specimen of early
sixteenth-century architecture as will be found in England. Notice the
vaulted entrance to the Hall. On the north side, looking towards the
Guard House is the State Bedchamber, wherein Queen Elizabeth slept in
1591. There are several contemporary accounts of the stately
merrymakings which took place during the visit, including the "hunting"
scene in which buck deer were guided past Gloriana's bower, from which
she made dead shots at them, reminding one of the "bulls-eyes" with
which a later Queen opened the national shooting competition for her
worshipping subjects.

On St. Ann's Hill near the town may be traced the outlines of the
stronghold erected by the de Bohuns; the town and surrounding country
remained in their hands until Sir David Owen, uncle of Henry VII,
married the last of the line. Sir David sold the estate to the Earl of
Southampton, whose son left it to his half brother Sir Anthony Browne,
Standard Bearer of England; his son became the first Viscount Montague.

The estate is now held by Lord Cowdray, who has a modern mansion, built
in a flamboyant Elizabethan style, near-by.

Midhurst is a pleasant old place with some good ancient houses here and
there. Those in the centre which form the subject of Miss Vigers'
sketch, are being demolished as this is written; their disappearance
will be appreciated by motorists in a hurry but by no one else. The
Perpendicular church has been largely rebuilt during the last century
and the Montague Chantry lacks its tomb, which has been removed to
Easebourne. Richard Cobden was educated in the Grammar School (founded
in 1572). During the last few years Midhurst has become to some extent
a resort for Londoners who appreciate a quiet country town amid
beautiful surroundings which may be explored easily. The walks, not
only to the Downs on the south but northwards to the lovely and remote
hills which culminate in Blackdown, are among the best in West Sussex.
South, west, and east the town is well served by the Brighton and
South-Western Railways, a single line in each direction.


The road to Henley is one of the loneliest as it is one of the
loveliest in south-west Sussex. The writer has tramped the long miles
to Henley (uphill all the way) without meeting a single pedestrian.
Even the advent of the great Sanatorium on the southern slopes of
Bexley Hill does not seem to have made any difference. Possibly
visitors use the public motor which runs between Midhurst and
Haslemere. By so doing they miss one of the finest woodland walks in
the south, indescribably beautiful in the scarlet and gold of late

The traveller in Downland is advised for once to turn his back on the
hills and walk as far as the summit of the Haslemere road where the new
route turns sharp round to the left and hugs the escarpment of Bexley
Hill. In front will be seen an overgrown track, the old highway,
plunging down the face of the hill. A few feet down this causeway,
paved with large slabs of stone, brings us to a surprising hamlet
clinging to the hillside and, with its "Duke of Cumberland" Inn,
looking across the wide Fernhurst vale to where Blackdown lords it on
the other side.

[Illustration: MIDHURST CHURCH.]

At Easebourne, about a mile north-east of Midhurst, is a Benedictine
Priory used, until quite lately, as a farmhouse. It is close to the
church, which, with the buildings of the nunnery, form three sides of a
hollow square. The restoration has been carried out with taste and care
and the whole is worth seeing. The nuns of Easebourne would seem to
have been "difficult females," for a Bishop of Chichester in 1441 was
obliged to call the Prioress to order for wearing sumptuous clothes
with fur trimmings and for using too many horses when travelling, the
penance being a restriction to four. The nuns were spoken of by a
contemporary writer as "wild females of high family put at Easebourne
to keep them quiet."

The church, besides the tomb of the first Viscount Montague, removed
from Midhurst, contains a figure of Sir David Owen (1540); also a
Transitional font.



We now leave the Rother, turn south by the Chichester road and passing
over Cocking causeway reach, in three miles, that little village at the
foot of the pass through the Downs to Singleton, or better still, by
taking a rather longer route through West Lavington we may see the
church in which Manning preached his last sermon as a member of the
Anglican communion. The church and accompanying buildings date from
1850 and were designed by Butterfield; they are a good example of
nineteenth-century Gothic and are placed in a fine situation. In the
churchyard, which is particularly well arranged, lies Richard Cobden
not far from the farmhouse in which he was born. Dunford House is not
far away; this was presented to Cobden by the Anti-Corn-Law League, and
here the last years of his life were spent.

Cocking once had a cell belonging to the Abbey of Seez in Normandy but
of this nothing remains. This beautifully situated little place has a
primitive Norman church with a fine canopied tomb and an old painting
of Angel and shepherds. We are now at the foot of Charlton Forest
covering the slopes of the Downs which stretch eastwards to Duncton
Beacon; and along the edge of this escarpment it is proposed to travel.
This is one of the loneliest and most beautiful sections of the range.

"A curious phenomenon is observable in this neighbourhood. From the
leafy recesses of the layers of beech on the escarpment of the Downs,
there rises in unsettled weather a mist which rolls among the trees
like the smoke out of a chimney. This exhalation is called
'Foxes-brewings' whatever that may mean, and if it tends westwards
towards Cocking, rain follows speedily." (Lower.)

The hamlet of Heyshott need not tempt us from the hill, though
Graffham, one of the loveliest villages in Downland, might well be
visited. Where at last it is necessary to drop toward the Petworth
Chichester road a divergence may be made to East Lavington with its
associations and memories of Samuel Wilberforce, who is buried here and
in whose memory a memorial brass may be seen in the church; note also
the Bishop's pastoral staff fixed to the wall near the altar. There are
still "oldest inhabitants" of this peaceful place who remember the
celebrated Victorian, whose rather unkind sobriquet was really but a
tribute to his genial kindliness of disposition. Here he married in
1828 the local heiress, Miss Emily Sergent, and here Mrs. Wilberforce
was buried in 1841. It is said that at Oxford, or wherever the Bishop
was resident, there hung in his bedroom a picture of Lavington
churchyard "that I may ever see my own resting place."

Directly south of Lavington rises the _summit_ of the Downs--Duncton
Beacon (837 feet), like many other "highest tops" a great
disappointment after visiting some of the lesser heights, for the
Beacon, which is named "Littleton Down" on the Ordnance map, is not on
the edge of the range but stands back among encircling lesser heights
and is itself partly covered with trees which to a great extent cut off
the view. Barlavington Down, about half the height of Duncton, and Farm
Hill face east and both command fine views in this direction. The
latter is above Bignor, to which village we now descend. This is a
place beloved of archaeologists, for here is the site of the famous
Roman villa. Bignor church is remarkable for the chancel arch which
most authorities admit to be a genuine Roman work. Note also the long
lancet windows in the chancel and the magnificent yews in the
churchyard. Enquiry must be made in the village for the farm at which
the keys of the villa enclosure are kept. (Notice the beautiful old
house, timbered and with a projecting upper story, near the lane
leading to the villa.) Authorities are at variance as to the actual
history of the remains which were discovered in 1811. The conjecture
that this was the fortified station on Stane street (which may be seen
descending the hills south-west), at the tenth milestone, "Ad Decimum,"
seems lately to be discredited, and the supposition gains ground that
the villa was simply the country palace of a great Roman, or possibly a
civilized British prince. However that may be, the discoveries revealed
one of the most important and interesting remains of the Roman
occupation in Britain, and cover an area of no less than 600 feet in
length by 350 feet in breadth. The principal pavement may be that of
the Banqueting hall, in the centre of which is a stone cistern,
probably a fountain. The hypercaust below has caused the floor to give
way in several places. The pavement of a smaller room is perfect and
shows a finely executed design; another is decorated with cupids
fighting. The details of the building, too numerous to be mentioned
here, deserve careful attention even by the uninitiated and prove more
forcibly than history-books the magnificence of the civilization which
once was, before Sussex became an entity, and which the first Sussex
men so wofully destroyed.

The old Roman way could be followed directly across the hills for four
miles until the high road is joined near Halnaker Hill, where we shall
presently arrive from Goodwood, but a longer route must be taken to
explore the lovely and retired part of the Downs which lies between
Bignor and Singleton. A path between Farm Hill and Barton Down leads to
Up Waltham where is a little Early English church with the rare feature
of a circular apse. Just south of the village an exquisite combe opens
out to the south-west and is traversed by a rough and stony hill road
leading to East Dean; this claims to be the _real_ East Dean where
Alfred met Asser, but its beautiful situation will be its chief
recommendation to the traveller. Another mile brings us to the hamlet
of Charlton from which the extensive forest to the north takes its
name. A short distance further and the Midhurst-Chichester road is
joined at Singleton, which village, very pleasantly situated, has a
Perpendicular church with a Norman tower, so ancient that some
authorities name it Saxon; it is at the latest very primitive Norman.
Notice the quaint wooden gallery and the stairs to the rood loft, and
also a stoup in good preservation. The village is in a most beautiful
situation, surrounded by groups of low wooded hills. There is a station
here on the Midhurst railway.

The high road now winds through West Dean to Mid-Lavant and Chichester.
Both villages have "restored" churches. The first named contains a
notable monument--the Lewknor. Near by is the beautiful West Dean Park.
Mid-Lavant church is Early English but boasts a Norman window. The name
of this village perpetuates a phenomenon which is becoming more rare
each year. At one time erratic streams would make their appearance in
the chalk combes in the head of the valley and combining, cause serious
floods or "lavants." For some unknown reason the flow of water is
gradually becoming smaller and of late years it has been quite

[Illustration: EAST LAVANT.]

To resume the route a return must be made to Singleton and the path
taken which leads over the Goodwood hills past the Race Course to
Halnaker. The whole of this beautiful stretch of Downland is open to
the stranger; the best views are undoubtedly from the Race Course,
which dates from 1802. This is the most fashionable of all
race-meetings and the course is in the most beautiful situation. To the
west of the course, on an isolated eminence, sometimes called "Roche's
Hill" and sometimes "The Beacon" is an ancient camp with double vallum
and fosse enclosing over five acres. On the slope due south of Roche's
Hill are some caves supposed to have been prehistoric dwelling-places.
A mile to the south is Goodwood House (Duke of Richmond), on certain
days and during certain seasons open to the public. The house, so far
as its exterior is concerned, is exceedingly ugly, but contains a
magnificent collection of paintings, chiefly portraits, the most famous
of which are by Lawrence, Gainsborough, Romney and Vandyke, the last
named being represented, among other works, by the well-known painting
of Charles I with his queen and children.

The most striking view in the neighbourhood of the house is from
"Carney's Seat" above the pheasantry, a magnificent prospect of the
coast extending for many miles in each direction. There are grand
groups of cedars here and throughout the park; these add materially to
the foreground of the prospect. The timber generally is very fine, as
is almost always the case in the enclosed parklands of West Sussex. In
High Wood is a temple which contained until recently an inscribed slab
discovered in Chichester when the foundations of the Council chamber,
erected in 1731, were being excavated. This stone, of the greatest
interest to antiquaries, has been returned to the town and will be
noticed when we arrive there.

The ruins of Halnaker are on the south-east of the park. The house was
built in the reign of Henry VIII by Sir Thomas West, Lord De la Warr.
Before being allowed to fall into ruin the best of the fittings were
removed to the "Chantry" in Chichester.

At the distance of a mile south of Halnaker, Stane Street is reached at
a point about four miles from Chichester. There are, however, still
some interesting places to be seen before, for almost the last time, we
turn west. These include Boxgrove, which must on no account be missed.

Eartham is a beautifully situated village about two miles directly east
of Halnaker. It is chiefly of interest for its associations with the
poet Hayley, who lived at Eartham House, now the residence of Sir P.
Milbanke. The house became for a time the rendezvous of many
celebrities, including Cowper, Flaxman, Blake and Romney. A very fine
Flaxman monument in memory of Hayley's son may be seen in the church;
notice also the memorial of William Huskisson the statesman, who lived
near here and who was afterwards killed at the opening of the Liverpool
and Manchester Railway. The church has a Norman arch in the chancel,
much admired for its graceful proportions and details.

Even more beautiful a village is Slindon, about two miles farther east
and about three miles from Arundel. Its perfect situation is enhanced
by the picturesque clumps of beech trees on the sides of the hills that
encircle it. In the restored church, which was built at various
periods, is the effigy of a knight in wood. Note the curious shorn
pillars in the nave. Here is an old Elizabethan hall, and the park,
with its magnificent beech woods, is very fine. Slindon is becoming a
favourite resort for those who desire a quiet holiday in delightful
rural surroundings.

Two miles south of Slindon lies Walberton. The church walls have Roman
bricks worked into Saxon masonry. The upper part of the nave is of the
usual heavy Norman type. Eastergate, the next village on the main road
to Bognor, has an untouched Saxon chancel, with a good deal of Roman
masonry mixed with later material built into the walls. These
interesting little villages may be easily reached from Bognor.

The last years of the eighteenth century were prolific in the birth of
south-coast watering places or in the transformation of decayed ports
or remote seaside hamlets into fashionable bathing places. Bognor is a
case in point and comes within the latter category. A successful hatter
of Southwark named Hotham, having "made his pile" built himself a house
near the little manor hamlet of Bognor, which boasted a single inn but
no church. The example of Brighton and the nearer neighbour Worthing
being constantly before the then member of Parliament and one-time
business man, the possibilities of the land he had acquired, with its
fine fringe of firm sand, soon made themselves apparent, and the
Crescent, Hothampton Place and several other terraces in what is now
the centre of modern Bognor quickly appeared. A determined attempt to
change the name to Hothampton failed, and as soon as the speculator
died, his gamble a personal failure, the town reverted to the original
Saxon Bognor (Bucganora).

The young town had the usual royal send-off; the Princess Charlotte
stayed here for a short time and was followed in due course by the
little princess who was one day to become so famous a Sovereign.

It will be seen that Bognor has nothing to interest the visitor who
requires something besides a rather homely home from home with good
air, bright sunshine and almost the nearest stretch of good sand to
London, which delights the shoals of juveniles who give to the front
its air of busy animation. The famous Bognor rocks provide an
additional attraction; the sea at low tide retires for a considerable
distance and exposes a line of rocks which indicate the general trend
of the ancient coast. Here treasures of the sea may be found in
profusion and variety. During spring and leap tides the waves, backed
by a strong wind, may cause great excitement by dashing across the
front and invading the back streets; until the present wall was built
this was of frequent occurrence. Bognor has a very mild winter
temperature and runs Worthing very close for sunshine.

The old parish church is at South Bersted. It is of Norman origin with
some remains of this period and possibly of Saxon times; the main
portion is, however, Early English. Note the stone slabs outside the
porch; these were brought from Bosham by a former incumbent. There is a
sixteenth-century fresco on one of the nave pillars depicting St.
Thomas Aquidas disputing with the doctors. In the churchyard are
several interesting graves and a very ancient yew reputed to be over
800 years old.

Felpham is now the eastern suburb of Bognor, and is linked to the town
by a small bungalow colony. Here Hayley came after selling Eartham, but
the place is now more famous for its associations with the poet's
friend Blake, who lived for three years in the small thatched cottage
which still stands at the seaward end of the village. Hayley was buried
in the churchyard, which also contains the tomb of Dean Jackson, once
tutor to George IV. The church is a mixture of styles, one row of
pillars being Early English the other Transitional. The much quoted
epitaph on a blacksmith written by Hayley runs as follows:--

"My sledge and hammer lie reclin'd;
My bellows, too, have lost their wind;
My fire's extinct, my forge decay'd,
And in the dust my vice is laid;
My coal is spent, my iron gone,
The nails are driven, my work is done."

Blake's associations with the village came to a sudden end in
consequence of a stupid and unwarranted prosecution for treason, the
outcome of a struggle with a drunken soldier. The mystic poet-artist
gained some of his most characteristic inspirations while staying here,
and it was in the garden of his cottage that he saw a "fairy's
funeral," the description of which has been often quoted; it is
difficult to judge how much of his visions were, to himself, poetic
fancy or actual fact.

[Illustration: FELPHAM.]

We now resume our journey towards Chichester at Walberton, north of
which the high road runs west, with little of interest until a turning
on the right brings us to the finest ecclesiastical building in the
county excepting the Cathedral.

The Priory Church of St. Mary and St. Blaise _Bosgrave_ was founded in
the reign of Henry I by Robert de Haia of Halnaker. Being a Benedictine
church, the nave, now in ruins, formed the parochial section. The
choir, transepts and tower, which remain, belonged to the monks, and
this portion, with the exception of the Norman tower, forms one of the
most beautiful examples of Early English in the kingdom and dates from
about 1200. The fine Purbeck marble columns are much admired, as are
also the graceful clerestory and vaulting. The galleries of the
transepts have ornamented oak fronts, and were used by the lay portion
of the ancient congregation. There is a frescoed ceiling belonging to
the sixteenth century. Notice the Renaissance tomb of Lord De la Warr
(1532) on the south side of the chancel with its curious carvings and
in the south transept those of Countess Phillippa of Arundel (1428) and
her second husband, Adam de Poynings; also several others, some of
which are without inscriptions, but possibly including those of the
daughters of that Countess of Arundel who was once the first Henry's
queen. The ruins of the priory may be traced and several of the
beautiful Norman arches belonging to the cloisters still remain.


Tangmere has a Norman and Early English church with a wooden tower. The
village is on the south side of the main road but need not detain us.
West Hampnett, nearer Chichester, is of more interest; here Saxon work
in Roman materials may be seen; notice the fine tomb of Richard
Sackville and the representation of the Trinity between the kneeling
figures of Richard and his wife. On the left of the road will be seen
an old Tudor house which has been converted into a workhouse. The road
now enters the suburbs of Chichester.




The Brito-Roman city of Regnum has left its mark on modern Chichester
in the regularity of the streets, which follow the lines of the ancient
thoroughfares. The actual beginnings of the town may antedate the
Romans, but of this we know nothing. It was to the British chief Cogi,
whose name was Romanized into Cogidubnus, that the foundation of
Chichester was probably due; this Briton was a chief of the native
tribe of the Regni who inhabited the Down country and the adjacent
seaboard. Instead of opposing the conquerors this astute statesman
welcomed and allied himself to them and in return received the unique
honour, for a native, of the title "Legate of the Emperor."

It is probable that the city was built on the fork of two important
existing roads, Stane Street--the new stone causeway from London to the
harbours on the coast between modern Bosham and Portsmouth--and the
adapted and straightened ancient trackway running parallel to the sea
and serving the settlements and ports east and west of the junction. At
that time small ships were able to approach within a short distance of
the meeting place and here the new town would naturally arise.

Many remains of the Roman period have from time to time been excavated;
a pavement was found in 1866 below the retro-choir of the cathedral and
some ancient graves in St. Andrew's churchyard were found to have the
coffins resting on a tessellated pavement. Old buildings in various
parts of the town, notably St. Olave's church, have much Roman
brickwork, and the usual treasure of denarii and broken pottery is
found whenever an exceptional turning over of the foundations of the
town takes place.

But the most remarkable of all these earlier relics is the so called
"Pudens Stone" to which reference has been made in speaking of Goodwood
Park. This slab was discovered while digging the foundations of the
Council Chamber and after being kept at Goodwood for many years has
been returned to the Council House in North Street, where it may now be
seen. The stone is Purbeck marble and bears the following inscription:--

(N)eptuni et Minervae templum
(pr)o salute d(omus) divinae
(Ex) auctoritat(e Tib) Claud.
(Co)gidubni r. leg. aug. in Brit.
(Colle)gium fabror. et qui in eo
(A sacris) sunt d.s.d. donati aream
(Pud)enti Pudentini fil.

(The conjectural restorations are given in parentheses.)

(_Translation_.) "The temple of Neptune and Minerva, erected for the
health and preservation of the Imperial family by the authority of the
Emperor Tiberias Claudius and of Cogidubnus, the great king of the
Britons. The company of Artificers, with others, who were ambitious of
supplying materials, defrayed the expense. Pudens, son of Pudentinus,
gave the ground." (Hare.)

The great interest of the inscription is in that part which refers to
Pudens; a controversy raged for a long time during the middle of the
last century around the question of the identity of this individual,
the results of which seem to favour the connexion between Chichester
and the Pudens of St. Paul's second Epistle to Timothy.

The town seems to have been of little importance in South Saxon times,
although the modern name dates from that period--"Cissa's Ceaster."
Cissa was one of the sons of Ella who landed on the Selsey peninsula.
During the Conqueror's reign Chichester regained some of its former
dignity when the seat of the Sussex see was removed hither from Selsey.
At the same time the town was presented to Roger Montgomery, Earl of
Alencon, together with most of South-west Sussex. The Earl built a
castle, but nothing of this remains, though the mound in the Priory
Park is said to be the site.

The troops of the Parliament--led by Sir William Waller, besieged
Chichester in 1642; after ten days the city fell and much ill work,
especially in the cathedral, followed. Since then its history has been

Some days may be spent in this pleasant town without exhausting its
interest and charm and the cathedral cannot be seen in one visit
without fatigue. As a centre for the exploration of West Sussex
Chichester is much better than one of the smaller towns. (I am not now
advising that adventurous traveller who, fearing nothing, will trust
himself to a remote village hostelry among the Downs.) The South Coast
Railway runs in three directions and all high roads converge on the


Chichester Cathedral is the second on the site, and much of this
building has been added to and altered at various dates. The original
cathedral is supposed to have been for a time the adapted church of St.
Peter's monastery which stood on or near the south-west corner of the
city cross-roads. Bishop Ralph's building, erected in 1107, was
destroyed by fire in 1114. The same bishop started to build the older
portions of the church which we now see.

The most striking object in the exterior view is the modern spire,
built by Scott to replace the tower which fell in 1861 while repairs to
the piers were in progress. The summit is exactly equidistant from the
west porch and the end of the Lady Chapel. The most effective, if not
the most picturesque view, is from the north, where the sturdy
campanile makes a good foil to the graceful spire. Until the enormous
bulk of the new Liverpool Cathedral rose above the great city in the
north, Chichester was the only English cathedral visible from the sea.


The nave should be entered from the west porch, a much admired specimen
of Early English. We are at once aware of the fine effects of light and
shade produced by the four aisles. The Cathedral is one of the widest
in England (though those usually quoted as excelling it--York Minster
and St. Paul's, are actually excelled themselves by Manchester, which
also has four aisles). The nave and the inner aisles are Norman, the
outer being Geometrical; these were added to make room for the various
chapels and shrines which were found necessary as the development of
the church progressed. The base of the south-west tower is possibly of
an earlier date than the remainder of the nave and the suggestion has
been put forward that it forms part of the original monastery church of
St. Peter; the style of it is very rude and archaic.

Proceeding by the left-hand or north aisle we see first, close to the
north door, the chapel of the Baptist, which contains an unknown tomb
and an ancient chest reputed to be over a thousand years old and to
have been brought from Selsey. Following come the Collins tomb and the
Arundel chantry containing the altar-tomb of Richard Fitz-Alan and his
countess. At the end of this aisle is an unknown female effigy
conjectured to be Maud of Arundel (1270). Some good modern stained
glass will have been noticed in the nave. The pulpit, a memorial to
Dean Hook, was designed by Sir Gilbert Scott. The south aisle of the
nave has the tomb of Bishop Arundel (1478), Bishop Durnford, and Agnes
Cromwell and a brass to William Bradbridge three times mayor of
Chichester (1592).

In a spirit of ruthless improvement the beautiful old stone screen
between nave and choir was removed in 1859, and replaced by the present
rood-screen in memory of Archdeacon Walker. The finely carved throne
and stalls in the choir are also modern but are in excellent taste and
keeping with the solemn Norman stone which surrounds them. The east
window was placed in 1844, and it is no worse than other examples of
this period.

The north transept was for many years used as the parish church of St.
Peter. Note the pictures by Bernhardi of the English Bishops; those
after Elizabeth were destroyed when the tower fell. On the west are the
tombs of three bishops, Grove (1695), King (1669) and Carleton (1705).
King was the defender of Chichester during Waller's attack and the
latter described him as a "pragmatical malignant." The cathedral
library is in this transept, entered from the north choir aisle. It
contains several treasures, notably the service book of Hermann,
Archbishop of Cologne, once the property of Cranmer and bearing his
autograph. From this book the Reformer adapted many phrases for the
Book of Common Prayer. There are several interesting relics from the
stone coffins discovered under the choir in 1829, including a papal
absolution cross, an abraxas ring and a twelfth-century silver chalice
and paten. These are displayed in a case by the wall. In the north
choir aisle is a beautiful altar cloth in a glass case. We now pass the
fine canopied tomb of Bishop Moleynes (1449). In the Early English
chapel at the end, dedicated to St. Panthelon, is the modern tomb of
Bishop Otter (1840). Before entering this chapel note the stone built
into the wall and known as "Maudes Heart." The screens separating the
aisles from the presbytery are made of native Sussex iron.

We now return and cross to the south transept, on the north side of
which is the tomb once supposed to be the shrine of St. Richard de la
Wych, Bishop (1253) but now definitely accepted as that of Bishop
Stratford (1362). This tomb, with several others, was barbarously
"restored" in the last century; near it may be seen the modern brass in
memory of Dean Burgon (1888). The pictures on the west wall are by
Bernhardi and represent Ceadwalla giving Selsey to St. Wilfrid and the
confirmation made by Henry VIII to Bishop Sherborne. Part of the
transept is used as a consistory court. The sacristy is on the west
side and on the east is St. Catherine's Chapel. In the wall of the
aisle, proceeding east, note two slabs which are said to have been
brought from Selsey Cathedral. The subjects are the Raising of Lazarus
and the Saviour meeting Martha and Mary. Note between them the tomb of
Bishop Sherborne (1536); near by is a memorial of Dean Hook (1875) also
the coffin slabs of Bishop Neville (1224) and Bersted (1262).


We now enter the Transitional Retro-choir; here is the altar tomb of
Bishop Story (1503) who built Chichester Market Cross, and of Bishop
Day (1556). The columns of Purbeck marble which grace this part of the
cathedral are of great beauty. The screens of native iron have already
been noticed, they are of simple but effective design.

We pass the terminal chapel of the south aisle, dedicated to St. Mary
Magdalene and restored in memory of Dean Cross, and enter the Chapel of
Our Lady, noting (left) the tombs of Bishops Hilary and Ralph, and
(right) Bishop Seffrid II, the builder of the Early English portions of
the Cathedial. This beautiful chapel was finished in the early
fourteenth century and in the eighteenth was considered unworthy of
repair and handed over to the Duke of Richmond, whose private property
it for a long time became. The floor was raised to allow of a burial
vault being constructed below, and the upper portion became the

The restoration was resolved upon in 1870 as a memorial to Bishop
Gilbert, and the then Duke being in sympathy with the revived canons of
good taste no opposition was encountered. It may be of interest to
quote an anonymous correspondent in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ (1829,
part II) which shows how the leaven was at work even then.

"Some ten years since a Goth, by some untoward chain of circumstances,
possessed sufficient influence with his brethren in the Chapter to
induce that body to whitewash the church, and by way of ornament, and
with a view to compensate for the loss of the original paintings on the
groining of the choir destroyed by the whitewash, the said gentleman
had the archivolt mouldings and all the lines of the building which
were in relief, tastefully coloured in yellow ochre. The name of the
perpetrator of this outrage on good taste and good feeling it is
unnecessary to add, as he will never plan or design any further
embellishment to the cathedral, but if any of his coadjutors in the
daubing and smearing line have survived him, and still possess
influence, I tremble for the effects of the present repair.

"The curious chantry of St. Richard, an object of veneration among
Catholics even to our own days, and the elegant stone screen of the
roodloft, have been literally plastered with whitewash, the rich
sculptured bosses being converted into apparently unshapely lumps of
chalk, and the flat spaces within the heads of the Norman arches of the
nave, which are sculptured with scales and flowers, are almost reduced
to a plane surface.... The removal of this rubbish would be a work of
time; it should be gradually and effectually performed arch by arch, or
its removal may carry away with it many of the sculptures it may
conceal. This will certainly be the case if any London architect, with
a contractor at his heels, sets about a thorough repair to be completed
in a given time....

"The more ancient injuries which the appearance of the cathedral had
sustained were, in the first instance, occasioned by the erection of a
breastwork in front of the triforium, which concealed the bases and
half the shafts of the columns; this might now be easily removed as the
object of its erection, to protect from accident the spectators of the
ancient processions, has ceased to exist. Since the Reformation a great
portion of the nave has been fitted up with pews, the congregation
adjourning from the choir to the nave to hear the sermon. I need not
point out the injury the nave sustains in appearance from this cause
and many points of perspective, highly picturesque, which would arise
from the singular duplication of the aisles of this church are entirely
lost through the existence of the sermon place."

On the south side of the nave is the entrance to the irregularly built
cloisters; here are several monuments and a good view of the
interesting details of the exterior of the cathedral. The Bishop's
Palace is at the west end; it has an Early English chapel in which is
an interesting fresco of the Virgin and Child. At the south-east angle
of the cloister is the Chantry of St. Faith dating from the early
fourteenth century.


The Bell Tower, which is an unique feature of the Cathedral, dates from
the late fifteenth century; it was built to relieve the central tower
of the main building from the weight of the eight bells, most of them
ancient, with quaintly worded and spelt inscriptions. The Arundel
screen has been placed within the tower, but special permission must be
obtained to see this.

The old documents in the Cathedral muniment room are quaint reading,
especially in these post-war days; here are a few items taken at random
from an old book of accounts:--

Payd Thomas the broderer for his labors in amendyng of
dyverse cooppes vestments and other ornaments of the
church workynge thereabouts by the space of IIII wyks
after Chrystmas VI s

For hys comones so longe IIII s

Payd unto Wolsey the masson for amendynge of the tumbe
in our Lady Chapell that was broken uppe when the
Commissionars were here from the Councell to serch
the same XV d

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