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Scientific American, Vol. 17, No. 26 December 28, 1867 by Various

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I claim, 1st, the combination of the two molding cylinders, C C, when
the molding recesses, I I, in said cylinders, and their intermediate
followers, J J, are so proportioned with each other that the faces of
the said followers cannot be brought in contact with each other, and
when the said follower pieces have substantially the degree of curvature
herein represented and described.

2d, In connection with the molding cylinders, C C, I also claim the
central shaft, b, and its operating levers, L L, in combination with
the jointed rods, n n, and the crank arms, m m, on the respective cam
shafts, for operating all the cams simultaneously, substantially in the
manner herein set forth.

3d, Also the vibrating spring scraper, i, in combination with the wire
cloth belt, w, when arranged with the molding cylinders, C C, and
operated substantially in the manner and for the purpose herein set

Weston, San Francisco, Cal.

I claim the rest, A, for the glass, or its equivalent, the use of the
glasses, B B, the weight G, the fastenings, H, the clamps, E E, or their
equivalents, in combination, for the purposes, herein set forth.

72,139.--VALVE GEAR FOR STEAM ENGINES.--Norman W. Wheeler, Brooklyn,

I claim, 1st, Opening the ports, as i' i" so as to suspend the operation
of the moving force upon the valve or valves at the period when the
steam is cut off, and before the exhaust is opened, substantially as and
for the purpose herein set forth.

2d, Also the closure of certain ports, as i' i" and k' k", so as to
cause the valve or valves to resume the movement toward its or their
full throw at the proper period, substantially as and for the purposes
herein set forth.

3d, Also opening the proper ports, as h' h, so as to suspend the moving
force operating upon the valve or valves, when they or it have reached
the proper limit of throw, substantially as and for the purposes herein
set forth.

4th, Also regulating the times of closing passages, so as to induce
the cutting-off movement of the valve or valves, at variable periods,
substantially in the manner and for the purposes herein set forth.

5th, Also changing a continuous reciprocating motion derived from an
eccentric, or equivalent moving part of the engine, to an intermittent
reciprocating motion, by means of a hydraulic apparatus as hereinbefore
described, substantially in the manner and for the purpose herein set

72,140.--DITCHING MACHINE.--A.H.Whitacre and T.S.Whitacre, Morrow, Ohio.

We claim, 1st, The combination of the sled, A, and the frame, B,
connected by the racks and pinions, c a, at the corners, arranged and
operating substantially as and for the purpose described.

2d, The pulleys, D and E, carrying the endles chain, g, with the scoops,
h h, in combination, with the drum, C, the plungers, n n, operating
by the double incline, p, around the wheel, K, and the sweep, F,
constructed and operating substantially as and for the purpose herein

72,141.--FARM FENCE.--Samuel P. Williams, Sheridan, N.Y.

I claim the application and use of the triangular brace posts, B B,
and tie-rod, C, in the construction of farm fences, in the manner
substantially as described.

72,142.--VENTILATING TUNNEL.--Hugh B. Wilson, N.Y. city.

I claim, 1st, The method of applying street lamp posts, and awning
and other useful or ornamental posts, pillars, or structures, to the
purposes of ventilating underground railway tunnels, substantially as
within described.

2d. Also the combination of street lamp posts, and awning and other
posts, pillars, or structures, whether for ornament or use, with the
connecting tubes of such railway tunnels, substantially in manner set

72,143.--MEDICAL COMPOUND.--J.T. Wilson, Brooklyn, N.Y.

I claim the combination of the above-named ingredients in the manner as
and for the purpose described.

72,144.--SHOE LIFTER.--Wm.H. Winans, Newark, N.J.

I claim, 1st, The combination of the lever plate, A, griping plate, B,
spring, b, and holding level, C, substantially as and for the purpose

2d, The teeth or studs, a', provided upon the inner surface of the
griping plate B, and arranged in relation with the back of the plate, A,
substantially as and for the purpose specified.

72,145.--STOVE.--T.W.Wisner, Howell, Mich.

I claim the portable hop-drying stove, constructed as described, of
the corrugated side and end plates, A, supported upon the ash pan, B,
extending the entire length of the stove, and mounted upon wheels,
the adjustable grate placed at b, in the center of the stove, and the
boiler, all arranged as described for the purpose specified.

72,146.--PAPER FILE.--John Wolfe, Washington, D. C.

I claim the paper file or holder constructed and operated as herein

72,147.--LATHE BOX AND JOURNAL.--Aurin Wood, Worcester, Mass.

I claim, 1st, The combination and relative arrangement of the oil box,
B, and grove, a, and inclined oil passage, e, formed in the bottom part,
A, of the journal box, substantially in the manner and for the purpose
herein shown and specified.

The combination of the journal, C, having the peculiarly shaped grooves,
d d, cut in its surface, with the journal box, D, provided in its lower
part with the oil box, inclined oil passage, and groove, a, under the
arrangement substantially as herein shown and set forth.

72,148.--LATHE FOR TURNING SHAFTING.--Aurin Wood, Worcester, Mass.

I claim, 1st, The combination with the bed of the lathe, provided with a
reservoir or receptacle, as described, of the sliding tool carriage and
the pump, attached to and moving with said carriage, substantially as
and for the purposes shown and set forth.

2d, The combination with the sliding tool carriage and pump, mounted
upon said carriage, of the cup, C, and tube connecting said cup with the
pump, substantially in the manner and for the purposes herein shown and

3d, The method of operating the pump by connecting the piston rod of the
same with a friction wheel, actuated by the rotation of the shaft
which is being turned in the machine, in the manner herein shown and

72,149.--FINGER BAR FOR HARVESTER.--Walter A. Wood, Hoosick Falls, N.Y.

I claim, bevelling off the front upper corner of the finger bar,
to afford a seat for the sickle or scythe bar, to vibrate upon, in
combination with beveling off the lower side of the finger bar, for the
reception of the guard finger.

72,150.--CURTAIN FIXTURE.--William H. Woods, Philadelphia, Pa.

I claim the lever dog, e, with the cross foot, e, engaging and
disengaging the teeth of the rack, b b, in combination with the
swivelled knob, d, having a cross bar, g, and working in the slot, a
a, of the racket case, A, substantially as and for the purpose herein

72,151.--CHIMNEY.--Ebenezer S. Phelps, Jr., Wyanet, Ill.

I claim the device above described, consisting of the iron box, A, and
drawer, B, constructed and arranged as shown, when used in combination
with the chimney, D, substantially in the manner and for the purposes

* * * * *


62,057.--BRICK MACHINE.--Philip H. Kells, Adrian, Mich. Dated March
19,1867. Reissue 2,810.

I claim, 1st, The combination of the annular mold bed, B, and the
central hub or support, C, substantially as described and represented.

2d, The adjustable wedge-shaped cut off, d, arranged and employed in the
manner and for the purpose explained.

3d, Ihe arrangement upon the mold wheel of the two pug mills on opposite
portions, substantially as described.

4th, An annular mold wheel, provided with cogs or gear teeth upon its
periphery, and mounted upon a central hub or support, substantially as
and for the purpose set forth.

* * * * *


2,846.--MASONIC BADGE--Virgil Price, New York city.

2,847.--COOK'S STOVE.--Russell Wheeler, Utica, N.Y.

* * * * *


_Application has been made to the Commissioner of Patents for the
Reissue of the following Patents, with new claims as subjoined.
Parties who desire to oppose the grant of any of these reissues should
immediately address MUNN & Co., 37 Park Row, N.Y._

* * * * *

40,571.--ROTARY ENGINE.--Metropolitan Rotary Engine Co. (assignees by
mesne assignments of Adolph Mulochan), New York city. Dated Nov. 10,
1863. Application for reissue received and filed Sept. 27, 1867.

1st, The combination with the outer stationary case, d, and its
concentric inner cylinder or flanges, x, of the eccentric wheel, ring or
rim, c, fast to the rotating shaft and carrying radial slides or pistons
for simultaneous action and exposure to the steam or fluid in chambers,
y and z, on opposite sides or peripheries of the ring, c, essentially as
herein set forth.

2d, The pipes, i l n o, and valves or cocks k k' m' and m', in
combination--with the ring c and pistons acting in the steam spaces, y
and z, substantially as specified.

2,821 (whole No. 33,825).--LAMP.--Charles W. Cahoon, Portland Me Dated
Dec. 3, 1861. Application for reissue received and filed Nov 23 1867.

1st, A lever with chimney fastenings having that part of it on which
the chimney rests extended so as to form a deflector substantially as

2d, The deflector board or flat shaped or nearly so when made not
only as a deflector but partly as a chimney holder substantially as

3d, The combination of the said deflector with the conical foraminous
piece of metal and the cylindrical tubular air screen for the purpose of
forming the air chamber, A, protecting the flame and admitting the air
from below the same, substantially as described.

4th, The combination with the lever for raising the chimney of the
deflector air screen and foraminous piece of metal, substantially as and
for the purposes specified.

5th, The ring surrounding the wiek tube a little above the top of the
same with the standards, s s, substantially as and for the purposes

6th, A chimney holder having a projection for manipulating the same,
chimney fastenings, a deflector and a joint substantially as and for the
purposes set forth.

7th, The combination of the ring, f, supports, s s, and air screen, c,
substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

8th, The combination of the glass body of a lamp with a metallic handle,
substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

61,956.--COOKING STOVE.--J.J. Savage Troy, N.Y. Dated Feb. 12, 1867
Application for reissue received and filed Dec. 4, 1867.

1st, I claim constructing a heating stove with its fuel door way or
aperture, B, below, and forward of its flame or combustion chamber and
contiguous to or adjoining its fire box, A, in manner substantially as
and for the purposes herein set forth.

2d, I claim the combination of the fuel door way or aperture, B, and
the firebox, A, extended contiguously thereunder as applied to heating
stoves, in manner substantially as and for the purposes set forth.

3d, I claim in combination with a heating stove having its fuel door
way in the position as herein described, the employment therewith of a
lifting lever, F, substantially in manner as and for the purposes herein
set forth.

4th, I claim, in a heating stove, in combination with a fire box, back
lining plates and its fuel door way or aperture, B, the arrangement of a
front lining plate, E, in position between the flame chamber, C, and the
said fuel aperture in manner substantially as and for the purpose set

5th, In combination with a lever lifter, F, applied to heating stoves in
manner as herein described, I claim the employment of a holding hook, b,
and catch ridge, e, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

6th, I claim so constructing a heating stove in manner substantially as
described herein that fresh fuel may be cast directly into its fire box
below and between ignited fuel or coke therein, in manner substantially
as herein set forth for the purposes specified.

16,944.--GUN POWDER KEG.--Henry E. Irenee L. and Eugene Du Pont
(assignees of James Wilson and William Wilson, J. and Charles Green
for themselves) Wilmington, Del. Dated March 31, 1857. Application for
reissue received and filed Nov. 30, 1867.

1st, As a new article of manufacture a keg or can with a series of
corrugations representing hoops which give combined strength and finish.

2d, Casting the female screw for the stopper on a tap or mandrel, as set

3d, The extra ring or boss, D, and head, C, as set forth.

62,693.--MACHINE FOR CUTTING THREADS ON BOLTS.--Schweitzer Patent Bolt
Co. (assignees of Franzis Schweizer), New York city. Dated March 5,
1867. Application for reissue received and filed Nov. 30, 1867.

1st, The sliding or movable heads, N O, in combination with the lever,
P, and cutter or dies, a b, substantially as and for the purpose

2d, The adjustable lever, P, provided with arms, d e, substantially as
and for the purpose set forth.

3d, The elastic rest, g, constructed and operating substantially as and
for the purpose shown and described.

53,169.--MARKING WHEEL.--Horace Holt, New York city. Dated Jan. 23,
1866. Application for reissue received and filed Nov. 30, 1867.

1st, The combination of the type wheel, A, inking roller, C, and handle,
B, substantially as and for the purpose described.

2d, The ink reservoir, e, in combination with the roller, C, type wheel,
A, and handle, B, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

3d, The projecting flanges, b, on the type wheel, A, constructed and
operating substantially as and for the purpose described.

4th, The stop, h, in combination with the type wheel, A, and handle, B,
substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

5th, Ihe spring, g, in combination with the stop, h, type wheel, A, and
handle, B, substantially as and for the purpose described.

18,872.--BORING MACHINE.--A. Wyckoff (assignee by mesne assignments of
La Fayette Stevens), Elmira, N.Y. Dated Dec. 15, 1857. Application for
reissue received and filed Nov. 29, 1867.

1st, Ihe hollow cylindrical stock of an annular auger in combination
with a spiral flange with such a pitch as will remove the cuttings
horizontally as made and deliver them from the opening of the annular
kerf, substantially as set forth.

2d, The combination of a hollow annular bit having their cutting lips
projecting in the direction of the rotation of the bit, a hollow
cylindrical stock and a spiral flange substantially as described.

3d, An annular bit formed in one piece and used in combination with
a hollow cylindrical stock for cutting an annular kerf in a stick of
timber, substantially as set forth.

4th, Ihe loose independent collar, f, provided with knife edges, g g,
to keep it from turning for the purpose of furnishing a bearing for the
head of the auger while in operation.

5th, The sharp annular spur, c, for the purpose of centering and guiding
the auger and at the same time leaving a core of the material bored in
the center of the auger, in the manner specified.

6th, The oblique traversing rests, O O, in combination with the screws,
t t, and dogs, Q, for the purpose of adjusting the timber to the auger
as described and holding it firmly while under the operation of the

66,608.--DREDGING MACHINE.--James H. McLean, St Louis, Mo. Dated July 9,
1867. Application for reissue received and filed Nov. 8, 1867.

1st, The adjustable dredging frame, C, when such adjustment is produced
by a derrick, i i, and fall, when constructed and operated substantially
as shown and specified,

2d, The scoops, d, of a dredging machine having circular vertical
cutting edges in advance of the usual lateral cutting edge, W, Fig. 1,
when constructed and operating substantially as shown and specified.

3d, In combination with the dredging vessel the pins, L, for the purpose
of moving the same, substantially as described.

4th, The dredger, the receiving and discharging apron and the derrick
of a dredging machine all in combination, when constructed and operated
substantially as shown and specified.

49,992.--SLEEPING CAR.--George M. Pullman, Chicago Ill., assignee of
Ben. Field, Albion, N.Y., and George M. Pullman, Chicago, Ill. Dated
Sept. 19 1865. Application for reissue received and filed Nov. 26, 1867.

1st, The berth, A, permanently connected with the side of the car by
hinges, B, in combination with the recess to receive the same when
turned up, substantially as described.

2d, The employment in combination with the berth, A, as described of
jointed suspenders to support the inner side of the berth that will
fold together to permit the berth to be turned up, substantially as

3d, The employment in combination with the berth, A, as described of the
sliding partition, I, substantially as described.

4th, The employment in combination with the berth, A, as described, of
the movable head board, J, substantially as described.

5th, The employment in combination with the berth, A, as described of
a counterpoise to facilitate the handling of the same substantially as

6th, Constructing a car seat with the back and seat cushions hinged
together and disconnected from the seat frame so that the back cushion
may be placed on the seat frame and the seat cushion extended to meet
the seat cushion of the opposite chair, substantially as described.

48,555.--DOOR BOLT.--The Stanley Works (assignees of William H. Hart),
New Britain, Conn. Dated July 4, 1865. Application for reissue received
and filed Oct 29 1867.

1st, Making the barrel of a door or shutter bolt of sheet metal,
substantially as shown and described.

2d, The bolt catch or keeper with the base plate formed with a flanch
at right angles, substantially as described, that it may be secured by
screws parallel with the axis of the bolt, substantially as described.

29,430.--INDEX DOOR PLATE.--E.M. Montague, Boston, Mass., assignee of
Nathan Ames, Saugus Center, Mass. Dated July 31, 1860. Application for
reissue received and filed Oct. 15, 1866.

1st, In use in a door plate of a tablet or slate and an adjustable plate
or disk having figures or readable signs or characters for the purposes
specified and set forth.

2d, In combination with the above door plate a rotating disk, C, marked
with the hours and parts of an hour, as shown in Fig. 2, said disk being
confined in the center to a spindle, D, which passes through the door,
substantially as and for the purpose described.

3d, The spring, S, arranged, combined and operating substantially as

65,018.--STEAM GENERATOR GAGE LOCK.--Thomas Shaw, Philadelphia, Pa.
Dated May 21, 1867. Application for reissue received and filed Oct. ll,

The construction and arrangement of whistle with gage valve whereby to
indicate the sound produced by steam or steam and water commingled or
water unmingled with steam, substantially as set foath.

49,847.--STEAM GENERATOR.--John R. Eckman, Green Post office Pa.,
assignee of John D. Beers, Philadelphia, Pa. Dated Sept. 12, 1865.
Application for reissue received and filed Sept. 30, 1867.

1st. Broadly the circular plate or ring, b, as shown and described.

2d, The plate, H, encircling the fire box, substantially as shown and

3d, Forming a water space between the inner surface of the boiler shell,
A, and the plate or ring, b, as shown and described.

Brown, Brooklyn, N.Y., assignee of Henry C. Smith, Cleveland, Ohio.
Dated Sept. 28, 1852. Application for reissue received and filed Dec, 5,

1st, Turning the log to be cut by driving the mandrels at each end
thereof by gearing them directly with the driving shaft, substantially
as and for the purposes set forth.

2d, The dog, a, and its appurtenances for connecting the log with the
mandrels and disconnecting it therefrom, as specified.

3d, The combination of the cylinder cutter, K, and the stripping knife
moved up simultaneously and automatically, all substantially as and for
the purposes set forth.

* * * * *

NOTE--_The above claims for Reissue are now pending before the Patent
Office and will not be officially passed upon until the expiration of 30
days from the date of filing the application. All persons who desire
to oppose the grant of any of these claims should make immediate

MUNN & CO., Solicitors of Patents, 37 Park Row, N.Y._

* * * * *


MUNN & COMPANY, Editors and Proprietors.



* * * * *

"The American News Company," Agents, 121 Nassau street, New York

"The New York News Company," 8 Spruce street

Messrs. Sampson Low, Son & Co, Booksellers, 47 Ludgate Hill, London,
England, are the Agents to receive European subscriptions or
advertisements for the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. Orders sent to them will be
promptly attended to.

* * * * *

VOL. XVII., No. 26....[NEW SERIES.]...._Twenty-first Year_.


* * * * *


We give in this number a full index of the volume of which this is
the last issue. No doubt this will be more satisfactory to our
readers--those at least who preserve their numbers for binding, and
probably most do--than publishing the index in a separate sheet. The
list of claims in this number will be found to be unusually full, a
gratifying evidence that dullness of business does not cripple the
resources nor abate the industry of our inventors. With a parting word
of good will to our present subscribers and a welcome to those who begin
with our new volume, we wish for all a HAPPY NEW YEAR.

* * * * *


With the next number the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN enters upon its
twenty-third year. Probably no publication extent will furnish a more
complete and exhaustive exhibit of the progress of science and the arts
in this country for the past twenty-two years than a complete file of
the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. It is a curious and interesting pastime to
compare the condition of the mechanic arts as presented in some of our
first volumes with that shown in our more recent ones. During all this
time, nearly a quarter of a century, our journal has endeavored to
represent the actual condition of our scientific and mechanical progress
and to record the discoveries and improvements in these departments
wherever made. The result is a compendium of valuable information
unattainable through any other means.

But the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN has aimed not only to gratify a laudable
curiosity by collecting and presenting such information, but to give
practical knowledge which could be applied to valuable uses.

We labor for the producers--the mechanics, farmers, laborers--those who
build up a country and make the wilderness to blossom like the rose. We
believe that the workers are the power, especially in this country; and
while we do not wish to detract from the value of the products of merely
intellectual speculators, we still think that the world needs specially
the laborer. We use the term "laborer" in this connection in its widest
sense, comprehending he who uses brain as well as he who employs muscle;
scientific investigation and discovery should be followed by and united
to practical application.

The improvement exhibited in our past volumes will be no less noticeable
hereafter. Keeping pace with the "march of mind" we shall endeavor
always to lead rather than to follow. The different departments of our
paper are managed by those who are practically acquainted with the
subjects they profess to elucidate. "To err is human," but we shall
spare no pains nor expense to make the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN as reliable
in its statements as it is interesting in the variety and matter of its
subjects. There are none of our people, from the student or professional
man to the day laborer, but will find something in every number, of
present or future value to him in his business.

* * * * *


T.C. Theaker has resigned as Commissioner of Patents. A number of
gentlemen are mentioned as candidates for the succession, prominent
among whom are B. T. James and Charles Mason. Mr. James has acted in the
capacity of primary Examiner in the Engineering Class for a number of
years, and has filled his position acceptably. Judge Mason held the
Commissionership from 1853 to 1857, and his whole administration was
marked with reform and ability. Judge Mason was educated at West Point,
and he is a man of sterling integrity, a sound jurist, experienced in
patent law, and a splendid executive officer. One thing may be relied
upon, if Judge Mason should receive and accept the appointment of
Commissioner, inventors will not have to complain long of delay in the
examination of their cases The Judge is as industrious by nature as he
is stern and systematic by education and he will have no drones about
him. The work of the office under his administration would be brought up
and kept up.

A good day for inventors and all persons having business with the Patent
Office will dawn when Judge Mason takes the Commissioner's chair again,
and we hope the proper influences may be brought to bear to secure his

* * * * *


Ebenezer Winship, died at his home in this city Dec. 6, 1867, at the age
of 67. A long and eminently useful although unobtrusive life entitles
his memory to respect. He commenced his career as a mechanic in
the steam engine establishment of James P. Allaire, soon after the
application of steam for the propulsion of boats and long before its
application to ships for the purposes of commerce or war. For fifty-two
years, with the exception of one or two brief intervals, he was
connected with the Allaire works in this city, and for more than forty
years he was the master mechanic and general superintendent of the
works. Probably no man now living has had a more intimate connection
with the construction of the marine steam engine in all its remarkable
changes and improvements, or been so long employed at one engine

James P. Allaire, the founder of the Allaire Works, died May 20,1858, at
the age of 73. He was an intimate acquaintance of Fulton and from the
engine of Fulton's first boat, the _Clermont_, took drawings which he
used in the construction of his first marine engines. He built the
engines for the _Chancellor Livingston_ which ran between New York and
Albany. He built also the first marine engines ever constructed in this
country, which were put into the steamship _Savannah_, the first steamer
that crossed the Atlantic, and also those for the _Pacific_ and
_Baltic_ of the Collins line, which ships surpassed in speed any before

Under such tutelage and with such advantages Mr. Winship rose
successively through the grades of apprentice, journeyman, boss,
and foreman, to the position of master mechanic and superintendent.
Connected intimately with the progress of marine engineering for over
half a century, he was the teacher of a large number of our engineers
who now reflect credit upon their instructor. Mr. Winship's professional
skill was unsurpassed; his ability in directing and managing others and
thorough acquaintance with the minutest details made him invaluable in
the position he so long honorably filled. His personal characteristics
were faithfulness, industry, earnestness, kindness of heart, and
unvarying punctuality and promptness. As master mechanic it was his
invariable rule to be at the works an hour before the time for beginning
labor to lay out the work for the hands, getting his breakfast in winter
by gas light and returning from dinner in time to see the condition
of the work before the men arrived. In short, he made his employers'
business his own and neglected nothing which might contribute to their
success. He was a connecting link between the present generation of
mechanics and that which saw the beginnings of that great power, steam,
which has revolutionized the world. His funeral on the 8th of December
was attended by all the employes of the Allaire Works, by many from
other mechanical establishments, and a large number of citizens.

* * * * *

How to Make Intelligent Workmen--Go and Do Likewise.

Mr. H. O. Osborn, of Castleton, Vt., in a letter covering an order for a
club of subscribers, says:--"It may not be uninteresting to you to learn
that the last six names are those of young men in my employ. I have
myself been your subscriber for the past four years, and knowing as
I did the value of your paper, I felt it a duty I owed to my men to
recommend the paper to their notice, and the result is as above. I am
proud to think that I have so many in my mill who can appreciate its
worth. I hope at no remote date to send you another list of names from
among my own men, and I am certain that if every manufacturer would
consult his own best interest he would do all he could to place your
paper in the hands of his workmen, for I feel it to be a valuable
acquisition to all in any way connected with machines."

We believe that employers who wish to improve the condition of their
employes can render them no better service than to make each of them a
Christmas present of a year's subscription to this paper. Send in the
names early, so that we may know how large an edition to print to
supply the demand. We close this Volume with over 30,000--nearly
35,000--subscribers, and we wish to commence the new with at least
50,000. Send in your names.

* * * * *

The Iron-Clads at Sea.

In his last annual report to Congress, the Secretary of the Navy thus
refers to the cruise of the _Miantonomah_ to Europe and her return and
of the _Monadnock_ to San Francisco, voyages the most remarkable ever
undertaken by turreted iron-clad vessels. These vessels encountered
every variety of weather, and under all circumstances proved themselves
to be staunch, reliable sea-going ships. The monitor type of vessel
has been constructed primarily for harbor defence, and it was not
contemplated that they would do more than move from port to port on our
own coast. These voyages demonstrate their ability to go to any part of
the world, and it is believed by experienced naval officers that with
slight modifications above the water line, in no way interfering with
their efficiency in action, they will safely make the longest and most
difficult voyages without convoy.

Steam, turreted iron-clads and fifteen-inch guns have revolutionized
naval warfare, and foreign governments, becoming sensible of this great
change, are slowly but surely coming to the conclusion that turreted
vessels and heavy ordnance are essential parts of an efficient fighting

* * * * *


We seldom publish the favorable opinions expressed by our correspondents
when in their letters they allude to this journal. If we chose we could
fill columns with notices similar to those which follow.

R. S. Miller of Logansport, Ind., under date of Dec. 2d, says:--

I have a club of 10 or 12 engaged, and will send names and money about
the 20th inst. I have been reading the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN for several
years and frequently I find items in it of more value than the year's
subscription. In No. 9, present volume, you illustrated a plan for
setting steam boilers. I was much pleased with it and showed it to a
friend of mine who was about re-setting a 60-horse power boiler in his
machine shop. He adopted the plan. Four week's use of the improved
furnace proves all you claimed for it. My friend will be one of your new
subscribers. I shall, in a few days, re-set my 15-horse power boiler
according to the plan. Every live mechanic should take your valuable

The Lamb Knitting Machine Manufacturing Co, Chicopee Falls, Mass.,

In payment of your bill please find inclosed draft, etc. Please insert
our advertisement every other week hereafter. We are compelled to this
being overrun with orders. Unless they hold up we shall be obliged to
withdraw it entirely. So much for the advantages of your medium for

C.W. Le Count, Manufacturer of lathe dogs and steam engine governors,
South Norwalk, Conn., writes concerning his advertisement in these

What business I have I can trace three-quarters of it directly to your

An agent of the Hinkley Knitting Machine Co., whose invention was
illustrated in these columns some weeks ago, writes:

It is now but ten days since its publication, yet without a single
advertisement in any paper I have been obliged to engage extra
assistance to simply inclose my circulars to parties, who are writing
and even _telegraphing_ for agencies and machines, while many
have traveled long distances to personally engage agencies. The
Superintendent of the Company makes similar _complaints_.

* * * * *


Engineers are aware that there are more or less objections to the use
of the ordinary spring pistons, owing to the changing tension of the
springs, the necessity of frequent adjustment, and the impossibility of
the packing rings adapting themselves to the varying pressures of the
steam on the piston. A number of attempts have been made to produce a
self packing or steam expanding piston, which will act always with the
pressure of the steam and the velocity of the engine. The advantages
of such a piston will be readily appreciated by practical engineers,
especially drivers of locomotives, working, as they nearly all do, at a
very high pressure of steam. The general complaint against the several
packings in use on our railroads is, that they "pack too tight,"
and rapidly wear out the rings, while the only remedy has been, the
extremely uncertain one of contracting the openings by which steam is
admitted under the ring, or rings, to expand them. The obvious objection
to such an arrangement is, that it allows the steam to act on the rings
with its full force during slow motion, as when a train is starting,
while if effective under any circumstances, it will be so only at
comparatively high piston speed. The efficacy of such a remedy, if it
possesses any, is in fact inversely as the piston speed.

[Illustration: Fig.1]

Fig. 1 is a perspective of the piston itself, or the "spider," with its
follower and its rings removed, which are shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 3 is a
cross section of another form of the piston, to be presently described,
but which will serve to explain that shown in Figs. 1 and 2. Next to the
core of the spider are two narrow internal rings, A, in Figs. 1 and 3;
surrounding these two outer rings, B, the cross section of which is of
L-form, as seen in Fig. 3. The lips of these outer rings extend to the
whole thickness of the piston. The flange head of the piston, and also
the follower, are turned beveling on their edges to admit the steam
around the annular space thus formed under the rings, B. These spaces
are plainly exhibited at C, in Figs. 2 and 3. Both inner and outer rings
are adjusted to the bore of the cylinder by means of the gibs, D, and
set screws seen in Fig. 1.

[Illustration: Fig.2]

The section, Fig. 3, represents a modification intended for use in
vertical cylinders, if considered necessary. The additional center ring,
E, is intended to prevent leakage through the cut in the expanded ring
and over the face of the unexpanded one, which might occur when the
rings and cylinder should become so worn that the rings, when not
expanded, should collapse and leave the surface of the cylinder. The
rivets, F, shown by the dotted lines, are placed near the cuts in the
L-rings, and are intended to hold the outside and inside rings together
at that point, and prevent any tendency on the part of the latter
to collapse and let steam under that part of the L-rings. Probably,
however, if the packing is properly constructed and adjusted in the
first instance, these devices will be unnecessary. In horizontal
cylinders the weight of the piston, if properly supported on the set
screws and gibs, will accomplish these objects, if the cuts in the
L-rings are placed near the bottom side of the cylinder. The steam
enters the annular space between the beveled edges of the spider flange
and follower and the inner periphery of the overhanging part of the
L-rings, and acts only on that part.

[Illustration: Fig.3]

Patented by Nathan Hunt, Sept. 17, 1867. For further information address
the patentee, or Sharps, Davis & Bonsall, Salem, Ohio, who will furnish
piston heads to order on receipt of size of cylinder and piston rod.

* * * * *

Improvement in Hand Drills.

There are frequent occasions in a machine shop where light drilling is
required on work it is inconvenient to bring to the lathe. For this the
Scotch or ratchet drill, if the job is heavy, is employed, and if
light, the breast drill. The placing and working of the former consumes
considerable time, and the labor of drilling with the breast drill is
excessive and exhausting. It is difficult also to hold the instrument so
steady as not to cramp and break the drill. The combination of the drill
with tongs and a pivoted bed piece, as seen in the engraving, obviates
these objections.


To the lower jaw, A, of a pair of tongs is pivoted a platen or bed, B,
having a hole through its center, which is continued through the jaw for
the passage of the drillings. The upper jaw is formed with a circular
flange on which is mounted the circular or disk-like base, C, of the
drill frame, D. This, with the frame, is secured on the jaw of the tongs
by means of two screw bolts--one seen in the engraving--passing through
the jaw and screwing into the base of the drill. These bolts pass
through semi-circular or segmental slots, by which the drill frame can
be swung around at different angles to the tongs, to adapt itself to the
convenience of the workman and the requirements of the work. If desired,
the crank by which the drill is driven may be used on the upright
spindle, E. It will be seen that the pivoted base or bed, B, will allow
the work to adapt itself always to the line of the drill.

In operation, the work being placed between the drill and platen, the
left hand presses the handles of the tongs together, while the right
turns the crank; the feed is thus graduated wholly by the pressure of
the hand. No further description is required for understanding the
construction or operation of this tool. Patented by F. Nevergold and
George Stackhouse, June 19, 1866. Applications for the whole right, or
for territorial rights, should be addressed to the latter at Pittsburgh,

* * * * *

COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE.--The Senate on Friday, the 29th ult.,
confirmed the nomination of the Hon. Horace Capron as Commissioner of
Agriculture to fill the position made vacant by the death of Isaac
Newton, the former head of the Department.

* * * * *

It is estimated that 10,000,000 feet of sawed lumber is frozen up in
the docks at Bangor, Maine, three fourths of which is sold and waiting

* * * * *


_The Editors are not responsible for the opinions expressed by their

Improved Method of Securing Cutters on Boring Bars.

MESSRS. EDITORS:--Thinking it may be of use to some of the readers of
your invaluable paper, I have taken the liberty of sending you a sketch
of a new mode of securing the cutter in a boring bar or pin drill. Where
the cutters are secured, as usual, by a key, all mechanics know that it
is very difficult to set a cutter twice alike; and the notch, which
is filed in the cutter, to prevent it from moving endways, is a great
source of weakness, often causing the cutters to crack in hardening, as
well as after they are put to work. The inclosed sketch will explain


A is a cutter, and B a collar, screwed upon the cutter bar, C. The edge
of this collar fits into a notch on either end of the cutter, as shown
at D, thus leaving the cutter as strong as possible at the center, and
giving it a solid support at the point where support is needed, and at
the same time insuring its always coming alike.

Brooklyn, N.Y.


[The device seems to be eminently well calculated for the support of the
cutter on a boring bar, and is applicable, with but slight modification,
to a pin or "teat" drill. Machinists will readily perceive its operation
and excellencies.--EDS.

* * * * *

Tides and Their Causes.

The phenomenon of the daily tides of our seacoasts and tidal rivers is
attributed to the attraction of the moon upon the earth--that the moon
draws the earth towards it, and that in drawing the earth towards it, it
bulges up the water of the ocean on the side presented towards the moon,
and drawing the earth and water thus on that side, also draws the earth
_away_ from the water on the opposite side of it, and thus leaves the
water bulged up on _that_ side, and in doing all this the effect comes
after the cause some three hours, which is termed "the tide lagging
behind." Now if we knew, _per se_, what attraction of gravitation was,
and that it produced this anomaly of force, there would be nothing to
question in the matter. But as we only know by attraction that it means
_drawing to_, it is impossible to reconcile the theory of the tides as
they run to the attraction of the moon. If the moon is so potent in
drawing up, why does it not draw a bulge on the inland seas--our
great lakes? I will not discuss the question of the moon's Apogee and
Perigee--its different velocities in different parts[1] of its orbit, as
laid down by the law of Kepler, or whether it turns once on its axis in
a month, or not, as either theory will answer for its phases, as well
as for the face of the "Man in the Moon," but I will endeavor to give a
more rational theory for the phenomenon of the daily tides.

[Transcribers note 1: typo fixed, changed from 'pasts' to 'parts']

The earth revolves on its axis and makes a revolution every twenty-four
hours, and this moves its equatorial surface nearly a thousand miles per
hour. Now the water on its surface, covering about three-fourths of it,
and being more mobile than the solid earth, is, by centrifugal force,
made to roll around the earth, the same as the water is made to move
around the grindstone when in motion, a thing familiar to every body
that uses that instrument. In the Southern Ocean this motion of the
water is so well known to mariners who double Cape Horn in sailing from
San Francisco to New York, that they now run considerably lower down in
order to ride this tide eastward, than they did in former times. Here
then we have one fact of water tide more comprehensive, at least, than
the tractive theory of the moon. We have also the fact of two great
promontories in Capes Horn and Good Hope, where this great tidal wave
must strike against, and they produce constant oscillations of the water
to and fro, and produce gurgitation and regurgitation in all the gulfs
and rivers that line the coasts of the Northern, or more properly, the
Land Hemisphere. These gurgitations swell the water highest in the
places where the seas become the narrowest, as the more northern
latitudes. In addition to these daily oscillations of the water, there
are constant eddy currents, denominated "Gulf Streams," all agreeing in
their courses and motion to this theory of the ocean tides.

When our present received tide theory of moon attraction was first laid
down, the fact of the water of the great Southern ocean rolling round
faster than the solid parts of our planets was not known. Smith in his
Physical Geography, says, "The tidal wave flows from east to west, owing
to the earth's daily rotation in a contrary direction." Here he is
unintentionally correct, because the water striking these promontories
of the two great capes, is hurled back, and not, as he assumes, that
the great ocean wave is moving from east to west. The United States
government sailing charts lay down the fact of this great ocean wave
moving from west to east, south of the capes, and the ships coming from
the Pacific to the Atlantic ocean take advantage of this and ride the
sea at the rate of over twenty knots per hour, by following the routes
laid down in Maury's charts.

The old philosophy of the crystalline spheres was not more at variance
with the correct motion of the stars and planets, than the moon theory
of the tides. In their dilemma to account for the retrograde motions of
the planets, they denominated them wanderers, stragglers, because they
would not march with the "music of the spheres." In the moon theory of
the tides the lunar satellite is made to pull and push at one and the
same time, which is entirely at variance with the philosophy of force.

There is nothing in the heavens, nor in the earth, that proves to
us positively that the sun holds the planets, and the planets their
satellites, by attraction, as we are taught that the moon attracts the
water of our world. We see that all terrestrial bodies tend toward the
center of the earth, and we call this gravitation; but we cannot see how
a body moves around the earth without falling on it, by this law. We
say in dynamic philosophy, that bodies move in the direction of least
resistance, and _that_ we can positively understand; but what force _per
se_ is, we do not know. It is always better for us to explain phenomena
by positive known laws and motions, than by any that rest merely upon

Lancaster, Pa. JNO. WISE.

* * * * *

The Great Hoosac Tunnel.

Messrs. Editors:--In No. 23, Vol. XVII., of your paper, is an article
upon the Hoosac Tunnel, but made up from data nearly a year old, and
consequently not correctly representing the tunnel as it is at the
present time. Your conclusions of course were based upon the same data;
but during the past year, and especially during the past five months,
much greater progress has been made than ever before upon the work, and
a knowledge of what has been done since the last report was issued will,
I think, give you a different impression of the time required for its
final completion.

Referring to the profile in that number of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, the
following are the distances to the various points where the work is
being prosecuted:

Distance from east end to central shaft 12,837.294 feet
" " central shaft to west shaft 9,747.072 "
" " west shaft to new shaft 265.000 "
" " new shaft to well No. 4 659.150 "
" " well No. 4 to pier[1] 1,522.825 "
" " east end to pier[1] 25,031.341 "

[Footnote 1: The instrument pier is 4 feet west of the present west end
of the tunnel.]

The following are the lengths of the headings at the various points of
the work, Dec. 2, 1867:

Length of east end heading 4,608.000 feet
" " west shaft, east heading 1,262.000 "
" " " " west heading 611.000 "
" " west end heading 617.000 "
Total length of headings 7,098.000 "
Leaving 17,933.341 "

or 3,396 miles of heading yet to be made, of which 1,218.975 feet are
between the west end and the west shaft, and 16,714.366 feet between the
west shaft and east end of the tunnel.

The central shaft is down 583 feet, and well No. 4 is down 150 feet.

The progress for the month of November, 1867, was as follows:

East end heading 126.00 feet
West shaft, east heading 33.00 "
" " west heading 5.00 "
West end 20.00 "
Total for the month of November 184.00 "

Thirty feet of brick arch were completed during the month at the west
end, making a total of 516 feet of brick arch completed to date.

The progress for the last six months has been as follows:

East end 711.00 feet
West shaft, east heading 216.00 "
" " west " 288.00 "
West end 180.00 "
Total, from June 1, to Dec. 2 1,395.00 "
" for the previous six months 632.00 "
" " year ending Dec. 2, 1867 2,027.00 "

The new shaft has been sunk, and at its foot are the pumps which,
together with those at the west shaft, are now throwing out between 900
and 1,000 gallons of water per minute.

During the last month great quantities of water were struck at both
headings of the west shaft (70 gallons per minute at the east heading in
one day), and the work was stopped in consequence, which accounts for
the small progress at this point. A new pump of 1,000 gallons per minute
capacity will be at work, in addition to the above, in a few days, and
the work can then go forward with increased rapidity.

Well No. 4 is an artesian well, which is now being carried down as a
shaft to afford two more faces to work from. Its depth will be, when
finished, 215 feet, its dimensions 8 by 8 feet.

At the rate of progress for the past year it will require but eight
years and ten months to pierce through the mountain and at the rate for
the past six months it will require but six years and five months. But
when the central shaft and well No. 4 are sunk to grade the number of
faces to work from will be doubled, and the time of completion thereby
greatly diminished. At present drilling machines are employed only at
the east end, but in a few weeks they will be used at the west shaft,
and also at the central shaft as soon as the buildings and machinery are
again in place, and this again will hasten the completion of the work.
At the west shaft buildings are already erected for the manufacture of
nitro-glycerin, and the use of this powerful explosive will be adopted
during the present month. In fine, every means that will hasten the work
will be employed, and ere the present generation passes away, and
even within from four to seven years, trains loaded with freights and
passengers will pass and repass through the great heart of the Hoosac
Mountain as an hourly occurrence.

A. BEARDSLEY, C. E., Asst. Engineer.

North Adams, Mass.

* * * * *

Horse-hair Snakes--Wonderful Transformation.

Messrs. Editors:--In No. 21, current volume, you referred H. K., of
Wis., who had described the horse-hair snake, to page 280, No. 18
current volume, for a reply, which you considered "sufficient." With
your kind permission I would like to speak a few words about the
"snakes" in question. When I resided in Pennsylvania, I, in company with
many other lads, used to tie a bundle of horse hairs into a hard knot
and then immerse them in the brook, when the water began to get warm,
and in due time we would have just as many animals, with the power of
locomotion and appearance of snakes, as there were hairs in the bundle.
I have raised them one-eighth of an inch in diameter, with perceptible
eyes and mouth on the butt end or root part of the hair. Take such a
snake and dip it in an alkaline solution, and the flesh or mucus that
formed about the hair will dissolve, and the veritable horse hair is
left. They will not generate in limestone water, only in freestone or
salt water.

Covington, Ky.


* * * * *

Man Proposes, but God Disposes.

It may not be generally known that but for one of those accidents which
seem to be almost a direct interposition of Providence, Prof. Morse,
the originator of the magnetic telegraph, might have been now an artist
instead of the inventor of the telegraph, and that agent of civilization
be either unknown or just discovered. We publish from Tuckerman's "Book
of the Artists" just from the press of G. P. Putnam & Son, the following
reminiscence of Prof. Morse:

"A striking evidence of the waywardness of destiny is afforded by the
experience of this artist, if we pass at once from this early and
hopeful moment to a more recent incident. He then aimed at renown
through devotion to the beautiful; but it would seem as if the genius of
his country, in spite of himself, led him to this object, by the less
flowery path of utility. He desired to identify his name with art, but
it has become far more widely associated with science. A series of
bitter disappointments obliged him to "coin his mind for bread", for a
long period, of exclusive attention to portrait painting, although, at
rare intervals, he accomplished something more satisfactory. More than
thirty years since, on a voyage from Europe, in a conversation with
his fellow passengers, the theme of discourse happened to be the
electromagnet; and one gentleman present related some experiments he had
lately witnessed at Paris, which proved the almost incalculable rapidity
of movement with which electricity was disseminated. The idea suggested
itself to the active mind of the artist, that this wonderful and but
partially explored agent might be rendered subservient to that system of
intercommunication which had become so important a principle of modern
civilization. He brooded over the subject as he walked the deck, or lay
wakeful in his berth, and by the time he arrived at New York, had so
far matured his invention as to have decided upon a telegraph of
signs, which is essentially that now in use. After having sufficiently
demonstrated his discovery to the scientific, a long period of toil,
anxiety, and suspense intervened before he obtained the requisite
facilities for the establishment of the magnetic telegraph. It is now
in daily operation in the United States, and its superiority over all
similar inventions abroad was confirmed by the testimony of Arago and
the appropriation made for its erection by the French Government.

"By one of those coincidences which would be thought appropriate for
romance, but which are more common, in fact, than the unobservant are
disposed to confess, these two most brilliant events in the painter's
life--his first successful work of art and the triumph of his scientific
discovery--were brought together, as it were, in a manner singularly
fitted to impress the imagination. Six copies of his "Dying Hercules"
had been made in London, and the mold was then destroyed. Four of these
were distributed by the artist to academies, one he retained, and the
last was given to Mr. Bulfinch, the architect of the Capitol--who was
engaged at the time upon that building. After the lapse of many years,
an accident ruined Morse's own copy, and a similar fate had overtaken
the others, at least in America. After vain endeavors to regain one of
these trophies of his youthful career, he at length despaired of seeing
again what could not fail to be endeared to his memory by the most
interesting associations. One day he was superintending the preparations
for the first establishment of his telegraph in the room assigned at the
Capitol. His perseverence and self-denying labor had at length met
its just reward, and he was taking the first active step to obtain a
substantial benefit from his invention. It became necessary in locating
the wires, to descend into a vault beneath the apartment, which had not
been opened for a long period. A man preceded the artist with a lamp. As
they passed along the subterranean chamber the latter's attention
was excited by something white glimmering through the darkness. In
approaching the object, what was his surprise to find himself gazing
upon his long-lost Hercules, which he had not seen for twenty years. A
little reflection explained the apparent miracle. This was undoubtedly
the copy given to his deceased friend, the architect, and temporarily
deposited in the vault for safety, and undiscovered after his death."

* * * * *

Extraordinary Effects of an Earthquake--An American Man-of-War Carried
Over the Tops of Warehouses and Stranded.



Sir:--I have to state, with deep regret, that the United States
steamship _Monongahela_, under my command, is now lying on the beach in
front of the town of Frederickstadt, St. Croix, where she was thrown by
the most fearful earthquake ever known here. The shock occurred at 3
o'clock, P. M., of the 18th inst. Up to that moment the weather was
serene, and no indication of a change showed by the barometer, which
stood at 30 degrees 15 minutes. The first indication we had of the
earthquake was a violent trembling of the ship, resembling the blowing
off of steam. This lasted some 30 seconds, and immediately afterward the
water was observed to be receding rapidly from the beach. In a moment
the current was changed, and bore the ship toward the beach, carrying
out the entire cable and drawing the bolts from the kelson, without
the slightest effect in checking her terrific speed toward the beach.
Another anchor was ordered to be let go, but in a few seconds she was in
too shoal water for this to avail. When within a few yards of the beach,
the reflux of the water checked her speed for a moment, and a light
breeze from the land gave me a momentary hope that the jib and
foretopmost staysail might pay her head off shore, so that in the reflux
of the wave she might reach waters sufficiently deep to float her, and
then be brought up by the other anchor. These sails were immediately
set, and she payed off so as to bring her broadside to the beach. When
the sea returned, in the form of a wall of water 25 or 30 feet high, it
carried us over the warehouses into the first street of the town. This
wave in receding took her back toward the beach, and left her nearly
perpendicular on the edge of a coral reef, where she has now keeled over
to an angle of 15 degrees.

All this was the work of a few moments only, and soon after the waters
of the bay subsided into their naturally tranquil state, leaving us high
and dry upon the beach. During her progress toward the beach she struck
heavily two or three times; the first lurch carried the rifle gun on the
forecastle overboard. Had the ship been carried 10 or 15 feet further
out, she must inevitably have been forced over on her beam ends,
resulting, I fear, in her total destruction, and in the loss of many
lives. Providentially only four men were lost; these were in the boats
at the time the shock commenced. The boats that were down were all
swamped except my gig, which was crushed under the keel, killing my
coxswain, a most valuable man. During this terrific scene the officers
and men behaved with coolness and subordination. It affords me great
pleasure to state, that, after a careful examination of the position and
condition of the ship, I am enabled to report that she has sustained no
irreparable damage to her hull. The sternpost is bent, and some 20 feet
of her keel partially gone; propeller and shaft uninjured. The lower
pintle of the rudder is gone, but no other damage is sustained by it. No
damage is done to her hull more serious than the loss of several sheets
of copper, torn from her starboard bilge and from her keel.

She now lies on the edge of a coral reef, which forms a solid
foundation, on which ways may be laid. She can thus be launched in 10
feet of water at 100 feet from the beach. Gentlemen looking at the ship
from shore declare that the bottom of the bay was visible where there
was before, and is now, 40 fathoms of water.

To extricate the ship from her position I respectfully suggest that
Mr. I. Hanscom be sent down with suitable material for ways, ready for
laying down, and india-rubber camels to buoy her up. I think there is no
insuperable obstacle to her being put afloat, providing a gang of ten or
twelve good ship carpenters be sent down with the Naval Constructor, as
her boilers and engines appear to have sustained no injury. A valuable
ship may thus be saved to the navy, with all her stores and equipments.

S. B. BISSELL, Commodore Commanding. Rear-Admiral J. S. Palmer,
commanding H. A. Squadron, St. Thomas.

* * * * *

The survey of another trans-continental railway route, which shall
follow mainly the 35th parallel of latitude, is nearly completed. Its
projectors claim this as the most feasible one across the continent,
and even if the northern and southern roads are constructed, this would
still be the favorite popular thoroughfare, and the easiest and cheapest

* * * * *

The Chilian gun now being built at Pittsburgh, is 221/4 feet in length,
being two feet longer than the famous Rodman gun at Fort Hamilton,
this harbor, but of exactly the same bore, twenty inches. Its greatest
diameter is 5 feet 4 inches, its least diameter, 2 feet 9 inches. The
gun is designed for garrison or naval service.

* * * * *

From lack of economy, in reduction of ores, it is estimated that the
aggregate loss on the production of bullion in this country for the
present year will reach the sum of $25,000,000.

* * * * *

Recent American and foreign Patents.

_Under this heading we shall publish weekly notes of some of the more
prominent home and foreign patents._

* * * * *

WARDROBE.--Nathan Turner, West Lynn, Mass.--This invention consists in a
movable or swinging arrangement of the sides and top and bottom, whereby
they are folded upon each other, with grooves or strips in or upon the
sides to support shelves when used as a closet or book case, and which
shelves may be removed when used as a wardrobe.

AXLE BOX.--Henry B. Pitner, La Porte, Ind.--This invention consists of
an iron thimble or slieve provided on each end in the inside with a
screw thread into which are fitted ends of brass or composition, or
other metal softer than iron, in such a way that said metallic ends will
not turn in the box, and so that the axle bears only upon the softer

SPRING FORMER.--George S. Long, Bridgeport, Conn.--This invention
consists of a vibrating anvil or former, upon which the steel to be
worked is placed, said former vibrating under a roller, said roller
being hollow, and provided with holes or orifices through which water
received in the shaft of said roller is distributed upon the heated

DOOR-FASTENER.--Francis C. Levalley, Warrenville, N. Y.--The present
invention relates to a fastener for doors more particularly which, in
the construction and arrangement of its parts, is simple, and most
effective, and secure, when fastened.

ROOFING.--Orville Manly, Garrettsville, Ohio.--This invention consists
of tiles saturated with raw coal tar, made in the same way as ordinary
brick, having all the edges bevelled, being thicker at one end, and laid
upon the roof with the thicker end towards the eaves, and the spaces
between the tiles formed by the bevelled sides of the same filled with a
cement made of raw coal and clay.

FOLDING BEDSTEAD OR CRIB.--R. S. Titcomb, Gloversville, N. Y.--This
invention consists of the parts being attached to each other by pivots
and hinges, whereby the same may be folded in upon the bed and clothing,
and upon each other.

city.--This invention relates to a new manner of arranging the cast
metal cases for spring balances, so that they can be made less expensive
and simpler than they are now made, and consists in fitting the iron, to
which the upper end of the spring is secured, directly through the upper
head of the case, instead of using an additional head in the case for
that purpose.

TWEERS.--John B. Himberg, Frederick City, Md.--This invention relates to
a new tweers, which is so arranged that the center part or ring can be
easily taken out, whenever desired, but not accidentally, by a hook or
stirrer, and that it can be easily cleaned and taken apart whenever
desired, and that it may conduct a strong blast of air to the fire.

PUNCH.--C. D. Flesche, New York city.--This invention consists in
arranging a punch in such a manner that it consists of two parts, which
are firmly connected together for cutting the metal, while for bending
the same, an inner sliding punch will be moved out of the stationary
cutting punch, thus making both operations by one instrument, and
avoiding the removal of the article from the cutting to the bonding
punch, which was heretofore necessary.

RAILROAD CHAIR.--Leander Pollock, Matteawan, N.Y.--This invention
consists in making the chair of two pieces, each piece consisting of one
cheek and of a portion of the case. When the two pieces are connected,
the base of one rests upon the base of the other, the line of division
between the two bases being inclined so that as the rail presses upon
the upper base, it, will tend to force the same downward on the incline,
whereby the two cheeks will be brought together.

FIRE LADDER.--Johan Blomgren, Galesburg, Ill.--The main feature in this
invention is a telescopic tube, expanded or closed by a coil fitting
within it, and worked by a toothed wheel.

HARVESTER.--Francis C. Coppage, Terre Haute, Ind.--The object of my
invention is to render more simple and effective the machinery for
operating and adjusting the cutter bar and the reel of harvesters.

BOAT-DETACHING APPARATUS.--David L. Cohen, Pensacola, Fla.--The object
of this invention is to furnish a device by which a ship's boat can
be readily shipped or launched at sea, without danger of capsizing or

DEVICE FOR HITHING HORSES.--Samuel Galbraith, New Orleans, La.--This
invention is a neat, cheap, and durable device, designed to be attached
to halters used in hitching horses, mules, etc., to prevent their being
thrown, hung, or injured.

HYDROSTATIC MACHINE.--Dr. J. R. Cole, Kenton Station, Tenn.--The object
of this invention is to construct a machine which, by the application of
but little power, will raise a stream of water to any desired hight, to
furnish motive power for machinery or for other purposes.

FENCE POST.--Robert Ramsay, New Wilmington, Pa.--In this invention the
bottom of the post is supported between two parallel sills a short
distance from the ground, the post being dovetailed and held by keys
passing across the sills, and being adjusted high or low, or at any
inclination, by making the keys larger or smaller, or of different

SELF-LOADING EXCAVATOR.--Benj. Slusser, Sidney, Ohio.--In this invention
a pinion, attached to the forward axle is made to elevate the plow, when
desired, and at the same instant to ungear and stop the endless apron
carrier that conveys the dirt from the plow to the cart. A new method of
instantly unloading the cart, and setting it again to receive another
load, is shown.

WASHING MACHINE.--J. Q. Leffingwell, Nevada, Iowa.--This invention
relates to an improvement in washing machines, and consists of a
vibrating semi-cylindrical box operated by a means of a lever handle and

SCAFFOLD FOR BUILDERS, ETC.--John E. Bliss, Oxford, Ind.--This invention
has for its object to furnish an improved scaffold for the use
of carpenters, masons, painters, etc., which shall be simple in
construction, strong, durable and easily adjusted to any desired hight.

PLOW.--Harvey Briggs, Smithland, Ky.--This invention has for its object
to furnish an improved plow for breaking up sod or prairie land, which
shall be strong and durable in construction and effective m operation.

CORN PLOW.--John Snyder, Williamsfield, Ohio.--This invention has for
its object to furnish an improved plow for plowing and hoeing corn,
which shall be simple and strong in construction and will do its work

McGregor, Iowa.--This invention has for its object to furnish an
improved attachment for reapers of that class in which the rakes act as
beaters, in the place of a reel, and are made to descend occasionally to
sweep the bundle from the platform, so that the third, fourth, sixth, or
any other desired rake may sweep the platform and deliver the bundle.

SKY ROCKET.--John W. Hadfield, Newtown, N. Y.--This invention relates to
a modification of an improvement in sky rockets for which letters patent
were granted to this inventor bearing date Nov. 28, 1865. The original
improvement consisted in a novel application of wings to the body or
"carcass" of the rocket, whereby the use of the ordinary guide stick was
rendered unnecessary and the rockets rendered capable of being packed
for transportation much more compactly than when provided with sticks.
The present invention also consists in a novel manner of attaching the
wings to the body or "carcass" of the rocket, whereby the same advantage
is obtained as hitherto, at a less cost of manufacture.

TAIL PIECE FOR VIOLINS.--James Thoms, South Boston, Mass.--This
invention relates to a new and improved manner of attaching the E-string
to the tail piece of a violin, whereby a comparatively small portion of
said string is wasted in case of breakage.

HAME TUG.--James E. Covert, Townsendville, N. Y.--This hame tug,
according to the present invention, is made of a strip of malleable iron
or other suitable material, perforated or provided with V-Shaped holes
or slots having a center tongue piece, for the reception of a V-Shaped
block fixed at one end of the trace, by means of which block the trace
is engaged with the hame tug, where through a suitably arranged spring
slot that strikes against the end of the tongue to the said V-slots, the
block is held firmly in place, and consequently the trace fastened to
the hame tug.

CENTER BOARD.--F. J. McFarland, San Francisco, Cal.--This invention
relates to the location of the center boards of boats and sailing craft
of all kinds, but is designed more particularly for freight carrying
vessels. It consists simply in employing two center boards and locating
the same at the extreme ends of the hull.

MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.--George W. Van Dusen, Williamsburgh, N.Y.--This
invention consists in a novel connection and arrangement of levers
and valves between the plane of movement of the perforated surface or
surfaces, and an airchest or chests, and the keys or levers for opening
the valves to the reeds or for operating any other mechanism suitable
for producing tones, whereby through such perforated surface or surfaces
the mechanism forming the connection between it and the sounding
mechanism will be operated through the perforations to produce the sound
or note or notes desired, of whatever length such notes or sounds are to

COMBINED SEAT AND DESK.--Rev Allen H. Burn, May's Landing, N. J.--The
present invention relates to the combination of a desk or lid with a
seat or bench, such lid or desk being hinged to the back of the seat in
such a manner as to be raised or lowered at pleasure, and when raised,
supported in position by means of supporting bars properly applied

Y.--This invention relates to a device by which the conical stop valves
of gas, steam, and water works may be refitted or repaired when from any
cause they are rendered leaky and unfit for use.

GRAIN-BAND CUTTER AND FORK.--E. G. Bullis, Manchester, Iowa.--This
invention has for its object to furnish an improved instrument by means
of which the bands of the grain bundles may be cut at the same time that
the bundles are pitched to the person who feeds them to the threshing
machine, and by the same operation.

PROPELLING VESSELS, ETC.--Robert R. Spedden and Daniel F. Stafford,
Astoria, Oregon.--This invention has for its object to furnish an
improved means by which the motion of the waves may be used for
propelling vessels or working pumps or other machinery.

MAILBAG FASTENER.--S. Denison, Portlandville, N.Y.--This invention has
for its object to furnish an improved mailbag fastening by the use of
which the mouth of the bag will be closed securely, and which may be
operated, in closing and opening the bag, in less time and with less
labor, than the fastenings now in use.

KNIFE AND FORK CLEANER.--John Merritt, New York city.--This invention
has for its object to furnish an improved machine by means of which
knives and forks may be quickly and thoroughly cleaned.

CHURN.--Thomas Bisbing, Buckstown, Penn.--This invention has for its
object to furnish an improved churn conveniently and easily operated,
and which will do its work quickly and thoroughly.

SAW BUCK.--Henry J. Dill, Cummington, Mass.--This invention relates to
the manner in which a stick of fire wood, or cord wood, is held fast
or secured in the saw buck for the purpose of sawing it into suitable
lengths, and it consists in arranging adjustable toothed clamps for
holding the stick, which clamps are brought in contact with it by
bearing upon a treddle with the foot.

PLATFORM SCALES.--D. Hazzard, Milton, Del.--This invention relates to a
new and improved method of constructing scales of the platform kind, and
it consists in attaching a spiral spring to a spindle, to the top end of
which spindle the platform is secured, and to the bottom end of which a
rod and index finger is attached so that when an article, to be weighed,
is placed on the platform, the weight of the article will act upon the
spring and be indicated by the finger.

WASHING MACHINE.--S. W. Curtiss, Sugar Grove, Pa.--This invention
relates to a new and improved method of constructing washing machines,
and consists in the arrangement of three fluted revolving rollers in a
suitable washing box or vessel.

COMBINED TRY SQUARE AND BEVEL.--Samuel N. Batchelder, Prairie du Chien,
Wis.--This invention consists in attaching the blade of a try square
to the stock in such a manner that it can be set and fastened at any
desired angle by operating a hook slide and set screws.

STEAM ENGINE.--J. F. Troxel, Bloomsville, Ohio.--This invention relates
to a new and improved method of constructing steam engines, whereby the
same are greatly increased in power and effectiveness, and consists in
operating a number of pistons in one cylinder.

STOVE.--T. W. Wisner, Howell, Mich.--This invention relates to a new and
improved method of constructing those stoves which are used for drying
purposes or for heating water, or steaming vegetables and for all other
purposes of a similar nature, and the invention consists in rendering
the stove portable by providing for supporting the same on truck wheels
which allows of its being transported from place to place, as may be

FURNACE HOT AIR BLAST.--Richard Long, Chillicothe, Ohio.--This invention
relates to a new and improved method of constructing and arranging
the air pipes for heating the air blast for furnaces for smelting
and reducing the ores in the manufacture of iron, having particular
reference to the materials of which the air pipe is formed, the
method of its construction, and also to the materials and method of
construction of the supporting walls.

PRINTING POINTERS.--R. W. Macgowan, New York city.--This invention
relates to a new and improved application of pointers to printing
presses for registering the sheets of paper as they are fed to the
press. Hitherto these pointers have been operated automatically, from
the running parts of the press allowed to remain in an elevated or
nearly upright position, and through the sheet until the fingers or
nippers of the cylinder arrive in proper position to grasp the sheet, at
which time the pointers are drawn down and the sheet released, so that
it may be connected with the cylinder, and related with the same in
order to receive the impression. This improvement consists in applying a
spring or an equivalent weight to the pointers, the latter being pivoted
at their lower ends, or attached to axes and all constructed and
arranged in such a manner that the pointers will hold the sheets
properly in position on the feed board, and the nippers of the cylinder
allowed to draw the sheet off from the points on account of the latter
yielding or being allowed to be drawn down under the slight pull of the
sheet, the springs or weights throwing the points back to their original
position as soon as the sheet is withdrawn.

CLEANER FOR LAMP CHIMNEYS, ETC.--R. B. Musson, Champaign, Ill.--This
invention relates to an improved cleaner for lamp chimneys, bottles, and
other hollow ware.

SAWYER'S RULE.--Thomas Carter, Louisville, Ky.--This invention relates
to an improved sawyer's rule, and consists of a rule on which is a scale
showing at a glance the number of boards or planks, of any desired
thickness, which can be sawn from a log of any given diameter.

WINDOW SCREEN.--A. W. Griffith, Roxbury, Mass.--This invention relates
to an improvement in window screens, and consists in a screen wound
round a spring roller at foot of a window, and attached to the bottom of
the lower sash so that on opening the window the screen opens with it,
admitting the air but excluding insects, and on closing the sash the
screen winds up itself.

SHOVEL PLOW, CULTIVATOR, ETC.--P. Atkinson Ross, Harveys, Pa.--This
invention has for its object to improve the construction of single and
double-shovel plows, cultivators, etc., to enable them to be readily
adjusted for use upon sidehills or level ground, so that the handles may
be secured in nearly a level position, while the plow is held in the
best position for doing the work properly.

SKY ROCKETS.--John W. Hadfield, East Williamsburgh, N. Y.--This
invention consists in dispensing with the long stick or guide which is
now attached to sky rockets in order to insure a straight upward flight
of the same in the air, and using instead a plurality of short guides,
whereby several important advantages are obtained, to wit: the packing
of the rockets in a small space, so as to economise in transportation,
the forming of a stand or support for the rocket, so that no fixture of
any kind will be required when they are to be fired or "set off," and
lastly, the obtaining of an efficient guide to insure the straight
flight of the rockets upward in the air.

CATCHING THE OXYDE OF ZINC.--G. C. Hall, Brooklyn, N. Y.--This invention
relates to an improved means for catching the oxyde of zinc, as it
escapes with the fumes and gases from roasting zinc, or zinc ore.
Hitherto the oxyde of zinc has been caught and retained by forcing the
fumes and gases from the roasting ore into a large bag or receptacle
composed of cotton cloth or other porous material, which will admit
of the gases and air passing it, but not the oxyde, the latter being
retained within the bag, and, by its superior gravity, falling to the
bottom thereof and settling in teats or pendent receptacles at the
bottom of the bag, from which it is removed from time to time. This
invention has for its object the dispensing with the large bag, which
is very expensive--the gases from the ore affecting the same so that it
rots in a very short time, and soon becomes ruptured under the blows
which are given it to cause the oxyde which adheres to the sides of
the bag to drop into the teats or receptacles made to receive it. The
invention consists in having the fumes and gases from the roasting zinc
or zinc ore forced into a close building, provided with openings or
apertures, over which screens are placed, constructed in such a manner
and of such materials as to admit of the air and gases passing through
them, but not the oxyde.

FERRULE.--Archibald Shaw, Philadelphia, Pa.--This invention relates to a
new and improved ferrule for the handles of tools and other implements,
and it consists in providing the interior of the ferrule with oblique
spurs or projections, disposed or arranged in such a manner as to admit
of the ferrule being driven on the handle and at the same time prevent
it from casually slipping off therefrom. The object of the invention is
to obviate the necessity of tacks or screws being used to secure the
ferrule on the handle, as well as the pinching of the same externally to
form a burr to sink into the handle to effect the same end.

SUCTION OF VACUUM PUMP AND BLOWER.--John Doyle and Timothy A. Martin,
New York City.--This invention consists in arranging valves and air
passages with a hollow cylinder or drum having an oscillating movement,
and provided with a chamber or chambers to receive water, mercury or
other fluid, whereby an exceedingly simple and compact pump or blower is
obtained, one not liable to get out of repair or become deranged by use.

city.--This invention relates to an improved machine or apparatus
for registering numbers applicable to odometers or measurements of
quantities of all kinds, such as the numbers of barrels of flour,
bushels of grain or any other commodity that requires a tally or record
of the quantity packed, stored, weighed, or handled in any manner.

DITCHING MACHINE.--A. H. and P. S. Whitacre, Morrow, Ohio.--This
invention relates to an improvement in the construction of a machine for
cutting ditches suitable for laying tile for draining lands, or pipe of
any kind, and consists in a sled worked by tackle and supporting a frame
carrying the machinery, in such manner that the frame can be raised and
lowered to cut the ditch to any required depth.

Pa.--This invention relates to an improvement in constructing a
fastening for window shades and consists in a metal rack to be attached
vertically as usual to the side of the window frame for holding the
cord connected with the shade by means of a lever dog that works in a
longitudinal slot in the rack and is engaged and disengaged with the
teeth thereof by moving the lever in and out of the slot to be secured
in places when engaged by a swivelknob on which is a pulley that covers
the cord of the shade.

FENCE POST.--Warren H. Shay, Sylvania, Ohio.--This invention relates to
an improved method of constructing fence posts and consists in forming
them of plank uprights supported by braces and held together by cross
ties and keys.

CLOTHES-WASHING MACHINE.--John D. Swartz, Milton, Pa.--This invention
relates to a new and improved clothes-washing machine of that class
which are provided with an oscillating rubber and a concave of rollers.

RAILROAD RAILS AND CHAIRS.--John H. Downing, Salem, Mass.--This
invention relates to an improvement in railroad rails and chairs, and
consists in forming the rails in two parts, to lie side by side, with
lap joints combined with narrow chairs, having single heads placed on
each side of the rail to clamp the two parts together at the joints, and
fasten them to the ties.

MACHINE FOR STRETCHING CLOTH.--A. C. Corpe, Stafford, Conn.--This
invention relates to a new and improved machine for stretching cloth,
with a view of tendering the same smooth and enfolding such portion of
the selvedges which may have been rolled over in the manipulations to
which it was subjected after being taken from the loom.

MACHINE FOR SHARPENING SAWS.--E. B. Rich, South Boston, Mass.--This
invention relates to a machine for the sharpening of saw blades, whether
straight or circular, and consists in the combination of a revolving or
rotating grinding wheel made of any suitable material, and a holder for
the saw blade, so arranged together that as the grinding wheel revolves
the saw will be presented to the same, or the wheel to the saw-blade,
in such a manner as to produce the desired sharpening of the teeth, in
regular order and succession.

DOOR SPRING.--Rudolph Schrader, Indianapolis, Ind.--The present
invention relates to a spring for doors, that being properly connected
with the door will operate to close, whether when opened it swings
inside or outside through the casing to the door, the spring being
especially applicable to doors hung to swing through their casing, or
inside and outside.

PORTABLE DERRICK.--D. J. McDonald, Gold Hill, Nevada.--This invention
relates to a new and improved derrick, and it consists in a novel
construction and arrangement of parts, whereby the device may be readily
drawn from place to place, the crane or derrick frame adjusted in any
desired position within the scope of its movement, friction avoided, and
the whole apparatus manipulated with the greatest facility.

* * * * *

Answers to Correspondents.

_Correspondents who expect to receive answers to their letters must,
in all cases, sign their names. We have a right to know those who seek
information from us; besides, as sometimes happens, we may prefer to
address the correspondent by mail.

Special Note.--This column is designed for the general interest and
instruction of our readers, not for gratuitous replies to questions of
a purely business or personal nature. We will publish such inquiries,
however, when paid for as advertisements, at 50 cents a line, under the
head of "Business and Personal"

All reference to back numbers should be by volume and page._

* * * * *

J. F. McK., of Md.--"What kind of silk is used for balloons, what is the
varnish which covers them, and what amount of common illuminating gas
will support one pound weight?" Silk for large balloons is now rarely
used, stout cotton cloth being substituted. Ordinary boiled linseed oil
makes a good varnish. Any elastic varnish will do, however. The specific
gravity of ordinary illuminating gas ranges from 0.540 to 0.700, air
being 1.000. Its weight may be called one-thirty-second of a pound to
the cubic foot and atmospheric air about three-fourths of a pound.

R. B. C., of Pa., says: "Here is a proposition in geometry which I would
like to see demonstrated theoretically by one of your correspondents.
The side of a regular heptagon is equal to half the side of an
equilateral triangle inscribed in the same circle. The mechanical
construction is very simple and will be found useful. I discovered it
some years ago and am not aware of its ever having been in print."

F. H., of Mich., asks "if sal-soda will scale a boiler?" H. N. Winans,
11 Wall street, N. Y. replies that in some waters it is partially
effective but at the expense of the boiler, with a certainty of foaming
and corrosion. The most reliable and positively uninjurious remedy for
incrustations is his anti-incrustation powder--in successful use for 12
years past.

T., of R. I., speaks of the famous mechanical horse shown at the Paris
Exposition which is said to have accomplished with its rider a little
over an English mile in fifty seconds, and asks what is the motive
power. As it is said that the French Government took possession of the
machine and preserves its mechanical construction a secret, we know no
more about it than about the much vaunted Napoleon cannon.

S.S., of N. Y.--"Please give the ingredients of the composition used for
tipping matches." Different manufacturers employ different materials and
in varying proportions; the mixture of phosphorus melted and stirred up
with thin glue is sufficient, although some add a quantity of powdered
glass, niter, chlorate of potash, sulphur, etc. The phosphorus, however
is the light-producing material.

R.S.B., of N.Y., alluding to the inquiry of S.W.P., in No. 23, for a
waterproof paste. "Calico printers when they wish to leave white figures
on a dark ground use what they term a 'resist paste' to cover such
places as are designed to be unaffected by the dye. If the ingredients
of this paste were known it might be what S.W.P., desires." This "resist
paste" is 1 lb. of binacetate of copper (distilled verdigris), 3 lbs.
sulphate of copper dissolved in 1 gal. water. This solution to be
thickened with 2 lbs. gum senegal, 1 lb. British gum and 4 lbs. pipe
clay; adding afterward, 2 oz. nitrate of copper as a deliquescent.

M.A.H, of Vt.--"I have a surplus of water power and desire to know the
probable cost of the apparatus for producing the electric light, with
a view of employing my surplus power in that direction." A serviceable
magneto-electrical machine for giving light is quite expensive.

* * * * *

Business and Personal.

_The charge for insertion under this head is 50 cents a line_.

* * * * *

Parties in want of Fine Tools or Machinists' Supplies send for price
list to Goodnow & Wightman, 23 Cornhill, Boston, Mass.

Pattern Letters and Figures for inventors, etc., to put on patterns for
castings, are made by Knight Brothers, Seneca Falls, N.Y.

Allen & Needles, 41 South Water street, Philadelphia, Manufacturers of
Allen's Patent Anti-Lamina, for removing and preventing Scale in steam

All Parties having any article to sell through an agent, address, with
circular, etc., Box 499 Oil City, Pa.

Manufacturers of Tag Holders will please send address to Box 1019, St.
Paul, Minn.

Manufacturers of Presses for making Castor Oil, address or send circular
to F.M. Peck, P.O. Box 190, Montgomery, Ala.

Manufacturers of Cotton-Spinning and Knitting Machinery send circular
and price list to W.L. Jones, Holly Springs, Miss.

Dr. W. Spillman, Marion Station, Miss., wishes to correspond with
manufacturers of buckshot or bullets, either conical or spherical.

Toy Makers--One-half of Patent Right of Toy Wind Wheel given away!
Address Dr. W.H. Benson, Norfolk, Va.

Milton Darling, East Macdonough, Chenango Co., N.Y., wishes the address
of those that want broom handles for the year 1868.

A.B. Woodbury, Winchester, N.H., wants to sell two valuable
patents--Jack-Spinning Improvements.

E.C. Tainter, Worcester, Mass., wants to sell a good set of Sash and
Door Machinery, used only six months.

Parties desiring any of their new ideas put into practical form, or
wanting any new apparatus invented for manufacturing purposes, etc.,
address, with confidence, A.E.W., Inventor and Draftsman, 114 Fulton
street, N.Y. References given.

* * * * *


For the benefit of the Union Pacific railroad, the base of the Rocky
Mountains has been fixed at the base of the Black Hills, a distance of
6.637 miles west of Cheyenne, and, according to the railway surveys
525.078 miles from Omaha.

The Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago railway have just rebuilt in
the most permanent manner an iron bridge over the Alleghany river, to
replace the old wooden Howe truss bridge, which had become inadequate
to the increasing traffic. The new bridge opens like a fan towards the
freight yard at Pittsburg being at the narrowest part, next to the main
span 55 feet wide. The river is crossed with spans averaging 1531/2 feet
in the clear, with a bearing of five feet on each pier. The principle
of the construction is known as the lattice girder plan, with vertical
stiffening. The work was executed under the superintendence of its
designer, the engineer and architect of the company Felician Stataper.

The production of precious metals in the United States from 1849 to 1867
inclusive, has amounted in value to $1,174,000,000.

The president of one of the New Jersey railroads proposes a plan to
avoid the danger to life and limb from the series of trains that run
into and out of Jersey city. The new project is to elevate the present
tracks fifteen feet above the streets, and by safe machinery to lower at
once an entire train in the depot at the river.

A mining company at Newton, Nev., are making preparations to work their
claims by means of a steam engine which will be used to throw a stream
of water instead of the ordinary hydraulic pressure They estimate that
with a ten or twelve horse power engine, then can throw 100 inches of
water with a force equal to at least 150 feet fall. The result of this
experiment is looked upon with a good deal of interest, as there is a
vast amount of good hydraulic ground in the adjoining countries, which,
as in this case, cannot be worked by the ordinary process for want of
water fall, but which, if the expedient in this case proves successful,
will soon be worked by steam engines.

By an oversight in the article on the trans-continental railroad,
published in our last issue, the Western or California section of the
road was styled the Union Pacific, instead of the Central railroad. In
the race to reach Salt Lake the California company have 400 miles more
to build, while the Union company have only 328 miles. But the country
to be traversed by the former is comparatively level, and favorable for
winter work, while that on the other side crosses four distinct mountain
ranges, and winter storms must interrupt work for several months in the

* * * * *



S.H. HODGES for the Board of Examiners-in Chief.

_Application of Rew for a Patent for Preventing and Curing Swine
Cholera_.--The applicant's specific is composed of a number of medical
articles, the nature of which is not important upon the present
occasion, and it is unnecessary to enumerate them. But it is objected
that "a medical prescription" "should contain some recognition of the
medicinal properties of the several ingredients" "and the part they

Book of the day: