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Scientific American Supplement, No. 803, May 23, 1891 by Various

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_Germany and Austria_.
Oak bark.
Pine "
Willow bark.
{ Oak bark and wood.
Extracts { Pine bark and wood.

Birch bark.
Willow "
Oak "
Pine "
Hemlock extract.

_Norway and Sweden_.
Birch bark.
Willow "
Oak "

--_Shoe and Leather Reporter_.

* * * * *


[Footnote 1: Read at the meeting of the Chemical Section of the
Franklin Institute held March 17, 1891.]


Chemists who do not happen to have in their laboratories oil or air
baths for heating closed tubes can make an air bath at short notice
from materials furnished by all dealers in steam fittings.


(1) One four-inch wrought iron pipe, eighteen inches out to out, with
usual thread on each end. At about nine inches from either end this
pipe is drilled and tapped for a one-inch nipple, in such a manner
that a pipe introduced would pass, not on a line with the radius, but
about half way between the axis of the four-inch pipe and its walls;
in other words, it would be on a line with a chord of the circle.

(2) One one-inch wrought iron nipple, two inches long, one-inch thread
on one end.

(3) Two four-inch malleable iron caps, drilled and tapped for a
one-inch pipe.

(4) One one-inch wrought iron pipe, twenty-four inches out to out,
with a three-inch straight thread on each end.

(5) Two one-inch iron caps. A hole, one-eighth of an inch in diameter,
is drilled in the end of one of these caps.

The above order can be given _literatim_, and will be understood by
the dealer, who will furnish, at a trifling cost, the materials, cut
and tapped as ordered.

Fig. 1 shows how the whole is put together. The numbers on the figure
correspond also to the numbers of the paragraphs of the order as given

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

Fig. 2 is an end section. A cork is inserted in 2 and through it a
thermometer, the bulb of which is on a level with the interior pipe.
The whole is supported on a few bricks at either end, and is kept
steady and in place by a couple of weights or half bricks. It is
heated by one or two Bunsen burners, according to the temperature
desired.--_Jour. Fr. Institute_.

* * * * *


An improved method of testing Portland cement has been adopted by M.
Deval, Chief Superintendent of Bridges and Roads, who has charge,
under M. Saele, of the Public Works Laboratory of the City of Paris.
The principal difference in M. Deval's method consists in the use of
hot water for the period of hardening. The briquettes are made in the
usual way, and of the ordinary size; and the cement to be tested is
gauged with three times its weight of normal sand, and the smallest
quantity of water possible. After preparation, the briquettes are
allowed to harden in air for a period ranging from 24 hours for
Portland cement to 30 days for certain slow-setting hydraulic limes.
After this period, the samples are immersed in water kept at a
temperature of 80 deg. C., in which they remain for from two to seven
days. The briquettes are then broken in the ordinary way. After
careful comparisons of many varieties of cement hardened hot and cold,
M. Deval finds that cold tests are fallacious, inasmuch as they may
fail to detect bad material. Portland cement of good quality will not
only stand water at 80 deg. C., but will attain in seven days about the
same strength as is reached in the cold after 28 days. The hot test
therefore saves time. The hot test is an unfailing proof for free
lime; cements containing this constituent betraying weakness, and
cracking, swelling, and disintegrating in a very significant manner.
This last result is regarded as a valuable quality of the new method
of testing cement, the general effect of which appears to be to
enhance the test value of really good cements, while depreciating
those of an inferior character.

* * * * *

THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Architects and Builders Edition

$2.50 a Year. Single Copies, 25 cts.

This is a Special Edition of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, issued
monthly--on the first day of the month. Each number contains about
forty large quarto pages, equal to about two hundred ordinary book
pages, forming, practically, a large and splendid Magazine of
Architecture, richly adorned with _elegant plates in colors_ and with
fine engravings, illustrating the most interesting examples of modern
Architectural Construction and allied subjects.

A special feature is the presentation in each number of a variety of
the latest and best plans for private residences, city and country,
including those of very moderate cost as well as the more expensive.
Drawings in perspective and in color are given, together with full
Plans, Specifications, Costs, Bills of Estimate, and Sheets of

No other building paper contains so many plans, details, and
specifications regularly presented as the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.
Hundreds of dwellings have already been erected on the various plans
we have issued during the past year, and many others are in process of

Architects, Builders, and Owners will find this work valuable in
furnishing fresh and useful suggestions. All who contemplate building
or improving homes, or erecting structures of any kind, have before
them in this work an almost _endless series of the latest and best
examples_ from which to make selections, thus saving time and money.

Many other subjects, including Sewerage, Piping, Lighting, Warming,
Ventilating, Decorating, Laying out of Grounds, etc., are illustrated.
An extensive Compendium of Manufacturers' Announcements is also given,
in which the most reliable and approved Building Materials, Goods,
Machines, Tools, and Appliances are described and illustrated, with
addresses of the makers, etc.

The fullness, richness, cheapness, and convenience of this work have
won for it the Largest Circulation of any Architectural publication
in the world.

A Catalogue of valuable books on Architecture, Building, Carpentry,
Masonry, Heating, Warming, Lighting, Ventilation, and all branches of
industry pertaining to the art of Building, is supplied free of
charge, sent to any address.

MUNN & CO., Publishers, 361 Broadway, New York.

* * * * *


In connection with the publication of the BUILDING EDITION of the
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Messrs. Munn & Co. furnish plans and
specifications for buildings of every kind, including Churches,
Schools, Stores, Dwellings, Carriage Houses, Barns, etc.

In this work they are assisted by able and experienced architects.
Full plans, details, and specifications for the various buildings
illustrated in this paper can be supplied.

Those who contemplate building, or who wish to alter, improve, extend,
or add to existing buildings, whether wings, porches, bay windows, or
attic rooms, are invited to communicate with the undersigned. Our work
extends to all parts of the country. Estimates, plans, and drawings
promptly prepared. Terms moderate. Address


* * * * *



Terms of Subscription, $5 a year.

Sent by mail, postage prepaid, to subscribers in any part of the
United States or Canada. Six dollars a year, sent, prepaid, to any
foreign country.

All the back numbers of THE SUPPLEMENT, from the commencement, January
1, 1876, can be had. Price, 10 cents each.

All the back volumes of THE SUPPLEMENT can likewise be supplied. Two
volumes are issued yearly. Price of each volume, $2.50 stitched in
paper, or $3.50 bound in stiff covers.

COMBINED RATES.--One copy of SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN and one copy of
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, one year, postpaid, $7.00.

A liberal discount to booksellers, news agents, and canvassers.

MUNN & CO., Publishers, 361 Broadway, New York, N.Y.

* * * * *


Contained in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT during the past ten years,
sent _free of charge_ to any address. MUNN & CO., 361 Broadway, New

* * * * *


Manufacturers, Agriculturists, Chemists, Engineers, Mechanics,
Builders, men of leisure, and professional men, of all classes, need
good books in the line of their respective callings. Our post office
department permits the transmission of books through the mails at very
small cost. A comprehensive catalogue of useful books by different
authors, on more than fifty different subjects, has recently been
published, for free circulation, at the office of this paper. Subjects
classified with names of author. Persons desiring a copy have only to
ask for it, and it will be mailed to them. Address,

MUNN & CO., 361 Broadway, New York.

* * * * *


MESSRS. MUNN & CO., in connection with the publication of the
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, continue to examine improvements, and to act as
Solicitors of Patents for Inventors.

In this line of business they have had _forty-five years' experience_,
and now have _unequaled facilities_ for the preparation of Patent
Drawings, Specifications, and the prosecution of Applications for
Patents in the United States, Canada, and Foreign Countries. Messrs.
Munn & Co. also attend to the preparation of Caveats, Copyrights for
Books, Labels, Reissues, Assignments, and Reports on Infringements of
Patents. All business intrusted to them is done with special care and
promptness, on very reasonable terms.

A pamphlet sent free of charge, on application, containing full
information about Patents and how to procure them; directions
concerning Labels, Copyrights, Designs, Patents, Appeals, Reissues,
Infringements, Assignments, Rejected Cases. Hints on the Sale of
Patents, etc.

We also send, _free of charge_, a Synopsis of Foreign Patent Laws,
showing the cost and method of securing patents in all the principal
countries of the world.

MUNN & CO., Solicitors of Patents,
361 Broadway, New York.

BRANCH OFFICES.--No. 622 and 624 F Street, Pacific Building, near 7th
Street, Washington, D.C.

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