Part 1 out of 3
Produced by Olaf Voss, Don Kretz, Juliet Sutherland,
Charles Franks and the DP Team
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT NO. 362
NEW YORK, DECEMBER 9, 1882
Scientific American Supplement. Vol. XIV, No. 362.
Scientific American established 1845
Scientific American Supplement, $5 a year.
Scientific American and Supplement, $7 a year.
* * * * *
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
I. ENGINEERING AND MECHANICS--Recent Improvements in
Textile Machinery.--Harris's revolving ring spinning frame.--
New electric stop motion.--New positive motion loom. 6 figures.
Spinning Without a Mule.--Harris's improvements in ring
New Binding Machines. 3 figures.
Flumes and their construction. 1 figure.
Chuwab's Rolling Mill for Dressing and Rounding Bar Iron.
Burning of Town Refuse at Leeds. 6 figures.--Sections and
elevations of destructor and carbonizer.
II. TECHNOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY.--Friedrich Wohler.--His
labors and discoveries.
New Gas Burner. 3 figures.--Grimstone's improved gas burner.
Defty's Improvements in Gas Burners and Heaters. 4 figures.
The Collotype in Practice.
Determination of Potassa in Manures.--By M. E. DREYFUS.
III. HYGIENE, MEDICINE, ETC.--The Air in Relation to Health.
By Prof. C. F. CHANDLER.
The Plantain as a Styptic.
IV. ELECTRICITY, ETC.--Gustavo Trouve and his Electrical Inventions.
--Portrait of Gustave Trouve.--Trouve's electric boat competing
in the regatta at Troyes.
Domestic Electricity.--Loiseau's electric naphtha and gas
lighters.--Ranque's new form of lighter with extinguisher.
Theiler's Telephone Receiver. 2 figures.
An Electric Power Hammer. By MARCEL DEPRETZ. 1 figure.
Solignac's New Electric Lamp. 3 figures.
Mondos's Electric Lamp. 2 figures.
V. METALLURGY AND MINERALOGY.--Aluminum.--Its properties,
cost, and uses.
The Origin and Relations of the Carbon Minerals.
By J.S. NEWBERRY.--An elaborate and extremely valuable review
of the genesis of carbon minerals, and the modes and conditions
of their occurrence.
Estimation of Sulphur in Iron and Steel. By GEORGE CRAIG.
VI. ARCHITECTURE, ETC.--The Armitage House.
Suggestions in Architecture.--An English country residence.
VII. BOTANY, HORTICULTURE, ETC.--The Soy Bean. 1 figure.--
The Soy bean (_Soja hispida_).
Erica Cavendishiana. 1 figure.
Philesia Buxifolia. 1 figure.
VIII. MISCELLANEOUS.--Our Hebrew Population.
The Mysteries of Lake Baikal.
Traveling Sand Hills on Lake Ontario.
Animals in the Arts.--Corals.--The conch shell.--Living beetles,
etc.--Pearls.--Sepia and silk.
* * * * *
The accompanying portrait of M. Gustave Trouve is taken from a small
volume devoted to an account of his labors recently published by M.
Georges Dary. M. Trouve, who may be said to have had no ancestors from
an electric point of view, was born in 1839 in the little village of
Haye-Descartes. He was sent by his parents to the College of Chinon,
whence he entered the Ecole des Arts et Metiers, and afterward went
to Paris to work in the shop of a clock-maker. This was an excellent
apprenticeship for our future electrician, since it is in small works
that electricity excels; and, if its domain is to be increased, it is
only on condition that the electric mechanician shall never lose sight
of the fact that he should be a clock-maker, and that his fingers, to
use M. Dumas's apt words, should possess at once the strength of those
of the Titans and the delicacy of those of fairies. It was not long ere
Trouve set up a shop of his own, whither inventors flocked in crowds;
and the work he did for these soon gave up to him the secrets of the art
of creating. The first applications that he attempted related to the use
of electricity in surgery, a wonderfully fecund branch, but one whose
importance was scarcely suspected, notwithstanding the results
already obtained through the application of the insufflation pile to
galvano-cautery. What the surgeon needed was to see plainly into the
cavities of the human body. Trouve found a means of lighting these
up with lamps whose illuminating power was fitted for that sort of
exploration. This new mode of illumination having been adopted, it was
but natural that it should afterward find an application in dangerous
mines, powder mills, and for a host of different purposes. But the
perfection of this sort of instruments was the wound explorer, by the
aid of which a great surgeon sounded the wounds that Italian balls had
made in Garibaldi's foot.
[Illustration: GUSTAVE TROUVE.]
The misfortunes of France afterward directed Trouve's attention to
military electricity, and led him to devise a perfect system of portable
telegraphy, in which his hermetic pile lends itself perfectly to all
maneuvers and withstands all sorts of moving about.
The small volume of which we have spoken is devoted more particularly to
electric navigation, for which M. Trouve specially designed the motor of
his invention, and by the aid of which he performed numerous experiments
on the ocean, on the Seine at Paris, and before Rouen and at Troyes. In
this latter case M. Trouve gained a medal of honor on the occasion of a
regatta. Our engraving represents him competing with the rowers of whom
he kept ahead with so distinguished success. We could not undertake to
enumerate all the inventions which we owe to M. Trouve; but we cannot,
however, omit mention of the pendulum escapement that beats the second
or half second without any variation in the length of the balance; of
the electric gyroscope constructed at the request of M. Louis Foucault;
of the electro-medical pocket-case; of the apparatus for determining the
most advantageous inclination to give a helix; of the electric bit for
stopping unruly horses; and of the universal caustic-holder. He has
given the electric polyscope features such that every cavity in the
human body may be explored by its aid. As for his electric motor, he
has given that a form that makes the rotation regular and suppresses
dead-centers--a result that he has obtained by utilizing the
eccentrization of the Siemens bobbin.
Although devoting himself mainly to improving his motor (which, by
the way, he has applied to the tricycle), M. Trouve does not disdain
telephony, but has introduced into the manufacture of magnets for the
purpose many valuable improvements.--_Electricite_.
[Illustration: TROUVE'S ELECTRIC BOAT COMPETING IN THE REGATTA AT
TROYES, AUG. 6, 1882.]
* * * * *
At the age of eighty-two years, and full of honor, after a life actively
devoted to scientific work of the highest and most accurate kind, which
has contributed more than that of any other contemporary to establish
the principles on which an exact science like chemistry is founded, the
illustrious Woehler has gone to his rest.
After he had worked for some time with Berzelius in Sweden, he taught
chemistry from 1825 to 1831 at the Polytechnic School in Berlin; then
till 1836 he was stationed at the Higher Polytechnic School at Cassel,
and then he became Ordinary Professor of Chemistry in the University of
Goettingen, where he remained till his death. He was born, July 31, 1800,
at Eschersheim, near Frankfort-on-the-Main.
Until the year 1828 it was believed that organic substances could only
be formed under the influence of the vital force in the bodies of
animals and plants. It was Woehler who proved by the artificial
preparation of urea from inorganic materials that this view could not be
maintained. This discovery has always been considered as one of the most
important contributions to our scientific knowledge. By showing that
ammonium cyanate can become urea by an internal arrangement of its
atoms, without gaining or losing in weight, Woehler furnished one of the
first and best examples of isomerism, which helped to demolish the old
view that equality of composition could not coexist in two bodies, A
and B, with differences in their respective physical and chemical
properties. Two years later, in 1830, Woehler published, jointly with
Liebig, the results of a research on cyanic and cyanuric acid and on
urea. Berzelius, in his report to the Swedish Academy of Sciences,
called it the most important of all researches in physics, chemistry,
and mineralogy published in that year. The results obtained were quite
unexpected, and furnished additional and most important evidence in
favor of the doctrine of isomerism. In the year 1834, Woehler and Liebig
published an investigation of the oil of bitter almonds. They prove by
their experiments that a group of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
can behave like an element, take the place of an element, and can be
exchanged for elements in chemical compounds. Thus the foundation was
laid of the doctrine of compound radicals, a doctrine which has had
and has still the most profound influence on the development of
chemistry--so much so that its importance can hardly be exaggerated.
Since the discovery of potassium by Davy, it was assumed that alumina
also, the basis of clay, contained a metal in combination with oxygen.
Davy, Oerstedt, and Berzelius attempted the extraction of this metal,
but could not succeed. Woehler then worked on the same subject, and
discovered the metal aluminum. To him also is due the isolation of the
elements yttrium, beryllium, and titanium, the observation that silicium
can be obtained in crystals, and that some meteoric stones contain
organic matter. He analyzed a number of meteorites, and for many years
wrote the digest on the literature of meteorites in the _Jahresbericht
der Chemie_; he possessed, perhaps, the best private collection of
meteoric stones and irons existing. Woehler and Sainte Claire Deville
discovered the crystalline form of boron, and Woehler and Buff the
hydrogen compounds of silicium and a lower oxide of the same element.
This is by no means a full statement of Woehler's scientific work; it
even does not mention all the discoveries which have had great influence
on the theory of chemistry. The mere titles of the papers would fill
several closely-printed pages. The journals of every year from 1820 to
1881 contain contributions from his pen, and even his minor publications
are always interesting. As was truly remarked ten years ago, when it was
proposed by a Fellow of the Royal Society that a Copley medal should be
conferred upon him, "for two or three of his researches he deserves the
highest honor a scientific man can obtain, but the sum of his work is
absolutely overwhelming. Had he never lived, the aspect of chemistry
would be very different from that it is now."
While sojourning at Cassel, Woehler made, among other chemical
discoveries, one for obtaining the metal nickel in a state of purity,
and with two attached friends he founded a factory there for the
preparation of the metal.
Among the works which he published were "Grundriss der Anorganischen
Chemie," Berlin, 1830, and the "Grundriss der Organischen Chemie,"
Berlin, 1840. Nor must we omit to mention "Praktischen Uebringen der
Chemischen Analyse," Berlin, 1854, and the "Lehrbuch der Chemie,"
Dresden, 1825, 4 vols.
At a sitting of the Academy, held on October 2, 1882, M. Jean Baptiste
Dumas, the permanent secretary, with profound regret, made known
the intelligence of the death of the illustrious foreign associate,
Friedrich Woehler, professor in the University of Goettingen. He said: "M.
Friedrich Woehler, the favorite pupil of Berzelius, had followed in the
lines and methods of work of his master. From 1821 till his last year he
has continuously published memoirs or simple notes, always remarkable
for their exactness, and often of such a nature that they took among
contemporaneous production the first rank by their importance, their
novelty, or their fullness. Employed chiefly, during his sojourn in
Sweden, in work on mineral chemistry, he has remained all his life the
undisputed chief in this branch of science in German universities. This
preparation and preoccupation, which one might have thought sufficient
to occupy his time, did not, however, prevent him from taking the chief
part in the development of organic chemistry, and of filling one of the
most elevated positions in it.
"His contemporaries have not forgotten the unusual sensation produced by
the unexpected discovery by which he was enabled to make artificially,
and by a purely chemical method, urea, the most nitrogenous of animal
substances. Other transformations or combinations giving birth to
substances which, until then, had only been met with in animals or
plants, have since been obtained, but the artificial formation of urea
still remains the neatest and most elegant example of this order of
creation. All chemists know and admire the classical memoir in which
Woehler and Liebig some time after made known the nature of the benzoic
series, and connected them with the radicals of which we may consider
them as being the derivatives comparable with products of a mineral
nature. Their memoirs on the derivatives of uric acid, a prolific source
of new and remarkable substances, has been an inexhaustible mine in the
hands of their successors.
"This is not a moment when we should pretend to review the work which M.
Woehler has done in mineral chemistry. Among the 240 papers which he has
published in scientific journals, there are few which the treatises of
chemistry have not immediately turned to account. We need only confine
ourselves to the discovery of aluminum, to which the energy and
inventive genius of our _confrere_, Henry Deville, soon gave a place
near the noble metals. United by a rivalry which would have divided
less noble minds, these two great chemists carried on together their
researches in chemistry, and joined their forces to clear up points
still obscure in the history of boron, silicium, and the metals of
the platinum group, and remained closely united, which each year only
"The reader will pardon me a souvenir entirely personal. We were born,
M. Woehler and I, in 1800. I am his senior by a few days. Our scientific
life began at the same date, and during sixty years everything has
combined to bind more closely the links of brotherhood which has existed
for so long a time."
* * * * *
OUR HEBREW POPULATION.
The United Jewish Association has made a canvass of the denomination in
this country, finding 278 congregations, and a total Jewish population
of 230,984. New York has the largest number--80,565. Then follows
Pennsylvania, with 20,000; California, with 18,580; Ohio with 14,581;
Illinois, with 12,625, and Maryland, with 10,357.
The Jewish population in the largest cities is as follows:
New York 60,000
San Francisco 16,000
St. Louis 6,500
New Orleans 5,000
New Haven 1,000
This total Jewish population of 230,984 has six hospitals, eleven
orphan asylums and homes, fourteen free colleges and schools, and 602
benevolent lodges. Of the free schools maintained by the Hebrews, five
are in New York, four in Philadelphia, and one each in Cincinnati, St.
Louis, Chicago, and San Francisco. Their hospitals are in New York,
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Cincinnati, New Orleans, and Chicago, while
their orphan asylums, homes, and other benevolent institutions are
scattered all over the country.
* * * * *
THE MYSTERIES OF THE BAIKAL.
The Angara is cold as ice all the summer through, so cold, indeed, that
to bathe in it is to court inevitable illness, and in winter a sled
drive over its frozen surface is made in a temperature some degrees
lower than that prevailing on the banks. This comes from the fact that
its waters are fresh from the yet unfathomed depths of the Baikal, which
during the five short months of summer has scarcely time to properly
unfreeze. In winter the lake resembles in all respects a miniature
Arctic Ocean, having its great ice hummocks and immense leads, over
which the caravan sleds have to be ferried on large pieces of ice, just
as in the frozen North. In winter, too, the air is so cold in the region
above the lake that birds flying across its icy bosom sometimes drop
down dead on the surface. Some authors say that seals have been caught
in the lake of the same character as those found in the Arctic seas; for
this assertion I have no proof. An immense caravan traffic is carried
across the frozen lake every season between Russia and China. To
accommodate this the Russian postal authorities once established a post
house on the middle of the lake, where horses were kept for travelers.
But this was discontinued after one winter, when an early thaw suddenly
set in, and horses, yemschliks and post house all disappeared beneath
the ice, and were never seen more. In summer the lake is navigated by an
antiquated steamer called the General Korsakoff, which ventures out
in calm weather, but cannot face the violent storms and squalls that
sometimes rise with sudden impetuosity. Irkutskians say, indeed, that it
is only upon Lake Baikal and upon this old hull that a man really learns
to pray from his heart. The lake is held in superstitious reverence by
the natives. It is called by them Svyatoe More, or the Holy Lake, and
they believe that no Christian was ever lost in its waters, for even
when a person is drowned in it the waves always take the trouble to cast
the body on shore.
Its length is 400 miles, its width an average of 35 miles, covers an
area of 14,000 square miles and has a circumference of nearly 1,200
miles, being the largest fresh water lake in the Old World, and, next to
the Caspian and the Aral, the largest inland sheet of water in Asia. Its
shores are bold and rugged and very picturesque, in some places 1,000
feet high. In the surrounding forests are found game of the largest
description, bears, deer, foxes, wolves, elk and these afford capital
sport for the sportsmen of Irkutsk.
Around the coasts are many mineral springs, hot and cold, which have a
great reputation among the Irkutskians. The hot springs of Yurka, on the
Selenga, 200 versts from Verchore Udevisk and not many miles from the
eastern shore of the Baikal, which have a temperature of 48 degrees
Reaumur and whose waters are strongly impregnated with sulphur, are
a favorite watering place for natives as well as Russians and
Buriats.--_Herald Correspondent with the Jeannette Search Expedition_.
* * * * *
TRAVELING SAND HILLS ON LAKE ONTARIO.
An interesting example of sand-drift occurs near Wellington Bay, on Lake
Ontario, ten miles from Pictou. The lake shore near the sand banks is
indented with a succession of rock-paved bays, whose gradually shoaling
margins afford rare bathing grounds. East and West Lakes, each five
miles long, and the latter dotted with islands, are separated from
Lake Ontario by narrow strips of beach. Over the two mile-wide isthmus
separating the little lakes, the sand banks, whose glistening heights
are visible miles away, are approached. On near approach they are hidden
by the cedar woods, till the roadway in front is barred by the advancing
bank, to avoid which a roadway through the woods has been constructed
up to the eastern end of the sand range. The sand banks stretch like a
crescent along the shore, the concave side turned to the lake, along
which it leaves a pebbly beach. The length of the crescent is over two
miles, the width 600 to 3,000 or 4,000 feet.
Clambering up the steep end of the range among trees and grapevines, the
wooded summit is gained, at an elevation of nearly 150 feet. Passing
along the top, the woods soon disappear, and the visitor emerges on a
wild waste of delicately tinted saffron, rising from the slate-colored
beach in gentle undulation, and sleepily falling on the other side down
to green pastures and into the cedar woods. The whole surface of this
gradually undulating mountain desert is ribbed by little wavelets a few
inches apart, but the general aspect is one of perfect smoothness. The
sand is almost as fine as flour, and contains no admixture of dust The
foot sinks only an inch or two in walking over it; children roll about
on it and down its slopes, and, rising, shake themselves till their
clothing loses every trace of sand. Occasionally gusts stream over the
wild waste, raising a dense drift to a height of a foot or two only, and
streaming like a fringe over the steep northern edge. Though the sun is
blazing down on the glistening wilderness there is little sensation of
heat, for the cool lake breeze is ever blowing. On the landward side,
the insidious approach of the devouring sand is well marked. One hundred
and fifty feet below, the foot of this moving mountain is sharply
defined against the vivid green of the pastures, on which the grass
grows luxuriantly to within an inch of the sand wall. The ferns of the
cedar woods almost droop against the sandy slope. The roots of the trees
are bare along the white edge; a foot or two nearer the sand buries the
feet of the cedars: a few yards nearer still the bare trunks disappear;
still nearer only the withered topmast twigs of the submerged forest are
seen, and then far over the tree tops stands the sand range. Perpetual
ice is found under the foot of this steep slope, the sand covering and
consolidating the snows drifted over the hill during the winter months.
There is something awe-inspiring, says the correspondent of the Toronto
Globe, in the slow, quiet, but resistless advance of the mountain front.
Field and forest alike become completely submerged. Ten years ago a
farm-house was swallowed up, not to emerge in light until the huge sand
wave has passed over.
* * * * *
RECENT IMPROVEMENTS IN TEXTILE MACHINERY.
At the recent exhibition at Boston of the New England Institute, several
interesting novelties were shown which have a promise of considerable
economic and industrial value.
Fig. 1 represents the general plan and pulley connections of the Harris
Revolving-Ring Spinning Frame. The purpose of the improvements which
it embodies is to avoid the uneven draught of the yarn in spinning and
winding incident to the use of a fixed ring. With the non-revolving ring
the strain upon the yarn varies greatly, owing to the difference
in diameter of the full and empty bobbin. At the base of the cone,
especially in spinning weft, or filling, the diameter of the cop is five
or six times that of the quill at the tip. As the yarn is wound upon the
cone, the line of draught upon the traveler varies continually, the pull
being almost direct where the bobbin is full, and nearly at right angles
where it is empty. With the increasing angle the drag upon the traveler
increases, not only causing frequent breakages of the yarn, but also an
unequal stretching of the yarn, so that the yarn perceptibly varies in
fineness. The unequal strain further causes the yarn to be more tightly
wound upon the outside than upon the inside of the bobbin, giving rise
to snarls and wastage.
[Illustration: RECENT IMPROVEMENTS IN TEXTILE MACHINERY.--1,
2.--SPINNING WITHOUT A MULE--THE HARRIS REVOLVING RING SPINNING FRAME.
3, 4, 5.--NEW ELECTRIC STOP MOTION FOR DRAWING FRAMES. 6.--NEW POSITIVE
These difficulties have hitherto prevented the application of ring
spinning to the finer grades of yarn. They are overcome in the new
spinning frame by an ingenious device by which a revolving motion is
given to the ring in the same direction as the motion of the traveler,
thereby reducing its friction upon the ring, the speed of the ring being
variable, and so controlled as to secure a uniform tension upon the yarn
at all stages of the winding.
The construction of the revolving ring is shown in Fig. 2. C is the
revolving ring; D, the hollow axis support; H, a section of the ring
frame; E, the traveler.
To give the required variable speed to the revolving ring there is
placed directly over the drum, Fig. 1, A, for driving the spindle a
smaller drum, B, from which bands drive each ring separately. The shaft,
which is attached by cross girts to the ring rail, and moves up and down
with it, is driven by a pair of conical drums from the main cylinder
shaft; and is so arranged with a loose pulley on the large end of the
receiving cone as to remain stationary while the wind is on or near the
base of the bobbin. When the cone of the bobbin diminishes so as to
materially increase the pull on the traveler, the conical drums are
started by a belt shipper attached to the lilt motion. By the movement
of the belt on these drums a continually accelerated motion is given to
the rings, their maximum speed being about one-twentieth the number
of revolutions per minute as the spindle has at the same moment. This
action is reversed when the lift falls. The tension of the wind upon
the bobbin is thus kept uniform, the desired hardness of the wind being
secured by the use of a heavier or lighter traveler according to the
compactness of cop required.
The model frame shown at the fair did its work admirably well, spinning
yarns as high as No. 400, a fineness hitherto unattainable on ring
frames. It is claimed that this invention can do whatever can be done
with the mule, and without the skilled labor which mule spinning
This invention is exhibited by E. & A. W. Harris, Providence, R.I.
NEW ELECTRIC STOP MOTION.
Figs. 3, 4, and 5 illustrate some of the applications of the electric
stop motion in connection with cotton machinery. The merit of this
invention lies in simplifying the means by which machinery may be
stopped automatically the instant, its work, from accident or otherwise,
begins to be improperly done. The use of electricity for this purpose
is made possible by the fact that comparatively dry cotton is a
nonconductor of electricity. In the process of carding, drawing or
spinning, the cotton is made to pass between rollers or other pieces
forming parts of an electric circuit. So long as the machine is properly
fed and in proper working condition, the stopping apparatus rests;
the moment the continuity of the cotton is broken or any irregularity
occurs, electric contact results, completing the circuit and causing an
electro magnet to act upon a lever or other device, and the machine is
stopped. The current is supplied by a small magneto-electric machine
driven by a band from the main driving shaft, and is always available
while the engine is running.
Fig. 3 shows the general arrangement of the apparatus as applied to a
drawing frame. In the process of drawing down the roll of cotton--the
sliver--four things may happen making it necessary to stop the machine.
A sliver may break on the way from the can to the drawing rollers,
or the supply of cotton may become exhausted; the cotton may lap or
accumulate on the drawing rollers; the sliver may break between the
drawing rollers and the calender rollers; or the front can may overflow.
In each and all of these cases the electric circuit is instantly
completed; the parts between which the cotton flows either come
together, as when breakage occurs, or, if there is lapping, they are
separated so as to make contact above. In any case, the current causes
the electro-magnet, S, against the side of the machine to move its
armature and set the stop motion in play.
Figs. 4 and 5 represent in detail the manner in which electric
connection is made in two cases requiring the intervention of the stop
motion. In Fig. 4 the upper part of a receiving can is shown. When
the can is full the cotton lifts the tube wheel, J, until it makes an
electrical connection, and the stop motion is brought into instant
action. In Fig. 5, the traction upon the yarn holds the hook borne by
the spring, F, away from G, and the electric circuit is interrupted. A
breakage of the yarn allows this spring to act; contact is made, and the
stop motion operates as before.
This simple and efficient device is exhibited by Howard & Bullough &
Riley, of Boston.
NEW POSITIVE MOTION LOOM.
Fig. 6 shows the essential features of a positive motion loom, intended
for weaving narrow fabrics, exhibited by Knowles, of Worcester, Mass.
The engraving shows so clearly how, by a right and left movement of the
rack, the shuttle is thrown by the action of the intermediate cogwheels,
that further description is unnecessary.
* * * * *
SPINNING WITHOUT A MULE.
At the recent semi-annual meeting of the New England Cotton
Manufacturers' Association, held at the Institute of Technology, Boston,
the following paper on the Harris system of revolving ring spinning was
read by Col. Webber for the author:
It is well known that one of the most serious difficulties in ring
spinning is the variable pull upon the traveler, caused by the
difference in diameter of the full and empty bobbins, and this is
especially noticeable in spinning weft, or filling, when the diameter of
the quill at the tip is not over 3-16 of an inch, while that of the base
of the cone, or full bobbin, is from an inch to an inch and one-eighth.
This variation in diameter causes the line of draught upon the traveler,
which, with the full bobbin, forms nearly a tangent to the interior
circle of the ring, to be nearly radial to it with an empty one, and
this increased drag upon the traveler not only causes frequent breakage
in spinning, but also stretches the yarn, so that it is perceptibly
finer when it is spun on the nose of the bobbin than when it is spun on
the bottom of the cone.
Endeavors have been made to compensate for this difficulty by making
a less draught at that period of the operation; but we believe the
principle of curing one error by adding another to be wrong, and aim by
our improvement to avoid the cause of the trouble, which we do by giving
a revolving motion to the ring itself in the same direction as that of
the traveler, at a variable speed, so as to aid its slip, and reduce its
friction on the ring. This we accomplish by means of a shaft with whorls
on it, located directly over the drum for driving the spindle, from
which bands drive each ring separately; and attached by cross-girts to
the ring-rail, and moving up and down with it.
This shaft is driven by a pair of conical drums from the main cylinder
shaft, and is so arranged with a loose pulley on the large end of the
receiving cone as to remain stationary while the wind is on or near the
base of the bobbin, or nearly parallel to the path of the traveler.
When the cone of the bobbin begins to diminish to such a point as to
materially increase the radial pull on the traveler, these conical drums
are put in operation by a belt shipper attached to the lift motion,
which moves the belt on to the cones, and gives a continually
accelerated motion to the rings, so that when the wind reaches the top
of the bobbin the rings will have their maximum speed of about 300
revolutions per minute, or about one-twentieth the number of revolutions
of the spindle at this point, if the latter make 6000 revolutions per
minute, and this we find in actual practice to produce results which are
As the lift falls again, the belt is moved back on the cones, giving a
retarding motion to the rings, until it reaches the point at which it
began to operate, and is then either moved on to the loose pulley, and
the rings remain stationary, or for very fine yarn are kept in motion at
a slow speed. We are often asked if this does not affect the twist, but
answer that it does not in the least, as the relative speeds of the
rolls and spindles remain the same, and the only thing that can be
affected is the hardness of the wind upon the bobbin, and this is
adjustable by the use of a heavier or lighter traveler, according to the
compactness of cop required.
We claim by means of this improvement the ability to use a much smaller
quill or bobbin, and consequently holding as much yarn in a less outside
diameter, enabling us to use a smaller ring, thus saving power both in
the weight of bobbin to be carried and in the distance to be moved by
the traveler; and we believe the power to be saved in this manner and by
the diminution of the dead pull on the traveler, when the wind is at
the tip of the bobbin, to be more than sufficient to give the necessary
motion to the revolving rings. We are as yet unable to answer this
question of power fully, as we have not yet tested a full size frame,
but we propose to do this in season to answer all questions at the next
meeting of your association.
The same invention is also applicable to warp spinning, by giving the
ring a continuous accelerating and retarding motion, in which the
maximum speed is given to the ring at the first start of the frame when
the bobbin is empty, sufficient to diminish the strain on the yarn,
and gradually reducing the motion at each traverse of the rail, as the
bobbin is filled; but we claim the great advantage of our invention to
be the capability of spinning any grade of yarn on the ring frame that
can be spun on the hand or self-operating mule, and in proof of this we
call your attention to the model frame now in operation at the fair of
the New England Manufacturers' and Mechanics' Institute, where we are
spinning on a quill only 5-32 inches diameter at top, and where we can
show you samples of yarn from No. 80 to No. 400 spun on this frame from
combed roving from the Conant Thread Company and Willimantic Linen
Company, which we believe has never before been accomplished on any ring
We invite you to examine this invention at the fair, and also call your
attention to the adjustable roller beam, by means of which the rolls can
be adjusted at any desirable angle or pitch, so as to throw the twist
more or less directly spinning, and an improvement in the quality of the
yarn from the same cause, which will increase the production from the
loom, and finally eradicate other objectionable features of the labor
question, which so often disturb the peaceful harmony between labor and
Mr, Goulding asked if it had been demonstrated whether more or less
power was required for the same numbers than effect of running the
machine a little out of true, and the reply was that the advantage of
the new method over the old would be more apparent in such a case than
with a perfect frame. In regard to speed, the inventor proposed as
a maximum rate, when the wind was at the tip of the bobbin, 300
revolutions per minute, but from this point the speed would diminish.
Conant Thread Company and Willimantic Linen Company, which we believe
has never before been accomplished on any ring frame.
We invite you to examine this invention at the fair, and also call your
attention to the adjustable roller beam, by means of which the rolls can
be adjusted at any desirable angle or pitch, so as to throw the twist
more or less directly into the bite of the rolls, according to the
character of the yarn desired, or the quality of the stock used.
Finally, we claim, by the use of this invention, to be able to spin any
fibrous material which can be drawn by draught-rolls, of any required
degree of softness of twist, such as can be spun by any mule whatever,
and to do this with the attention only of children of from twelve to
fourteen years of age.
We also claim an increased production, owing to less breakage of ends,
from the yarn not being overstrained in spinning, and an improvement in
the quality of the yarn from the same cause, which will increase the
production from the loom, and finally eradicate other objectionable
features of the labor question, which so often disturb the peaceful
harmony between labor and capital.
Mr. Goulding asked if it had been demonstrated whether more or less
power was required for the same numbers than by other methods, and Col.
Webber replied that no more power was required to move the rings than
was saved by friction on the ring and the saving of weight of the
bobbins. He thought it required no more power than the old way.
_The method of lubricating the ring_.--The inventor, who was present,
stated, in response to a query, that he claimed an advantage for his
ring in spinning all numbers from the very coarsest up, both in quality
and quantity, and especially the former.
Mr. Garsed inquired of Col Webber what would be the effect of running
the machine a little out of true, and the reply was that the advantage
of the new method over the old would be more apparent in such a case
than with a perfect frame. In regard to speed, the inventor proposed
as a maximum rate, when the wind was at the tip of the bobbin, 300
revolutions per minute, but from this point the speed would diminish.
It was suggested by a member that the only advantage of a revolving ring
was to relieve the strain on the traveler just to the extent of the
ring's revolutions. If the ring were making 300 revolutions per minute,
and the traveler 6,000, the strain on the latter would be equal to 5,700
revolutions on a stationary ring. Col. Webber, however, thought that the
motion of the ring gave the traveler a lift that prevented its stopping
at any particular point, and cited the fact that all numbers up to 400
could be spun with this ring as proof of its superiority over the old
* * * * *
NEW GAS BURNER.
Speaking at the last meeting of the Gaslight and Coke Company, Mr.
George Livesey said many things with a view to inspire confidence of the
future in the minds of timid gas proprietors. Among others he mentioned
the advances now being made by invention in regard to improved
appliances for developing the illuminating power of coal gas, with
especial reference to a new burner just patented by Mr. Grimston. Mr.
Livesey passed a very high encomium upon the burner, and this expression
of opinion by such an authority is sufficient to arouse deep interest in
the apparatus in question. It is therefore with much pleasure that we
present our readers with the following early account of Mr. Grimston's
burner, for which we are indebted to the inventor and Mr. George Bower,
of St. Neots, in whose manufactory the burners are now being made in all
sizes. It should be premised, to save disappointment, that the invention
is yet so fresh that its ultimate capabilities are unknown. The
accompanying illustration, therefore, represents the bare skeleton of
one of the first models; and the actual performance of only the very
earliest burner, made in great part by Mr. Grimston himself, has been
fully tested. Before proceeding to describe the invention, a brief
history may be interesting of how it happened that Mr. Grimston, an
electric lighting engineer, became a gas burner maker. The story will
undoubtedly help to explain the reasons for many of the characteristics
of the new burner.
[Illustration: IMPROVED GAS BURNER. FIG. 1.--Sectional Elevation.]
It appears, then, that Mr. Grimston, who was connected with the
electrical engineering establishment of Siemens Bros. & Co., Limited,
was some months ago shown the construction and working of the Siemens
regenerative gas burner, which is now sufficiently well known to render
a description unnecessary here. In common with most spectators of this
very ingeniously and philosophically designed appliance, Mr. Grimston
was struck with its bulk and the superficial clumsiness of the
arrangement whereby the air and gas supply are heated in it by the
products of combustion. These lamps have, of course, materially improved
of late; but when Mr. Grimston first saw them, perhaps 18 months ago,
they certainly could not be called neat and compact in design. He
at once grasped the idea embodied in these lamps, and set about
constructing an arrangement which should be based on a similar
principle, but at the same time avoid the inconveniences complained of.
It is not too much to say that he has succeeded in both these aims, and
the burner which now bears his name strikes the observer at once by
the brilliant light which it produces by the simplest and most
obvious means. We may now describe, by reference to the accompanying
illustrations, how Mr. Grimston produces the regenerative effect which
is likewise the central idea of the Siemens burner.
[Illustration: IMPROVED GAS BURNER. FIG. 2.--Section through A B.]
The light is simply that produced by an arrangement of a kind of Argand
burner turned upside down. The central gas-pipe, _a_ (Figs. 1 and 3), is
connected to a distributing chamber, whence the annular cluster of brass
tubes, _a', a_, (Figs. 1 and 2), are prolonged downward, forming the
burner. The burner is inclosed in an iron or brass annular casing, b, b,
which forms the main framework of the apparatus. The annular space which
it affords is the outlet chimney or flue for the products of combustion
of the burner beneath, and is crossed by a number of thin brass tubes,
c, c, which lead from the outer air into the inner space containing
the burner tubes, a', a', already described. The upper openings of the
annular body, b, are shown at e, e (Fig. 3), which communicate direct
with the chimney proper, e', e'. The burner is lighted by opening the
hinged glass cover, d, which fits practically air-tight on the bottom
of the body, so that the air needed to support combustion must all pass
through the tubes, c, c, the outer ends of which are protected by the
casing, k, k.
[Illustration: IMPROVED GAS BURNER. FIG. 3.--Section through C D.]
When the gas is lighted at the burner, and the glass closed, the burner
begins to act at once, although some minutes are necessarily required
to elapse before its full brilliancy is gained. The cold air passes in
through the tubes provided for it, and when these are heated to the
fullest extent on their outside, by the hot fumes from the burner, they
so readily part with their heat to the air that a temperature of 1,000 deg.
to 1,200 deg. Fahr. is easily obtained in the air when it arrives inside,
and commences in turn to heat the burner-tubes. The air-tubes are placed
so as to intercept the hot gases as completely as possible; and also, of
course, obtain heat by conduction from the sides of the annular body.
It is evident that the number and dimensions of these tubes might be
increased so as to abstract almost all the heat from the escaping fumes,
but for the limitations imposed, first, by a consideration of the actual
quantity of air required to support combustion, and, secondly, by the
obligation to let sufficient ascensional power remain in the gases which
are left to pass out through the upper chimney. If the gases are cooled
too much, they will either fall back into the lamp and extinguish the
flame, or will be removable only by the draught of a long chimney. It
will probably be the aim of the inventor to balance these requirements,
and so to produce burners with very short or longer chimneys, according
as appearance is to be consulted or the highest possible effect
produced. The burner is a ring of brass tubes of considerable diameter,
in proportion to the quantity of gas consumed, and thus provides for
the delivery of gas expanded by heat. In connection with this device
an explanation may be found of the failure of the British Association
Committee on Gas Burners to find any advantage from previously heating
the air and gas consumed. The Committee did not make the necessary
provision for the increased bulk of the combustible and its air supply,
caused by their heightened temperature; and the same quantity of gas
measured cold (at the meter) could only be driven through the ordinary
small burner holes at a velocity destructive of good results. Herr
Frederick Siemens perceived this in his early experiments, and not only
increased the orifices of his burners, but provided for the closer
contact of the more rarefied gas and air by the use of notched
deflectors, which are now an essential part of his apparatus. Mr.
Grimston also uses separate tubes of large area for his hot gas, but
dispenses with deflectors, save in so far as the same duty may be
performed by the plain lower edge of the inner cylinder of the lamp
body, and the indentation of the glass beneath, which, as will be
noticed, is made to follow the shape of the flame. It only remains now
to speak of the flame and its qualities. It is, in the first place, a
flame of hot gas, burning at an extremly small velocity of flow, and
wholly exposed to view from the exact point which it is required to
light. In this latter respect it differs materially, and with advantage,
from the Siemens burner, which, while presenting an extremely brilliant
and beautiful ball of flame outside its central tube of porcelain, may
yet be tailing smokily downward inside this opaque screen, and thereby
causing unperceived waste. The flame of the Grimston burner, on the
other hand, is quite exposed, and all its light, from the ends of the
burner-tubes to the point where visible combustion ceases, is made
available for use. As a perfect Argand flame in the usual position has
been likened in form to a tulip flower, so the flame of this burner
presents the appearance of an inverted convolvulus. So far as he has
already gone, Mr. Grimston prefers to keep the tubes of the burner at
such a distance from each other that the several jets part at the point
where they turn upward, so that the convolvulus figure is not maintained
to the edge of the flame. From its peculiar position the light is, of
course, completely shadowless as regards the lamp which affords it; and
this, of itself, is no small recommendation for a pendant. It shows well
for the simplicity and effectiveness of the perfected burners that Mr.
Grimston's experimental example, although necessarily imperfect In many
ways, burns with a remarkably steady light, of great brilliancy, which
is assured by the fact that the products of combustion are robbed of all
their heat to magnify the useful effect, so that the hand may be borne
with ease over the outlet of the chimney. With respect to the endurance
of the apparatus, it will be sufficient to remark that there is nothing
in the gas or air heating arrangements to get out of order, and they are
all easily accessible while the burner is in action. The glass is not
liable to breakage, although it is in close proximity to the flame, as
may be gathered from the testimony of the inventor, who has never broken
one, notwithstanding the severity of some of his experimental studies
upon his first lamp. The consumption of gas in the first working-model
burner made by Mr. Grimston was 10 cubic feet per hour, and its
illuminating power averaged 60 candles. The diameter of this burner was
11/4 inches across the tubes. It is scarcely necessary to state that if
this high duty, which was obtained with the ordinary 16-candle gas of
the Gaslight and Coke Company, can be maintained, to say nothing of
being exceeded, in the commercial article, the Grimston burner, with its
other advantages over all existing methods of obtaining equal results,
has a great future before it. For example, it does not require a
separate air supply under high pressure, or any extra material to render
incandescent, and it may be turned on full immediately upon lighting. It
throws a shadowless light, and lends itself to ventilating arrangements;
and it is not by any means cumbersome, delicate in construction, or
costly in manufacture. One of the greatest advantages to which it lays
claim is, however, the power of yielding almost as good results in a
small burner as in a large one. This is a consideration of great moment,
when it is remembered that the tendency of most of the high power
burners hitherto introduced is to benefit the lighting of streets,
large interiors, and, generally speaking, points of great consumption.
Meanwhile, the private user of burners, consuming from 3 to 5 cubic feet
of gas per hour, has been left to attain as best he might, by the use of
burners excellent of their kind, to the maximum effect of the standard
Argand. Now, however, Mr. Grimston seeks to make the small consumer
partake of the advantages erstwhile reserved for the wholesale user of
large and costly Siemens and other lamps, and he even looks to this
class of patrons with particular care. The example which we now
illustrate, in Fig. 1, is a sectional presentment precisely half the
actual size of a 5-foot burner, which it is intended to prepare for
the market before all others. Another simple form of the burner, with
vertical tubes, will, we understand, be introduced as soon as possible.
It will be readily understood that the principle is capable of being
embodied in many shapes; and it is satisfactory to learn that the
inventor is quite alive to the necessity of producing a cheap as well as
a good burner.
Gas companies, as Mr. Livesey has expressed it, will be well content
with a slower relative growth of consumption, if their consumers are at
the same time making their gas go as far again as formerly, by the use
of burners which turn nominal 16-candle gas into gas of 30-candle actual
illuminating power. How far Mr. Grimston's invention may succeed in this
work it is not for us to say. It is sufficient for the present that
he has done excellently well in showing how Herr Frederick Siemens'
scientific principles of regenerative gas burner construction may
be carried out yet in another way. There is nothing more common in
industrial annals than for one man to begin a work which another is
destined to bring to greater perfection. Whether this natural process is
to be repeated in the present instance must be left for the future to
decide. In any case, Mr. Grimston's success, if success is to be his
reward, though it will be well merited by his ingenuity and perseverance
in solving a difficult problem, will never cause us to forget the
prior claims of Herr Frederick Siemens, of Dresden, to the palm of the
discoverer. Mr. Grimston may or may not be the happy inventor of the
best gas-burner of the day; but there is the consolation of knowing that
in the same field in which he will find his recompense there is room for
any number and variety of useful improvements of a like character and
object.--_Journal of Gas Lighting_.
* * * * *
DEFTY'S IMPROVEMENTS IN GAS BURNERS AND HEATERS.
Among other inventors who have turned their attention to gas consumption
is to be found Mr. H. Defty, who has made several forms both of heating
and lighting burners. Mr. Defty has sought in the latter to apply the
principle of heating the air and gas in a simple manner, with the object
of obtaining improved photometrical results. The double-chimney
Argand, as tried many years since by Dr. Frankland and others, makes
a reappearance in one of Mr. Defty's models, illustrated in the
accompanying diagram (Fig. 1).
[Illustration: Fig. 1.]
Here we have the double-chimney, a and b, for heating the air supplied
to an ordinary Argand, by causing it to pass downward between the two
chimneys, and inward to the point of combustion through a wire-gauze
screen, c, under the inner chimney; but, in addition thereto, Mr. Defty
hopes to gain an improved result by causing the gas to pass through the
internal tube, s, which rises up in the middle of the flame. The gas,
which enters at e, is made to pass up through the inner tube and down
through the annular space to the burner.
[Illustration: Fig. 2.]
A more important form of lantern is the subject of the next diagram
(Fig. 2), which shows a suspended globe lantern in which there is an
attempt made to heat the air by the waste heat of the products of
combustion. It will be perceived by the diagram that a globe lantern is
furnished with a double chimney; the annular space, C, between the
inner and outer chimneys allowing for the access of air in a downward
direction. At the lower of this annular channel are the tubes D,
protected by the graduated mesh, E, and which admit the air to the
burner below. The products of combustion of the flame rise through the
inner chimney, passing around the tubes, and thereby giving up some of
their heat to the incoming air. Farther up, the chimney is partly filled
with the convoluted gas-pipe, A, which also takes up some of the waste
heat, and delivers the gas to the burner at a correspondingly high
temperature. A very simple method of lighting this burner, which in
itself does not present anything remarkable, is arranged at the lower
part of the globe, where a hole is cut and a loose conical glass plug
(which can, of course, be made to partake of the general ornamentation
of the globe) may be pushed up to allow of the passage of the lighting
agent, and is then dropped in its place again. Formal tests of the
performances of these burners are not available; and the same may be
said of the heating burners which are shown in the following diagrams.
[Illustration: FIG. 3.]
The first of these (Fig. 3) is called by Mr. Defty a "pyramid heater,"
and is designed to heat the mixture of air and gas before ignition, by
conduction from its own flame. The inventor claims to effect a perfect
combustion in this manner with considerable economy of fuel. It is
evident, however, that a good deal of the gas consumed goes to heat the
[Illustration: FIG. 4.]
The next and last of Mr. Defty's productions to be at present described
is the so-called "crater burner," shown herewith (Fig. 4). This is an
atmospheric burner which is purposely made to "fire back," as well as
to burn on the top of the apparatus. The body of the burner, like the
pyramid heater just described, is full of fire-clay balls, which become
very hot from the lower flame, and thus, after the burner has been for
some time in action, a pale, lambent blaze crowns the top, apparently
greater in volume than when it is first lighted. Here, again, there is a
lamentable absence of reliable data as to economic results, which will,
perhaps, be afforded when the apparatus in question is ready to be
offered to the public.
Whether one inventor or another succeeds in distancing his rivals, it is
matter, says _The Journal of Gas Lighting_, for sincere congratulation
among the friends of gas lighting that so much attention is being
concentrated upon the improvement of gas burners for all purposes. This
is an open field which affords scope for more workers than have yet
entered upon it, and there is the certainty of substantial reward to
whoever can realize a worthy advance upon the established practice.
* * * * *
NEW BINDING MACHINES.
The accompanying cuts represent two new machines for binding together
books and pamphlets. They are the invention of Messrs. Brehmer & Co.,
and are now much used in England and Germany. The material used for
binding is galvanized iron wire.
_Machine Operated by Hand_ (Fig. 1).--This machine serves for fastening
together the pages of pamphlets through the middle of the fold, or for
binding together several sheets to form books up to a thickness of about
half an inch.
It consists of a small cast-iron frame, with which is articulated a
lever, _i_, maneuvered by a handle, _h_. This lever is provided at its
extremity with a curved slat, in which engages a stud, fixed to the
lower part of a movable arm, _c_, whose extremity, _d_, rises and
descends when the lever handle, _h_, is acted upon. This maneuver can be
likewise performed by the foot, if the handle, _h_, be connected with a
pedal, X, placed at the foot of the table that supports the machine,
as shown in Fig. 2. The lever, _i_, is always drawn back to its first
position, when left to itself, by means of the spring, _z_.
[Illustration: IMPROVED BINDING MACHINE.]
The staples for binding have nearly the form of the letter U, and are
placed, to the number of 250 or 300, on small blocks of wood, _m_. To
prepare the machine for work, the catch, _a_, is shoved back, and the
whole upper part of the piece, _b_, is removed. The rod, _e_, with its
spring, is then drawn back until a small hole in _e_ is perceived,
and into this there is introduced the hook, _f_, which then holds the
spring. The block of wood, _m_, filled with staples, is then rested
against a rectangular horizontal rod, and into this latter the staples
are slipped by hand. The upper part of the piece, _b_, is next put in
place and fastened with the catch, _a_. Finally, the spring is freed
from the hook, _f_. When it is desired to bind the pages of a pamphlet,
the latter is placed open on the support, _g_, which, as will be
noticed, is angular above, so that the staple may enter exactly on the
line of the fold. Then the handle, _h_, is shoved down so as to act on
the arm, _c_, and cause the descent of the extremity, _d_, as well as
the vertical piece, _b_, with which it engages. This latter, in its
downward travel, takes up one of the staples, which are continually
thrust forward by the rod and spring, and causes it to penetrate the
paper. At this moment, the handle, _h_, makes the lever, _n_, oscillate,
and this raises, through its other extremity, a vertical slide whose
head bends the two points of the staple toward each other. The handle,
_h_, is afterward lifted, the position of the pamphlet is changed, and
the same operation is repeated. When it is desired to form a book from
a number of sheets, the table, _l_, is mounted on the support, _g_, its
two movable registers are regulated, and the sheets are spread out flat
on it. The machine, in operating, drives the staples in along the edge
of the sheets, and the points are bent over, as above indicated.
The axis on which the lever, _i_, is articulated is eccentric, and is
provided on the side opposite the lever with a needle, _k_, revolving
on a dial. The object of this arrangement is to regulate the machine
according to the thickness of the book.
[Illustration: FIG. 1.]
_Machine to be Operated by a Motor_ (Fig. 3).--This machine, although
working on the same principle, is of an entirely different construction.
It is designed for binding books of all dimensions. It consists of a
frame, _a_, in two pieces, connected by cross-pieces, and carries a
table, _u_, designed to receive the sheets before being bound together.
Motion is transmitted by means of a cone, _c_, mounted loose on the
shaft, _b_. To start the machine, the foot is pressed on the pedal, _m_,
which, through the intermedium of links and arms, brings together the
friction plates, _d_, one of which is connected with the shaft, _b_, and
the other with the cone, _c_. When it is desired to stop the machine,
the pedal is left free to itself, while the counterpoise, _s_, ungears
the friction plates. The machine fastens the paper with galvanized iron
wire wound round bobbins placed at the side of the apparatus. This wire
it cuts, and forms into staples.
[Illustration: FIG. 2.]
The book to be bound is placed on the support, _h_, and the arms, _k_,
that carry the fasteners cause it to move backward and forward. It also
undergoes a second motion--that is, it moves downward according to the
number and thickness of its pages. This motion, which takes place
every time the operator adds a new sheet, is regulated by a cog-wheel
register, _l_, which is divided, and provided with a needle.
The iron wires pass from the bobbins on a support to the left of the
machine by means of feed rollers, which thrust them through the eight
clips. In the interior of these latter there is a double knife, which,
actuated by one of the cams of the wheel, _e_, cuts the wire and bends
it thus [Inline Illustration]. The extremities of the staples are thrust
through the back of the half opened leaves, and then bent toward each
other thus [Inline Illustration], by the front fastener. This motion is
effected by means of two levers, _p_ (moved by the cams, _e_), whose
extremities at every revolution of the machine seize by the two ends a
link that maneuvers the fasteners. The binding of one sheet finished,
the lower arms of the machine again take their position, the wires move
forward the length necessary to form new staples, a new sheet is laid,
and the same operation is proceeded with. The number of staples and
their distance are changed, according to the size of the book, by
introducing into the machine as much wire as will be necessary for the
staples. To prevent their number from increasing the thickness of the
back of the book (as would happen were they superposed), the support,
_h_, moves laterally at every blow, so as to cause the third staple to
be driven over the first, the second over the fourth, etc.
* * * * *
FLUMES AND THEIR CONSTRUCTION.
In crossing ravines in this State, flumes or wrought iron pipes are
used. Many miners object to flumes on account of their continual cost
and danger of destruction by fire. Where used and practicable, they
are set on heavier grades than ditches, 30 to 35 ft. per mile, and,
consequently, are proportionately of smaller area than the ditches. In
their construction a straight line is the most desirable. Curves, where
required, should be carefully set, so that the flume may discharge its
maximum quantity. Many ditches in California have miles of fluming. The
annexed sketch, drawn by A. J. Bowie, Jr., will show the ordinary style
[Illustration: SKETCH OF FLUME.]
The planking ordinarily used is of heart sugar pine, one and a half to
two inches thick, and 12 to 18 inches wide. Where the boards join, pine
battens three inches wide by one and a half thick cover the seam. Sills,
posts, and caps support and strengthen the flume every four feet. The
posts are mortised into the caps and sills. The sills extend about
20 inches beyond the posts, and to them side braces are nailed to
strengthen the structure. This extension of the sill timbers affords a
place for the accumulation of snow and ice, and in the mountains such
accumulations frequently break them off, and occasionally destroy a
To avoid damage from slides, snow, and wind storms, the flumes are set
in as close as possible to the bank, and rest, wholly or partially, on
a solid bed, as the general topography and costs will admit. Stringers
running the entire length of the flume are placed beneath the sills just
outside of the posts. They are not absolutely necessary, but in point of
economy are most valuable, as they preserve the timbers. As occasion
may demand, the flume is trestled, the main supports being placed every
eight feet. The scantling and struts used are in accordance with the
requirements of the work.--_Min. and Sci. Press_.
* * * * *
CHUWAB'S ROLLING MILL FOR DRESSING AND ROUNDING BAR IRON.
This new forge apparatus has been devised for the purpose of finishing
up round irons of all diameters while hot, as they come out of
the ordinary rolling mill, by rendering them perfectly circular,
cylindrical, straight, smooth, and level at the extremities, as if they
had passed through a slide lathe. Such a high degree of external finish
is a very valuable feature in those round irons that are employed in so
great quantity for shafting, cylindrical axles, etc., as well as in the
manufacture of bolts and locks. Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the opposite
engraving will allow it to be seen that this apparatus which is usually
installed at the side of the finishing cylinder is, in part, beneath
the general level of the forge floor. It may be placed parallel with or
perpendicular to the apparatus that it does duty for, this depending
upon the site at disposal or the mode of transmission.
The apparatus consists essentially of two tempered iron cylinders, A,
0.5 of a meter in diameter by 1.5 meters in length, revolving in the
_same direction_ (contrary to what takes place in ordinary rolling
mills) between two frames, B, that are open on one side to allow of
the entrance of the finishing bar. This latter is held between the
cylinders, A, which roll it so much the faster in proportion as its
diameter is smaller, and by a scraper guide, C, of the same length as
the cylinder table, and which may be regulated at will by bolts, c,
fixed to the frame, B. The bottom cylinder remains always in the same
position, while the axle, D, which carries the intermediate wheels, E,
moves about to gear in all the relative positions of the cylinders. The
displacement of the upper cylinder is effected through the clamping
screws, b, which are actuated by toothed disks that gear with two
endless screws keyed at the extremities of one shaft in common, d, which
is set in motion by hand through the winches, m m. The scraper guards, e
e, take up and throw aside all scales that might become attached to the
cylinders, which are constantly moistened by small streams of water
coming from an ordinary conduit.
[Illustration: CHUWAB'S DRESSING AND ROUNDING ROLLING MILL.
Fig. 1--Elevation and Longitudinal Section.
Fig. 2--Side View.
Fig. 3--Transvers Section.
Fig. 4--Plan View.
Figs. 5 & 6--Saws for Dressing the Extremities of the Bars.
Fig. 7--Diagram Showing the Motion of the Wheels and Guide.
Figs. 8 & 9--Apparatus for Shifting tha Bars.]
As the driving belts are mounted on pulleys, G, of a diameter
proportioned to the velocity of the shafting, the iron pinions, h, in
order to produce 60 revolutions per minute in the first shaft, H, gear
on each side with the intermediate wheels, E, and these actuate the
two bronze pinions, a a, that are mounted on the extremities of the
cylinders, A A. The axle, D, of the intermediate wheels does not revolve
with them, but is capable of rising and descending in the elongated
aperture that traverses the frames, B. The displacement of this axle is
secured through the arms, L L, whose extremities articulate on the one
hand with the cylinders, A A, and on the other with D. The result of
this is that every displacement upward of the top cylinder corresponds
to a different position of the intermediate shaft, and one that is
always equidistant from the centers of the cylinders, A A, thus securing
a constant gearing of the wheels in all the positions of the cylinders,
The diagram in Fig. 7 shows the relative displacements of all these
parts, as well as those of the scraper guide, C. The diameter to be
obtained is determined beforehand by the two contact screws, P.
The whole thus regulated, the bar of iron, still very hot, coming from
the ordinary rollers, is straightened up, if need be, by a few blows of
a hammer, so that it may roll forward over the pavement, N, between the
rounding cylinders, A A; these being held apart sufficiently to allow
of its easy introduction. Next, a few revolutions of the winches that
control the screws suffice to lower the upper cylinder to the exact
position limited by the contact screws, P, and the bar is rolled between
the two cylinder tables with a constant velocity in the generatrices. As
a consequence, the number of revolutions made is so much the greater in
proportion as the diameter of the shaft is smaller with respect to that
of the cylinders.
It should be remarked that the bar, during its rotation under pressure,
is held by the guide, C, so that its diagrammatic axis (Fig. 7) exceeds
the line, A A, joining the centers of the cylinders just enough to
prevent its escape to the opposite, and so that the pressure upon the
said guide (which performs the role of scraper) is merely sufficient to
detach the scales which form during the operation.
Under such conditions, and at a velocity of 30 revolutions per minute in
the two cylinders, it will take but a fraction of a minute to finish
a bar the length of the table, that is to say, 1.5 meters. Then, by
loosening the upper cylinder, the bar may be easily shoved along in one
direction or the other, so as to continue the finishing operation
on successive lengths. This moving of the bar forward is further
facilitated by the aid of a clamp with rollers and a movable socket,
V (Figs. 8 and 9). For large diameters (150 millimeters and beyond)
traction is employed by the aid of two small windlasses placed opposite
each other, and at a distance apart twice the greatest length of the
bars to be finished. The chains of these windlasses are attached to the
extremities by clamps that lock by the pulling exerted.
The details of the arrangement of the saws (Figs. 5 and 6) show that to
make a section of the ends or of any other part of the bar, it is only
necessary to lower the lever of one them. By reason of the contrary
rotation of the bar, the effective stress on the lever will be very
moderate, while the cut produced will be a clean and quickly performed
one. It should be remarked that, as a consequence of the cone on the
projecting extremity of the cylinder journals (Fig. 5), and on the
rollers that control the saws, it is only necessary to move the lever to
the right or left in order to stop the motion of each of the saws. These
latter, to prevent all possibility of accident, are inclosed within
semicircular guards. Finally, the controlling rollers are made of a
material which is quite elastic (compressed cardboard, for example), so
that they may roll smoothly and adhere well.
From what precedes, it will be seen that round iron bars of any diameter
will come from this apparatus completely finished. It will be seen
also that with cylinders of suitable profile, there might likewise be
finished axles, or pieces that are more or less conical as well as those
provided with shoulders.
The apparatus may, if preferred, be driven by small special motors
affixed to the frame. Such an arrangement, which is more costly than the
preceding, is, nevertheless, indicated in cases where shafting would be
in the way.
The weight of the materials entering into the construction of this
machine, proposed by Mr. Chuwab, includes about 15 tons of metal,
of which 5,000 kilogrammes are for the two tempered cylinders; 250
kilogrammes of iron screws, and 350 of bolts; and 500 kilogrammes of
bronze, 90 of which are for nuts.--_Revue Industrielle_.
* * * * *
THE BURNING OF TOWN REFUSE AT LEEDS.
[Footnote: From selected papers of the Institution of Civil Engineers,
London, by Charles Slagg, Assoc. Memb. Inst. C.E.]
In large towns it is necessary to adopt some regular system of removal
and disposal of the cinders and ashes of house fires, and of the animal
and vegetable refuse of the houses, and, in short, of everything thrown
away which cannot be admitted into the sewers. In towns where the
excreta are separated by means of water closets, the disposal of the
other refuse presents less difficulty, but still a considerable one,
because the animal and vegetable refuse is not kept separate from the
cinders and ashes, all being thrown together into the ash pit or dust
bin. The contents, therefore, cannot be deposited upon ground which may
afterward be built upon, although that custom obtained generally in
former times. Hence the refuse has been removed to a depot where that
wretched industry is created of picking out the other parts from the
cinders and ashes.
[Illustration: FIG. 1.--DESTRUCTOR.
Section through feeding-holes of cells.
Section through air-passages of cells.]
But in towns unprovided with water closets, or so far as they are not
adopted in any town, where the privies are connected with the ash pits,
and where, consequently, the excreta of the population are added to the
other contents of ash pits, the difficulties of removal and disposal of
the refuse are much increased.
Where the privy-ashpit system is in use--as it still is to a large
extent--as much of the contents of the ash pits as can be sold at any
price, however small, are collected separately from the drier portions,
and sent out of town as manure; but what remains is still too offensive
to be deposited on ground near the town; and when it is attempted to
collect the excreta separately by the pail system, the process is no
less unsatisfactory. These difficulties led to the adoption, under the
advice of the late Mr. A.W. Morant, M. Inst. C.E., the Borough Engineer
at Leeds, of Fryer's method of destruction by burning--that is, of the
dry ashes and cinders and the animal and vegetable refuse. The
author was Mr. Morant's assistant. The first kiln was constructed at
Burmantofts, 11/2 miles from the center of the town in a northeasterly
direction, and has been in use since the beginning of the year 1878. In
1879 another kiln was constructed at Armley Road, a mile from the center
of the town in a west-southwesterly direction, which has been in use
since the beginning of 1880.
Each destructor kiln has six cells, three in each face of a block of
brick work 22 feet long, 24 feet through from face to face, and 12 feet
high. Each cell is 8 feet long and 5 feet wide, arched over, the height
being 3 feet 4 inches, and both the bottom and arch of the cell slope
down to the furnace doors with an inclination of 1 in 3. The lower end
of each cell has about 26 square feet of wrought-iron firebars, the
hearth being 41/2 feet above the ground.
[Illustration: FIG. 2.--CARBONIZER.
Section through furnaces.
There are two floors, one on the ground level, a few feet only above the
outlet for drainage, the other floor, or raised platform, being 15 feet
above it. The refuse is taken in carts up an incline of 1 in 14 on
cast-iron tram plates to the upper floor, and deposited upon and
alongside of the destructor, and is shoveled into a row of hoppers at
the head of the cells. These hoppers are in the middle of the width of
the destructor, and each communicates with a cell on each side of it.
The refuse is always damp, and often wet, and after being put into
the cells is gradually dried by the heat reflected upon it from the
firebrick arch of the cell, before it descends to the furnace. This
distinguishes the system from the common furnace, and enables the wet
material to be burned without other fuel. No fresh fuel is used after
the fires are once lighted. The vapor passes off with the gases of
combustion into a horizontal flue between the two rows of cells, through
an opening at the head of each cell, alongside that through which the
refuse is fed into it, the two openings being separated by a firebrick
wall. The refuse is prevented from falling into the flue by a bridge
wall across the outlet opening, over which the gases pass into the flue.
Between the destructor and the chimney a multitubular boiler is placed,
which makes steam enough for grinding into sand the clinkers which are
the solid residue of the burnt refuse. At Burmantofts an old chimney was
made use of, which is but 84 feet high; but at Armley Road a new chimney
was built, 6 feet square inside and 120 feet high. It is necessary to
make the horizontal flue large; that at Armley Road is 9 feet high and 4
feet wide. A large quantity of dust escapes from the cells--about 7 cwt.
a month--and unless the velocity of the air in the flue between the
destructor and the chimney were checked, the dust would be carried up
the chimney and might cause complaints; as, indeed, it has done with the
120-foot chimney, but whether with any substantial grounds is uncertain.
The dust is removed from the horizontal flue or dust chamber once a
month. Experience seems to indicate that there should be some sort of
guard or grating to prevent the entry into the chimney of charred paper
and similar light substances which do not fall to dust, and which are
sometimes carried up with the draught.
A six-celled destructor kiln burns about 42 tons of refuse in
twenty-four hours, leaving about one-fourth of its bulk of clinkers and
ashes. The clinkers are withdrawn from the furnaces five times each day
and night, or about every two-and-a-half hours, into iron barrows, and
wheeled outside the shed which covers the destructor, and when cold are
wheeled back to the mortar mills, of which there are two at each depot,
each having a revolving pan 8 feet in diameter, with 27-cwt. rollers,
the pan making twenty two revolutions a minute. Forty shovelfuls of
clinkers and twelve of slaked lime make 7 cwt. of mortar in thirty-five
minutes in each pan, which is sold at 5s. 6d. per ton. The engine
driving the two mortar mills has a 14 inch cylinder, 30 inches length
of stroke, and makes sixty revolutions per minute with 45 pounds steam
pressure per square inch in the boiler, when both mortar mills are
running. The boiler is 11 feet long, 8 feet in diameter, and has 132
tubes 4 inches in external diameter, which, together with the external
flues, are cleaned out once a month.
At first sight it would probably appear that no good mortar could be
made from such refuse as has been described, but having passed through
the furnace, the clinkers are, of course, perfectly clean, and with good
lime make a really strong and excellent mortar. They are also largely
used for the foundation of roadways.
The number of men employed is as follows: Two furnace men in the daytime
and two at night. They work from midnight on Sundays to 2 P.M. on
Saturdays, the fires being fully charged and left to burn through the
Sundays. One foreman, who attends also to the running of the engine, and
one mortar man. A watchman attends while the workmen are off.
In addition to a destructor, there is at the Burmautofts depot a
"carbonizer" kiln, in which the sweepings of the vegetable markets are
burned into charcoal. The carbonizer consists of eight vertical cells,
in two sets or stacks of four, separated by a space containing two
double furnaces, back to back, there being a double furnace also at each
end of the eight cells. Each of the stacks of four cells is 15 feet
6 inches high; the ends and middle parts, forming the tops of the
furnaces, being 6 feet high. The block of brick work containing the
eight cells and furnaces is 26 feet 6 inches long and 12 feet 4 inches
wide at the floor level. Each cell is 3 feet 6 inches by 2 feet, and
about 10 feet deep, with a chamber below about 3 feet deep, into which
the charred material falls and is completely burned. The top of the
cells is level with the upper platform, and they are fed through a loose
cover, which is immediately replaced. Inside the cells cast-iron sloping
shelves are hung upon the walls so that their upper edges touch the
walls, but the lower edges are some inches off, so that the hot air of
the furnaces passes upward behind the shelves round the four sides of
the cell in a spiral manner, and out near the top into a vertical flue,
which conducts it down to the horizontal flue at the bottom, which leads
to the chimney. The charcoal is withdrawn from the bottom of the heating
chamber through a sliding plate 2 feet above the floor, and is wheeled
red hot to the charcoal cooler, which is a revolving cylinder, nearly
horizontal, kept cool by water falling upon it, and delivers the
charcoal in two degrees of fineness at the end. It is worked by a small
attached engine, supplied with steam from the boiler before mentioned.
Each cell of the carbonizer can reduce to charcoal 50 cwt. of vegetable
refuse in twenty four hours, but at Leeds not quite so much is put
through. The quantity of market refuse passed through six cells of the
carbonizer varies from 3 to 10 tons a day, and averages about 41/2 tons,
from which 15 cwt. of charcoal is obtained. The fuel for burning the
charcoal is derived from the ash pit refuse, some selected loads being
for that purpose passed over a sloping screen fixed between the upper
platform and the furnace floor, the fine ashes which pass through the
screen being taken away to the manure heaps, and the combustible parts
to the furnaces of the carbonizer. In this way a good deal of the ash
pit refuse is got rid of; it is often one-twelfth part of the whole
The carbonizer and the destructor are set 33 feet apart, to allow room
for drawing the furnaces and for the mortar mills, but the space is
hardly sufficient. One man is employed in attending to the carbonizer.
Besides the openings at the top of the destructor through which the ash
pit refuse is fed into the cells, there is a larger opening in each
cell, kept covered usually, through which bed mattresses ordered by the
medical sanitary office to be destroyed can be put into the cells. These
openings are midway between the central openings and the furnace doors,
and whatever is put into the cells through these comes into immediate
contact with the fire. Advantage is taken of these openings for the
destruction of dead animals and diseased meat, and as much as 20 tons in
a year have been passed through the destructor.
The whole works are roofed over. The lower floor is open on two sides,
but the upper one is closed in, with weather boarding at Burmantofts and
with corrugated iron at Armley Road. At the former place the works
were in some measure experimental, and the platform was constructed
of timber, but at Armley Road it is of plate-iron girders, with brick
arching, weight being considered advantageous in reducing the vibration
of carting heavy loads over it.
The cost of each depot has been L4,500, exclusive of land, of which
about an acre is required for the destructor, carbonizer, inclined road,
weigh office, and space. A supply of water is necessary, a good deal
being required for cooling the clinkers. The population of the two
districts belonging to these works is about 160,000.
The author has no longer any connection with the works described, and
for the recent experience of their working he is indebted to Mr.
John Newhouse, the superintendent of the sanitary department of the
* * * * *
The specific volume of the different constituents of green woods has
been estimated by M. Hartig to be as follows, per 1,000 parts: Hard
green wood, fiber stuff, 441; water, 247; air, 312. Soft green wood,
fiber stuff, 279; water, 317, air, 404. Evergreen wood, fiber stuff,
270; water, 335; air, 395. A certain amount of water--7 or 8 per cent in
all--is included with the fiber stuff, showing that about one-third only
of the mass of the wood is solid stuff; the remainder is either water or
* * * * *
THE ARMITAGE HOUSE.
This house is now in course of erection under the superintendence
of Messrs. Salomons and Ely, in the Claremont road, Pendleton, near
Manchester. The walls are faced in the lower part with red bricks,
and red stone, from the neighborhood of Liverpool, is used for the
window-dressings, etc. The upper part of walls will be faced with
red tiles and half-timber work, and the roof will be covered with
Staffordshire tiles. Lead lights will be largely used in the windows.
Internally, the finish will be almost entirely in real woods, including
walnut for the dining-room and vestibule, pitch-pine for the large hall,
staircase, and billiard-room, ash for the morning-room, and oak for Mr.
Armitage's own room. In all these the ceilings and dados are to be in
wood. The contract for the whole of the above work, amounting to L6,507,
is let to Mr. James Herd, of Manchester.--_Building News_.
[Illustration: SUGGESTIONS IN ARCHITECTURE.--AN ENGLISH COUNTRY
* * * * *
THE COLLOTYPE PROCESS IN PRACTICE.
That theory and practice are two very different things holds good in
photography especially, and perhaps in no other branch of our art have
so many theoretical formulae been promulgated as in the collotype or
Lichtdruck process. As our readers are aware, we have had an opportunity
of seeing collotype printing in operation in several European
establishments of note, and have, from time to time, published in these
columns our experiences. But requests still come to us so frequently
for information on the process that we have deemed it well to make a
practical summary for the benefit of those who are working--or desire to
The formulae and manipulations here set down are those of Loewy, Albert,
Allgeyer, and Obernetter, four of the best authorities on the subject,
and we can assure our readers there is nothing described but what is
_Glass Plate for the Printing Block_.--Herr Albert, of Munich, uses
patent plate of nearly half an inch in thickness, as most of his work
is printed upon the Schnell press (machine press). Herr Obernetter, of
Vienna, since he only employs the slower and more careful hand
press, prefers plate glass of ordinary thickness as being handier in
manipulation and better adapted to the common printing-frame.
Herr Loewy, of Vienna, again, uses plate glass a quarter of an inch
thick, as his productions range from the finest to the roughest.
_Preliminary Coating of the Glass Plate_.--Herr Albert's original plan
was to apply a preliminary coating of bichromated gelatine to the thick
glass plate, the film being exposed to light through the back of the
glass, and thus rendered insoluble and tightly cemented to the surface;
this film serving as a basis for the second sensitive coating, that
was afterward impressed by the negative. This double treatment is now
definitely abandoned in most Lichtdruck establishments, and, instead, a
preliminary coating of soluble silicate and albumen dissolved in water
Herr Loewy's method and formula are as follows: The glass plate is
cleaned, and coated with--
Soluble glass. 3 parts.
White of egg. 7 "
Water. 9 to 10 "
The soluble glass must be free from caustic potash. The mixture, which
must be used fresh, is carefully filtered, and spread evenly over the
previously cleaned glass plate. The superfluous liquid is flowed off,
and the film dried either spontaneously or by slightly warming. The film
is generally dry in a few minutes, when it is rinsed with water, and
again dried; at this stage the plate bears an open, porous film,
slightly opalescent--so slight, however, as only to be observed by an
_Application of the Sensitive Film_.--We now come to the second stage of
the process, the application of a film of bichromated gelatine to the
Herr Loewy's formula is as follows:
Bichromate of potash. 16 grammes.
Gelatine. 21/2 ounces.
Water. 20 to 22 "
According to the weather, the amount of water must be varied; but in any
case the solution is a very fluid one. An ounce is about 35 grammes, as
most of our readers know. A practical collotypist sees at a glance the
quality of the prepared plate, without any preliminary testing. A good
preliminary film is a glass that is transparent, yet slightly dull; the
film is so thin, you can scarcely believe it is there. The plate is
slightly warmed upon a slate slab, underneath which is a water bath; it
is then flooded with the above mixture of bichromated gelatine, leaving
only sufficient to make a very thin film. When coated, the plate is
placed in the drying chamber.
_Drying the Sensitive Film_.--Much depends upon the drying. A water
bath with gas burner underneath is used for heating, and a slate slab,
perfectly level, receives the glass plate. The drying chamber is kept at
an even temperature of 50 deg. C.
The object to be attained is a fine grain throughout the surface of the
gelatine, and unless this grain is satisfactory the finished printing
block never will be. If the gelatine film be too thick, then the grain
will be coarse; or, again, if the temperature in drying be too high,
there will be no grain at all. The drying is complete in two or three
hours, and should not take longer.
_The Negative to be Printed from_.--The sensitive film being upon the
surface of a thick glass plate, it is necessary that the cliche or
negative employed should be upon patent plate, or not upon glass at all,
so as to insure perfect contact. Best of all, is to employ a stripped
negative, in which case absolute contact is insured in printing. It is
only in these circumstances that the most perfect impression can be
secured. If the negative is otherwise satisfactory, and only requires
stripping, it must be upon a leveling stand, and fluid gelatine of a
tolerable consistence is poured over it. When dry, a pen-knife is run
around the margin, and the film leaves the glass without any trouble.
Herr Obernetter says that many of the negatives he receives have to be
reproduced before they can be transformed into Lichtdruck plates, and
he employs either the wet collodion process or the graphite method,
according to circumstances. If the copy is desired to be softer than the
original, collodion is employed; if vigor be desired, graphite is used,
and here is his formula:
Dextrine. 62 grains.
Ordinary white sugar. 77 "
Bichromate of ammonia. 30.8 "
Water. 3.21 ounces.
Glycerine. 2 to 8 drops.
The film is dried at a temperature of 130 deg. to 140 deg. F. in about ten
minutes, and while still warm is printed under a negative in diffused
light for a period of five to fifteen minutes. In a well-timed print
the image is slightly visible; the plate is again warmed a little above
atmospheric temperature in a darkened room, and then fine levigated
graphite is applied with a fine dusting brush, a sheet of white paper
being held underneath to judge of the effect. Breathing upon the film
renders it more capable of attracting the powder. When the desired vigor
has been attained, the superfluous powder is dusted off, and the plate
coated with normal collodion. Afterward the film is cut through at the
margins of the plate by means of a sharp knife, and put into water. In a
little while--from two to five minutes--the collodion, with the image,
will be detached from the glass; the film is at once turned over in the
water, and brought out upon the glass plate. Under a soft jet of water
any air-bubbles that may exist between the collodion and the glass are
removed, and then a solution of gum arabic (two grammes of gum dissolved
in one hundred grammes of water) is poured over, and the film is allowed
to dry spontaneously.
_Exposure of the Printing Block under the Negative_.--The exposure
is very rapid. Any one conversant with photolithographic work will
understand this. At any rate, every photographer knows that bichromated
gelatine is much more rapid than the chloride of silver he generally has
to do with.
There is no other way of measuring the exposure than by the photometer
or personal experience, and the latter is by far the best.
After leaving the printing frame, the plate is immersed in cold water.
Here it remains at discretion for half an hour, or an hour; the purpose,
of course, being to wash out the soluble bichromate. It is when the
print comes out of this bath that judgment is passed upon it. An
experienced eye tells at once what it is fit for. If it is yellow, the
yellowness must be of the slightest; indeed, Herr Furkl (the manager of
Herr Loewy's Lichtdruck department) will not admit that a good plate is
yellow at all. A yellow tint means that it will take up too much ink
when the roller is passed over it. The plates of Herr Obernetter,
however, are rather more yellow than Herr Loewy's--certainly only a
tinge, but still yellow; and Herr Obernetter's work proves, at any rate,
that the yellowish tinge is by no means inseparable from good results.
The washed and dried plate should appear like a design of ground and
polished glass. The ground glass appearance is given by the grain. If
there are pure high-lights (almost transparent) and opalescent shadows,
the plate is a good one.
_Printing from the Block_.--We have now a printing-block ready for the
press. If it is to be printed by machinery--that is to say, upon a
Schnell press--the surface is etched; if it has to be more carefully
handled in a hand press, etching is rarely resorted to; it is moistened
only with glycerine and water. To etch a plate for a Schnell press, it
is placed upon a leveling stand, and the following solution is poured
Glycerine............................. 150 parts.
Ammonia................................ 50 "
Nitrate of potash (saltpeter).......... 5 "
Water.................................. 25 "
Another equally good formula, recommended by Allgeyer, who managed Herr
Albert's Lichtdruck printing for some years, is:
Glycerine............................. 500 parts.
Water................................. 500 "
Chloride of sodium (common salt)...... 15 "
In lieu of common salt, 15 parts of hyposulphite of soda, or other
hygroscopic salt, such as chloride of calcium, may be employed.
The etching fluid is permitted to remain upon the image for half an
hour. During this time, by gently moving the finger to and fro over the
surface, the swelling or relief of the image can be distinctly felt. The
plate is not washed, but the etching fluid simply poured off, so that
the film remains impregnated with the glycerine and water; at the most,
a piece of bibulous paper is used to absorb any superfluous quantity of
the etching fluid. After etching, the plate is taken straight to the
printing press. The inking up and printing are done very much as
in lithography. If it requires a practiced hand to produce a good
lithographic print, it stands to reason that in dealing with a gelatine
printing block, instead of a stone, skill and practice are more
necessary still. Therefore at this point the photographer should hand
over the work to the lithographer, or rather the Lichtdruck printer.
It is only by coaxing judiciously, with roller and sponge, that a good
printing block can be obtained, and no amount of teaching theoretically
can beget a good printer. To appreciate how skillful a printer must be,
it is only necessary to see the imperfect proofs that first result, and
to watch how these are gradually improved by dint of rolling, rubbing,
etching, cleaning, etc. In all Lichldruck establishments, two kinds of
rollers are used, viz., of leather and glue. In some establishments,
too, they employ two kinds of ink; but Herr Loewy manages to secure
delicacy and vigor at the same time by using one ink, but rolling up
with two kinds of roller.
Collotype printing is not merely done by hand presses, but is also
done by machinery. At Herr Albert's a gas engine of six-horse power is
employed to drive the machines, and each machine requires the
attention of a skilled mechanic and a girl. The press is very like the
lithographic quick press. Upon a big steel bed lies the little collotype
block. The glass printing block, with its brownish film of gelatine,
moves horizontally to and fro, and, as it does so, passes under half a
dozen rollers, which not only supply ink, but disperse it. Some of the
rollers are of leather and others of glue, and, whenever the printing
block retires from underneath them, an ink slab takes the place of the
block, and imparts more ink to the rollers; sometimes as many as eight
rollers are used, for the difficulty of machine printing is to apply the
ink as delicately and equally as possible. It is necessary at intervals
to damp the block, and when the printer in charge finds this to be the
case, he stops the press, and applies a little glycerine and water
with a cloth or sponge; then a leather roller is passed over to remove
superfluous moisture, and the press is again started.
Herr Obernetter relies upon the Star or Stern press--a small
lithographic press--one man sufficing to manage it, who turns a wheel
with large spokes, reminding one of the steering wheel of a ship. The
Lichtdruck plate, gelatine film upward, is laid upon a sheet of plate
glass by way of a bed, the plate having first been treated with a
solution of glycerine and water; it is then inked up as previously
described, except that Herr Obernetter uses two kinds of ink--a thick
one and a thin--applied by two rollers of glue. In the first place, a
moist sponge is rubbed over the surface; then a soft roller covered with
wash-leather, and of the appearance of crepe, is passed over two or
three times to remove surplus moisture; then a roller charged with thick
ink is put on, and then another with thin is applied. It takes fully
five minutes to sponge and roll up a plate, the rolling being done
gently and firmly. A sheet of paper is now laid upon the plate, the
tympan is lowered, and the scraper adjusted with due pressure; a
revolution of the wheel completes the printing, the well-known scraping
action of the lithographic press being used in the operation.
[Illustration: FIG. 1.--ORDINARY NAPHTHA LIGHTER OF MR. LOISEAU.]
Some Lichtdruck prints are printed upon thick plate-paper, and are ready
for binding without further ado, these being for book illustrations.
Other pictures, that are to pass muster among silver photographs, are,
on the other hand, printed upon fine thin paper, and then sized by
dipping in a thin solution of gelatine; after drying, they are further
dipped in a solution of shellac and spirit.--_Photo. News_.
* * * * *
Among the most valuable, and, up to the present time, the least
generally appreciated services that electricity can render for domestic
purposes is that of its application in lighters. At the present epoch
of indifferent matches, to have, instantaneously, a light by pulling
a cord, pressing on a button, or turning a cock, is a thing worthy of
being taken into serious consideration; and our own personal experience
permits us to assert that, regarded from this point of view, electricity
is capable of daily rendering inappreciable services.
According to the nature of the application that is to be made of them,
the places in which they are to be put, and the combustible that they
are to inflame, etc., electric lighters vary greatly in form and
We shall limit ourselves here to pointing out the simplest and most
practical of the numerous models of such apparatus that have been
constructed up to the present time. All those that we shall describe
are based on the incandescence of a platinum wire. A few have been
constructed based on the induction spark, but they are more complicated
and expensive, and have not entered into practical use. Before
commencing to describe these apparatus, we shall make a remark in regard
to the piles for working them, and that is that we prefer for this
purpose Leclanche elements with agglomerated plates and a large surface
of zinc. In order to bring about combustion in any given substance, it
is necessary to bring near it an incandescent body raised to a certain
temperature, which varies with the nature of the said substance, and
which is quite low for illuminating gas, higher for petroleum, and a
white heat for a wax taper or a candle. We have said that we make use
exclusively of a platinum wire raised momentarily to incandescence by
the passage of an electric current. The temperature of such wire will
depend especially upon the intensity of the current traversing it;
and, if this is too great, the platinum (chosen because of its
inoxidizability and its elevated melting point) will rapidly melt;
while, if the intensity is too little, the temperature reached by the
wire will itself be too low, and no inflammation will be brought about.
Practice soon indicates a means of obviating these two inconveniences,
and teaches how each apparatus may be placed under such conditions that
the wire will hardly ever melt, and that the lighting will always be
effected. For the same intensity of current that traverses the wire,
the temperature of the latter might be made to vary by diminishing or
increasing its diameter. A very fine wire will attain a red heat through
a very weak current, but it would be very brittle, and subject to break
at the least accident. For this reason it becomes necessary to employ
wires a little stronger, and varying generally from one to two-tenths
of a millimeter in diameter. The current then requires to be a little
intenser. The requisite intensity is easily obtained with elements
of large surface, which have a much feebler internal resistance than
porous-cup elements; and since, for a given number of elements, the
intensity of the current decreases in measure as the internal resistance
of the elements increases, it becomes of interest to diminish such
internal resistance as much as possible. The platinum wires are usually
rolled spirally, with the object in view of concentrating the heat into
a small space, in order to raise the temperature of the wire as much as
possible. There is thus need of a less intense current to produce the
inflammation than with a wire simply stretched out. In fact, the same
wire traversed by a current of constant intensity scarcely reaches a
_red_ heat when it is straight, while it attains a _white_ heat when it
is wound spirally, because, in the latter case, the cooling surface is
[Illustration: FIG. 2--RANQUE'S NEW FORM OF LIGHTER WITH EXTINGUISHER.]
We shall now proceed to the examination of a few practical forms of
In Fig. 1 will be seen quite a convenient spirit or naphtha lighter,
which has been devised more especially for the use of smokers. By
pushing the lamp toward the wall, the wick is brought into proximity
with the spiral, and the lamp, acting on a button behind it, closes
the current. Pressure on the lamp being removed, the latter moves back
slightly, through the pressure of a small spring which thrusts on the
button. Owing to this latter simple arrangement, the spiral never comes
in contact with the flame, and may thus last for a long time. Mr.
Loiseau, the proprietor of this apparatus, employs a very fine platinum
wire, flattened into the form of a ribbon, and it takes only the current
from a _single element_ to effect the inflammation of the wick. The
system is so arranged that any one can easily replace in a moment the
spiral that has accidentally got out of order; and, in order that this
may be done, the maker has placed the spiral on a small, distinct piece
that he styles the "conflagrator." The latter consists of two small,
thin tubes of brass, held parallel and firmly by means of a brass
cross-piece. A small bit of paper wound round each tube in front of the
cross-brace insures insulation. The outer extremity of the two tubes
supports the platinum spiral, which is fixed to them very simply by the
aid of two small brass needles of conical form, which pinch the wire
in the tube and hold it in place. There is nothing easier to do than
replace the wire. All that is necessary is to remove the two little rods
with a pair of pincers; to make a spiral of suitable length by rolling
the wire round a pin; and to fix it into the tubes, as we have just
explained. With two or three extra "conflagrators" on hand, there need
never any trouble occur.
In Fig. 2 we show a new and simple form of Mr. Ranque's lighter, in
which an electro-magnet concealed in the base brings the spiral and
the wick into juxtaposition. The extinguisher, which is balanced by
a counterpoise, oscillates about a horizontal axis, and its support
carries two small pins, against which act successively two notches in a
piece of oval form, fixed on the side of the movable rods.
In the position shown in the cut, on the first emission of a current the
upper notch acts so as to depress the extinguisher, but the travel of
the rods that carry the spiral is so limited that the latter does not
strike against the extinguisher. On the next emission, the lower notch
acts so as to raise the extinguisher, while the spiral approaches the
wick and lights it. It is well to actuate these extinguishing-lighters,
which may be located at a distance, not by a contact button, but by some
pulling arrangement, which is always much more easy to find in the dark
without much groping about. There might be used for such a purpose the
very motion of the front door, when opened, for lighting the hall; but
that would offer the inconvenience of operating likewise in the daytime,
and of thus needlessly using up the pile and the naphtha. In all these
spirit or naphtha lighters it is important that the spiral _shall not
touch_ the wick, but that it shall be placed a little above and on the
side, in the mixture of air and combustible vapor.
Several apparatus have likewise been devised for lighting gas by
electricity, and a few of these we shall describe.
The simplest form of these is Mr. Barbier's lighter for the use of
smokers, for lighting candles, sealing letters, etc. It consists of a
small gas-burner affixed to a round box, seven to eight centimeters in
diameter, and connected to the gas-pipe by a rubber tube. By maneuvering
the handle, the cock is opened and an electric contact set up of
sufficient duration to raise to a red heat the spiral, and to light the
gas. It is well in this case, for the sake of economizing in wire, to
utilize the lead gas-pipe as a return wire, especially if the pile is
located at some little distance from the lighter. In the arrangement
generally in use the key is provided with a special spring, which tends
to cause it to turn in such a way as to assume a vertical position, and
with a tooth, which, on engaging with a piece moving on a joint, holds
it in a horizontal position as soon as it has been brought thereto. In
order to extinguish the burner, it is only necessary to depress the
lever, and thus allow the key to assume again the vertical position,
that is to say, the position that closes the aperture through which the
gas flows out. In a new arrangement, the notch, spring, and the lever
are done away with, the cock alone taking the two positions open or
Another very ingenious system is that of Mr. Loiseau, consisting of an
ordinary gas-burner (fish-tail, bat's-wing, etc.), carrying at its side
a "conflagrator," analogous to that of the spirit-lighter (Fig. 1), but
arranged vertically. One of the rods of the "conflagrator" is connected
with the positive of the pile, and the other with the little horizontal