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Science in the Kitchen. by Mrs. E. E. Kellogg

Part 8 out of 17

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wholesome.

COCONUT RICE CUSTARD.--Flavor one quart of milk quite strongly
with coconut, as previously directed. Add to it one and one half cups of
boiled rice, one cup of raisins, one half cup of sugar, and lastly three
well-beaten eggs. Set the pudding dish in a pan of hot water, and bake
till the custard is well set.

CORN MEAL PUDDING.--Heat a quart of milk lacking two thirds of a
cupful, to boiling. Moisten three tablespoonfuls of nice granulated corn
meal with the two thirds of a cup of milk, and stir gradually into the
boiling milk. Let it boil up until set, turn into a double boiler, and
cook for an hour. Then add a tablespoonful of thick sweet cream, one
half a cup of molasses or sugar, a quart of cold milk, a little salt if
desired, and lastly, two well-beaten eggs. Mix thoroughly. Pour into a
pudding dish and bake one hour. A cup of currants or seeded raisins may
be used to give variety.

CORN MEAL PUDDING NO. 2.--Crumble cold corn puffs or corn cake to
make a cupful; add a pint of sweet milk, three teaspoonfuls of sugar,
the yolks of two eggs and the white of one, and bake slowly in a dish
set inside a pan of hot water for an hour.

CORN MEAL AND FIG PUDDING.--Beat together a scant cup of best
sifted corn meal with a cupful of molasses, and stir the mixture
gradually into a quart of boiling milk. Cook ten or twelve minutes, or
until well thickened, then set aside to cool. Add a cupful of finely
chopped figs, one and two thirds cups of cold milk, part cream if it can
be afforded, and when the mixture is cool, add two well-beaten eggs.
Pour into a pudding dish and bake in a moderate, steady oven for three
or more hours; the longer the better. When the pudding has baked an
hour, pour over it a cupful of cold milk. Do not stir the pudding, but
allow the milk to soak in gradually, a pint of finely sliced or chopped
sweet apples may be used in place of figs for variety, or if preferred,
both may be omitted.

CORNSTARCH MERINGUE.--Heat one and one half pints of milk to
boiling, and then stir in gradually two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch
which has been previously rubbed smooth in a little cold milk. When the
starch has thickened, allow it partially to cool, and then add, stirring
continuously meanwhile, the yolks of two eggs which have been previously
well beaten with three table spoonfuls of sugar. Let the whole simmer
for a minute or two longer, turn into a dish, meringue with the whites
of the eggs, and when cold, dot with lumps of strawberry jelly.

CRACKED WHEAT PUDDING.--Beat two cups of cold steamed cracked wheat
in two cups of rich milk until so thoroughly mingled that no lumps
remain. Add one cup of canned sweet cherries well drained from juice,
one half cup of sugar, and two eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately.
Bake in a slow oven till the custard is set.

CUP CUSTARD.--Into four cups of milk stir the yolks of three eggs
and one whole one well beaten. Add four tablespoonfuls of sugar, and
strain the mixture into cups; place these in a dripping pan full of hot
water, grate a little lemon rind over the top of each, and bake in a
moderate oven. If preferred, the milk may be first flavoured with
cocoanut. It is also better to have the milk nearly hot when stirring in
the egg. Half a cupful of the milk should be reserved to add to the egg
before turning into the heated portion.

FARINA CUSTARD.--Flavor a quart of milk with cocoanut as directed
on page 298. Cook two tablespoonfuls of farina in the flavored milk for
twenty minutes, in a double boiler; then set aside to cool. When nearly
cold, add two tablespoonfuls of sugar and the well-beaten yolks of two
eggs. Beat all together very thoroughly, and lastly stir in the whites
of the eggs which have been previously beaten to a stiff froth. Bake in
one dish set inside another filled with hot water, just long enough to
set the custard. Serve cold.

FARINA PUDDING.--Take a cup of cold cooked farina and soak it in
four cups of milk until there are no lumps, or rub through a colander;
add two well-beaten eggs, one scant cup of sugar and one cup of raisins;
bake in a moderate oven until the custard is well set.

FLOATING ISLAND.--Make a custard of a pint of milk flavored with
cocoanut, and the yolks of three eggs; sweeten to taste, and steam in a
double boiler. When done, turn into a glass dish. Have the whites of the
eggs whipped to a stiff froth, and drop for a few seconds on the top of
a pan of scalding hot water, turning so that both sides may be alike
coagulated but not hardened; skim off, and put in islands on the top of
the custard. When quite cold, drop bits of different colored jellies on
the islands, and keep in a cool place till needed. Or put a spoonful of
fruit jelly in the bottom of small glasses, and fill with the custard
with a spoonful of the white on top.

FRUIT CUSTARD.--Heat a pint of red raspberry, strawberry, or
currant juice to boiling, and stir into it two tablespoonfuls or
cornstarch rubbed smooth in a little cold water. Stir constantly until
thickened, then add half a cup of sugar, or less if the fruit juice has
been sweetened; take from the fire and stir in the stiffly beaten whites
of three eggs, stirring all the time so that the hot mixture will
coagulate the egg. Make a custard of a pint of milk, the yolks of the
three eggs, and three tablespoonfuls of sugar. When done, set on the ice
to cool. Dish in a glass dish when cold, placing the fruit mixture by
spoonfuls on top, and serve.

GRAHAM GRITS PUDDING.--Heat two cups of milk in a double boiler.
When boiling, stir in one cup of Graham grits moistened with one cup of
cold milk. Cook for an hour and a half in a double boiler, then remove
from the fire and cool. Add three tablespoonfuls of sugar, three fourths
of a cup of finely chopped apples, and one fourth of a cup of chopped
raisins, and two well-beaten eggs. Bake three fourths of an hour in a
moderate oven.

GROUND RICE PUDDING.--Simmer a few pieces of thinly cut lemon rind
or half a cup of cocoanut, very slowly in a quart of milk for twenty
minutes, or until the milk is well flavored. Strain the milk through a
fine strainer to remove the lemon rind or cocoanut, and put into a
saucepan to boil. Mix four large tablespoonfuls of ground rice smooth
with a little cold milk, and add to the boiling milk. Cook until the
whole has thickened, then set aside to cool. When nearly cold, add two
tablespoonfuls of sugar and two well-beaten eggs. Bake in a gentle oven
in a dish placed in a pan of hot water, until the whole is lightly
browned.

LEMON PUDDING.--Grate the rind of one lemon; soften one pint of
bread crumbs in one quart of sweet milk, add the yolks of two eggs, and
half a cup of sugar mixed with grated lemon rind. Bake twenty minutes.
Beat to a froth the whites of the eggs, the juice of the lemon, and half
a cup of sugar. Spread over the top, and return to the oven for five
minutes. This may be baked in cups if preferred.

LEMON CORNSTARCH PUDDING.--Beat the yolks of two eggs in a pudding
dish; add a cupful of sugar; dissolve four tablespoonfuls of cornstarch
in a little cold water, stir it into two teacupfuls of actively boiling
water; when thickened, add the juice of two lemons with a little grated
peel; turn over the eggs and sugar, beating well to mix all together,
and bake about fifteen minutes. If desired, the beaten whites of the
eggs may be used to meringue the top. Serve either cold or hot.

LEMON CORNSTARCH PUDDING NO. 2.--Mix together one half cup of
cornstarch, one half cup of sugar, the juice and a portion of the grated
rind of one medium-sized lemon. Add to these ingredients just enough
cold water to dissolve thoroughly, then pour boiling water over the
mixture until it becomes thickened and looks transparent. Stir
continuously and boil for a few minutes until the starch is cooked. Take
from the fire, and add gradually, with continuous stirring, the
well-beaten yolks of three eggs. Whip the whites of the eggs with a
teaspoonful of quince jelly to a stiff froth, and pour over the pudding;
then brown in the oven. Orange juice with a very little of the grated
rind, or pineapple juice may be substituted for the lemon, if preferred.

MACARONI PUDDING.--Break sufficient macaroni to make a pint in inch
lengths, put into a double boiler, turn over it three pints of milk, and
cook until tender. Turn into a pudding dish, add a pint of cold milk,
two thirds of a cup of sugar, one egg, and the yolks of two others well
beaten. Bake from twenty minutes to one half hour. When done, cool a
little, spread the top with some mashed fresh berries or grape
marmalade, and meringue with the whites of the eggs and a tablespoonful
of sugar.

MOLDED RICE OR SNOW BALLS.--Steam a pint of well-cleaned rice until
tender, as directed on page 99, and tarn Into cups previously wet in
cold water, to mold. When perfectly cold, place in a glass dish, and
pour over them a cold custard made of a pint of milk, half a cup of
sugar, a teaspoonful of cornstarch, and one egg. Or, if preferred, the
rice balls may be served in individual dishes with the custard sauce, or
with a dressing of fruit juice.

ORANGE FLOAT.--Heat one quart of water, the juice of two lemons,
and one and one half cupfuls of sugar. When boiling, stir into it four
tablespoonfuls of cornstarch rubbed smooth in a very little water. Cook
until the whole is thickened and clear. When cool, stir into the mixture
five nice oranges which have been sliced, and freed from seeds and all
the white portions. Meringue, and serve cold.

ORANGE CUSTARD.--Turn a pint of hot milk over two cups of stale
bread crumbs and let them soak until well softened: add the yolks of two
eggs, and beat all together until perfectly smooth; add a little of the
grated rind and the juice of three sweet oranges, and sugar to taste.
Lastly add the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth, turn into
cups, which place into a moderate oven in a pan of hot water, and bake
twenty minutes, or until the custard is well set but not watery.

ORANGE PUDDING.--Pare and slice six sweet Florida oranges, removing
the seeds and all the white skin and fibers. Place in the bottom of a
glass dish. Make a custard by stirring two table spoonfuls of cornstarch
braided with a little milk into a pint of boiling milk, and when
thickened, adding gradually, stirring constantly meanwhile, one egg and
the yolk of a second egg well beaten with one fourth cup of sugar. When
partially cool, pour over the oranges. Whip the white of the second egg
to a stiff froth with one fourth cup of sugar which has been flavored by
rubbing over some orange peel, and meringue the top of the pudding.
Fresh strawberries, raspberries, or peaches may be substituted for
oranges in making this dessert, if preferred.

PEACH MERINGUE.--To every pint of stewed or canned peaches,
sweetened to taste, stir in the beaten yolks of two eggs. Bake in a deep
pudding dish fifteen minutes, then cover with the whites of the two eggs
beaten till very light with two tablespoonfuls of sugar. Brown in the
oven, and serve cold with whipped cream. For peaches, substitute any
other stewed fruit desired.

PICNIC PUDDING.--Thicken a pint of strawberry or raspberry juice,
sweetened to taste, with two tablespoonfuls of corn starch, as for Fruit
Custard. Turn into the bottom of cups previously wet with cold water,
or a large mold, as preferred. In a second dish heat to boiling a pint
of milk, flavored with cocoanut, to which a tablespoonful of sugar has
been, added. Stir into it two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch rubbed smooth
in a little cold milk, and cook thoroughly. When done, cool slightly and
turn into the molds on the top of the pink portion, which should be
sufficiently cool so that it will not mix. A third layer may be added by
cooking two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch and one of sugar, rubbed smooth
in a little milk, in a pint of boiling milk, and stirring in, just as it
is taken from the stove, the well-beaten yolks of two eggs.

PLAIN CORNSTARCH PUDDING.--Heat to boiling a pint and a half of
milk, with a few bits of the yellow rind of a lemon to flavor it. While
the milk is heating, rub four large spoonfuls of cornstarch to a cream
with half a cup of cold milk; beat well together the yolks of three
eggs, three tablespoonfuls of sugar, and half a cup of cold milk, and
whip the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth. When the milk is actively
boiling, remove the bits of lemon rind with a skimmer, and stir in the
starch mixture; stir constantly and boil three or four minutes--until
the starch is well cooked; then add gradually, stirring well meanwhile,
the yolks and sugar. Remove from the fire, and stir the beaten whites
lightly through the whole. Serve with a dressing of fruit juice or fruit
syrup; if in the season of fresh berries, the pudding may be dressed
with a few spoonfuls of mashed strawberries, raspberries, or currants.

PLAIN CUSTARD.--Heat a pint of milk to boiling, and stir in a
tablespoonful of cornstarch nabbed smooth in a little milk; let the milk
and starch boil together till they thicken; then cool and add one
well-beaten egg and two tablespoonfuls of sugar. Cook in the oven in a
dish set inside another filled with hot water, or in a double boiler.
The milk may be previously flavored with orange, lemon, or cocoanut.

PRUNE PUDDING.--Heat two and one half cups of milk to boiling, then
stir in gradually a heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch which has been
rubbed smooth in a little cold milk; let this boil and thicken for a
minute, then remove from the fire. When cool, add three well-beaten
eggs, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, and a cupful of prunes which have
been stewed, then drained of all juice, the stones removed, and the
prunes chopped fine. Pour into a pudding dish and bake twenty minutes.
Serve with or without cream.

PRIME WHIP.--Sift through a colander some stewed sweet California
prunes which have been thoroughly drained from juice, and from which the
stones have been removed. Beat the whites of three eggs to a stiff
froth, and add two cups of the sifted prunes; beat all together
thoroughly; turn into a pudding dish, and brown in the oven fifteen
minutes. Serve cold, with a little cream or custard for dressing. Almond
sauce also makes an excellent dressing.

RICE APPLE CUSTARD PUDDING.--Pare, and remove the cores without
dividing from a sufficient number of apples to cover the bottom of a
two-quart pudding dish. Fill the cavities of the apples with a little
grated lemon rind and sugar, and put them into the oven with a
tablespoon of water on the bottom of the dish. Cover, and steam till the
apples are tender, but not fallen to pieces. Then pour over them a
custard made with two cups of boiled rice, a quart of milk, half a cup
of sugar, and two eggs.

RICE CUSTARD PUDDING.--Take one and one half cups of nicely steamed
rice, four tablespoonfuls of sugar, and a pint of milk; heat to boiling
in a saucepan. Then stir in very carefully the yolk of one egg and one
whole egg, previously well beaten together with a few spoonfuls of milk
reserved for the purpose. Let the whole boil up till thickened, but not
longer, as the custard will whey and separate. When partly cool, flavor
with a little vanilla or lemon, turn into a glass dish, and meringue
with the white of the second egg beaten to a stiff froth. Cold steamed
rice may be used by soaking it in hot milk until every grain is
separate.

RICE SNOW.--Into a quart of milk heated to boiling, stir five
tablespoonfuls of rice flour previously braided with a very little cold
milk; add one half cup of sugar. Let the whole boil up together till
well cooked and thickened; then remove from the stove, and stir in
lightly the beaten whites of four eggs. Mold, and serve cold with foam
sauce.

RICE SNOW WITH JELLY.--Steam or bake a teacupful of best rice in
milk until the grains are tender. Pile it up on a dish roughly. When
cool, lay over it squares of jelly. Beat the whites of two eggs and one
third of a cup of sugar to a stiff froth, and pile like snow over the
rice. Serve with cream sauce.

RICE WITH EGGS.--Steam rice as previously directed, and when
sufficiently cooked, stir into half of it while hot, the yolks of one or
two eggs well beaten with a little sugar. Into the other half, the
whites of the eggs, sweetened and beaten to a stiff froth, may be
lightly stirred while the rice is still hot enough to set the eggs.
Serve with the yellow half in the bottom of the dish, and the white part
piled on top covered with whipped cream flavored with lemon or vanilla.

SNOW PUDDING.--Heat one half pint each of water and milk together,
to boiling, stir into this a tablespoonful of cornstarch rubbed smooth
in a little cold milk, and cook for five minutes. Cool partially and add
the whites of two well-beaten eggs. Turn into molds and set in the ice
box to cool. Serve with a cream made by stirring into a half pint of
boiling milk the yolks of two eggs, a teaspoonful of cornstarch rubbed
smooth in a little cold milk, and half a cup of sugar. Cook until well
thickened. Cool and flavor with a little lemon or vanilla. Or, if
preferred, serve with a dressing of fruit juice.

STEAMED CUSTARD.--Heat a pint of milk, with which has been well
beaten two eggs and one third of a cup of sugar, in a double boiler
until well thickened. When done, turn into a glass dish, and grate a
little of the yellow rind of lemon over the top to flavor. If desired to
have the custard in cups, remove from the fire when it begins to
thicken, turn into cups, and finish in a steamer over a kettle of
boiling water.

STRAWBERRY CHARLOTTE.--Fit slices of nice plain buns (those made
according to recipe on page 347 are nice for this) in the bottom of a
pudding dish, and cover with a layer of hulled strawberries; add another
layer of the buns cut in slices, a second layer of strawberries, and
then more slices of buns. Make a custard in the following manner: Heat a
scant pint of milk to boiling in the inner cup of a double boiler, and
stir into it gradually, beating thoroughly at the same time, an egg
which has been previously well beaten with half a cup of sugar, a
teaspoonful of cornstarch, and a spoonful or two of milk until perfectly
smooth. Cook together in the double boiler until well set. Cool
partially, and pour over the buns and strawberries. Place a plate with a
weight upon it on the top of the charlotte, and set away to cool.

POP CORN PUDDING.--Take a scant pint of the pop corn which is
ground and put up in boxes, or if not available, freshly popped corn,
rolled fine, is just as good. Add to it three cups of new milk, one half
cup of sugar, two whole eggs and the yolk of another, well beaten. Bake
in a pudding dish placed inside another filled with hot water, till the
custard is set. Cover with a meringue made of the remaining white of
egg, a teaspoonful of sugar, and a sprinkling of the pop corn.

SAGO CUSTARD PUDDING.--Put one half cup of sago and a quart of rich
milk into the inner cup of a double boiler, or a basin set inside a pan
of boiling water, and let it simmer until the sago has thickened the
milk and become perfectly transparent. Allow it to cool, then add a cup
of sugar, two well-beaten eggs, and a little of the grated rind of a
lemon. Turn into a pudding dish, and bake only till the custard has set.

SAGO AND FRUIT CUSTARD PUDDING.--Soak six table spoonfuls of sago
in just enough water to cover it, for twenty minutes. Meanwhile pare and
remove the cores from half a dozen or more tart apples, and fill the
cavities with a mixture of grated lemon rind and sugar. Place the apples
in the bottom of a pudding dish, with a tablespoonful of water; cover,
and set in the oven to bake. Put the soaked sago with a quart of milk
into a double boiler. Let it cook until the sago is clear and thick;
then add three fourths of a cup of sugar and two well-beaten eggs. Pour
the sago custard over the apples, which should be baked tender but not
mushy. Put the pudding dish in the oven in a pan of hot water, and bake
till the custard is well set. Serve cold.

SNOWBALL CUSTARD.--Flavor a pint of milk by sleeping in it three
or four slices of the yellow rind of a lemon for twenty minutes or more.
Skim out the rind; let the milk come to the boiling point, and drop into
it the well-beaten whites of two eggs, in tablespoonfuls, turning each
one over carefully, allowing them to remain only long enough to become
coagulated but not hardened, and then place the balls upon a wire sieve
to drain. Afterward stir into the scalding milk the yolks of the eggs
and one whole one well beaten, together with two tablespoonfuls of
sugar. Stir until it thickens. Pour this custard into a glass dish, and
lay the white balls on top.

TAPIOCA CUSTARD.--Soak a cup of pearl tapioca over night in
sufficient water to cover. When ready to prepare the custard, drain off
the water if any remain, and add one quart of milk to the tapioca; place
in a double boiler and cook until transparent; then add the well-beaten
yolks of three eggs or the yolks of two and one whole one, mixed with
three fourths of a cup of sugar. Let it cook a few minutes, just long
enough for the custard to thicken and no more, or it will whey and be
spoiled; flavor with a little vanilla and turn into a glass dish. Cover
the top with the whites beaten stiffly with a tablespoonful of sugar,
and dot with bits of jelly, or colored sugar prepared by mixing sugar
with cranberry or raspberry juice and allowing it to dry. For variety,
the custard may be flavored with grated lemon rind and a tablespoonful
of lemon juice whipped up with the whites of the eggs, or other flavor
may be dispensed with, and the meringue flavored by beating with a
tablespoonful of quince jelly with the whites of the eggs.

TAPIOCA PUDDING.--Soak a cupful of tapioca over night in just
enough water to cover. In the morning, add to it one quart of milk, and
cook in a double boiler until transparent. Add three eggs well beaten,
one half cup of sugar, one half cup of chopped raisins, and a very
little chopped citron. Bake till the custard is set. Serve warm or cold
as preferred.

VERMICELLI PUDDING.--Flavor two and one half cups of milk with
lemon as directed on page 229. Drop into it, when boiling, four ounces
of vermicelli, crushing it lightly with one hand while sprinkling it in,
and stir to keep it from gathering in lumps. Let it cook gently in a
double boiler, stirring often until it is tender and very thick. Then
pour it into a pudding dish, let it cool, and add a tablespoonful of
rather thick sweet cream if you have it (it does very well without),
half a cup of sugar, and lastly, two well-beaten eggs. Bake in a
moderately hot oven till browned over the top.

WHITE CUSTARD.--Beat together thoroughly one cup of milk, the
whites of two eggs, one tablespoonful of sugar, and one and one half
tablespoonfuls of almondine. Turn into cups and steam or bake until the
custard is set.

WHITE CUSTARD NO. 2.--Cook a half cup of farina in a quart of milk
in a double boiler, for an hour. Remove from the stove, and allow it to
become partially cool, then add one half cup of sugar, the whites of two
eggs, and one half the yolk of one egg. Turn into a pudding dish, and
bake twenty minutes or until the custard is well set.

STEAMED PUDDING.

The following precautions are necessary to be observed in steaming
puddings or desserts of any sort:--

1. Have the water boiling rapidly when the pudding is placed in the
steamer, and keep it constantly boiling.

2. Replenish, if needed, with boiling water, never with cold.

3. Do not open the steamer and let in the air upon the pudding, until it
is done.

_RECIPES._

BATTER PUDDING.--Beat four eggs thoroughly; add to them a pint of
milk, and if desired, a little salt. Sift a teacupful of flour and add
it gradually to the milk and eggs, beating lightly the while. Then pour
the whole mixture through, a fine wire strainer into a small pail with
cover, in which it can be steamed. This straining is imperative. The
cover of the pail should be tight fitting, as the steam getting into the
pudding spoils it. Place the pail in a kettle of boiling water, and do
not touch or move it until the pudding is done. It takes exactly an hour
to cook. If moved or jarred during the cooking, it will be likely to
fall. Slip it out of the pail on a hot dish, and serve with cream sauce.
A double boiler with tightly fitting cover is excellent for cooking this
pudding.

BREAD AND FRUIT CUSTARD.--Soak a cupful of finely grated bread
crumbs in a pint of rich milk heated to scalding. Add two thirds of a
cup of sugar, and the grated yellow rind of half a lemon. When cool, add
two eggs well beaten. Also two cups of canned apricots or peaches
drained of juice, or, if preferred, a mixture of one and one half cups
of chopped apples, one half cup of raisins, and a little citron. Turn
into a pudding dish, and steam in a steamer over a kettle of boiling
water for two hours. The amount of sugar necessary will vary somewhat
according to the fruit used.

DATE PUDDING.--Turn a cup of hot milk over two cups of stale bread
crumbs, and soak until softened; add one half cup of cream and one cup
of chopped and stoned dates. Mix all thoroughly together. Put in a china
dish and steam for three hours. Serve hot with lemon sauce.

RICE BALLS.--Steam one cup of rice till tender. Wring pudding
cloths about ten inches square out of hot water, and spread the rice one
third of an inch over the cloth. Put a stoned peach or apricot from
which the skin has been removed, in the center, filling the cavity in
each half of the fruit with rice. Draw up the cloth until the rice
smoothly envelops the fruit, tie, and steam ten or fifteen minutes.
Remove the cloth carefully, turn out into saucers, and serve with sauce
made from peach of apricot juice. Easy-cooking tart apples may also be
used. Steam them thirty minutes, and serve with sugar and cream.

STEAMED BREAD CUSTARD.--Cut stale bread in slices, removing hard
crusts. Oil a deep pudding mold, and sprinkle the bottom and sides with
Zante currants; over these place a layer of the slices of bread,
sprinkled with currants; add several layers, sprinkling each with the
currants in the same manner. Cover with a custard made by beating
together three or four eggs, three tablespoonfuls of sugar, and one
quart of milk. Put the pudding in a cool place for three hours; at the
end of that time, steam one and a quarter hours. Serve with mock cream
flavored with vanilla. Apple marmalade may be used to spread between the
slices in place of currants, if preferred.

STEAMED FIG PUDDING.--Moisten two cupfuls of finely grated Graham
bread crumbs with half a cup of thin sweet cream. Mix into it a heaping
cupful of finely chopped fresh figs, and a quarter of a cup of sugar.
Add lastly a cup of sweet milk. Turn all into a pudding dish, and steam
about two and one half hours. Serve as soon as done, with a little cream
for dressing, or with orange or lemon sauce.

PASTRY AND CAKE.

So much has been said and written about the dietetic evils of these
articles that their very names have been almost synonymous with
indigestion and dyspepsia. That they are prolific causes of this dire
malady cannot be denied, and it is doubtless due to two reasons; first,
because they are generally compounded of ingredients which are in
themselves unwholesome, and rendered doubly so by their combination; and
secondly, because tastes have become so perverted that an excess of
these articles is consumed in preference to more simple and nutritious
food.

As has been elsewhere remarked, foods containing an excess of fat, as do
most pastries and many varieties of cake, are exceedingly difficult of
digestion, the fat undergoing in the stomach no changes which answer to
the digestion of other elements of food, and its presence interferes
with the action of the gastric juice upon other elements. In
consequence, digestion proceeds very slowly, if at all, and the delay
often occasions fermentative and putrefactive changes in the entire
contents of the stomach.

It is the indigestibility of fat, and this property of delaying the
digestion of other foods, chiefly that render pastry and cakes so
deleterious to health.

We do not wish to be understood as in sympathy with that class of people
who maintain that dyspepsia is a disciplinary means of grace, when,
after having made the previous statement, we proceed to present recipes
for preparing the very articles we have condemned. Pie and cake are not
necessarily utterly unwholesome; and if prepared in a simple manner, may
be partaken of in moderation by persons with good digestion.
Nevertheless, they lack the wholesomeness of more simple foods, and we
most fully believe that would women supply their tables with perfectly
light, sweet, nutritious bread would cease. However, if pies and cakes
must needs be, make them as simple as possible.

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS FOR MAKING PIES.--Always prepare the filling
for pies before making the crust, if the filling is to be cooked in the
crust. Have all the material for the crust on the table, measured and in
readiness, before beginning to put together. Follow some of the simple
recipes given in these pages. Have all the material cold, handle the
least possible to make it into a mass, and do not knead at all.

When the crust is ready, roll it out quickly to about one half inch in
thickness, then fold up like a jelly roll, and cut from the end only
sufficient for one crust at a time. Lay this, the flat side upon the
board, and roll evenly in every direction, until scarcely more than an
eighth of an inch in thickness, and somewhat larger than the baking
plate, as it will shrink when lifted from the board.

Turn one edge over the rolling pin, and carefully lift it onto the
plate. If there is to be an upper crust, roll that in the same manner,
make a cut in the center to allow the steam to escape, fill the pie,
slightly rounding it in the center, and lift on the upper crust; press
both edges lightly together; then, lifting the pie in the left hand,
deftly trim away all overhanging portions of crust with a sharp knife;
ornament the edge if desired, and put at once into the oven, which
should be in readiness at just the right temperature, a rather moderate
oven being best for pies.

The under crust of lemon, pumpkin, custard, and very juicy fruit pies,
filled before baking, is apt to become saturated and softened with the
liquid mixture, if kept for any length of time after baking. This may be
prevented in a measure by glazing the crust, after it is rolled and
fitted on the plate, with the beaten white of an egg, and placing in the
oven just a moment to harden the egg before filling; or if the pie is
one of fruit, sprinkle the crust with a little flour and sugar, brushing
the two together with the hand before; adding the filling. During the
baking, the flour and melted sugar will adhere together, tending to keep
the juice from contact with the crust.

Pies are more wholesome if the crusts are baked separately and filled
for use as needed. This is an especially satisfactory way to make pies
of juicy fruit, as it does away largely with the saturated under crusts,
and the flavor of the fruit can be retained much more perfectly. Pies
with one crust can be made by simply fitting the crust to the plate,
pricking it lightly with a fork to prevent its blistering while baking,
and afterward filling when needed for the table. For pies with two
crusts, fit the under crust to the plate, and fill with clean pieces of
old white linen laid in lightly to support the upper crust. When baked,
slip the pie on a plate, lift off the upper crust, take out the pieces
of cloth, and just before serving, fill with fruit, which should be
previously prepared.

Canned peaches filled into such a crust make a delicious pie.
Strawberries, cherries, gooseberries, and other juicy fruits, that lose
so much of their flavor in baking, may be lightly scalded, the juice
thickened a little with flour if desired, sweetened to taste, and filled
into such a crust. An excellent pie may be made in this manner from
apples, stewed carefully so as to keep the slices whole, sweetened to
taste, and flavored with lemon, orange, or grated pineapple. One
pineapple will be sufficient for four pies. Fresh fruit for filling may
be used without cooking, if desired. If desired, several crusts may be
baked and put away unfilled. When needed, the crusts may be placed for a
few minutes in a hot oven until heated through, then filled with freshly
prepared fruit.

In preparing material for custard or pumpkin pies, if the milk used be
hot, the pies will be improved and the time of baking be considerably
shortened.

Tin or granite-ware plates are preferable to earthen ones for pies, as
they bake better on the bottom. The perforated pans are superior in some
respects. No greasing is needed; simply rub them well with flour. The
time required for baking pies varies from one half to three fourths of
an hour. The dampers should be so adjusted as to bake the bottom crust
first.

After baking, remove at once to heated earthen plates, or set the tins
upon small supports, so that the air can circulate underneath them.

_RECIPES._

PASTE FOR PIES.--Sift together equal parts of Graham grits and
white flour (Graham flour will do if the grits are not obtainable, but
the grits will produce a more crisp and tender crust), and wet with very
cold, thin sweet cream. Have the flour also as cold as possible, since
the colder the material, the more crisp the paste; mix together very
quickly into a rather stiff dough. Do not knead at all, but gather the
fragments lightly together, roll out at once, fill and bake quickly,
since much of the lightness of the crust depends upon the dispatch with
which the pie is gotten into the oven after the materials are thrown
together. If for any reason it is necessary to defer the baking, place
the crust in the ice-chest till needed.

CORN MEAL CRUST.--Equal parts of sifted white corn meal and flour,
mixed together lightly with rather thin sweet cream which has been set
in the ice-chest until very cold, makes a very good crust.

GRANOLA CRUST.--For certain pies requiring an under crust only, the
prepared granola manufactured by the Sanitarium Food Co. makes a
superior crust. To prepare, moisten with thin sweet cream--one half cup
of cream for every two thirds cup of granola is about the right
proportion, and will make sufficient crust for one pie. Flour the board,
and lift the moistened granola onto it, spreading it as much as possible
with the hands. Dredge lightly with flour over the top, and roll out
gently to the required size without turning. The material, being coarse
and granular, will break apart easily, but may be as easily pressed
together with the fingers. Change the position of the rolling pin often,
in order to shape the crust without moving it. When well roiled,
carefully slip a stiff paper under it, first loosening from the board
with a knife if necessary, and lift it gently onto the pan. Press
together any cracks, trim the edges, fill, and bake at once. Use the
least flour possible in preparing this crust, and bake as soon as made,
before the moisture has become absorbed. Such a crust is not suited for
custard or juicy fruit pies, but filled with prune, peach, or apple
marmalade, it makes a most delicious and wholesome pie. A cooked custard
may be used in such a crust.

PASTE FOR TART SHELLS.--Take one half cup of rather thin sweet
cream, which has been placed on ice until very cold; add to it the
stiffly beaten whites of two eggs, and whip all together briskly for ten
minutes. Add sufficient white flour to roll. Cut into the required
shape, bake quickly, but do not brown. Fill after baking. This paste,
rolled thin and cut into shapes with a cookie-cutter, one half of them
baked plain for under crusts, the other half ornamented for tops by
cutting small holes with a thimble or some fancy mold, put together with
a layer of some simple fruit jelly between them, makes a most attractive
looking dessert. It is likewise very nice baked in little patty pans,
and afterward filled with apple or peach marmalade, or any of the
following fillings:--

CREAM FILLING.--One cup of rich milk (part cream if it can be
afforded) heated to boiling. Into this stir one scant tablespoonful of
flour previously braided smooth with a little cold milk. Add to this the
well-beaten yolk of one egg and one tablespoonful of sugar. Turn this
mixture into the hot milk and stir until it thickens. Flavor with a
little grated lemon rind, vanilla, or, if preferred, flavor the milk
with cocoanut before using. Fill the tart shells, and meringue with the
white of the egg beaten stiff with a tablespoonful of sugar.

GRAPE TART.--Into one pint of canned or fresh grape juice, when
boiling, stir two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch braided with a little
water, and cook for five minutes. Sweeten to taste, and fill a baked
crust.

LEMON FILLING.--Into one cup of boiling water stir one
tablespoonful of cornstarch previously braided smooth with the juice of
a large lemon. Cook until it thickens, then add one half cup of sugar
and a little grated yellow rind of the lemon.

TAPIOCA FILLING.--Soak one tablespoonful of tapioca over night in
one cup of water; mash and stir the tapioca, simmer gently until clear
and thick, adding enough water to cook it well; add half a cup of white
sugar and a tablespoonful each of lemon and orange juice. If desired, a
little raspberry or currant juice may be added to make the jelly of a
pink color.

APPLE CUSTARD PIE.--Stew good dried apples till perfectly tender
and there remains but very little juice. Rub through a colander. For
each pie use one cup of the sifted apples, one and a half cups of rich
milk, two eggs, five tablespoonfuls of sugar, and a little grated lemon
rind for flavoring. Bake with under crust only. Stewed fresh apples,
beaten smooth or rubbed through a colander, can be used if preferred.
The eggs may be omitted, and one half cup more of the sifted apples,
with more sugar, may be used instead.

BANANA PIE.--For each pie required prepare a custard with one and
one half cups of milk, the yolks of two eggs, and two heaping
tablespoonfuls of sugar. Mash two large bananas through a colander,
strain the custard over them, and beat well together. Bake in an under
crust only, and meringue the top with the whites of the eggs beaten to a
stiff froth with two tablespoonfuls of sugar.

BREAD PIE.--Soak a slice of very light bread in a pint of rich
milk. When it is quite soft, rub through a colander and afterward beat
well through the milk. Add one well-beaten egg, four tablespoonfuls of
sugar, and a little grated lemon rind for flavor. Bake with under crust
only, till the custard is set. This is sufficient for one pie.

CARROT PIE.--Boil, drain, and rub the carrots through a colander.
For each pie required, use two large tablespoonfuls of carrot thus
prepared, two eggs, two cups of milk, a little salt if desired, four
tablespoonfuls of sugar, and lemon or vanilla for flavoring. Bake with
under crust only.

COCOANUT PIE.--Flavor a pint of milk with two tablespoonfuls of
desiccated, or finely grated fresh cocoanut according to directions on
page 298; strain, and add enough fresh milk to make a pint in all. Add
three tablespoonfuls of sugar, heat, and as the milk comes to a boil,
add a tablespoonful of cornstarch rubbed smooth in a little cold milk.
Boil for a minute or two till the cornstarch thickens the milk; then
remove from the stove. Allow it to get cold, and then stir in one
well-beaten egg; bake in an under crust. Tie a tablespoonful of
desiccated cocoanut in a clean cloth, and pound it as fine as flour; mix
it with a tablespoonful of sugar and the white of an egg beaten to a
stiff froth. When the pie is done, spread this over the top, and brown
in the oven for a moment only.

COCOANUT PIE NO. 2.--Steep one half cup of cocoanut in a pint of
milk for one half hour. Strain out the cocoanut and add sufficient fresh
milk to make a pint. Allow it to become cold, then add a quarter of a
cup of sugar and two well-beaten eggs. Bake with an under crust only.
When done, the top may be covered with a meringue the same as in the
preceding recipe.

CREAM PIE.--For one pie beat together one egg, one half cup of
sugar, one tablespoonful of flour, and two cups of rich milk. Bake in
one crust.

CRANBERRY PIE.--Stew a quart of cranberries until broken in a pint
of boiling water. Rub through a colander to remove the skins, add two
cups of sugar and one half cup of sifted flour. Bake with under crust
only.

DRIED APPLE PIE.--Stew good dried apples till perfectly tender in
as small a quantity of water as possible. When done, rub through a
colander; they should be about the consistency of fruit jam; if not, a
little flour may be added. Sweeten to taste, fill under crusts with the
mixture, and bake. If lemon flavor is liked, a few pieces of the yellow
rind may be added to the apples a little while before they are tender.
If the apples are especially tasteless, lemon juice or some sour apple
jelly should be added after rubbing through the colander. The crusts may
first be baked, and filled with the mixture when needed; in which case
the sauce should be simmered lightly till of the desired consistency.
The top may be ornamented with strips or rings of crust, if desired.

DRIED APPLE PIE WITH RAISINS.--Rub a quart of well-stewed dried
apples through a colander, add a cupful of steamed raisins, sugar to
sweeten, and bake with two crusts. This is sufficient for two pies.

DRIED APRICOT PIE.--Stew together one third dried apricots and two
thirds dried apples or peaches. When soft, rub through a colander, add
sugar to sweeten, and if very juicy, stew again until the juice is
mostly evaporated; then beat until light and bake in a granola crust.

FARINA PIE.--Cook one fourth cup of farina in a double boiler for
an hour in three cups of rich milk. Allow it to become cool, then add
one half cup of sugar, the yolks of two eggs, and a little grated lemon
rind. Bake with under crust only. Meringue the top with the white of the
egg beaten to a stiff froth with one tablespoonful of sugar and a little
grated lemon rind for flavoring. The quantity given is sufficient for
two small pies.

FRUIT PIES.--Apples, peaches, and all small fruits and berries may
be made into palatable pies without rich crusts or an excess of sugar,
or the addition of unwholesome spices and flavorings. Bake the crust
separately, and fill when needed with prepared fruit; or, fill with the
fruit, using only sufficient sugar to sweeten; add no spices, and bake
quickly. Prepare apples for pies by paring, coring, and dividing in
eighths. Peaches are best prepared in a similar manner. Fill crusts in
which the fruit is to be baked quite full and slightly heaping in the
center. If flavoring is desired, let it be that of some other fruit. For
apple pies, a teaspoonful or two of pineapple juice, a little grated
lemon or orange peel, or a little strawberry or quince syrup, may be
used for flavoring. For pies made of apples, peaches, and fruits which
are not very juicy, add a tablespoonful or so of water or fruit juice;
but for very juicy fruits and berries, dredge the under crust with a
tablespoonful of sugar and a little flour mixed together before filling,
or stir a spoonful of flour into the fruit so that each berry or piece
may be separately floured.

GRAPE JELLY PIE.--Cook perfectly ripe, purple grapes; rub them
through a colander to remove the seeds and skins. Return the pulp to the
fire and thicken with rice flour or cornstarch, to the consistency of
thick cream or jelly, and sweeten to taste. Fill an under crust with the
mixture, and bake. The top may be ornamented with pastry cut in fancy
shapes if desired.

JELLY CUSTARD PIE.--Dissolve three tablespoonfuls of nice, pure
fruit jelly in very little warm water, add one and one half cups of milk
and two well-beaten eggs, stirring the whites in last. Bake with under
crust only. Jellies are usually so sweet that no sugar is needed. Apple,
raspberry, currant, strawberry, and quince jellies all make nice pies,
prepared in this way.

LEMON PIE.--Take four tablespoonfuls of lemon juice (one large
lemon or two small ones will yield about this quantity), the grated
yellow portion only of the rind of half a lemon, and two thirds of a cup
of sugar. Beat the lemon juice and sugar together. Braid a slightly
heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch with as little water as possible,
and pour over it, stirring constantly, one half pint of boiling water,
to thicken the starch. Add the lemon and sugar to the starch, and let it
cool; then stir in the yolks of two eggs and half the white of one, well
beaten together. Beat thoroughly, pour into a deep crust, and bake. When
done, cover with the remaining whites of the eggs, beaten with one and a
half tablespoonfuls of sugar, and brown lightly in the oven.

LEMON MERINGUE CUSTARD.--Heat two cups of milk to boiling, add a
tablespoonful of cornstarch well braided with a little cold milk; let
the whole simmer till thickened, stirring constantly. Allow it to cool,
add one third of a cup of sugar and the beaten yolks of two eggs. Bake
in an under crust, and cover with a meringue made of the whites of the
eggs beaten to a stiff froth with two tablespoonfuls of sugar mixed
with grated lemon peel. If liked, a spoonful of lemon juice may be
added, a few drops at a time, during the beating of the meringue.

ONE-CRUST PEACH PIE.--Pare and remove the stones from ripe, nice
flavored peaches; stew till soft in the smallest quantity of water
possible without burning. Rub through a colander, or beat smooth with a
large spoon. Add sugar as required. Bake with one crust. If the peach
sauce is evaporated until quite dry, it is very nice baked in a granola
crust. When done, meringue with the whites of two eggs whipped stiff
with two tablespoonfuls of sugar. The flavor is improved by adding by
degrees to the egg while whipping, a tablespoonful of lemon juice.
Return to the oven and brown lightly. Serve cold.

Canned peaches or stewed dried peaches may be used in place of the fresh
ones. In using the dried peaches, carefully examine and wash; soak them
over night in cold water, and stew them in the same water until soft
enough to rub through the colander. For each pie, add two tablespoonfuls
of sweet cream, and sufficient sugar to sweeten; too much, sugar
destroys the flavor of the fruit. Evaporated peaches, soaked over night
and stewed carefully until tender, then removed from the syrup, which
may be sweetened and boiled until thick and rich and afterward turned
over the peaches, makes a delicious pie. Bake in one crust, with or
without a meringue.

ORANGE PIE.--Rub smooth a heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch in
three tablespoonfuls of water; pour over it a cup of boiling water, and
cook until clear, stirring frequently that no lumps form. Add one cupful
of sour orange juice, a little grated rind, and the juice of one lemon,
with two eggs. Bake with under crust only. Meringue the top when baked,
with the whites of the eggs well beaten with a tablespoonful of sugar,
and a very little grated orange peel sprinkled over it.

PEACH CUSTARD PIE.--Cover a pie plate with an under crust. Take
fresh peaches, pare, halve, and stone them, and place a layer, hollow
side up, in the pie. Prepare a custard with one egg, one cup of milk,
and three tablespoonfuls of sugar. Pour the custard over the peaches,
and bake. If the quantity given will not entirely cover the peaches, a
little more must be prepared. Canned peaches which are not broken can be
used instead of fresh ones. The pieces should be drained free from
juice, and less sugar used.

PRUNE PIE.--Prepare and cook sweet California prunes as directed
for Prune Marmalade. Fill an under crust and bake. The top may be
ornamented with strips of crust or pastry leaves; or if desired, may be
meringued with the whites of two eggs beaten to a stiff froth with two
tablespoonfuls of sugar and a little grated lemon peel. This pie is
excellent baked in a granola crust.

PUMPKIN PIE.--To prepare the pumpkin, cut into halves, remove the
seeds, divide into moderately small pieces, and bake in the oven until
thoroughly done. Then scrape from the shell, rub through a colander, and
proceed as follows: For one and one third pints of the cooked pumpkin
use one quart of hot, rich, sweet milk. Add one half cup of sugar and
the well-beaten yolks of three eggs, beat well together, add the whites
of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth, and beat thoroughly. Line the tins
with a stiff cream paste, fill, and bake in a moderate oven till the
pies are barely firm in the center, or till the custard is well set.

PUMPKIN PIE NO. 2.--For each pie desired, take one half pint of
baked pumpkin, a pint of rich milk, one third of a cup of sugar, and two
eggs. Mix the sugar and eggs, add the pumpkin, and lastly the milk,
which should be hot, and beat all together with an egg beater until very
light. Fill the crust, and bake slowly.

PUMPKIN PIE WITHOUT EGGS.--Prepare the pumpkin as previously
directed. For two medium-sized pies, heat a pint and a half of milk in a
farina kettle, and when scalding, stir into it two scant tablespoonfuls
of white flour rubbed smooth in a little cold milk. Cook, stirring
often, until it thickens. Add half a cup of sugar, or a little less of
syrup, to a pint and a half of the sifted pumpkin, and after beating
well together, stir this into the hot milk. Bake in an under crust; or,
for three pies, take one quart and a cupful of pumpkin, three fourths of
a cup of sugar, two thirds of a cup of best New Orleans molasses, and
three pints of hot milk. Beat all together thoroughly. Line deep plates
with a cream crust, and bake an hour and a half in a moderate oven.

SIMPLE CUSTARD PIE.--For one pie, take one pint of milk, two
well-beaten eggs, one third of a cup of sugar, and a little grated lemon
rind for flavor. Bake in an under crust. If eggs are scarce, a very good
pie can be made by using only one egg, and a tablespoonful of
cornstarch, with the above proportions of milk and sugar; in which case,
heat the milk to scalding, stir in the cornstarch, and cook till
thickened; cool, and then add the well-beaten egg. If preferred, the
crust may be baked before filling, and the custard steamed, meanwhile.

SQUASH PIE.--Squash prepared as directed for pumpkin, and flavored
with rose water, makes an excellent pie. Or, for each pie desired, take
one pint of rich milk (part cream if it can be afforded), add one cup of
nicely baked mealy squash which has been rubbed through a colander, one
third of a cup of sugar, and two well-beaten eggs. Beat all together
thoroughly. Bake in a deep pan slowly and carefully until firm.

SQUASH PIE WITHOUT EGGS.--Bake the squash in the shell; when done,
remove with a spoon and mash through a colander. For one pie, take eight
tablespoonfuls of the squash, half a cup of sugar, and one and one third
cups of boiling milk. Pour the milk slowly over the squash, beating
rapidly meanwhile to make the mixture light. Bake in one crust.

SWEET-APPLE CUSTARD PIE.--Into one pint of new milk, grate three
ripe sweet apples (Golden Sweets are excellent); add two well-beaten
eggs, and sugar to taste. Bake with under crust only.

SWEET POTATO PIE.--Bake sufficient sweet potatoes to make a pint of
pulp when rubbed through a colander; add a pint of rich milk, a scant
cup of sugar, salt if desired, the yolks of two eggs, and a little
grated lemon rind for flavor. Bake with under crust. When done, meringue
with the whites of the eggs beaten up with a tablespoonful of sugar.

CAKE.

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS.--Always sift the flour for cake before
measuring out the amount required. Use the best granulated white sugar.
Eggs for use in cake are better to have the yolks and whites beaten
separately. Beat the former until they cease to froth and begin to
thicken as if mixed with flour. Beat the whites until stiff enough to
remain in the bowl if inverted. Have the eggs and dishes cool, and if
practicable, beat in a cool room. Use earthen or china bowls to beat
eggs in.

If fruit is to be used, it should be washed and dried according to
directions given on page 298, and then dusted with flour, a
dessertspoonful to the pound of fruit. For use in cup cake or any other
cake which requires a quick baking, raisins should be first steamed. If
you have no patent steamer, place them in a close covered dish within an
ordinary steamer, and cook for an hour over a kettle of boiling water.
This should be done the day before they are to be used.

Use an earthen or granite-ware basin for mixing cake. Be very accurate
in measuring the materials, and have them all at hand and all utensils
ready before beginning to put the cake together. If it is to be baked at
once, see that the oven also is at just the right temperature. It should
be less hot for cake than for bread. Thin cakes require a hotter oven
than those baked in loaves. They require from fifteen to twenty minutes
to bake; thicker loaves, from thirty to sixty minutes. For loaf cakes
the oven should be at such a temperature that during the first half of
the time the cake will have risen to its full height and just begun to
brown.

The recipes given require neither baking powder, soda, nor saleratus.
Yeast and air can be made to supply the necessary lightness, and their
use admits of as great a variety in cakes as will be needed on a
hygienic bill of fare.

In making cake with yeast, do not use very thick cream, as a rich, oily
batter retards fermentation and makes the cake slow in rising. If the
cake browns too quickly, protect it by a covering of paper. If necessary
to move a cake in the oven, do it very gently. Do not slam the oven door
or in any way jar a cake while baking, lest it fall. Line cake tins with
paper to prevent burning the bottom and edges. Oil the paper, not the
tins, very lightly. Cake is done when it shrinks from the pan and stops
hissing, or when a clean straw run into the thickest part comes up
clean.

As soon as possible after baking, remove from the pan, as, if allowed to
remain in the pan, it is apt to become too moist.

_RECIPES._

APPLE CAKE.--Scald a cup of thin cream and cool to blood heat, add
one and a half cups of sifted white flour, one fourth of a cup of sugar,
and a gill of liquid yeast or one half cake of compressed yeast
dissolved in a gill of thin cream. Beat well together, set in a warm
place, and let it rise till perfectly light. When well risen, add one
half cup of sugar mixed with one half cup of warm flour. Beat well and
set in a warm place to rise again. When risen a second time, add two
eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately, and about one tablespoonful of
flour. Turn the whole into three round shallow baking tins, which have
been previously oiled and warmed, and place where it will rise again for
an hour, or until it is all of a foam. Bake quickly in a moderately hot
oven. Make this the day before it is needed, and when ready to use
prepare a filling as follows: Beat together the whites of two eggs, one
half cup of sugar, the juice of one lemon, and two large tart apples
well grated. Heat in a farina kettle until all are hot; cool, and
spread between the layers of cake. This should be eaten the day the
filling is prepared.

COCOANUT CUSTARD CAKE.--Make the cake as directed in the preceding
recipe. For the filling, prepare a soft custard by heating just to the
boiling point one pint of rich milk previously flavored with cocoanut;
into which stir A tablespoonful of cornstarch braided with a little
milk, and let it boil until thickened. Beat together an egg and one
third of a cup of sugar, and turn the hot mixture slowly over it,
stirring constantly till the custard thickens. When cold, spread between
the layers of raised cake.

CREAM CAKE.--Prepare the cake as above. Spread between the layers
when cold a cream made as follows: Stir into one half pint of boiling
milk two teaspoonfuls of cornstarch rubbed smooth in a little cold milk.
Take with two tablespoonfuls of sugar; return to the rest of the custard
and cook, stirring constantly until quite thick. Cool and flavor with a
teaspoonful of vanilla or rose water.

DELICATE CUP CAKE.--This cake contains no soda or baking powder,
and to make it light requires the incorporation of as much air as
possible. In order to accomplish this, it should be put together in the
same manner as directed for Batter Breads (page 154). Have all material
measured and everything in readiness before beginning to put the cake
together, then beat together the yolk of one egg, one cup of sugar, and
one cup of very cold sweet cream, until all of a foam; add a little
grated lemon rind for flavoring; stir in slowly, beating briskly all the
time, two cups of granular white flour (sometimes termed gluten flour)
or Graham meal. When all the flour is added, add lastly the beaten
whites of two eggs, stirring just enough to mix them well throughout the
whole; turn at once into slightly heated gem irons which have been
previously oiled, and bake in a moderately quick oven. If made according
to directions, this cake will be very light and delicate. It will not
puff up much above its first proportions, but will be light throughout.

A nice cake may be prepared in the same manner with Graham meal or even
white flour, by the addition of a heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch
sifted into the flour, in the way in which baking powder is ordinarily
mixed with flour before using.

FIG LAYER CAKE.--Prepare the cake as directed for Apple Cake. Chop
one half pound of figs very fine, add one half cup of sugar, one cup of
water and boil in a farina kettle until soft and homogeneous. Cool, and
spread between the cakes. Or chop steamed figs very fine, mix with an
equal quantity of almondine, and use.

FRUIT JELLY CAKE.--Prepare the cake as in the foregoing, using
fruit jelly between the layers.

GOLD AND SILVER CAKE.--Prepare the cake as for Apple Cake. When it
has risen the second time, measure out one third of it, and add the
yolks of the eggs to that portion with a little grated lemon rind for
flavoring; add the whites with some very finely pulverized desiccated
cocoanut to the other two thirds. Make two sheets of the white and one
of the yellow. Allow them to become perfectly light before baking. When
baked, place the yellow portion between the two white sheets, binding
them together with a little frosting or white currant jelly.

ICING FOR CAKES.--Since icing adds to the excess of sugar contained
in cakes, it is preferable to use them without it except when especially
desired for ornament. An icing without eggs may be prepared by boiling a
cup of granulated sugar in five tablespoonfuls of sweet milk for five
minutes, then beating until cool enough to spread. One with egg may be
easily made of six tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar, the white of one
egg, and one teaspoonful of boiling water mixed without beating. A
colored icing may be made by using a teaspoonful of boiling cranberry
juice or other red fruit juice instead of water. The top of the icing
may be ornamented with roasted almonds, bits of colored sugar or frosted
fruits, directions for the preparation of all of which have already been
given.

ORANGE CAKE.--Prepare the cake as for Apple Cake, and bake in two
layers. For the filling, take two good-sized, juicy oranges. Flavor two
tablespoonfuls of sugar by rubbing it over the skin of the oranges, then
peel, remove the white rind, and cut into small pieces, discarding the
seeds and the central pith. Put the orange pulp in a china bowl, and set
in a dish of boiling water. When it is hot, stir in a heaping
teaspoonful of cornstarch which has been braided smooth in two spoonfuls
of water. Stir constantly until the starch has cooked, and the whole
becomes thickened. Beat the yolk of one egg to a cream with two
tablespoonfuls of sugar. Stir this very gradually, so as not to lump,
into the orange mixture, and cook two or three minutes longer. Remove
from the fire, and when cool, spread between the cakes. If the oranges
are not very tart, a little lemon juice is an improvement. Meringue the
top of the cake with the white of the egg beaten up with the two
tablespoonfuls of sugar flavored with orange.

FRUIT CAKE.--Make a sponge of one pint of thin cream which has been
scalded and cooled to lukewarm, one gill of liquid yeast or one half
cake of compressed yeast dissolved in a gill of cream, one half cup of
sugar, and two and one half cups of flour. Beat all together very
thoroughly and let rise until light. When light, add another half cup of
sugar, one half cup of rather thick cream which has been scalded and
cooled, one cup of warm flour, and after beating well together, set away
to rise again. When well risen, add one cup of seeded raisins, one
fourth cup of citron chopped fine, one half cup of Zante currants, two
well-beaten eggs, and about one and one third cups of flour. Turn into a
brick loaf bread pan, let it rise until very light, and bake. When done,
remove from the pan and set away until at least twenty-four hours old
before using.

LOAF CAKE.--Scald a cup of rather thin cream, and cool to blood
heat. Add one and one half cups of warm flour, one half a cup of sugar,
and one fourth cake of compressed yeast dissolved in two tablespoonfuls
of thin cream or as much of liquid yeast. Beat well, and let rise until
perfectly light; then add one half cup more of sugar mixed with one half
cup of warm flour. Beat well, and set away to rise a second time. When
again well risen, add the whites of three eggs beaten to a stiff froth,
one half cup of warm flour, and a little grated lemon rind, or two
teaspoonfuls of rose water to flavor. Turn into a brick loaf bread pan
lined with oiled paper, allow it to become perfectly light again, and
bake. This cake, like other articles made with yeast, should not be
eaten within at least twenty-four hours after baking.

PINEAPPLE CAKE.--Prepare as for orange cake, using grated pineapple
in place of oranges.

PLAIN BUNS.--These are the simplest of all cakes. Dissolve half a
small cake of compressed yeast in a cup of thin cream which has been
previously warmed to blood heat, add two cups of warm flour, and beat
thoroughly together. Put in a warm place, and let it rise till very
light. Add three tablespoonfuls of sugar mixed well with a half cup of
warm flour, one half cup of Zante currants, and sufficient flour to make
of the consistency of dough. Buns should be kneaded just as soft as
possible, and from fifteen to twenty minutes. Shape into biscuits a
little larger than an English walnut, place them on tins far enough
apart so they will not touch each other when risen. Put in a warm place
till they have risen to twice their first size, then bake in a
moderately quick oven. If desired, the currants may be omitted and a
little grated lemon rind for flavoring added with the sugar, or a bit of
citron may be placed in the top of each bun when shaping. When taken
from the oven, sprinkle the top of each with moist sugar if desired, or
glace by brushing with milk while baking.

SPONGE CAKE.--For this will be required four eggs, one cup of
sugar, one tablespoonful of lemon juice with a little of the grated
rind, and one cup of white flour. Success in the making of sponge cake
depends almost wholly upon the manner in which it is put together. Beat
the yolks of the eggs until very light and thick, then add the sugar
little by little, beating it in thoroughly; add the lemon juice and the
grated rind. Beat the whites of the eggs until perfectly stiff and firm,
and fold or chop them very lightly into the yolk mixture. Sift the flour
with a sifter little by little over the mixture and fold it carefully
in. On no account stir either the white of the eggs or the flour in,
since stirring will drive out the air which has been beaten into the
eggs. Do not beat after the flour is added. The cake, when the flour is
all in, should be stiff and spongy. If it is liquid in character, it
will be apt to be tough and may be considered a failure. Bake in a
shallow pan in a rather hot oven fifteen or twenty minutes.

SUGAR CRISPS.--Make a soft dough of two and one fourth cups of
Graham flour, one half cup of granulated white sugar, and one cup of
rather thick sweet cream. Knead as little as possible, roll out very
thinly, cut in rounds or squares, and bake in a quick oven.

VARIETY CAKE.--Make the same as Gold and Silver Cake, and mix a
half cup of Zante currants and chopped raisins with the yellow portion.
The white portion may be flavored by adding a very little chopped citron
instead of the cocoanut, if preferred.

TABLE TOPICS.

If families could be induced to substitute the apple--sound, ripe,
and luscious--for the pies, cakes, candies, and other sweetmeats
with which children are too often stuffed, there would be a
diminution of doctors' bills, sufficient in a single year to lay up
a stock of this delicious fruit for a season's use.--_Prof.
Faraday._

Food for repentance--mince pie eaten late at night.

_Young Student_--"This cook book says that pie crust needs plenty of
shortening. Do you know what that means, pa?"

_Father_--"It means lard."

"But why is lard called shortening, pa?"

"Because it shortens life."

The health journals and the doctors all agree that the best and most
wholesome part of the New England country doughnut is the hole. The
larger the hole, they say, the better the doughnut.

An old gentleman who was in the habit of eating a liberal slice of
pie or cake just before retiring, came home late one evening after
his wife had gone to bed. After an unsuccessful search in the
pantry, he called to his wife, "Mary, where is the pie?" His good
wife timidly acknowledged that there was no pie in the house. Said
her husband, "Then where is the cake?" The poor woman meekly
confessed that the supply of cake was also exhausted; at which the
disappointed husband cried out in a sharp, censorious tone, "Why,
what would you do if somebody should be sick in the night?"

_Woman_ (to tramp)--"I can give you some cold buckwheat cakes and a
piece of mince pie." _Tramp_--(frightened) "What ye say?"
_Woman_--"Cold buckwheat cakes and mince pie." _Tramp_--(heroically)
"Throw in a small bottle of pepsin, Madam, and I'll take the
chances."

GRAVIES AND SAUCES

Gravies for vegetables, sauces for desserts, and similar foods thickened
with flour or cornstarch, are among the most common of the poorly
prepared articles of the _cuisine_, although their proper preparation is
a matter of considerable importance, since neither a thin, watery sauce
nor a stiff, paste-like mixture is at all palatable. The preparation of
gravies and sauces is a very simple matter when governed by that
accuracy of measurement and carefulness of detail which should be
exercised in the preparation of all foods. In consistency, a properly
made sauce should mask the back of the spoon; that is to say, when
dipped into the mixture and lifted out, the metal of the spoon should
not be visible through it as it runs off. The proportion of material
necessary to secure this requisite is one tablespoonful of flour,
slightly rounded, for each half pint of water or stock. If the sauce be
made of milk or fruit juice, a little less flour will be needed. If
cornstarch be used, a scant instead of a full tablespoonful will be
required. The flour, or cornstarch should be first braided or rubbed
perfectly smooth in a very small amount of the liquid reserved for the
purpose (salt or sugar, if any is to be used, being added to the flour
before braiding with the liquid), and then carefully added to the
remaining liquid, which should be actively boiling. It should then be
continuously stirred until it has thickened, when it should be allowed
to cook slowly for five or ten minutes until the starch or flour is well
done. If through any negligence to observe carefully these simple
details, there should be lumps in the sauce, they must be removed before
serving by turning the whole through a fine colander or wire strainer.

The double boiler is the best utensil for the preparation of sauces and
gravies, since it facilitates even cooking and renders them less liable
to become scorched. The inner cup should be placed on the top of the
range until the sauce has become thickened, as in the cooking of grains,
and afterwards placed in the outer boiler to continue the cooking as
long as needed.

Cream gravies for vegetables may be delicately flavored with celery, by
steeping a few bits of celery in the milk for a few minutes, and
removing with a fork before adding the thickening. Sauces for puddings
may be similarly flavored, by steeping cocoanut or bits of orange or
lemon rind in the milk.

GRAVIES AND SAUCES FOR VEGETABLES.

_RECIPES._

BROWN SAUCE.--Heat a pint of thin cream, and when boiling, add half
a teaspoonful of salt and a tablespoonful of flour browned in the oven
as directed on page 274, and rubbed to a smooth paste with a little cold
milk. Allow it to boil rapidly, stirring constantly until thickened;
then cook more slowly, in a double boiler, for five or ten minutes. If
desired, the milk may be flavored with onion before adding the flour.
This makes a good dressing for potatoes.

CREAM OR WHITE SAUCE.--Heat a pint of rich milk, part cream if it
can be afforded, to boiling, and stir into it one tablespoonful of flour
previously rubbed smooth in a little milk. Season with salt, and cook in
a double boiler five or ten minutes, stirring frequently that no lumps
be formed. If lumps are found in the sauce, turn it quickly through a
fine, hot colander into the dish in which it is to be served.

CELERY SAUCE.--Cut half a dozen stalks of celery into
finger-lengths, and simmer in milk for ten or fifteen minutes. Skim out
the celery, add a little cream to the milk, salt to taste, and thicken
with flour as for white sauce. This is very nice for potatoes and for
toast.

EGG SAUCE.--Heat a pint of milk to boiling, and stir in a
dessertspoonful of flour rubbed smooth in a little milk. Stir constantly
until the sauce is well thickened; add the well-beaten yolk of an egg,
turning it in very slowly and stirring rapidly so that it shall be well
mingled. Boil up once only, add a very little salt, and serve. The egg
makes an excellent substitute for cream.

PEASE GRAVY.--A gravy prepared either of dried or green peas as
directed for Lentil Gravy on page 226, makes a suitable dressing for
baked potatoes. Lentil gravy is also good for the same purpose. The
addition of a little lemon juice to the lentil gravy makes another
variety.

TOMATO GRAVY.--A gravy made of tomatoes as directed on page 261, is
excellent to use on baked or boiled sweet potatoes.

TOMATO CREAM GRAVY.--Prepare a gravy as for Cream Sauce, using a
slightly heaping measure of flour. When done, add, just before serving,
for each quart of the cream sauce, one cup of hot, stewed tomato which
has been put through a fine colander to remove all seeds. Beat it
thoroughly into the sauce and serve on boiled or baked potato.

SAUCES FOR DESSERTS AND PUDDINGS.

_RECIPES._

ALMOND SAUCE.--Heat a pint of rich milk in the inner cup of a
double boiler, placed directly upon the stove. When the milk is boiling,
stir into it a heaping tablespoonful of flour which has been rubbed to a
cream in a little cold milk. Boil rapidly until thickened, stirring
constantly; then add three tablespoonfuls of almondine; place in the
outer boiler, and cook for five or ten minutes longer.

CARAMEL SAUCE.--Stir a cup of sugar in a saucepan over the fire
until melted and lightly browned. Add one cup of boiling water, and
simmer ten minutes.

COCOANUT SAUCE.--Flavor a pint of new milk with cocoanut, as
directed on page 298. Skim out the cocoanut, and add enough fresh milk
to make one pint. Heat the milk to boiling, add two tablespoonfuls of
sugar, thicken with two even spoonfuls of cornstarch, and proceed in the
same manner as for Mock Cream.

CREAM SAUCE.--Beat together two thirds of a cup of sugar, one
tablespoonful of thick, sweet cream, and one egg. Wet half a teaspoonful
of cornstarch with a little milk, and stir in with the mixture; then
add five tablespoonfuls of boiling milk, stirring rapidly all the time.
Pour into the inner cup of a double boiler; have the water in the outer
cup boiling, and cook five minutes. Flavor to taste.

CRANBERRY PUDDING SAUCE.--To a quart of boiling water add two cups
of sugar, and when well dissolved, one quart of carefully sorted
cranberries. Mash the berries as much as possible with a silver spoon,
and boil just seven minutes. Turn through a colander to remove skins,
cool and serve.

CUSTARD SAUCE.--Rub two teaspoonfuls of flour to a smooth paste
with half a cup of new milk. Heat two and a half cups of fresh milk in a
double boiler to scalding, then stir in the braided flour; heat again,
stirring constantly till just to the boiling point, but no longer;
remove from the stove and cool a little. Beat together one egg, three
tablespoonfuls of sugar, and a little lemon rind for flavoring. Turn the
hot milk over this, a little at a time, stirring briskly meanwhile.
Return the whole to the double boiler, and cook, stirring frequently,
until when a spoon is dipped into the custard a coating remains upon it.
Then remove at once from the fire. If the spoon comes out clean, the
custard is not sufficiently cooked.

EGG SAUCE.--Separate the yolks and whites of three eggs. Beat the
whites to a stiff froth, and stir in very gently, so as not to let the
air out of the beaten whites, one cup of powdered sugar and a
teaspoonful of vanilla or lemon flavoring powder. Lastly, stir in
carefully the beaten yolks of the eggs, and serve at once.

EGG SAUCE NO. 2.--Beat the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth
with one half cup of sugar. Add three tablespoonfuls of lemon juice and
one of water. Serve at once.

FOAMY SAUCE.--Beat one egg or the whites of two very thoroughly
with one half cup of sugar and a little grated lemon rind. Pour on this
very slowly, stirring constantly to make it smooth, one cup of boiling
milk, part cream if it can be afforded. If the whites alone are used,
they should not be beaten stiff. If preferred, the lemon may be omitted
and a tablespoonful or two of currant juice or quince jelly added last
as flavoring.

FRUIT CREAM.--Take the juice pressed from a cupful of fresh
strawberries, red raspberries, or black caps, add to it one third of a
cup of sugar, and place in the ice chest till chilled. Set a cup of
sweet cream also on ice till very cold. When thoroughly cold, whip with
an egg beater till the froth begins to rise, then add to it the cold
fruit juice and beat again. Have ready the white of one egg beaten to a
stiff froth, which add to the fruit cream, and whip till no more froth
will rise. This makes a delicious dressing for simple grain molds and
blancmanges, but is so rich it should be used rather sparingly. Serve as
soon as possible after being prepared. Fruit syrup, in the proportion of
two or three tablespoonfuls to the pint of cream, may be used in the
same manner when the fresh juice is not available. The juice of orange,
quince, and pineapple may also be used in the same manner as that of
berries.

FRUIT SAUCE.--Heat a pint of red raspberry, currant, grape,
strawberry, apricot, or any other fruit juice to scalding, and stir in a
tablespoonful of cornstarch previously rubbed to a cream with a little
cold water. Cook till it thickens; then add sugar according to the
acidity of the fruit. Strain and cool before using. If fruit juice is
not available, two or three tablespoonfuls of pure fruit jelly may be
dissolved in a pint of hot water and used instead of the juice. A
mixture of red and black raspberry juice, or currant and raspberry, will
be found acceptable for variety.

FRUIT SAUCE NO. 2.--Mash a quart of fresh berries, add one cup of
sugar, beat very thoroughly together, and set away until needed. Just
before it is wanted for serving, turn into a granite fruit kettle and
heat nearly to boiling, stirring constantly to avoid burning. Serve hot
with hot or cold puddings, or molded desserts.

LEMON PUDDING SAUCE.--Heat to boiling, in a double boiler, a pint
of water in which are two slices of lemon, and stir into it a
dessertspoonful of cornstarch; cook four to five minutes, or until it
thickens. Squeeze the juice from one large lemon, and mix it with two
thirds of a cup of sugar. Add this to the cornstarch mixture, and allow
the whole to boil up once, stirring constantly; then take from the fire.
Leave in the double boiler, surrounded by the hot water, for ten
minutes. Cool to blood heat before serving.

MOCK CREAM.--Heat a pint of fresh, unskimmed milk in a double
boiler. When the milk is boiling, stir in two tablespoonfuls of sugar,
and two even tablespoonfuls of cornstarch which has first been rubbed
smooth in a very little cold milk. Bring just to a boil, stirring
constantly; then pour the hot mixture, a little at a time, beating
thoroughly all the while, over the well-beaten white of one egg. Put
again into the double boiler, return to the fire, and stir till it
thickens to the consistency of cream.

MOLASSES SAUCE.--To one half cup of molasses, add one half cup of
water, and heat to boiling. Thicken with a teaspoonful of flour rubbed
to a cream with a little cold water. Serve hot.

ORANGE SAUCE.--Squeeze a cupful of juice from well-flavored, sour
oranges. Heat a pint of water, and when boiling, thicken with a
tablespoonful of cornstarch. Add the orange juice, strain, and sweeten
to taste with sugar that has been flavored by rubbing over the yellow
rind of an orange until mixed with the oil in the rind. If a richer
sauce is desired, the yolk of an egg may be added lastly, and the sauce
allowed to cook until thickened.

PEACH SAUCE.--Strain the juice from a well-kept can of peaches.
Dilute with one half as much water, heat to boiling, and thicken with
cornstarch, a scant tablespoonful to the pint of liquid.

PLAIN PUDDING SAUCE.--Thicken one and one half cups of water with
one tablespoonful of cornstarch; boil a few minutes, then stir in two
thirds of a cup of sugar, and one half cup of sweet cream. Take off the
stove, and flavor with a little rose, vanilla, or lemon.

RED SAUCE.--Pare and slice a large red beet, and simmer gently in
three cups of water for twenty minutes, or until the water is rose
colored, then add two cups of sugar, the thin yellow rind and juice of
one lemon, and boil until the whole is thick syrup. Strain, add a
teaspoonful of rose water or vanilla, and serve.

ROSE CREAM.--Remove the thick cream from the top of a pan of cold
milk, taking care not to take up any of the milk. Add sugar to sweeten
and a teaspoonful or two of rose water. Beat with an egg beater until
the whole mass is thick. Good thick cream, beaten in this manner, makes
nearly double its original quantity.

SAGO SAUCE.--Wash one tablespoonful of sago in two or three waters,
then put it into a saucepan with three fourths of a cup of hot water,
and some bits of lemon peel. Simmer gently for ten minutes, take out the
lemon peel, add half a cup of quince or apricot juice; and if the
latter, the strained juice of half a lemon, and sugar to taste. Beat
together thoroughly.

WHIPPED CREAM SAUCE.--Beat together with an egg beater until of a
stiff froth one cup of sweet cream which has been cooled to a
temperature of 64 deg. or less, one teaspoonful of vanilla or a little
grated lemon rind, and one half cup of powdered white sugar, and the
whites of one or two eggs. The sauce may be variously flavored with a
little fruit jelly beaten with the egg, before adding to the cream.

TABLE TOPICS.

Whether or not life is worth living, all depends upon the
liver.--_Sel._

Diet cures mair than doctors.--_Scotch Proverb._

According to the ancient Hindu Scriptures, the proper amount of food
is half of what can be conveniently eaten.

Every hour you steal from digestion will be reclaimed by
indigestion.--_Oswald._

"Very few nations in the world," says a sagacious historian,
"produce better soldiers than the Russians. They will endure the
greatest fatigues and sufferings with patience and calmness. And it
is well know that the Russian soldiers are from childhood nourished
by simple and coarse vegetable food. The Russian Grenadiers are the
finest body of men I ever saw,--not a man is under six feet high.
Their allowance consists of eight pounds of black bread, and four
pounds of oil per man for eight days."

Colonel Fitzgibbon was, many years ago, colonial agent at London for
the Canadian Government, and wholly dependent upon remittances from
Canada for his support. On one occasion these remittances failed to
arrive, and it being before the day of cables, he was obliged to
write to his friends to ascertain the reason of the delay. Meanwhile
he had just one sovereign to live upon. He found he could live upon
a sixpence a day,--four pennyworth of bread, one pennyworth of milk,
and one pennyworth of sugar. When his remittances arrived a month
afterward, he had five shillings remaining of his sovereign, and he
liked his frugal diet so well that he kept it up for several years.

An hour of exercise to every pound of food.--_Oswald._

Some eat to live, they loudly cry;
But from the pace they swallow pie
And other food promiscuously,
One would infer they eat to die.

--_Sel._

BEVERAGES

The use of beverages in quantities with food at mealtime is prejudicial
to digestion, because they delay the action of the gastric juice upon
solid foods. The practice of washing down food by copious draughts of
water, tea, or coffee is detrimental, not only because it introduces
large quantities of fluid into the stomach, which must be absorbed
before digestion can begin, but also because it offers temptation to
careless and imperfect mastication, while tea and coffee also serve as a
vehicle for an excessive use of sugar, thus becoming a potent cause of
indigestion and dyspepsia. It is best to drink but sparingly, if at all,
at mealtimes. Consideration should also be given to the nature of the
beverage, since many in common use are far from wholesome. Very cold
fluids, like iced water, iced tea, and iced milk, are harmful, because
they cool the contents of the stomach to a degree at which digestion is
checked. If drunk at all, they should be taken only in small sips and
retained in the mouth until partly warmed.

Tea is often spoken of as the "cup that cheers but not inebriates."
"The cup that may cheer yet does injury" would be nearer the truth, for
there is every evidence to prove that this common beverage is
exceedingly harmful, and that the evils of its excessive use are second
only to those of tobacco and alcohol. Tea contains two harmful
substances, theine and tannin,--from three to six per cent of the former
and more than one fourth its weight of the latter. Theine is a poison
belonging to the same class of poisonous alkaloids, and is closely
allied to cocaine. It is a much more powerful poison than alcohol,
producing death in less than one hundredth part the deadly dose of
alcohol; and when taken in any but the smallest doses, it produces all
the symptoms of intoxication. Tannin is an astringent exercising a
powerful effect in delaying salivary and stomach digestion, thus
becoming one of the most common causes of digestive disorders. It is
also a matter of frequent observation that sleeplessness, palpitation of
the heart, and various disorders of the nervous system frequently follow
the prolonged use of tea. Both theine and tannin are more abundant in
green than in black tea.

The dependence of the habitual tea-drinker upon the beverage, and the
sense of loss experienced when deprived of it, are among the strongest
proofs of its evil effects, and should be warnings against its use. No
such physical discomfort is experienced when deprived of any article of
ordinary food. The use of tea makes one feel bright and fresh when
really exhausted; but, like all other stimulants, it is by exciting
vital action above the normal without supplying extra force to support
the extra expenditure. The fact that a person feels tired is evidence
that the system demands rest, that his body is worn and needs repair;
but the relief experienced after a cup of tea is not recuperation.
Instead, it indicates that his nerves are paralyzed so that they are
insensible to fatigue.

Some people suppose the manner of preparing tea has much to do with its
deleterious effects, and that by infusion for two or three minutes only,
the evils resulting from the tannin will be greatly lessened. This,
however, is a delusion, if the same amount of tea be used proportionate
to the water; for tannin in its free state, the condition in which it is
found in tea is one of the most readily soluble of substances; and tea
infused for two minutes is likely to hold nearly as much tannin in
solution as that infused for a longer period.

Tea is not a food, and it can in no wise take the place of food, as so
many people attempt to make it, without detriment to health in every
respect.

Coffee, cocoa, and chocolate rank in the same category with tea, as
beverages which are more or less harmful. Coffee contains caffein, a
principle identical with theine and a modified form of tannin, though in
less quantity than tea. Cocoa and chocolate contain substances similar
to theine and equally harmful, though usually present in much less
proportion than in tea.

Custom has made the use of these beverages so common that most people
seldom stop to inquire into their nature. Doubtless the question arises
in many minds; If these beverages contain such poisons, why do they not
more commonly produce fatal results?--Because a tolerance of the poison
is established in the system by use, as in the case of tobacco and other
narcotics and stimulants; but that the poisons surely though insidiously
are doing their work is attested by the prevalence of numerous disorders
of the digestive and nervous systems, directly attributable to the use
of these beverages.

Both tea and coffee are largely adulterated with other harmful
substances, thus adding another reason why their use should be
discarded. It is stated on good authority that it is almost impossible
to obtain unadulterated ground coffee.

In view of all these facts, it certainly seems wisest if a beverage is
considered essential, to make use of one less harmful. Hot milk, hot
water, hot lemonade, caramel coffee, or some of the various grain
coffees, recipes for which are give in the following pages, are all
excellent substitutes for tea and coffee, if a hot drink is desired.

_RECIPES_

BEET COFFEE.--Wash best beets thoroughly, but do not scrape; slice,
and brown in a moderate oven, taking care not to burn. When brown, break
in small pieces and steep the same as ordinary coffee.

CARAMEL COFFEE.--Take three quarts best bran, one quart corn meal,
three tablespoonfuls of molasses; mix and brown in the oven like
ordinary coffee. For every cup of coffee required, use one heaping
tablespoonful of the caramel. Pour boiling water over it, and steep, not
boil, for fifteen or twenty minutes.

CARAMEL COFFEE NO. 2.--Take one cup each of white flour, corn meal,
unsifted Graham flour, and molasses. Mix well, and form into cakes half
an inch thick and a little larger around than a silver dollar. If the
molasses is not thin enough to take up all the dry material, one fourth
or one half a cup of cold water may be added for that purpose. Bake the
cakes in the oven until very dark brown, allowing them to become
slightly scorched. When desired for use, take one cake for each cup of
coffee required, pour sufficient water over them, and steep, not boil,
twenty minutes.

CARAMEL COFFEE NO. 3.--To three and one half quarts of bran and one
and one half quarts of corn meal, take one pint of New Orleans molasses
and one half pint of boiling water. Put the water and molasses together
and pour them over the bran and corn meal which have been previously
mixed. Rub all well together, and brown slowly in the oven, stirring
often, until a rich dark brown. Use one heaping tablespoonful of coffee
to each small cup of boiling water, let it just boil up, then steep on
the back of the stove for five or ten minutes.

CARAMEL COFFEE NO. 4.--Beat together four eggs and one pint of
molasses, and mix thoroughly with four quarts of good wheat bran. Brown
in the oven, stirring frequently. Prepare for use the same as the
preceding.

MRS. T'S CARAMEL COFFEE.--Make a rather thick batter of Graham
grits or Graham meal and milk, spread it in shallow pans and bake in a
moderate oven until evenly done throughout. Cut the cake thus prepared
into thin strips, which break into small uniform pieces and spread on
perforated tins or sheets and brown in the oven. Each piece should be
very darkly and evenly browned, but not burned. For each cup of coffee
required, steep a small handful in boiling water for ten or fifteen
minutes, strain and serve.

PARCHED GRAIN COFFEE.--Brown in the oven some perfectly sound
wheat, sweet corn, barley, or rice, as you would the coffee berry. If
desired, a mixture of grains may be used. Pound or grind fine. Mix the
white of an egg with three tablespoonfuls of the ground grain, and pour
over it a quart of boiling water. Allow it to come just to the boiling
point, steep slowly for twelve or fifteen minutes, and serve.

WHEAT, OATS AND BARLEY COFFEE.--Mix together equal quantities of
these grains, brown in the oven like ordinary coffee, and grind. To one
quart of boiling water take three tablespoonfuls of the prepared coffee
mixed with the white of an egg, and steep in boiling water ten or
fifteen minutes.

_RECIPES FOR COLD BEVERAGES._

BLACKBERRY BEVERAGE.--Crush a quart of fresh blackberries, and pour
over them a quart of cold water; add a slice of lemon and a teaspoonful
of orange water, and let it stand three or four hours. Strain through a
jelly bag. Sweeten to taste with a syrup prepared by dissolving white
sugar in hot water, allowing it to become cold before using. Serve at
once with bits of broken ice in the glasses, or place the pitcher on ice
until ready to serve.

FRUIT BEVERAGE.--A great variety of pleasant, healthful drinks may
be made by taking equal quantities of water and the juice of currants,
strawberries, raspberries, cherries, or a mixture of two kinds, as
raspberries and currants, sweetening to taste, and putting into each
glass a small lump of ice. Directions for the preparation of fruit
juices will be found on page 209.

FRUIT BEVERAGE NO. 2.--Mash a pint of red raspberries, add one cup
of canned pineapple or half a fresh one chopped fine; pour over all
three pints of water. Stir frequently, and let the mixture stand for two
hours. Strain, add the juice of six lemons, and sugar or syrup to
sweeten.

ANOTHER.--Extract the juice from three lemons and as many sour
oranges, add a quart of cold water, sugar or syrup to sweeten, half a
teaspoonful of rose water, and a cup of pure grape juice; or the rose
water and grape juice may be omitted and two tablespoonfuls of
strawberry, raspberry, or cherry juice used instead, and the whole
poured over half a dozen slices of pineapple, and allowed to stand until
well flavored before using.

FRUIT CORDIAL.--Crush a pint of blackberries, raspberries, grapes,
currants, or cherries, adding the juice of two sour oranges, and a
sliced lemon; pour over all a quart of cold water. Stir the mixture
frequently and let it stand for two hours, then strain and add a syrup
made by dissolving white sugar in boiling water, sufficient to sweeten.
Cool on ice and serve.

GRAPE BEVERAGE.--Crush two pounds of perfectly ripened purple
grapes and strain the juice through a jelly bag. Add to the juice three
tablespoonfuls of granulated sugar or syrup, and dilute with cold water
to suit the taste.

LEMONADE.--Use three large or four medium-sized lemons for each
quart of water, and from six to eight tablespoonfuls of sugar. Rub or
squeeze the lemons till soft. Cut a slice or two from each, and extract
the juice with a lemon drill; strain the juice through a fine wire
strainer to remove the seeds and bits of pulp, and pour it over the
sugar. Add the slices of lemon, and pour over all a very little boiling
water to thoroughly dissolve the sugar; let it stand ten or fifteen
minutes, then add the necessary quantity of cold water, and serve. Or
rub the sugar over the outside of the lemons to flavor it, and make it
into a syrup by adding sufficient boiling water to dissolve it. Extract
and strain the lemon juice, add the prepared syrup and the requisite
quantity of cold water, and serve.

MIXED LEMONADE.--A very pleasant, cooling summer drink is made from
the juice of six oranges and six lemons, with sugar to taste; add to
this some pounded ice and the juice of a small can of pineapple, and
lastly pour over the whole two quarts of water.

OATMEAL DRINK.--Boil one fourth of a pound of oatmeal in three
quarts of water for half an hour, then add one and one half
tablespoonfuls of sugar, strain and cool. It may be flavored with a
little lemon or raspberry syrup if desired; or the sugar may be omitted
and a quart of milk added. Cool on ice and serve.

ORANGEADE.--Pare very thin from one orange a few bits of the yellow
rind. Slice three well-peeled sour oranges, taking care to remove all
the white portion and all seeds. Add the yellow rind and a tablespoonful
of sugar; pour over all a quart of boiling water. Cover the dish, and
let it remain until the drink is cold. Or, if preferred, the juice of
the oranges may be extracted with a lemon drill and strained as for
lemonade.

PINEAPPLE BEVERAGE.--Pare and chop quite fine one fresh pineapple;
add a slice or two of lemon, and cover with three pints of boiling
water. Let it stand for two hours or more, stirring frequently; then
strain and add the juice of five lemons, and sugar or syrup to sweeten.

PINEAPPLE LEMONADE.--Lemonade made in the usual manner and flavored
with a few spoonfuls of canned pineapple juice, is excellent for
variety.

PINK LEMONADE.--Add to a pint of lemonade prepared in the usual
manner half a cup of fresh or canned strawberry, red raspberry, currant,
or cranberry juice. It gives a pretty color besides adding a pleasing
flavor.

SHERBET.--Mash a quart of red raspberries, currants, or
strawberries, add the juice of a lemon, and pour over all three pints of
cold water. Stir frequently, and let it stand for two or three hours.
Strain through a jelly bag, sweeten to taste, and serve.

TISANE.--This is a favorite French beverage, and is prepared by
chopping fine a cupful of dried fruits, such as prunes, figs, or
prunelles, and steeping for an hour in a quart of water, afterward
straining, sweetening to taste, and cooling on ice before using.

TABLE TOPICS.

The nervousness and peevishness of our times are chiefly
attributable to tea and coffee. The digestive organs of confirmed
coffee drinkers are in a state of chronic derangement which reacts
on the brain, producing fretful and lachrymose moods. The snappish,
petulant humor of the Chinese can certainly be ascribed to their
immoderate fondness for tea.--_Dr. Bock._

Dr. Ferguson, an eminent physician who has carefully investigated
the influence of tea and coffee upon the health and development of
children, says he found that children who were allowed these
beverages gained but four pounds a year between the ages of thirteen
and sixteen, while those who had been allowed milk instead, gained
fifteen pounds in weight during the same period.

Dr. Richardson, the eminent English physician and scientist, asserts
that the misery of the women of the poorer classes of the population
in England is more than doubled by the use of tea, which only
soothes or stimulates to intensify the after-coming depression and
languor.

A physician recommended a lady to abandon the use of tea and coffee.
"O, but I shall miss it so," said she.

"Very likely," replied her medical adviser, "but you are missing
health now, and will soon lose it altogether if you do not."

Dr. Stenhouse, of Liverpool, once made a careful analysis of a
sample package of black tea, which was found to contain "some pure
Congo tea leaves, also siftings of Pekoe and inferior kinds,
weighing together twenty-seven per cent of the whole. The remaining
seventy-three per cent was composed of the following substances;
Iron, plumbago, chalk, China-clay, sand, Prussian-blue, tumeric,
indigo, starch, gypsum, catechu, gum, the leaves of the camelia,
sarangna, _Chlorantes officinalis_, elm, oak, willow, poplar, elder,
beach, hawthorn, and sloe."

MILK CREAM BUTTER

MILK.

Chemically considered, the constituents of milk are nitrogenous matter
(consisting of casein and a small proportion of albumen), fat, sugar of
milk, mineral matter, and water, the last constituting from sixty-five
to ninety per cent of the whole.

The proportion of these elements varies greatly in the milk of different
animals of the same species and of the same animals at different times,
so that it is not possible to give an exact analysis.

The analysis of an average specimen of cow's milk, according to Letheby,
is:--

Nitrogenous matter.......................................4.1
Fat......................................................3.9
Sugar of milk............................................5.2
Mineral matter...........................................0.8
Water...................................................86.0

If a drop of milk be examined with a microscope, it will be seen as a
clear liquid, holding in suspension a large number of minute globules,
which give the milk its opacity or white color. These microscopic
globules are composed of fatty matter, each surrounded by an envelope of
casein, the principal nitrogenous element found in milk. They are
lighter than the surrounding liquid, and when the milk remains at rest,
they gradually rise to the top and form cream. Casein, unlike albumen,
is not coagulated by heat; hence when milk is cooked, it undergoes no
noticeable change, save the coagulation of the very small amount of
albumen it contains, which, as it solidifies, rises to the top, carrying
with it a small portion of the sugar and saline matter and some of the
fat globules, forming a skin-like scum upon the surface. Casein,
although not coagulable by heat, is coagulated by the introduction into
the milk of acids or extract of rennet. The curd of cheese is coagulated
casein. When milk is allowed to stand for some time exposed to warmth
and air, a spontaneous coagulation occurs, caused by fermentative
changes in the sugar of milk, by which it is converted into lactic acid
through the action of germs.

Milk is sometimes adulterated by water, the removal of more or less of
the cream, or the addition of some foreign substance to increase its
density.

The quality of milk is more or less influenced by the food upon which
the animal is fed. Watery milk may be produced by feeding a cow upon
sloppy food.

The milk of diseased animals should never be used for food. There is no
way by which such milk can invariably be detected, but Prof. Vaughan, of
Michigan University, notes the following kinds of milk to be avoided:

1. Milk which becomes sour and curdles within a few hours after it has
been drawn, and before any cream forms on its surface. This is known in
some sections as 'curdly' milk, and it comes from cows with certain
inflammatory affections of the udder, or digestive diseases, or those
which have been overdriven or worried.

2. "Bitter-sweet milk" has cream of a bitter taste, is covered with
'blisters,' and frequently with a fine mold. Butter and cheese made from
such milk cannot be eaten on account of the disagreeable taste.

3. 'Slimy milk' can be drawn out into fine, ropy fibers. It has an
unpleasant taste, which is most marked in the cream. The causes which
lead to the secretion of this milk are not known.

4. 'Blue milk' is characterized by the appearance on its surface,
eighteen or twenty-four hours after it is drawn, of small, indigo-blue
spots, which rapidly enlarge until the whole surface is covered with a
blue film. If the milk be allowed to stand a few days, the blue is
converted into a greenish or reddish color. This coloration of the milk
is due to the growth of microscopic organisms. The butter made from
'blue milk' is dirty-white, gelatinous, and bitter.

5. 'Barnyard milk' is a term used to designate milk taken from unclean
animals, or those which have been kept in filthy, unventilated stables.
The milk absorbs and carries the odors, which are often plainly
perceptible. Such milk may not be poisonous, but it is repulsive.

There is no doubt that milk often serves as the vehicle for the
distribution of the germs of various contagious diseases, like scarlet
fever, diphtheria, and typhoid fever, from becoming contaminated in some
way, either from the hands of milkers or from water used as an
adulterant or in cleansing the milk vessels. Recent investigations have
also shown that cows are to some extent subject to scarlet fever, the
same as human beings, and that milk from infected cows will produce the
same disease in the consumer.

Milk should not be kept in brass or copper vessels or in earthen-ware
lined with lead glazing; for if the milk becomes acid, it is likely to
unite with the metal and form a poisonous compound. Glass and granite
ware are better materials in which to keep milk.

Milk should never be allowed to stand uncovered in an occupied room,
especially a sitting-room or bedroom, as its dust is likely to contain
disease-germs, which falling into the milk, may become a source of
serious illness to the consumer. Indeed it is safest to keep milk
covered whenever set away, to exclude the germs which are at all times
present in the air. A good way is to protect the dishes containing milk
with several layers of cheese-cloth, which will permit the air but not
the germs to circulate in and out of the pans. Neither should it be
allowed to stand where there are strong odors, as it readily takes up by
absorption any odors to which it is exposed.

A few years ago Dr. Dougall, of Glasgow, made some very interesting
experiments on the absorbent properties of milk. He inclosed in jars a
portion of substances giving off emanations, with a uniform quantity of
milk, in separate vessels, for a period of eight hours, at the end of
which time samples of the milk were drawn off and tested. The result was
that milk exposed to the following substances retained odors as
described:--

Coal gas, distinct; paraffine oil, strong; turpentine, very strong;
onions, very strong; tobacco smoke, very strong; ammonia, moderate;
musk, faint; asafetida, distinct; creosote, strong; cheese (stale),
distinct; chloroform, moderate; putrid fish, very bad; camphor,
moderate; decayed cabbage, distinct.

These facts clearly indicate that if the emanations to which milk is
exposed are of a diseased and dangerous quality, it is all but
impossible that the milk can remain free from dangerous properties.

Too much pains cannot be taken in the care of milk and vessels
containing it. Contact with the smallest quantity of milk which has
undergone fermentation will sour the whole; hence the necessity for
scrupulous cleanliness of all vessels which have contained milk before
they are used again for that purpose.

In washing milk dishes, many persons put them first into scalding water,
by which means the albumen in the milk is coagulated; and if there are
any crevices or seams in the pans or pails, this coagulated portion is
likely to adhere to them like glue, and becoming sour, will form the
nucleus for spoiling the next milk put into them. A better way is first
to rinse each separately in cold water, not pouring the water from one
pan to another, until there is not the slightest milky appearance in the
water, then wash in warm suds, or water containing sal-soda, and
afterward scald thoroughly; wipe perfectly dry, and place if possible
where the sun will have free access to them until they are needed for
further use. If sunshine is out of the question, invert the pans or cans
over the stove, or place for a few moments in a hot oven.

The treatment of milk varies with its intended use, whether whole or
separated from the cream.

Cream rises best when the milk is quite warm or when near the
freezing-point. In fact, cream separates more easily from milk at the
freezing-point than any other, but it is not thick and never becomes so.
An intermediate state seems to be unfavorable to a full rising of the
cream.

A temperature of 56 deg. to 60 deg.F. is a good one. Milk to be used whole
should be kept at about 45 deg. and stirred frequently.

All milk obtained from city milkmen or any source not certainly known to
be free from disease-germs, should be sterilized before using. Indeed,
it is safest always to sterilize milk before using, since during the
milking or in subsequent handling and transportation it is liable to
become infected with germs.

TO STERILIZE MILK FOR IMMEDIATE USE.--Put the milk as soon as
received into the inner dish of a double boiler, the outer vessel of
which should be filled with boiling water. Cover and heat the milk
rapidly to as near the boiling point as possible. Allow it to remain
with the water in the outer boiler actively boiling for half an hour,
then remove from the stove and cool very quickly. This may be
accomplished by pouring into shallow dishes, and placing these in cold
water, changing the water as frequently as it becomes warm, or by using
pieces of ice in the water. It is especially important to remember that
the temperature of the milk should be raised as rapidly as possible, and
when the milk is sufficiently cooked, cooled very quickly. Either very
slow heating or slow cooling may prove disastrous, even when every other
precaution is taken.

Or, well-cleaned glass fruit cans may be nearly filled with milk, the
covers screwed on loosely, then placed in a kettle of cold water,
gradually heated to boiling and kept at that temperature for a half hour
or longer, then gradually cooled. Or, perfectly clean bottles may be
filled with milk to within two inches of the top, the neck tightly
closed with a wad of cotton, and the bottles placed in a steam cooker,
the water in which should be cold at the start, and steamed for half an
hour.

This cooking of milk, while it destroys many of the germs contained in
milk, particularly the active disease-germs which are liable to be found
in it, thus rendering it more wholesome, and improving its keeping
qualities somewhat, does not so completely sterilize the milk that it
will not undergo fermentative changes. Under varying conditions some
thirty or forty different species of germs are to be found in milk, some
of which require to be subjected to a temperature above that of boiling
water, in order to destroy them. The keeping quality of the milk may be
increased by reboiling it on three successive days for a half hour or
longer, and carefully sealing after each boiling.

TO STERILIZE MILK TO KEEP.--This is a somewhat more difficult
operation, but it may be done by boiling milk sealed in very strong
bottles in a saturated solution of salt. The milk used should be
perfectly fresh. It is best, when possible, to draw the milk from the
cow directly into the bottles. Fill the bottles to within two inches of
the top, cork them immediately and wire the corks down firmly and place
them in the cold salt solution. Boil fifteen minutes or half an hour.
Allow the solution to cool before removing them. If the bottles are
removed from the solution while hot, they will almost instantly break.
When cold, remove the bottles, and cover the tops with sealing wax.
Store in a cool place, shake thoroughly once or twice a week. Milk
sterilized in this manner will keep indefinitely.

CONDENSED MILK.--Condensed milk is made by evaporating milk in a
vacuum to one fifth its original volume; it is then canned like any
other food by sealing at boiling temperature in air-tight cans. When
used, it should be diluted with five times its bulk of warm water.

Condensed milk, when not thoroughly boiled in the process of
condensation, is liable to harbor disease-germs the same as any other
milk.

CREAM.

Cream varies in composition according to the circumstances under which
it rises.

The composition of an average specimen as given by Letherby is:--

Nitrogenous matter............................................ 2.7
Fat.......................................................... 26.7
Sugar of milk................................................. 2.8
Mineral matter................................................ 1.8

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