Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

Science in the Kitchen. by Mrs. E. E. Kellogg

Part 7 out of 17

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 1.7 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

beans should be sufficient for three pints of soup.

KORNLET SOUP.--Kornlet or canned green corn pulp, may be made into
a most appetizing soup in a few minutes by adding to a pint of kornlet
an equal quantity of rich milk, heating to boiling, and thickening it
with a teaspoonful of flour rubbed smooth in a little cold milk.

KORNLET AND TOMATO SOUP.--Put together equal quantities of kornlet
and strained stewed tomato, season with salt and heat to boiling; add
for each quart one fourth to one half cup of hot thin cream, thicken
with a tablespoonful of flour rubbed smooth in a little water, and
serve. Cooked corn rubbed through a colander may also be used for this
soup.

LENTIL SOUP.--Simmer a pint of lentils in water until tender. If
desired to have the soup less dark in color and less strong in flavor,
the lentils may be first parboiled for a half hour, and then drained and
put into fresh boiling water. Much valuable nutriment is thus lost,
however. When perfectly tender, mash through a colander to remove all
skins; add salt and a cup of thin cream, and it too thick, sufficient
boiling milk or water to thin to the proper consistency, heat again to
boiling, and serve. If preferred, an additional quantity of liquid may
be added and the soup slightly thickened with browned flour.

LENTIL AND PARSNIP SOUP.--Cook together one pint of lentils and one
half a small parsnip, sliced, until tender in a small quantity of
boiling water. When done, rub through a colander, and add boiling water
to make a soup of the proper consistency. Season with salt and if
desired a little cream.

LIMA BEAN SOUP.--Simmer a pint of Lima beans gently in just
sufficient water to cook and not burn, until they have fallen to pieces.
Add more boiling water as needed. When done, rub the beans through a
colander. Add rich milk or water to make of the proper consistency, and
salt to season; reheat and serve. White beans may be used in place of
Lima beans, but they require more prolonged cooking. A heaping
tablespoonful of pearl tapioca or sago previously soaked in cold water,
may be added to the soup when it is reheated, if liked, and the whole
cooked until the sago is transparent.

MACARONI SOUP.--Heat a quart of milk, to which has been added a
tablespoonful of finely grated bread crust (the brown part only, from
the top of the loaf) and a slice of onion to flavor, in a double boiler.
When the milk is well flavored, remove the onion, turn through a
colander, add salt, and thicken with two teaspoonfuls of flour rubbed
smooth in a little cold milk. Lastly add one cupful of cooked macaroni,
and serve.

OATMEAL SOUP.--Put two heaping tablespoonfuls of oatmeal into a
quart of boiling water, and cook in a double boiler for two hours or
longer. Strain as for gruel, add salt if desired, and two or three
stalks of celery broken into finger lengths, and cook again until the
whole is well flavored with the celery, which may then be removed with a
fork; add a half cup of cream, and the soup is ready to serve. Cold
oatmeal mush may be thinned with milk, reheated, strained, flavored, and
made into soup the same as fresh material. A slice or two of onion may
be used with the celery for flavoring the soup if desired, or a cup of
strained stewed tomato may be added.

PARSNIP SOUP.--Take a quart of well scraped, thinly sliced
parsnips, one cup of bread crust shavings (prepared as for Brown Soup),
one head of celery, one small onion, and one pint of sliced potatoes.
The parsnips used should be young and tender, so that they will cook in
about the same length of time as the other vegetables. Use only
sufficient water to cook them. When done, rub through a colander and add
salt and sufficient rich milk, part cream if desired, to make of the
proper consistency. Reheat and serve.

PARSNIP SOUP NO. 2.--Wash, pare, and slice equal quantities of
parsnips and potatoes. Cook, closely covered, in a small quantity of
water until soft. If the parsnips are not young and tender, they must be
put to cook first, and the potatoes added when they are half done. Mash
through a colander. Add salt, and milk to make of the proper
consistency, season with cream, reheat and serve.

PEA AND TOMATO SOUP.--Soak one pint of Scotch peas over night. When
ready to cook, put into a quart of boiling water and simmer slowly until
quite dry and well disintegrated. Rub through a colander to remove the
skins. Add a pint of hot water, one cup of mashed potato, two cups of
strained stewed tomato, and one cup of twelve-hour cream. Turn into a
double-boiler and cook together for a half hour or longer; turn a second
time through a colander or soup strainer and serve. The proportions
given are quite sufficient for two quarts of soup. There may need to be
some variation in the quantity of tomato to be used, depending upon its
thickness. If very thin, a larger quantity and less water will be
needed. The soup should be a rich reddish brown in color when done. The
peas may be cooked without being first soaked, if preferred.

PLAIN RICE SOUP.--Wash and pick over four tablespoonfuls of rice,
put it in an earthen dish with a quart of water, and place in a moderate
oven. When the water is all absorbed, add a quart of rich milk, and salt
if desired; turn into a granite kettle and boil ten minutes, or till the
rice is done. Add a half cup of sweet cream and serve. A slice of onion
or stalk of celery can be boiled with the soup after putting in the
kettle, and removed before serving, if desired to flavor.

POTATO AND RICE SOUP.--Cook a quart of sliced potatoes in as little
water as possible. When done, rub through a colander. Add salt, a quart
of rich milk, and reheat. If desired, season with a slice of onion, a
stalk of celery, or a little parsley. Just before serving, add a half
cup of cream and a cup and a half of well-cooked rice with unbroken
grains. Stir gently and serve at once.

POTATO SOUP.--For each quart of soup required, cook a pint of
sliced potatoes in sufficient water to cover them. When tender, rub
through a colander. Return to the fire, and add enough rich, sweet milk,
part cream if it can be afforded to make a quart in all, and a little
salt. Let the soup come to a boil, and add a teaspoonful of flour or
corn starch, rubbed to a paste with a little water; boil a few minutes
and serve. A cup and a half of cold mashed potato or a pint of sliced
baked potato can be used instead of fresh material; in which case add
the milk and heat before rubbing through the colander. A slice of onion
or a stalk of celery may be simmered in the soup for a few minutes to
flavor, and then removed with a skimmer or a spoon. A good mixed potato
soup is made by using one third sweet and two thirds Irish potatoes, in
the same manner as above.

POTATO AND VERMICELLI SOUP.--Breakup a cupful of vermicelli and
drop into boiling water. Let it cook for ten or fifteen minutes, and
then turn into a colander to drain. Have ready a potato soup prepared
the same as in the proceeding; stir the vermicelli lightly into it just
before serving.

SAGO AND POTATO SOUP.--Prepare the soup as directed for Potato
Soup, from fresh or cold mashed potato, using a little larger quantity
of milk or cream, as the sago adds thickness to the soap. When seasoned
and ready to reheat, turn a second time through the colander, and add
for each quart of soup, one heaping tablespoonful of sago which has been
soaked for twenty minutes in just enough water to cover. Boil together
five or ten minutes, or until the sago is transparent, and serve.

SCOTCH BROTH.--Soak over night two tablespoonfuls of pearl barley
and one of coarse oatmeal, in water sufficient to cover them. In the
morning, put the grains, together with the water in which they were
soaked, into two quarts of water and simmer for several hours, adding
boiling water as needed. About an hour before the soup is required, add
a turnip cut into small dice, a grated carrot, and one half cup of fine
pieces of the brown portion of the crust of a loaf of whole-wheat bread.
Rub all through a colander, and add salt, a cup of milk, and a half cup
of thin cream. This should make about three pints of soup.

SPLIT PEA SOUP.--For each quart of soup desired, simmer a cupful of
split peas very slowly in three pints of boiling water for six hours, or
until thoroughly dissolved. When done, rub through a colander, add salt
and season with one half cup of thin cream. Reheat, and when boiling,
stir into it two teaspoonfuls of flour rubbed smooth in a little cold
water. Boil up until thickened, and serve. If preferred, the cream may
be omitted and the soup flavored with a little celery or onion.

SWEET POTATO SOUP.--To a pint of cold mashed sweet potato add a
pint and a half of strained stewed tomato, rub together through a
colander, add salt to season, and half a cup of cream. Reheat and serve.

SWISS POTATO SOUP.--Pare and cut up into small pieces, enough white
turnips to fill a pint cup, and cook in a small quantity of water. When
tender, add three pints of sliced potatoes, and let them boil together
until of the consistency of mush. Add hot water if it has boiled away so
that there is not sufficient to cook the potatoes. When done, drain,
rub through a colander, add a pint and a half of milk and a cup of thin
cream, salt if desired, and if too thick, a little more milk or a
sufficient quantity of hot water to make it of the proper consistency.
This should be sufficient for two and a half quarts of soup.

SWISS LENTIL SOUP.--Cook a pint of brown lentils in a small
quantity of boiling water. Add to the lentils when about half done, one
medium sized onion cut in halves or quarters. When the lentils are
tender, remove the onion with a fork, and rub the lentils through a
colander. Add sufficient boiling water to make three pints in all.
Season with salt, reheat to boiling, and thicken the whole with four
table spoonfuls of browned flour, rubbed to a cream in a little cold
water.

TOMATO AND MACARONI SOUP.--Break a half dozen sticks of macaroni
into small pieces, and drop into boiling water. Cook for an hour, or
until perfectly tender. Rub two quarts of stewed or canned tomatoes
through a colander, to remove all seeds and fragments. When the macaroni
is done, drain thoroughly, cut each piece into tiny rings, and add it to
the strained tomatoes. Season with salt, and boil for a few minutes. If
desired, just before serving add a cup of thin cream, boil up once, and
serve immediately. If the tomato is quite thin, the soup should be
slightly thickened with a little flour before adding the macaroni.

TOMATO CREAM SOUP.--Heat two quarts of strained, stewed tomatoes to
boiling; add four tablespoonfuls of flour rubbed smooth in a little cold
water. Let the tomatoes boil until thickened, stirring constantly that
no lumps form; add salt to season. Have ready two cups of hot rich milk
or thin cream. Add the cream or milk hot, and let all boil together for
a minute or two, then serve.

TOMATO AND OKRA SOUP.--Take one quart of okra thinly sliced, and
two quarts of sliced tomatoes. Simmer gently from one to two hours. Rub
through a colander, heat again to boiling, season with salt and cream if
desired, and serve.

Canned okra and tomatoes need only to be rubbed through a colander,
scalded and seasoned, to make a most excellent soup. If preferred, one
or two potatoes may be sliced and cooked, rubbed through a colander, and
added.

TOMATO SOUP WITH VERMICELLI.--Cook a cupful of broken vermicelli in
a pint of boiling water for ten minutes. Turn into a colander to drain.
Have boiling two quarts of strained, stewed tomatoes, to which add the
vermicelli. If preferred, the tomato may be thickened slightly with a
little cornstarch rubbed smooth in cold water before adding the
vermicelli. Salt to taste, and just before serving turn in a cup of hot,
thin cream. Let all boil up for a moment, then serve at once.

VEGETABLE OYSTER SOUP.--Scrape all the outer covering and small
rootlets from vegetable oysters, and lay them in a pan of cold water to
prevent discoloration. The scraping can be done much easier if the roots
are allowed first to stand in cold water for an hour or so. Slice rather
thin, enough to make one quart, and put to cook in a quart of water. Let
them boil slowly until very tender. Add a pint of milk, a cup of thin
cream, salt, and when boiling, a tablespoonful or two of flour, rubbed
to a cream with a little milk. Let the soup boil a few minutes until
thickened, and serve.

VEGETABLE SOUP.--Simmer together slowly for three or four hours, in
five quarts of water, a quart of split peas, a slice of carrot, a slice
of white turnip, one cup of canned tomatoes, and two stalks of celery
cut into small bits. When done, rub through a colander, add milk to make
of proper consistency, reheat, season with salt and cream, and serve.

VEGETABLE SOUP NO. 2.--Prepare and slice a pint of vegetable
oysters and a pint and a half of potatoes. Put the oysters to cook
first, in sufficient water to cook both. When nearly done, add the
potatoes and cook all till tender. Rub through a colander, or if
preferred, remove the pieces of oysters, and rub the potato only through
the colander, together with the water in which the oysters were cooked,
as that will contain all the flavor. Return to the fire, and add salt, a
pint of strained, stewed tomatoes, and when boiling, the sliced oysters
if desired, a cup of thin cream and a cup of milk, both previously
heated; serve at once.

VEGETABLE SOUP NO. 3.--Soak a cupful of white beans over night in
cold water. When ready to cook, put into fresh boiling water and simmer
until tender. When nearly done, add three large potatoes sliced, two or
three slices of white turnip, and one large parsnip cut in slices. When
done, rub through a colander, add milk or water to make of proper
consistency, season with salt and cream, reheat and serve. This quantity
of material is sufficient for two quarts of soup.

VEGETABLE SOUP NO. 4.--Prepare a quart of bran stock as previously
directed. Heat to boiling, and add to it one teaspoonful of grated
carrot, a slice of onion, and a half cup of tomato. Cook together in a
double boiler for half an hour. Remove the slice of onion, and add salt
and a half cup of turnip previously cooked and cut in small dice.

VELVET SOUP.--Pour three pints of hot potato soup, seasoned to
taste, slowly over the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, stirring briskly
to mix the egg perfectly with the soup. It must not be reheated after
adding the egg. Plain rice or barley soup may be used in place of potato
soup, if preferred.

VERMICELLI SOUP.--Lightly fill a cup with broken vermicelli. Turn
it into a pint of boiling water, and cook for ten or fifteen minutes.
Drain off all the hot water and put into cold water for a few minutes.
Turn into a colander and drain again; add three pints of milk, salt to
taste, and heat to boiling. Have the yolks of three eggs well beaten,
and when the soup is boiling, turn it gradually onto the eggs, stirring
briskly that they may not curdle. Return to the kettle, reheat nearly to
boiling, and serve at once.

VERMICELLI SOUP NO. 2.--Cook a cupful of sliced vegetable oysters,
a stalk or two of celery, two slices of onion, a parsnip, and half a
carrot in water just sufficient to cover well. Meanwhile put a cupful of
vermicelli in a quart of milk and cook in a double boiler until tender.
When the vegetables are done, strain off the broth and add it to the
vermicelli when cooked. Season with salt and a cup of cream. Beat two
eggs light and turn the boiling soup on the eggs, stirring briskly that
they may not curdle. Reheat if not thickened, and serve.

WHITE CELERY SOUP.--Cut two heads of celery into finger lengths,
and simmer in a quart of milk for half an hour. Remove the pieces of
celery with a skimmer. Thicken the soup with a tablespoonful of
cornstarch braided with a little milk, add salt if desired, and a teacup
of whipped cream.

TABLE TOPICS.

Soup rejoices the stomach, and disposes it to receive and digest
other food.--_Brillat Savarin._

To work the head, temperance must be carried into the
diet.--_Beecher._

To fare well implies the partaking of such food as does not disagree
with body or mind. Hence only those fare well who live
temperately.--_Socrates._

The aliments to which the cook's art gives a liquid or semi-liquid
form, are in general more digestible.--_Dictionaire de Medicine._

In the most heroic days of the Grecian army, their food was the
plain and simple produce of the soil. When the public games of
ancient Greece were first instituted, the _athleta_, in accordance
with the common dietetic habits of the people, were trained entirely
on vegetable food.

The eating of much flesh fills us with a multitude of evil diseases
and multitudes of evil desires.--_Perphyrises, 233 A.D._

No flocks that range the valley free
To slaughter I condemn;
Taught by the Power that pities me,
I learn to pity them.
But from the mountain's grassy side
A guiltless feast I bring;
A scrip with herbs and fruits supplied
And water from the spring.

--_Goldsmith._

BREAKFAST DISHES

A good breakfast is the best capital upon which people who have real
work to do in the world can begin the day. If the food is well selected
and well cooked, it furnishes both cheer and strength for their daily
tasks. Poor food, or good food poorly prepared, taxes the digestive
powers more than is due, and consequently robs brain and nerves of
vigor. Good food is not rich food, in the common acceptation of the
term; it is such food as furnishes the requisite nutriment with the
least fatigue to the digestive powers. It is of the best material,
prepared in the best manner, and with pleasant variety, though it may be
very simple.

"What to get for breakfast" is one of the most puzzling problems which
the majority of housewives have to solve. The usually limited time for
its preparation requires that it be something easily and quickly
prepared; and health demands that the bill of fare be of such articles
as require but minimum time for digestion, that the stomach may have
chance for rest after the process of digestion is complete, before the
dinner hour. The custom of using fried potatoes or mushes, salted fish
or meats, and other foods almost impossible of digestion, for breakfast
dishes, is most pernicious. These foods set completely at variance all
laws of breakfast hygiene. They are very difficult of digestion, and the
thirst-provoking quality of salted foods makes them an important
auxiliary to the acquirement of a love of intoxicating drinks. We feel
very sure that, as a prominent temperance writer says, "It very often
happens that women who send out their loved ones with an agony of prayer
that they may be kept from drink for the day, also send them with a
breakfast that will make them almost frantic with thirst before they get
to the first saloon."

The foods composing the breakfast _menu_ should be simple in character,
well and delicately cooked, and neatly served. Fruits and grains and
articles made from them offer the requisites for the ideal breakfast.
These afford ample provision for variety, are easily made ready, and
easily digested, while at the same time furnishing excellent nutriment
in ample quantity and of the very best quality. Meats, most vegetables,
and compound dishes, more difficult of digestion, are better reserved
for the dinner bill of fare. No vegetable except the potato is
especially serviceable as a breakfast food, and it is much more readily
digested when baked than when prepared in any other manner. Stewing
requires less time for preparation, but about one hour longer for
digestion.

As an introduction to the morning meal, fresh fruits are most desirable,
particularly the juicy varieties, as oranges, grape fruit, melons,
grapes, and peaches, some one of which are obtainable nearly the entire
year. Other fruits; such as apples, bananas, pears, etc., though less
suitable, may be used for the same purpose. They are, however, best
accompanied with wafers or some hard food, to insure their thorough
mastication.

For the second course, some of the various cereals, oatmeal, rye, corn,
barley, rice, or one of the numerous preparations of wheat, well cooked
and served with cream, together with one or more unfermented breads
(recipes for which have been given in a previous chapter), cooked
fruits, and some simple relishes, are quite sufficient for a healthful
and palatable breakfast.

If, however, a more extensive bill of fare is desired, numerous
delicious and appetizing toasts may be prepared according to the recipes
given in this chapter, and which, because of their simple character and
the facility with which they can be prepared, are particularly suitable
as breakfast dishes. The foundation of all these toasts is _zwieback_,
or twice-baked bread, prepared from good whole-wheat or Graham fermented
bread cut in uniform slices not more than a half inch thick, each slice
being divided in halves, placed on tins, or what is better, the
perforated sheets recommended for baking rolls, and baked or toasted in
a slow oven for a half hour or longer, until it is browned evenly
throughout the entire slice. The zwieback may be prepared in
considerable quantity and kept on hand in readiness for use. It will
keep for any length of time if stored in a dry place.

Stale bread is the best for making zwieback, but it should be good,
light bread; that which is sour, heavy, and not fit to eat untoasted,
should never be used. Care must be taken also not to scorch the slices,
as once scorched, it is spoiled. Properly made, it is equally crisp
throughout, and possesses a delicious, nutty flavor.

Its preparation affords an excellent opportunity for using the left-over
slices of bread, and it may be made when the oven has been heated for
other purposes, as after the baking of bread, or even during the
ordinary cooking, with little or no additional heat. If one possesses an
Aladdin oven, it can be prepared to perfection.

Zwieback may also be purchased in bulk, all ready for use, at ten cents
a pound, from the Sanitarium Food Co., Battle Creek, Mich., and it is
serviceable in so many ways that it should form a staple article of food
in every household.

For the preparation of toasts, the zwieback must be first softened with
some hot liquid, preferably thin cream. Heat the cream (two thirds of a
pint of cream will be sufficient for six half slices) nearly to boiling
in some rather shallow dish. Put the slices, two or three at a time, in
it, dipping the cream over them and turning so that both sides will
become equally softened. Keep the cream hot, and let the slices remain
until softened just enough so that the center can be pierced with a
fork, but not until at all mushy or broken. With two forks or a fork and
a spoon, remove each slice from the hot cream, draining as thoroughly as
possible, and pack in a heated dish, and repeat the process until as
much zwieback has been softened as desired. Cover the dish, and keep hot
until ready to serve. Special care should be taken to drain the slices
as thoroughly as possible, that none of them be wet and mushy. It is
better to remove them from the cream when a little hard than to allow
them to become too soft, as they will soften somewhat by standing after
being packed in the dish. Prepare the sauce for the toast at the same
time or before softening the slices, and pour into a pitcher for
serving. Serve the slices in individual dishes, turning a small quantity
of the hot sauce over each as served.

_RECIPES._

APPLE TOAST.--Fresh, nicely flavored apples stewed in a small
quantity of water, rubbed through, a colander, sweetened, then cooked in
a granite-ware dish in a slow oven until quite dry, make a nice dressing
for toast. Baked sweet or sour apples rubbed through a colander to
remove cores and skins, are also excellent. Soften slices of zwieback in
hot cream, and serve with a spoonful or two on each slice. If desired,
the apple may be flavored with a little pineapple or lemon, or mixed
with grape, cranberry, or apricot, thus making a number of different
toasts.

APRICOT TOAST.--Stew some nice dried apricots as directed on page
191. When done, rub through a fine colander to remove all skins and to
render them homogeneous. Add sugar to sweeten, and serve as a dressing
on slices of zwieback which have been previously softened in hot cream.
One half or two thirds fresh or dried apples may be used with the
apricots, if preferred.

ASPARAGUS TOAST.--Prepare asparagus as directed on page 255. When
tender, drain off the liquor and season it with a little cream, and salt
if desired. Moisten nicely browned zwieback in the liquor and lay in a
hot dish; unbind the asparagus, heap it upon the toast, and serve.

BANANA TOAST.--Peel and press some nice bananas through a colander.
This may be very easily done with a potato masher, or if preferred a
vegetable press may be used for the purpose. Moisten slices of zwieback
with hot cream and serve with a large spoonful of the banana pulp on
each slice. Fresh peaches may be prepared and used on the toast in the
same way.

BERRY TOAST.--Canned strawberries, blueberries, and blackberries
may be made into an excellent dressing for toast.

Turn a can of well-kept berries into a colander over an earthen dish, to
separate the juice from the berries. Place the juice in a porcelain
kettle and heat to boiling. Thicken to the consistency of cream with
flour rubbed smooth in a little water; a tablespoonful of flour to the
pint of juice will be about the right proportion. Add the berries and
boil up just sufficiently to cook the flour and heat the berries; serve
hot. If cream for moistening the zwieback is not obtainable, a little
juice may be reserved without thickening, and heated in another dish to
moisten the toast; of if preferred, the fruit may be heated and poured
over the dry zwieback without being thickened, or it may be rubbed
through a colander as for Apricot Toast.

BERRY TOAST NO. 2.--Take fresh red or black raspberries,
blueberries, or strawberries, and mash well with a spoon. Add sugar to
sweeten, and serve as a dressing on slices of zwieback previously
moistened with hot cream.

CELERY TOAST.--Cut the crisp white portion of celery into inch
pieces, simmer twenty minutes or half an hour, or until tender, in a
very little water; add salt and a cup of rich milk. Heat to boiling, and
thicken with a little flour rubbed smooth in a small quantity of milk--a
teaspoonful of flour to the pint of liquid. Serve hot, poured over
slices of zwieback previously moistened with cream or hot water.

CREAM TOAST.--For this use good Graham or whole-wheat zwieback. Have
a pint of thin sweet cream scalding hot, salt it a little if desired,
and moisten the zwieback in it as previously directed packing it
immediately into a hot dish; cover tightly so that the toast may steam,
and serve. The slices should be thoroughly moistened, but not soft and
mushy nor swimming in cream; indeed, it is better if a little of the
crispness still remains.

CREAM TOAST WITH POACHED EGG.--Prepare the cream toast as
previously directed, and serve hot with a well-poached egg on each
slice.

CHERRY TOAST.--Take a quart of ripe cherries; stem, wash and stew
(if preferred the stones may be removed) until tender but not broken;
add sugar to sweeten, and pour over slices of well-browned dry toast or
zwieback. Serve cold.

GRAVY TOAST.--Heat a quart and a cupful of rich milk to boiling,
add salt, and stir into it three scant tablespoonfuls of flour which has
been rubbed to a smooth paste in a little cold milk. This quantity will
be sufficient for about a dozen slices of toast. Moisten slices of
zwieback with hot water and pack in a heated dish. When serving, pour a
quantity of the cream cause over each slice.

DRY TOAST WITH HOT CREAM.--Nicely prepared zwieback served in hot
saucers with hot cream poured over each slice at the table, makes a most
delicious breakfast dish.

GRAPE TOAST.--Stem well-ripened grapes, wash well, and scald
without water in a double boiler until broken; rub through a colander to
remove sends and skins, and when cool, sweeten to taste. If the toast is
desired for breakfast, the grapes should be prepared the day previous.
Soften the toast in hot cream, as previously directed, and pack in a
tureen. Heat the prepared grapes and serve, pouring a small quantity
over each slice of toast. Canned grapes may be used instead of fresh
ones, if desired.

LENTIL TOAST.--Lentils stewed as directed for Lentil Gravy on page
226 served as a dressing on slices of zwieback moistened with hot cream
or water, makes a very palatable toast. Browned flour may be used to
thicken the dressing if preferred.

PRUNE TOAST.--Cook prunes as directed on page 191, allowing them to
simmer very slowly for a long time. When done, rub through a colander,
and if quite thin, they should be stewed again for a time, until they
are about the consistency of marmalade. Moisten slices of zwieback with
hot cream, and serve with a spoonful or two of the prune dressing on
each. One third dried apple may be used with the prune, if preferred.

PEACH TOAST.--Stew nice fresh peaches in a small quantity of water;
when tender, rub through a colander, and if quite juicy, place on the
back of the range where they will cook very slowly until nearly all the
water has evaporated, and the peach is of the consistency of marmalade.
Add sugar to sweeten, and serve the same as prunes, on slices of
zwieback previously moistened with hot cream. Canned peaches may be
drained from their juice and prepared in the same manner. Dried or
evaporated peaches may also be used. Toast with dried-peach dressing
will be more delicate in flavor if one third dried apples be used with
the peaches.

SNOWFLAKE TOAST.--Heat to boiling a quart of milk to which a half
cup of cream, and a little salt have been added. Thicken with a
tablespoonful of flour rubbed smooth in a little cold milk. Have ready
the whites of two eggs beaten to a stiff froth; and when the sauce is
well cooked, turn a cupful of it on the beaten egg, stirring well
meanwhile so that it will form a light, frothy mixture, to which add the
remainder of the sauce. If the sauce is not sufficiently hot to
coagulate the albumen, it may be heated again almost to the boiling
point, but should not be allowed to boil. The sauce should be of a
light, frothy consistency throughout. Serve as dressing on nicely
moistened slices of zwieback.

TOMATO TOAST.--Moisten slices of zwieback in hot cream, and serve
with a dressing prepared by heating a pint of strained stewed tomato to
boiling, and thickening with a tablespoonful of corn starch or flour
rubbed smooth in a little cold water. Season with salt and a half cupful
of hot cream. The cream may be omitted, if preferred.

VEGETABLE OYSTER TOAST.--Cook a quart of cleaned, sliced vegetable
oysters in a quart of water until very tender; add a pint and a half of
rich milk, salt to taste, and thicken the whole with two tablespoonfuls
of flour rubbed to a smooth paste with a little milk. Let it boil for a
few minutes, and serve as a dressing on slices of well-browned toast
previously moistened with hot water or cream.

_MISCELLANEOUS BREAKFAST DISHES._

BREWIS.--Heat a pint of rich milk to boiling, remove from fire, and
beat into it thoroughly and quickly a cup of very fine stale rye or
Graham bread crumbs. Serve at once with cream.

BLACKBERRY MUSH.--Rub a pint of canned or fresh stewed and
sweetened blackberries, having considerable juice, through a fine
colander or sieve to remove the seeds. Add water to make a pint and a
half cupful in all, heat to boiling, and sprinkle into it a cupful of
sifted Graham flour, or sufficient to make a mush of desired thickness.
Cook as directed for Graham Mush, page 90. Serve hot with cream.

DRY GRANOLA.--This prepared food, made from wheat, corn, and oats,
and obtainable from the Sanitarium Food Co., Battle Creek, Mich., forms
an excellent breakfast dish eaten with cold or hot milk and cream.
Wheatena, prepared wholly from wheat; Avenola, made from oats and wheat;
and Gofio, made from parched grains, all obtainable from the same firm,
are each delicious and suitable foods for the morning meal.

FRUMENTY.--Wash well a pint of best wheat, and soak for twenty-four
hours in water just sufficient to cover. Put the soaked wheat in a
covered earthen baking pot or jar, cover well with water, and let it
cook in a very slow oven for twelve hours. This may be done the day
before it is wanted, or if one has a coal range in which a fire may be
kept all night, or an Aladdin oven, the grain may be started in the
evening and cooked at night. When desired for use, put in a saucepan
with three pints of milk, a cupful of well-washed Zante currants, and
one cup of seeded raisins. Boil together for a few minutes, thicken with
four tablespoonfuls of flour rubbed smooth in a little cold milk, and
serve.

MACARONI WITH RAISINS.--Break macaroni into inch lengths sufficient
to fill a half-pint cup. Heat four cups of milk, and when actively
boiling, put in the macaroni and cook until tender. Pour boiling water
over a half cup of raisins, and let them stand until swelled. Ten or
fifteen minutes before the macaroni is done, add the raisins. Serve hot
with or without the addition of cream. Macaroni cooked in the various
ways as directed in the chapter on Grains, is also suitable for
breakfast dishes.

MACARONI WITH KORNLET.--Break macaroni into inch lengths and cook
in boiling milk and water. Prepare the kornlet by adding to it an equal
quantity of rich milk or thin cream, and thickening with a little flour,
a tablespoonful to the pint. When done, drain the macaroni, and add the
kornlet in the proportion of a pint of kornlet mixture to one and one
half cups of macaroni. Mix well, turn into an earthen dish, and brown in
a moderate oven. Left-over kornlet soup, if kept on ice, may be utilized
for this breakfast dish, and the macaroni may be cooked the day before.
Green corn pulp may be used in place of the kornlet.

PEACH MUSH.--Prepare the same as Blackberry Mush using very thin
peach sauce made smooth by rubbing through a colander. Freshly stewed or
canned peaches or nicely cooked dried peaches are suitable for this
purpose. Apples and grapes may be likewise used for a breakfast mush.

RICE WITH LEMON.--Wash a cup of rice and turn it into three pints
of boiling water, let it boil vigorously until tender, and turn into a
colander to drain. While still in the colander and before the rice has
become at all cold, dip quickly in and out of a pan of cold water
several times to separate the grains, draining well afterward. All
should be done so quickly that the rice will not become too cold for
serving; if necessary to reheat, place for a few moments in a dish in a
steamer over a kettle of boiling water. Serve with a dressing of lemon
previously prepared by cutting two fresh lemons in thin, wafer-like
slices, sprinkling each thickly with sugar, and allowing them to stand
for an hour or more until a syrup is formed. When the rice is ready to
serve, lay the slices of lemon on top of it, pouring the syrup over it,
and serve with a slice or two of the lemon for each dish.

TABLE TOPICS.

The lightest breakfast is the best.--_Oswald._

A NEW NAME FOR BREAKFAST.--"Tum, mamma, leth's go down to tupper,"
said a little toddler to her mother, one morning, recently.

"Why, we don't have supper in the morning," replied the mother.

"Den leth's do down to dinner," urged the little one.

"But we don't have dinner in the morning," corrected the mother.

"Well, den, leth's do down any way," pleaded the child.

"But try and think what meal we have in the morning," urged mamma.

"I know," said the toddler, brightening up.

"What meal do we have in the morning?"

"Oatmeal. Tum on; leth's do."--_Sel._

Seneca, writing to a friend of his frugal fare which he declares
does not cost a sixpence a day, says:--

"Do you ask if that can supply due nourishment? Yes; and pleasure
too. Not indeed, that fleeting and superficial pleasure which needs
to be perpetually recruited, but a solid and substantial one. Bread
and polenta certainly is not a luxurious feeding, but it is no
little advantage to be able to receive pleasure from a simple diet
of which no change of fortune can deprive one."

Breakfast: Come to breakfast!
Little ones and all,--
How their merry footsteps
Patter at the call!
Break the bread; pour freely
Milk that cream-like flows;
A blessing on their appetites
And on their lips of rose.

Dinner may be pleasant
So may the social tea,
But yet, methinks the breakfast
Is best of all the three.
With its greeting smile of welcome,
Its holy voice of prayer,
It forgeth heavenly armor
To foil the hosts of care.

--_Mrs. Sigourney._

Health is not quoted in the markets because it is without
price.--_Sel._

It is a mistake to think that the more a man eats, the fatter and
stronger he will become.--_Sel._

DESSERTS

Custom has so long established the usage of finishing the dinner with a
dessert of some kind, that a _menu_ is considered quite incomplete
without it; and we shall devote the next few pages to articles which may
be deemed appropriate and healthful desserts, not because we consider
the dessert itself of paramount importance, for indeed we do not think
it essential to life or even to good living, but because we hope the
hints and suggestions which our space permits, may aid the housewife in
preparing more wholesome, inexpensive dishes in lieu of the indigestible
articles almost universally used for this purpose.

We see no objection to the use of a dessert, if the articles offered are
wholesome, and are presented before an abundance has already been taken.
As usually served, the dessert is but a "snare and delusion" to the
digestive organs. Compounded of substances "rich," not in food elements,
but in fats, sweets, and spices, and served after enough has already
been eaten, it offers a great temptation to overeat; while the elements
of which it is largely composed, serve to hamper the digestive organs,
to clog the liver, and to work mischief generally. At the same time it
may be remarked that the preparation of even wholesome desserts requires
an outlay of time and strength better by far expended in some other
manner. Desserts are quite unnecessary to a good, healthful, nutritious
dietary. The simplest of all desserts are the various nuts and delicious
fruits with which nature has so abundantly supplied us, at no greater
cost than their harmful substitutes, and which require no expenditure of
time or strength in their preparation. If, however, other forms of
dessert are desired, a large variety may be prepared in a simple manner,
so as to be both pleasing and appetizing.

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS.

In the preparation of desserts, as in that of all other foods it is
essential that all material used shall be thoroughly good of its kind.
If bread is to be used, the crumbs should be dry and rather stale, but
on no account use that which is sour or moldy. Some housekeepers imagine
that if their bread happens to spoil and become sour, although it is
hardly palatable enough for the table, it may be advantageously used to
make puddings. It is indeed quite possible to combine sour bread with
other ingredients so as to make a pudding agreeable to the palate; but
disguising sour bread makes sweets and flavors by no means changes it
into a wholesome food. It is better economy to throw sour bread away at
once than to impose it upon the digestive organs at the risk of health
and strength.

Bread which has begun to show appearance of mold should never be used;
for mold is a poison, and very serious illness has resulted from the
eating of puddings made from moldy bread.

Eggs, to be used for desserts, should always be fresh and good. Cooks
often imagine that an egg too stale to be eaten in any other way will do
very well for use in cakes and puddings, because it can be disguised so
as not to be apparent to the taste; but stale eggs are unfit for food,
either alone or in combination with other ingredients. Their use is
often the occasion of serious disturbances of the digestive organs. Most
desserts in which eggs are used will be much lighter if the yolks and
whites are beaten separately. If in winter, and eggs are scarce, fewer
may be used, and two tablespoonfuls of dry snow for each omitted egg
stirred in the last thing before baking.

Milk, likewise, should always be sweet and fresh. If it is to be heated,
use a double boiler, so that there will be no danger of scorching. If
fresh milk is not available, the condensed milk found at the grocer's is
an excellent substitute. Dissolve according to directions, and follow
the recipe the same as with fresh milk, omitting one half or two thirds
the given amount of sugar.

If dried sweet fruits, raisins, or currants are to be used, look them
over carefully, put them in a colander, and placing it in a pan of warm
water, allow the currants to remain until plump. This will loosen the
dirt which, while they are shriveled, sticks in the creases, and they
may then be washed by dipping the colander in and out of clean water
until they are free from sediment; rinse in two waters, then spread upon
a cloth, and let them get perfectly dry before using.

It is a good plan, after purchasing raisins and currants, to wash and
dry a quantity, and store in glass cans ready for use. To facilitate the
stoning of raisins, put them into a colander placed in a dish of warm
water until plump; then drain, when the seeds can be easily removed.

For desserts which are to be molded, always wet the molds in cold water
before pouring in the desserts.

_SUGGESTIONS FOR FLAVORING, ETC._

TO PREPARE ALMOND PASTE.--Blanch the nuts according to directions
given on page 215. Allow them to dry thoroughly, and pound in a mortar
to a smooth paste. They can be reduced much easier if dried for a day or
two after blanching. During the pounding, sprinkle with a few drops of
cold water, white of egg, rose water, or lemon juice, to prevent them
from oiling.

COCOANUT FLAVOR.--Cocoanut, freshly grated or desiccated, unless in
extremely fine particles, is a very indigestible substance, and when its
flavor is desired for custards, puddings, etc., it is always better to
steep a few tablespoonfuls in a pint of milk for twenty minutes or a
half hour, and strain out the particles. The milk should not be allowed
to boil, as it will be likely to curdle. One tablespoonful of freshly
grated cocoanut or two of the desiccated will give a very pleasant and
delicate flavor; and if a more intense flavor is desired, use a larger
quantity.

ORANGE AND LEMON FLAVOR.--Orange or lemon flavor may be obtained by
steeping a few strips of the yellow part of the rind of lemon or orange
in milk for twenty minutes. Skim out the rind before using for desserts.
Care should be taken to use only the yellow part, as the white will
impart a bitter flavor. The grated rind may also be used for flavoring,
but in grating the peel, one must be careful to grate very lightly, and
thus use only the outer yellow portion, which contains the essential oil
of the fruit. Grate evenly, turning and working around the lemon, using
as small a surface of the grater as possible, in order to prevent waste.
Generally, twice across the grater and back will be sufficient for
removing all the yellow skin from one portion of a lemon. A well-grated
lemon should be of exactly the same shape as before, with no yellow skin
remaining, and no deep scores into the white. Remove the yellow pulp
from the grater with a fork.

TO COLOR SUGAR.--For ornamenting the meringues of puddings and
other desserts, take a little of the fresh juice of cranberries, red
raspberries, currants, black raspberries, grapes, or other colored
juices of fruits, thicken it stiff with the sugar, spread on a plate to
dry, or use at one. It may be colored yellow with orange peel strained
through a cloth, or green with the juice of spinach. Sugar prepared in
this manner is quite as pretty and much more wholesome than the colored
sugars found in market, which are often prepared with poisonous
chemicals.

FRUIT DESSERTS.

_RECIPES._

APPLE DESSERT.--Pare some large tart apples, remove the cores, put
into the cavities a little quince jelly, lemon flavored sugar, or grated
pineapple and sugar, according to the flavor desired. Have as many
squares of bread with the crust taken off as there are apples, and place
a filled apple on each piece of bread, on earthen pie plates; moisten
well with a little quince jelly dissolved in water, lemon juice, or
pineapple juice, according to the filling used. Cover closely, and bake
in a rather quick oven till the apples are tender. Serve with whipped
cream and sugar.

APPLE MERINGUE DESSERT.--Pare and core enough tart, easy-cooking
apples to make a quart when stewed. Cover closely and cook slowly till
perfectly tender, when they should be quite dry. Mash through a
colander, add a little sugar and a little grated pineapple or lemon
peel. Beat light with a silver fork, turn into a pudding dish, and brown
in a moderate oven ten or fifteen minutes. Then cover with a meringue
made with two tablespoonfuls of sugar and the beaten whites of two eggs,
and return to the oven for a moment to brown. Serve cold.

APPLE ROSE CREAM.--Wash, core, slice, and cook without paring, a
dozen fresh snow apples until very dry. When done, rub through a
colander to remove the skins, add sugar to sweeten, and the whites of
two eggs; beat vigorously with an egg beater until stiff, add a
teaspoonful of rose water for flavoring, and serve at once, or keep on
ice. It is especially important that the apples be very dry, otherwise
the cream will not be light. If after rubbing through the colander,
there is still much juice, they should be cooked again until it has
evaporated; or they may be turned into a jelly bag and drained. Other
varieties of apple may be used, and flavored with pineapple or vanilla.
Made as directed of snow apples or others with white flesh and red
skins, the cream should be of a delicate pink color, making a very
dainty as well as delicious dessert.

APPLE SNOW.--Pare and quarter some nice tart apples. Those that
when cooked will be whitest in color are best. Put them into a china
dish, and steam until tender over a kettle of boiling water. When done,
rub through a colander or beat with a fork until smooth, add sugar to
sweeten and a little grated lemon rind, and beat again. For every cup
and a half of the prepared apple allow the white of one egg, which beat
to a stiff froth, adding the apple to it a little at a time, beating all
together until, when taken up in a spoon, it stands quite stiff. Serve
cold, with or without a simple custard prepared with a pint of hot milk,
a tablespoonful of sugar, and the yolks of two eggs.

BAKED APPLES WITH CREAM.--Pare some nice juicy sweet apples, and
remove the cores without dividing. Bake until tender in a covered dish
with a spoonful or two of water on the bottom. Serve with whipped cream.
Or, bake the apples without paring and when done, remove the skins, and
serve in the same manner. The cream may be flavored with a little lemon
or rose if desired. Lemon apples and Citron apples, prepared as directed
on pages 186 and 187, make a most delicious dessert served with whipped
cream and sugar, or with mock cream flavored with cocoanut.

BAKED SWEET APPLE DESSERT.--Wash and remove the cores from a dozen
medium-sized sweet apples, and one third as many sour ones, and bake
until well done. Mash through a colander to make smooth and remove the
skins. Put into a granite-ware dish, smooth the top with a knife, return
to the oven and bake very slowly until dry enough to keep its shape when
cut. Add if desired a meringue made by heating the white of one egg with
a tablespoonful of sugar. Cut into squares, and serve in individual
dishes. The meringue may be flavored with lemon or dotted with bits of
colored sugar.

BANANAS IN SYRUP.--Heat in a porcelain kettle a pint of currant and
red raspberry juice, equal parts, sweetened to taste. When boiling, drop
into it a dozen peeled bananas, and simmer very gently for twenty
minutes. Remove the bananas, boil the juice until thickened to the
consistency of syrup, and pour over the fruit. Serve cold.

BAKED BANANAS.--Bake fresh, firm, yelow bananas with the skins on
fifteen minutes in a moderate oven. Serve hot.

FRESH FRUIT COMPOTE.--Flavor three tablespoonfuls of sugar by
mixing with it a little of the grated yellow rind of an orange, or by
rubbing it over the orange to extract the oil. If the latter method is
used, the square lump sugar will be preferable. Pare, quarter, and slice
three medium-sized tart apples. Peel, remove the seeds, and cut in quite
fine pieces three oranges. Put the fruit in alternate layers in a glass
dish. Sweeten a cupful of fresh or canned raspberry juice with the
flavored sugar, and turn it over the fruit. Put the dish on ice to cool
for a half hour before serving.

GRAPE APPLES.--Sweeten a pint of fresh grape juice with a pint of
sugar, and simmer gently until reduced one third. Pare and core without
dividing, six or eight nice tart apples, and stew very slowly in the
grape juice until tender, but not broken. Remove the apples and boil the
juice (if any remain) until thickened to the consistency of syrup. Serve
cold with a dressing of whipped cream. Canned grape pulp or juice may be
utilized for this purpose. Sweet apples may be used instead of tart
ones, and the sugar omitted.

PEACH CREAM.--Pare and stone some nice yellow peaches, and mash
with a spoon or press through a colander with a potato masher. Allow
equal quantities of the peach pulp and cream, add a little sugar to
sweeten, and beat all together until the cream is light. Serve in
saucers or glasses with currant buns. A banana cream may be prepared in
the same manner.

PRUNE DESSERT.--Prepare some prune marmalade as directed on page
191. Put in a square granite-ware dish, which place inside another dish
containing hot water, and cook it in a slow oven until the marmalade is
dry enough to retain its shape when cut with a knife. If desired add a
meringue as for baked sweet apple dessert, dotting the top with pink
sugar. Serve in squares in individual dishes.

DESSERTS MADE OF FRUIT WITH GRAINS, BREAD, ETC.

_RECIPES._

APPLE SANDWICH.--Mix half a cup of sugar with the grated yellow
rind of half a lemon. Stir half a cup of cream into a quart of soft
bread crumbs; prepare three pints of sliced apples, sprinkled with the
sugar; fill a pudding dish with alternate layers of moistened crumbs and
sliced apples, finishing with a thick layer of crumbs. Unless the apples
are very juicy, add half a cup of cold water, and unless quite tart,
have mixed with the water the juice of half a lemon. Cover and bake
about one hour. Remove the cover toward the last, that the top may brown
lightly. Serve with cream. Berries or other acid fruits may be used in
place of apples, and rice or cracked wheat mush substituted for bread
crumbs.

APPLE SANDWICH NO. 2.--Prepare and stew some apples as for sauce,
allowing them to become quite dry; flavor with lemon, pineapples,
quince, or any desired flavor. Moisten slices of zwieback in hot cream
as for toast. Spread a slice with the apple mixture, cover with a second
slice of the moistened zwieback, then cut in squares and serve, with or
without a dressing of mock cream. If desired to have the sandwiches
particularly dainty, cut the bread from which the zwieback is prepared
in rounds, triangles, or stars before toasting.

BAKED APPLE PUDDING.--Pour boiling water over bread crumbs; when
soft, squeeze out all the water, and line the bottom and sides of an
oiled earthen pudding dish with the crumbs. Fill the interior with
sliced apples, and cover with a layer of bread crumbs. Bake in a covered
dish set in a pan of hot water, until the apples are tender; then remove
the cover and brown. Loosen the pudding with a knife, invert on a plate,
and it will turn out whole. Serve with sugar and cream.

BARLEY FRUIT PUDDING.--Mix together a pint of cold, well steamed
pearl barley, a cup of finely minced tart apples, three fourths of a cup
of chopped and seeded raisins, a third of a cup of sugar, and a cup of
boiling water and turn into a pudding dish; cover, and place the dish in
the oven in a pan of hot water, and bake slowly an hour and a half, or
until the water has become quite absorbed and the fruit tender. Serve
warm with a water, adding sugar to taste, and thickening with a half
teaspoonful of cornstarch. Any tart fruit jelly may be used, or the
pudding may be served with cream and sugar flavored with a little grated
lemon rind.

BARLEY FIG PUDDING.--One pint of well-steamed pearl barley, two
cups of finely chopped best figs, one half cup of sugar, one half cup of
thin sweet cream, and one and one half cups of fresh milk. Mix all
thoroughly, turn into an earthen pudding dish; place it in the oven in
a pan half full of hot water, and bake slowly till the milk is nearly
absorbed. The pudding should be stirred once or twice during the baking,
so that the figs will be distributed evenly, instead of rising to the
top.

BLACKBERRY CORNSTARCH PUDDING.--Take two quarts of well-ripened
blackberries which have been carefully looked over, put them into a
granite-ware boiler with half a cup of water, and stew for twenty
minutes. Add sugar to sweeten, and three heaping tablespoonfuls of
cornstarch rubbed to a cream with a little cold water. Cook until
thickened, pour into molds, and cool. Serve cold with milk or cream.
Other fresh or canned berries may be used in the same way.

COCOANUT AND CORNSTARCH BLANCMANGE.--Simmer two tablespoonfuls of
desiccated cocoanut in a pint of milk for twenty minutes, and strain
through a fine sieve. If necessary, add more cold milk to make a full
pint. Add a tablespoonful of sugar, heat to boiling, and stir in
gradually two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch rubbed smooth in a very
little cold milk. Cook five minutes, turn into cups, and serve cold with
fruit sauce or cream.

CORNSTARCH BLANCMANGE.--Stir together two tablespoonfuls of
cornstarch, half a cup of sugar, the juice and a little of the grated
rind of one lemon; braid the whole with cold water enough to dissolve
well. Then pour boiling water over the mixture, stirring meanwhile,
until it becomes transparent. Allow it to bubble a few minutes longer,
pour into molds, and serve cold with cream and sugar.

CORNSTARCH WITH RAISINS.--Measure out one pint of rich milk. Rub
two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch perfectly smooth with a little of the
milk, and heat the remainder to boiling, adding to it a tablespoonful of
sugar. Add the braided cornstarch, and let it cook until it thickens,
stirring constantly. Then add a half cup of raisins which have been
previously steamed. This may be served hot with sugar and cream, or
turned into cups and molded, and served cold with lemon, orange, or
other fruit sauce for dressing.

CORNSTARCH WITH APPLES.--Prepare the cornstarch as in the preceding
recipe, omitting the raisins. Place in a pudding dish some lemon apple
sauce, without juice, about two inches deep. Pour the cornstarch over
it, and serve hot or cold with cream.

CORNSTARCH FRUIT MOLD.--Heat a quart of strawberry, raspberry, or
currant juice, sweetened to taste, to boiling. If the pure juice of
berries is used, it may be diluted with one cup of water to each pint
and a half of juice. Stir in four tablespoonfuls of cornstarch well
braided with a little of the juice reserved for this purpose. Boil until
the starch is well cooked, stirring constantly. Pour into molds
previously wet with cold water, and cool. Serve with cream and sugar. A
circle of fresh berries around the mold when served adds to its
appearance.

CORNSTARCH FRUIT MOLD NO. 2.--Wash, stone, and stew some nice
French prunes, add sugar to sweeten, and if there is not an abundance of
juice, a little boiling water. For every one fourth pound of prunes
there should be enough juice to make a pint in all, for which add two
tablespoonfuls of cornstarch, rubbed smooth in a little cold water, and
boil three or four minutes. Pour into cups previously wet in cold water,
and mold. Serve cold with whipped cream. Other dried or canned fruits,
as apricots, peaches, cherries, etc., may be used in place of prunes, if
preferred.

CRACKED-WHEAT PUDDING.--A very simple pudding may be made with two
cups of cold, well-cooked cracked wheat, two and a half cups of milk,
and one half cup of sugar. Let the wheat soak in the milk till
thoroughly mixed and free from lumps, then add the sugar and a little
grated lemon peel, and bake about three fourths of an hour in a moderate
oven. It should be of a creamy consistency when cold, but will appear
quite thin when taken from the oven. By flavoring the milk with
cocoanut, a different pudding may be produced. Rolled or pearl wheat may
be used for this pudding. A cupful of raisins may be added if desired.

CRACKED-WHEAT PUDDING NO. 2.--Four and one half cups of milk, a
very scant half cup of cracked wheat, one half cup of sugar; put
together in a pudding dish, and bake slowly with the dish covered and
set in a pan of hot water for three or four hours, or until the wheat is
perfectly tender, as may be ascertained by dipping a few grains with a
spoon out from the side of the dish.

FARINA BLANCMANGE.--Heat a quart of milk, reserving one half cup,
to boiling. Then add two tablespoonfuls of sugar, and four heaping
tablespoonfuls of farina, previously moistened with the reserved half
cup of milk. Let all boil rapidly for a few minutes till the farina has
well set, then place in a double boiler, or a dish set in a pan of
boiling water, to cook an hour longer. Mold in cups previously wet with
cold water. Serve with sugar and cream flavored with vanilla or a little
grated lemon rind, mock cream, or cocoanut sauce.

Much variety may be given this simple dessert by serving it with a
dressing of fruit juices; red raspberry, strawberry, grape, current,
cranberry, cherry, and plum are all very good. If desired, the milk with
which the blancmange is prepared may be first flavored with cocoanut,
thus making a different blancmange. Fresh fruit, as sliced banana,
blueberries, or strawberries, lightly stirred in just before molding,
make other excellent varieties.

FARINA FRUIT MOLD.--Put a quart of well-sweetened red raspberry
juice into the inner cup of a double boiler. Heat to boiling, and stir
in four heaping tablespoonfuls of farina first moistened with a little
of the juice. Boil up until thickened, then set into the outer boiler,
the water in which should be boiling, and cook for one hour. Pour into
molds previously wet in cold water, and cool. Serve with whipped cream
or mock cream. Currant, strawberry, cherry, or blackberry juice may be
used instead of raspberry. If water be added to dilute the juice, a
little more farina will be needed.

FRUIT PUDDING.--Measure out one quart of rich new milk, reserving
half a pint to wet five large rounded tablespoonfuls of sifted flour.
Add to the milk one even cup of sugar, turn in the flour mixture and
heat to boiling in a farina kettle, stirring all the while to prevent
lumps, and cook till it thickens, which will be about ten minutes after
it begins to boil. Remove from the stove, and beat while it is cooling.
When cool, add sliced bananas or whole strawberries, whortleberries,
raspberries, blackberries, sliced apricots, or peaches. Serve cold.

JAM PUDDING.--Make a jam by mashing well some fresh raspberries or
blueberries and sweetening to taste. Spread over slices of fresh, light
bread or buns, and pile in layers one above another in a pudding dish.
Pour over the layers enough rich milk or thin cream heated to scalding,
to moisten the whole. Turn a plate over the pudding, place a weight upon
it, and press lightly till cold. Cut in slices, and serve with or
without a cream dressing.

PLAIN FRUIT PUDDING OR BROWN BETTY.--Chop together one part seeded
raisins and two parts good tart apples. Fill a pudding dish with
alternate layers of the fruit and bread crumbs, finishing with the bread
crumbs on top. Unless the apples are very juicy, moisten the whole with
a tablespoonful of lemon juice in a cup of cold water, for a pudding
filling a three-pint dish. Cover the dish and place it in a moderate
oven in a pan of hot water, and bake nearly an hour; then remove from
the pan, uncover, and brown nicely. Serve warm with cream and sugar, or
with an orange or lemon sauce. Seeded cherries may be used in place of
the apples and raisins. In that case, each layer of fruit should be
sprinkled lightly with sugar, and the water omitted.

PRUNE PUDDING.--Moisten rather thin slices of stale bread in hot
milk and place in a pudding dish with alternate layers of stewed prunes
from which the stones have been removed, finishing with bread on top.
Pour over the whole a little more hot milk or pure juice or both, and
bake in a moderate over three fourths of an hour. Serve hot or cold with
orange or lemon sauce.

RICE MERINGUE.--Steam a cupful of rice as directed on page 99 until
tender and dry. Heap it loosely on a glass dish, and dot with squares of
cranberry or currant jelly. Beat with the whites of two eggs to a stiff
froth with one third cup of sugar, and pile it roughly over the rice.
Serve with cream.

RICE SNOWBALL.--Wash a cupful of good rice and steam until half
done. Have pared and cored without dividing, six large, easy cooking
tart apples. Put a clean square of cheese cloth over a plate, place the
apples on it, and fill them and all the interstices between with rice.
Put the remainder of the rice over and around the apples; tie up the
cloth, and cook in a kettle of boiling water until the apples are
tender. When done, lift from the water and drain well, untie the cloth,
invert the pudding upon a plate and remove the cloth. Serve hot with
cream and sugar or cocoanut sauce.

RICE FRUIT DESSERT.--Cold boiled rice, molded so that it can be
sliced, may be utilized in making a variety of delicious desserts. A
nice pudding may be prepared by filling a dish with alternate layers of
half-inch slices of molded rice and grated tart raw apples the same
thickness. Grate a little lemon rind over each layer. Cover, and place
in the oven in a pan of boiling water, and bake for an hour. Serve with
sugar and cream. Stoned cherries or peaches may be used instead of the
apple.

RICE DUMPLING.--Steam a teacup of rice until tender, and line an
oiled earthen pudding dish, pressing it up around the sides and over the
bottom. Fill the crust thus made with rather tart apples cut in small
slices; cover with rice, and steam until the apples are tender, which
may be determined by running a broom-straw through them. Let stand until
cold, then turn from the dish, and serve with sugar and cream. Any easy
cooking tart fruit, as stoned cherries, gooseberries, etc., may be used
in place of the apples when preferred.

RICE CREAM PUDDING.--Take one cup of good well-washed rice, one
scant cup of sugar, and eight cups of new milk, with a little grated
lemon rind for flavoring. Put all into an earthen pudding dish, and
place on the top of the range. Heat very slowly until the milk is
boiling, stirring frequently, so that the rice shall not adhere to the
bottom of the dish. Then put into a moderately hot oven, and bake
without stirring, till the rice is perfectly tender, which can be
ascertained by dipping a spoon in one side and taking out a few grains.
It should be, when cold, of a rich, creamy consistency, with each grain
of rice whole. Serve cold. It is best if made the day before it is
needed. If preferred, the milk may be first flavored with cocoanut,
according to the directions given on page 298.

RICE PUDDING WITH RAISINS.--Wash thoroughly one half cup of rice,
and soak for two hours in warm water. Drain off the water, add two
tablespoonfuls of sugar, one half cup of raisins, and four cups of milk.
Put in an earthen pudding dish and cook for two hours in a moderate
oven, stirring once or twice before the rice begins to swell, then add a
cup of hot milk, and cook for an hour longer.

RED RICE MOLD.--Take one and one half pints of red currants and
one half pint of red raspberries, and follow directions on page 209 for
extracting their juice. The juice may be diluted with one part water to
two of juice if desired. Sweeten to taste, and for each pint when
boiling stir in two tablespoonfuls of ground rice or rice flour rubbed
smooth in a little of the juice which may be retained for the purpose.
Pour into molds, cool, and serve with whipped cream.

RICE AND FRUIT DESSERT.--Steam a cup of good well-washed rice in
milk till tender. Prepare some tart apples by paring, dividing midway
between the stem and blow ends, and removing the cores. Fill the
cavities with quince or pineapple jelly; put the apples in a shallow
stewpan with a half cup of water, cover, and steam till nearly tender.
Put the rice, which should be very moist, around the bottom and sides of
a pudding dish; place the apples inside, cover, and bake ten minutes.
Serve with cream flavored with quince or lemon.

RICE AND TAPIOCA PUDDING.--Soak one half cup of tapioca over night
in a cup of water; in the morning drain off the water if any remains.
Add to the tapioca half a cup of rice, one cup of sugar, one cup of
raisins, and eight cups of new milk, with a little grated lemon rind for
flavoring. Put all in an earthen pudding dish on the top of the range,
where it will heat very gradually to the boiling point, stirring
frequently. When the milk boils, put the pudding in the oven, and bake
till the rice grains are perfectly tender but not broken and mushy. From
twenty minutes to half an hour is usually sufficient. When taken from
the oven, it will appear quite thin, but after cooling will be of a
delicious, creamy consistency. Serve cold.

RICE-FLOUR MOLD.--Braid two tablespoonfuls of rice flour with a
little milk and stir the mixture into a pint of boiling milk to which
has been added three tablespoonfuls of sugar, and a little salt if
desired. Let this boil until it thickens, then mold, and serve with
cream and sugar or with lemon, orange, or other fruit sauce.

RICE AND STEWED APPLE DESSERT.--Steam or bake some rice in milk
until tender, sweeten slightly and spread a layer of the rice half an
inch thick on the bottom of a pudding dish, then a layer of
lemon-flavored apple sauce, which has been rubbed through a colander and
afterward simmered on the range until stiff. If preferred, the sauce may
be prepared by first baking the apples, and then rubbing the pulp
through a colander. Add another layer of rice, then one of sauce, and so
on until the dish is full. Bake in a moderate oven and serve hot. If the
apples are not very tart, part stewed and sifted cranberries may be used
with them.

RICE AND STRAWBERRY DESSERT.--Soak a cup of rice in one and a half
cups of new milk; place all in an earthen dish, and steam an hour, or
until dry and tender, stirring occasionally for the first fifteen
minutes. When the rice is done, place in the bottom of cups previously
moistened with cold water, five nice hulled strawberries in the shape of
a star. Carefully fill the interstices between the berries with the
cooked rice, and put in a layer of rice. Add next a layer of
strawberries, then another of rice. Press firmly into the cups, and set
away to cool. When well molded, turn into saucers, and pile whipped
cream around each mold; sprinkle with sugar and serve.

A little care in forming the stars and filling the molds makes this a
delicious and pretty dessert. If preferred, the dessert may be prepared
in one large mold, and a larger number of berries arranged in the form
of a cross in the bottom of the dish, covering with rice, and adding as
many alternate layers of berries and rice as desired.

STEWED FRUIT PUDDING.--Take a deep, square or oblong granite-ware
or earthen dish; cut strips of stale bread uniformly an inch in width
and three fourths of an inch in thickness, and place them in the mold
with spaces between them equal to their width. Or, fit the strips around
the bottom of a round, earthen pudding dish, like the spokes of a wheel,
with stewed or canned fruit, sweetened to taste; whortleberries are
best, but apricots, cherries, currants, strawberries, and gooseberries
may all be used. Separate the juice from the berries by turning them
into a colander. Fill the interstices between the bread with hot fruit,
using just as little juice as possible. Cover with another layer, this
time placing the strips of bread over the fruit in the first layer, and
leaving the spaces for fruit over the bread in the first layer. Fill the
dish with these layers of fruit and bread, and when full, pour over all
the hot fruit juice. Put a plate with a weight on it on the top to press
it firmly. Dip off any juice that may be pressed out, and set the
pudding in the refrigerator to cool and press. When cold, it will turn
out whole, and can be cut in slices and served with whipped cream or
cocoanut sauce.

STRAWBERRY MINUTE PUDDING.--Cook a quart of ripe strawberries in a
pint of water till well scalded. Add sugar to taste. Skim out the fruit,
and into the boiling juice stir a scant cup of granulated wheat flour
previously rubbed to a paste with a little cold water; cook fifteen or
twenty minutes, pour over the fruit, and serve cold with cream sauce.

SWEET APPLE PUDDING.--Pare, core, and slice enough ripe, juicy
sweet apples to fill a pint bowl. Heat a quart of new milk to scalding
in a double boiler. Pour it hot over one cup of good granulated
cornmeal, and beat very thoroughly to remove all lumps. Return to the
double boiler, and cook until the meal is set. The batter then should
be about the consistency of corn mush. Remove from the fire, add a pint
of cold milk, stir in the sliced apples, one third of a cup of sugar or
molasses, and a teaspoonful of flour rubbed smooth in a very little
milk. Turn all into a deep earthen crock or pudding dish, and bake
slowly from three to four hours, stirring frequently the first hour. It
should be moderately browned on top when done. Serve warm or cold.

WHORTLEBERRY PUDDING.--One quart of new milk, one quart of fine
bread crumbs, two quarts of fresh whortleberries, one or two
tablespoonfuls of sugar. Heat the milk to boiling; fill a pudding dish
with alternate layers of bread crumbs and berries, beginning and ending
with crumbs. Add the sugar to the milk, let it dissolve, and pour the
whole over the pudding. Cover closely, and bake in a slow oven within a
pan of hot water nearly an hour. Serve warm with cream or cocoanut
sauce.

DESSERTS WITH TAPIOCA, SAGO, MONICA, AND SEA MOSS.

Both pearl and flake tapioca are suitable for these desserts. They
should be soaked for some hours before using, and it is always best to
soak over night if convenient. The flake tapioca requires longer soaking
and cooking than the pearl tapioca. For soaking, use one and a half cups
of water for each cup of flake tapioca, and one pint of water for a cup
of pearl tapioca. For cooking, three or four additional cups of water
will be required for each cup of tapioca, depending upon, the articles
used with it. A double boiler should be used for the cooking.

_RECIPES._

APPLE TAPIOCA.--Soak a cupful of pearl tapioca over night. In the
morning simmer in a quart of boiling water until transparent and
thickened. Arrange in the bottom of a pudding dish four or five
good-sized tart apples, which have been pared, cored, and the cavities
filled with sugar. Squeeze the juice of a lemon and grate a very little
of the rind over the apples. Pour the tapioca over the fruit. Set the
dish inside a pan filled with hot water, cover, and bake one hour, or
until the apples are done. Serve with sugar and cream. It is best nearly
cold. Fresh peaches, pared and stewed, may be used in place of apples,
if preferred.

APPLE TAPIOCA NO. 2.--Soak a half cup of tapioca in a cap of tepid
water, for at least three hours. Pare, core, and quarter nice tart
apples to fill a two-quart pudding dish nearly half full. Add four cups
of water and one of sugar to the soaked tapioca, pour it over the
apples, and bake two or three hours in a slow oven. Serve with whipped
cream.

BANANA DESSERT.--Soak a cup of tapioca over night. In the morning
cook in a double boiler in a quart of water until transparent. When
done, add a cup of sugar and three or four sliced bananas. Serve cold
with cream.

BLACKBERRY TAPIOCA.--Soak a cup of tapioca over night. When ready
to cook, add three cups of boiling water and cook in a double boiler
until transparent and smooth. Sprinkle a quart of fresh blackberries
with sugar, and stir lightly into the tapioca. Pour into molds and serve
cold with cream and sugar. Other fresh berries may be used in the same
way.

CHERRY PUDDING.--Soak and cook a half cup of tapioca in a pint of
water until transparent. Have a pint of fresh pitted cherries in an
earthen pudding dish. Sprinkle them well with sugar, pour over them the
cooked tapioca, and bake for an hour in a moderate oven. Serve hot with
or without cream.

FRUIT TAPIOCA.--Cook three fourths of a cup of tapioca in four cups
of water until smooth and transparent Stir into it lightly a pint of
fresh strawberries, raspberries, currants, or any small fruit, adding
sugar as required. For variety a cup of canned quinces or apricots may
be substituted for fresh fruit. Serve warm or cold with whipped cream or
mock cream.

MOLDED TAPIOCA WITH FRUIT.--Simmer one half cup of desiccated
cocoanut in a pint of milk for twenty minutes. Strain out the cocoanut,
and add milk to make a full pint. Add one half cup of sugar and one half
cup of tapioca previously soaked over night. Let the whole simmer until
the tapioca is transparent. Dip some cups in cold water, drain, and lay
fresh strawberries, currants, or cherries in the bottom of each in the
form of a star or cross. Pour the tapioca into the molds gently, so as
not to displace the fruit. When cold, turn out and serve with whipped
cream or fruit sauce. Raisins may be substituted for fresh fruit, or
bits of jelly may be placed around the mold after it has cooled, if
preferred.

PINEAPPLE TAPIOCA.--Soak one cup of tapioca over night in one and
one half cups of water. Add two and one half cups of water and cook in a
double boiler until transparent, then add one cup of sugar and one juicy
pineapple minced fine with a sharp knife. Mold, and serve cold with or
without cream.

PRUNE AND TAPIOCA PUDDING.--Soak one half cup of tapioca over
night. In the morning cook until transparent in two cups of water. Stew
two cups of well-washed and stoned prunes in a quart of water till
perfectly tender; then add the juice of a good lemon and two
tablespoonfuls of sugar, and boil till the syrup becomes thick and
rich. Turn the prunes into a pudding dish, cover with the cooked
tapioca, and add a little grated lemon rind. Bake lightly. Serve without
dressing or with sugar and cream or almond sauce. If preferred, the
prunes and tapioca may be placed in the dish in alternate layers, having
the top one of tapioca.

TAPIOCA AND FIG PUDDING.--Cook three fourths of a cup of tapioca as
for Apple Tapioca. Have ready two cups of finely sliced or chopped tart
apples, and one cup of chopped figs, which have first been lightly
steamed. If preferred, raisins may be used in place of half the figs.
Put the fruit in the bottom of the pudding dish, turn the tapioca over
it, and bake till the fruit is very soft. If the apples are not very
tart, sprinkle the juice of a lemon over them before adding the figs and
tapioca.

A nice fruit pudding can also be made by using half canned pears and
half apples, or canned quinces may be substituted for figs.

PEACH TAPIOCA.--For this will be needed a quart of nicely canned
peaches, a cup of tapioca, and from one half to three fourths of a cup
of sugar, according to the sweetness of the peaches. Soak the tapioca
over night in just enough water to cover. When ready to cook, put in a
double boiler with three cups of water, and cook for an hour. Remove
from the fire and add to it the juice from the peaches, of which there
should be a cup and a half, which has been secured by draining the
peaches in a colander, and stir it well into the tapioca. Place a layer
of this mixture in an oiled pudding dish, add the peaches, cover with
the remainder of the tapioca, and bake for an hour in a moderate oven.

TAPIOCA JELLY.--Soak a cup of tapioca in a pint of water over
night. Add another pint and cook until transparent and smooth. Add three
tablespoonfuls of lemon juice and four tablespoonfuls of sugar; beat
well together and tun into molds. Serve cold. No dressing is required.
This may be varied by using unsweetened currant, grape, or other acid
fruit juice in place of lemon. Fruit jelly may be used if the juice is
not easily obtained. Add when the tapioca is well cooked, and stir until
dissolved.

APPLE SAGO PUDDING.--Soak one cup of sago in six cups of water;
stew ten small apples, mix with the sago, and bake three quarters of an
hour. Serve with cream and sugar. It is better warm than cold, but
acceptable either way.

RED SAGO MOLD.--Take a quart of red raspberry juice, pure or
diluted with one third water, and sweeten to taste. Have ready one half
cup of best sago which has soaked for twenty minutes in just enough
water to cover. Drain off any water that may remain. Add the sago to the
juice, and cook until the sago is transparent, then turn into molds.
Serve cold with cream. Cranberry or strawberry juice may be used in
place of the raspberry, if preferred.

SAGO FRUIT PUDDING.--Soak a small cup of sago an hour in just
enough water to cover. Drain off any water that may not be absorbed. Mix
two thirds of a cup of sugar with this sago, and stir all into a quart
of boiling water. Let it boil until the sago is perfectly transparent
and pour in a pint of nicely hulled strawberries. Turn into molds to
cool, or serve warm with cream, as preferred. Tapioca can be used
instead of sago, but needs longer soaking. Raspberries, stoned cherries,
or currants can be used in place of strawberries.

SAGO PUDDING.--Soak a cupful of sago for twenty minutes in a cup of
cold water; then pour over it a quart and a cup of boiling water, add a
cup of sugar and one half cup of raisins. Cook till the sago is
perfectly transparent, flavor with vanilla, and set away to cool. Serve
with whipped cream.

MANIOCA WITH FRUIT.--Pare, core, and quarter six medium-sized tart
apples, and put them to cook in a quart of boiling water. Add a cup of
sugar, and cook without stirring until softened, then sprinkle into the
water in which they are cooking five tablespoonfuls of manioca, and cook
until it is transparent, which will be in about ten minutes. Flavor with
a little grated lemon rind, and serve hot with sugar and cream, or mold,
as preferred. Canned peaches, apricots, or cherries may be used in a
similar manner, adding boiling water if there is not sufficient juice to
properly cook the manioca. Or the manioca may be first cooked in boiling
water, using four scant tablespoonfuls for a pint of water, and when
transparent, turning it over sliced bananas, pineapples, or oranges,
molding and serving with cream and sugar.

RASPBERRY MANIOCA MOLD.--Heat a pint of water, and when boiling,
sprinkle into it four scant tablespoonfuls of manioca and cook for ten
minutes or until transparent, stirring continually. When transparent and
thickened, remove from the fire and add a tablespoonful of lemon juice
and one cup of sugar. Place a layer of the cooked manioca in the bottom
of a pudding dish, add a layer of freshly picked red raspberries, then
another of the manioca, filling the dish in alternate layers with one of
manioca for the top. Set away in some cool place until well molded.
Serve in slices with cream flavored with rose. Other fresh berries may
be used instead of raspberries.

SEA MOSS BLANCMANGE.--Wash the moss well in several waters, and
soak in a very little cold water for an hour before using. It is hardly
possible to give exact directions for making this blancmange, owing to
the difficulty of accurately measuring the moss, but in general, a small
handful will be ample for a quart of milk. Add the moss, when washed, to
the milk, and cook in a double boiler until the milk has become
thickened and glutinous. Add sugar to sweeten, flavor with vanilla or
rose water, and strain through a fine sieve into cups previously wet in
cold water, and mold. This may be varied by using boiling water instead
of milk for cooking, adding the juice of one or two lemons and a little
grated rind to flavor.

DESSERTS MADE WITH GELATINE.

Gelatine is an article largely employed in making delicate and dainty
dishes. It is economical and convenient, because the dessert can be
prepared several hours before needed; but it must be stated that it has
in itself little or no food value, and there is great liability of its
being unwholesome. A writer in the _Anti-Adulteration Journal_, a short
time since, speaking of the use of gelatine, says:--

"The nutritive value of pure gelatine has been shown to be very low in
the scale of foods. The beef gelatine of the markets that is used by
bakers, is far from being pure gelatine. It frequently has a very
disagreeable, fetid odor, and has evidently begun to decompose during
the process of manufacture. After a thorough drying, putrefaction does
not take place as long as it remains dry. But suppose that gelatine
which has thus begun to decompose during the drying process, containing,
perhaps, putrefactive germs in the dried state, be dissolved in water,
and in hot weather, kept in this condition for a few hours previous to
being used; the result would be rapid putrefaction. The putrefaction
would be checked by freezing; but the bacteria causing it are not killed
by the low temperature. As soon as the dessert is melted or eaten, they
resume their activity in the body, and may cause sickness. It is a
well-known fact that gelatine is an excellent medium in which to
cultivate various kinds of micro-organisms; and if the conclusions here
mentioned be correct, it seems that gelatine should be used with great
care in connection with food preparations. When used carelessly, it may
do a great deal of harm. I wish to impress those who use it with the
importance of guarding against its dangers. Gelatine should not be
allowed to remain in solution for many hours before using, especially in
hot weather.

"When used at all, the best varieties should be employed, and such as
are free from putrefactive odor."

A "box" of gelatine is used to signify a two-ounce package. If half a
box is called for, divide it by cutting the box and its contents in
halves rather than by emptying the box and then attempting to make a
division.

To prepare gelatine for desserts, first soak it till soft in a small
quantity of cold water (a cupful to one box of gelatine is sufficient);
fifteen minutes will suffice if it is stirred frequently; then dissolve
in boiling liquid. Do not cook the gelatine, and after it is dissolved,
always strain through a cloth strainer before using.

In winter, a two-ounce package will solidify two quarts of liquid,
including the water in which the gelatine is soaked. In summer, a little
less liquid should be used. Gelatine desserts must be left on ice or in
a cool place until hardened, but they should not be served at the table
so cold as to interfere with the digestion of other foods.

_RECIPES._

APPLES IN JELLY.--Pare and core without cutting open, a half dozen
medium-sized tart apples of the same degree of hardness. Fill the
centers with a little grated lemon rind and sugar. Steam until tender
but not broken. Have ready half a package of gelatine which has been
soaked for an hour in just enough water to cover. Prepare a syrup with
one cup of sugar and a pint of water. When boiling, turn the syrup over
the gelatine, stirring well to dissolve it, and add the juice of half a
lemon. Strain, place the apples in a deep dish with a little space
between each; turn the mixture over them, and set in the ice box to
cool. Serve with or without a little whipped cream.

APPLE SHAPE.--Steam some nice tart apples. When tender, rub through
a colander. Have two thirds of a box of gelatine soaked in just enough
water to cover; pour over it a cup and a half of boiling water; when
well dissolved, strain and add a pint of the sifted apples sweetened to
taste, and one half cup of grated fresh or canned pineapple, or if
preferred, one half cup of the juice of canned pineapple. Turn into cups
previously wet in cold water, and mold. Serve with a little cream.
Canned peaches, apricots, and other fruit may be used the same as
apples, if preferred. Rub the fruit with but little juice through a
colander, and proceed as above.

BANANA DESSERT.--Dissolve half a box of gelatine in a half cup of
warm water. Heat three cups of rich milk to boiling, and add to it one
cup of sugar and turn over the well-dissolved gelatine and strain. Let
it partly cool, and mix in three or four bananas, sliced thin or chopped
fine. Turn all into a mold previously wet with cold water, and leave
till hardened, which may require several hours unless the mold be placed
on ice. When well molded, turn into a glass dish, serve with whipped
cream flavored with vanilla or lemon.

CLEAR DESSERT.--Soak a box of gelatine in a large bowl with half a
cup of cold water. When soft, pour over it three pints of boiling water,
add the juice of three large lemons and two cups of sugar. Stir well,
strain, and pour into molds previously wet with cold water. Put into the
refrigerator until hardened. Serve with whipped cream. Quince, apricot,
orange, or pineapple juice may be substituted for lemon, and thus a
variety of desserts may be made.

FRUIT FOAM DESSERT.--Soak half a package of gelatine in half a cup
of cold water until soft. Heat to boiling two and one half cups of red
raspberry, currant, strawberry, or grape juice, sweetened to taste, and
pour over the soaked gelatine. Stir until perfectly dissolved, then
strain, and set the dish in ice water to cool. When it is cold and
beginning to thicken, beat the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth and
stir into the thickening gelatine. Beat thoroughly for fifteen minutes
with an egg beater, or whip till the whole is of a solid foam stiff
enough to retain its shape. Turn into molds previously wet with cold
water, or pile roughly in large spoonfuls in a glass dish. Set away in
the refrigerator until needed. Serve with a little whipped cream piled
lightly around it.

FRUIT SHAPE.--Take a quart of nicely canned red raspberries,
sweetened to taste; turn into a colander and drain off the juice, taking
care to keep the fruit as perfect as possible. Put two thirds of a box
of gelatine to soak in just enough of the juice to cover. When the
gelatine is ready, heat the remainder of the juice to boiling and pour
over it. When well dissolved, add the fruit, turn into cups, and mold.
Serve with cream. Peaches, strawberries, apricots, and other canned
fruit may be used in place of the raspberries, if preferred.

GELATINE CUSTARD.--Soak a quarter of a box of gelatine in one
fourth of a cup of cold water till soft; then pour over it three fourths
of a cup of boiling water, and stir until dissolved. Beat the yolks of
two eggs and three tablespoonfuls of sugar to a cream; pour over it
slowly, stirring continuously, a pint of boiling milk, and cook in a
double boiler until it thickens. Then add the gelatine mixture, which
should first be strained, the whites of the two eggs beaten stiff, and a
little vanilla for flavoring. Beat all well together, turn into molds
previously wet in cold water, and place on ice to harden. Serve with
fruit sauce.

LAYER PUDDING.--Divide a package of gelatine into three portions,
and put each to soak in one third of a cup of cold water. Heat one and
one fourths cups of water to boiling, add the juice of one lemon and two
thirds of a cup of sugar. Turn this slowly, stirring well meanwhile,
over the well-beaten yolks of two eggs. Cook in a double boiler five
minutes, or until the mixture thickens. Pour the hot custard over one
portion of the soaked gelatine, and stir it until dissolved. Strain, add
a little grated lemon rind for flavoring, and turn into a broad, shallow
dish to mold. A square granite-ware baking tin is admirable for this
purpose.

Take one and one half cups of raspberry, strawberry, grape, or currant
juice, sweetened to taste; heat to boiling and pour over the second
portion of the soaked gelatine. Stir till well dissolved, strain, and
turn into a shallow mold like that containing the first portion.

Heat one and one half cups of rich milk to boiling, add one half cup of
sugar, and pour over the third portion of soaked gelatine. Strain and
cool a little, flavor with vanilla or a few chopped bananas; or, if
preferred, flavor the milk with cocoanut before using, as directed on
page 298. Pour into a third mold like the others to cool. When all are
cold, arrange in layers, the yellow at the bottom and the white at the
top. The whites of the eggs may be used for meringue, or for making a
whipped cream sauce to serve with the pudding.

LEMON JELLY.--Soak one half box of gelatine in a scant cup of cold
water until soft. Then pour over it one pint of boiling water and stir
until well dissolved. Add one cup of sugar, the yellow rind of one
lemon, and one half cup of lemon juice. Strain, put into molds
previously wet in cold water, and place in the ice chest to harden. If
preferred, the above may be cooled in a shallow dish and cut into
irregular shapes to be served with a custard sauce. Use only the yolks
of eggs in making the custard, that it may have a rich color, using two
yolks in place of one whole egg.

JELLY WITH FRUIT.--Soak a package of gelatine in a cup of cold
water until soft; then pour over it one quart and a cup of boiling
water. Strain, add the juice of four lemons and twelve tablespoonfuls of
sugar. Cool a little of the gelatine in a mold, and as soon as set,
scatter in some nice currants or seedless raisins; add another layer of
gelatine, and when set, scatter in more fruit; continue until the mold
is full, having gelatine at the top. Fresh fruit, currants, grapes,
cherries, plums, peaches, etc., may be used in place of raisins, if
preferred.

ORANGE DESSERT.--Soak one third of a cup of gelatine in one third
of a cup of cold water until soft; then pour over it one third of a cup
of boiling water. Add a scant cup of sugar, the juice of one lemon, and
a cupful of orange juice and pulp. Set the dish containing the mixture
in a pan of ice water until it begins to harden. Have ready the whites
of three eggs well whipped, add to the jelly, and beat all together
until light and stiff enough to drop. Pour into molds wet in cold water,
and lined with sections of oranges, from which seeds and white fiber
have been removed.

ORANGES IN JELLY.--Pare divide, and take out the seeds from four or
five sweet oranges, being careful to remove all the white rind and
shreds. Place in a deep dish and pour over them a syrup prepared as for
Apples in Jelly, using the juice of a whole lemon. Set in the ice box
over night. A very little orange peel may be grated into the syrup if
liked; and if the oranges are very sweet, less sugar will be required.
If one can afford to use orange juice in place of the water in making
the syrup, the dessert will be greatly improved.

ORANGE JELLY.--Soak one quarter of a box of gelatine until soft in
just enough cold water to cover. Then pour over it one half cup of
boiling water. Stir until well dissolved, add the juice of one small
lemon, one cupful of orange juice, and one half cup of sugar. Strain,
turn into molds previously wet in cold water, and set on ice to harden.
Strawberry, raspberry, and other fruit juices may be used in a similar
manner.

SNOW PUDDING.--Soak one fourth of a box of gelatine until soft in
an equal measure of cold water. Then pour over it one cup of boiling
water, and add one fourth of a cup of strained lemon juice and one cup
of sugar; stir till the sugar is all dissolved. Strain into a large
china dish, and set in ice water to cool. Let it stand until cold and
beginning to thicken. Have ready the whites of three eggs beaten to a
stiff froth, and add to the gelatine as it begins to thicken; beat all
together for fifteen or twenty minutes, until it is of a solid foam and
stiff enough to hold its shape. Turn into molds and keep in a cool place
till needed. A half dozen finely sliced or chopped bananas stirred in
toward the last, makes a nice variation. Serve with custard sauce made
with the yolks of the eggs and flavored with rose or vanilla. Orange,
quince, or pineapple juice may be substituted for lemon, for a change.

This dessert is best if made several hours before it is needed and set
in the refrigerator to keep cold.

DESSERTS WITH CRUSTS.

_RECIPES._

APPLE TART.--Pare and slice some quick-cooking, tart apples, and
place them in the bottom of a pudding dish, with a tablespoonful of
water. Cover with a crust prepared in the following manner: Into a cup
of thin cream stir a gill of yeast and two cups of flour; let this
become very light, then add sufficient flour to mix soft. Knead for
fifteen or twenty minutes very thoroughly, roll evenly, and cover the
apples; put all in a warm place until the crust has become very light,
then bake. If the apples do not bake easily, they may be partially
cooked before putting on the crust. Dish so that the fruit will be
uppermost, and serve cold with cream and sugar, cocoanut sauce, or mock
cream.

GOOSEBERRY TART.--Fill a pudding dish with well prepared green
gooseberries, adding a tablespoonful or two of water. Cover with a crust
as for Apple Tart, and when light, bake in a moderately quick oven. Cut
the crust into the required number of pieces, and dish with gooseberries
heaped on top. Serve cold with sugar and cream.

CHERRY TART.--Prepare the same as for Apple Tart, with stoned
cherries, only omitting the water, as the cherries will be sufficiently
juicy of themselves. If the fruit is very juicy, sprinkle a
tablespoonful of flour over it before putting on the crust. Plum and
peach tart may be made in the same manner, and are both very nice.

STRAWBERRY AND OTHER FRUIT SHORTCAKES.--Beat together one cup of
thin cream, slightly warmed, a tablespoonful of yeast, and two small
cups of flour. Set in a warm place till very light. Add sufficient warm
flour to mix soft, and knead thoroughly for fifteen or twenty minutes.
Divide into two equal portions, and roll into sheets about one half inch
in thickness, making the center a very little thinner than the edges, so
that when risen, the center will not be highest. Place in tins, and set
in a warm place until perfectly risen, or until they have doubled their
first thickness. Bake quickly. When cold, spread one cake with fruit,
and cover with the other. If the fruit is large, it may be chopped fine
with a knife, or mashed with a spoon. A little lemon juice added to
peaches is an addition for shortcake.

BANANA SHORTCAKE.--Prepare the crust as previously directed. Fill
with sliced bananas, for every three of which add the juice of one
orange, a little of the grated rind, and a half cup of sugar.

LEMON SHORTCAKE.--Prepare the crust as for Fruit Shortcake. For the
filling, grate the yellow portion only of the lemon, and squeeze the
juice into a bowl; add a cupful of sugar. Braid a tablespoonful of flour
smooth with two tablespoonfuls of water, add enough boiling water,
stirring well meanwhile, to make a teacupful. Add this to the other
ingredients, beat well together, and place the bowl in a basin of
boiling water or over the teakettle. Cook until about as thick as boiled
custard. Fill this between the shortcakes and serve.

BERRY SHORTCAKE WITH PREPARED CREAM.--Prepare the shortcake as
previously directed. Sweeten the berries and spread on the lower crust,
then pour over them a "cream" prepared as follows, and add top crust:--

CREAM.--Heat one half cup of milk and the same of thin cream to
boiling, add two tablespoonfuls of sugar, and thicken with one
teaspoonful of cornstarch rubbed smooth in a little cold milk. Turn the
hot sauce over the beaten white of two eggs, stirring rapidly meanwhile,
until the egg is thoroughly mingled with the whole. Allow it to become
cold before using.

RAISED PIE.--Prepare the dough as for shortcake. Divide in two
portions, spread one on the tin, and cover with a layer of easy-cooking
tart apples sliced in eighths. Put two or three spoonfuls of rather
thick sweet cream over the apples, and cover with the top crust. Let the
crusts rise until very light, and bake. Peaches may be used in the same
manner.

BAKED APPLE LOAF.--Prepare some dough as for buns on page 347,
leaving out the sugar, and when ready for the last melding, cut it into
three portions. Put some flour on the bread board, mold the dough well,
and roll as thin as pie crust in such shape as will fit a shallow baking
tin. Spread over the tin, and cover the dough with a layer of
easy-cooking, sour apples sliced very thin, or with very stiff apple
marmalade. Cover this with a second layer of dough, then add another
layer of apples, and cover with the third portion of the dough. Pinch
the edges of the dough well together, let the loaf rise till very light,
then bake. Eat cold with sugar and cream. If the apples will not cook
quickly, they may be first steamed until nearly tender. If the crust
appears too hard when taken from the oven, cover with a wet napkin and
allow it to steam for a little time until softened.

CUSTARD PUDDINGS.

Very much depends upon the baking in all puddings made with milk and
eggs.

A custard pudding made with one egg, and slowly baked, will be much
thicker and nicer than one made with more eggs, baked in too hot an
oven.

A custard pudding baked too quickly or too long will have the eggs mixed
with the farinaceous substance and the milk turned to whey, while one
more carefully baked will have eggs and milk formed into a thick custard
on the top.

Custard puddings and all other baked puddings which require to be cooked
slowly, are best cooked in an earthen dish set in the oven in a pan of
hot water, and baked only till the pudding is set. If it is desirable
to use with eggs any ingredient which requires a lengthy cooking, it is
much better to cook it partially before adding the eggs. Many custard
desserts are much more dainty and more easily served when cooked in cups
than when baked in a large dish. The blue willow pattern stoneware cups
and the blue and white Japanese ware are very suitable for this purpose.
When cooking, set the cups, allowing one for each person, in the oven in
a dripping pan containing hot water, and bake. Serve without removing
from the cups.

If desired to stir beaten eggs into heated milk, add a few spoonfuls of
cold milk to the eggs, and pour the mixture, a little at a time, into
the hot milk, taking care to stir it constantly.

A nice way to flavour custards and meringues for custard puddings is to
beat fruit jelly with the whites of the eggs; red raspberry, quince, and
pineapple jellies give especially nice flavours.

_RECIPES._

APPLE CUSTARD.--Bake good tart apples; when done, remove the pulp,
and rub through a sieve; sweeten, and flavour with grated pineapple or
grated orange or lemon rind. Put in a glass dish, and cover with a plain
custard prepared as directed on page 328. Bits of jelly may be scattered
over the top of the custard.

APPLE CUSTARD NO. 2.--Peel, halve, and core eight or ten
medium-sized sour apples. Have prepared a syrup made with a cup of
water, the juice of one lemon, a little grated rind, and a half cup of
sugar. When the sugar is dissolved, add the fruit, and simmer till
tender but not fallen to pieces. Skim out the apples, draining
thoroughly, and lay them in a glass dish. Boil up the syrup until thick,
and poor it over the apples. Make a soft boiled custard with a pint of
milk, yolks of three eggs, and two tablespoonfuls of sugar. When cold,
spread over the apples; whip the whites to a stiff froth, flavor with
lemon, and pile irregularly upon the top. Brown lightly in the oven.

APPLE CUSTARD NO. 3.--Pare and remove the cores from a dozen tart
apples, and fill the cavities with black raspberry, quince, or grape
jelly. Put them in a covered baking dish with a tablespoonful of water,
and steam in the oven till tender but not fallen to pieces. Then cover
the apples with a raw custard made by cooking two tablespoonfuls of
flour rubbed smooth with a little milk, in a quart of milk, till just
thickened, and adding, when cold, the yolks of two eggs well beaten
with two heaping tablespoonfuls of sugar, and lastly the whites of the
eggs whipped to a stiff froth. Bake in a dish set in a pan of hot water,
until the custard has set, but not till it separates.

APPLE CORNSTARCH CUSTARD.--Cover the bottom of a small earthen-ware
pudding dish an inch or more in depth with apples stewed until very dry,
sweetened and flavored with a teaspoonful of rose water. Heat a cup of
milk to boiling, and stir into it a tablespoonful of cornstarch rubbed
smooth in a little cold milk, and one fourth cup of sugar; cook until
thickened, then add the yolk of one egg, and pour the whole over the
apple. Meringue the top with the white of the egg beaten stiff with a
tablespoonful of sugar, and flavored with a little rose water.

APPLE AND BREAD CUSTARD.--For this is required one cup of finely
rolled bread crumbs, two eggs, one half cup of sugar, one cup minced
sour apples, and one quart of milk. Beat the sugar and yolks together,
add the milk, bread, and fruit, and lastly the well-beaten whites of the
eggs. Bake in a dish set in a pan of hot water till firm but not dry.

ALMOND CORNSTARCH PUDDING.--Blanch one and one half ounces of sweet
almonds, and reduce them to a paste as directed on page 298; or if
obtainable, almondine may be used instead of the prepared almonds. Heat
a quart of milk, and while boiling, stir into it four tablespoonfuls of
cornstarch which has been braided smooth with a little cold milk; let it
thicken over the fire, stirring all the time. Then add two
tablespoonfuls of thick, sweet cream. Lastly, stir in two or three
well-beaten eggs and a tablespoonful of rose water. Let it come just to
the boiling point, and remove from the stove. Keep in a cold place till
needed. Serve with hot mock cream or with grape pulp as dressing.

ALMOND CREAM.--Heat a pint of milk, and when boiling stir into it
two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch rubbed smooth in a little cold milk,
also one fourth cup of sugar and three tablespoonfuls of almondine. Cook
until thickened, and pour it, stirring constantly meanwhile, over the
beaten whites of two eggs. Set on ice to cool, and serve with grape pulp
as dressing. A cupful of blanched and chopped almonds may be used
instead of almondine if that is not obtainable. The pudding will then
require an additional one fourth cup of sugar.

APPLE CHARLOTTE.--Take three cups of nicely stewed tart apples
which have been beaten smooth or rubbed through a colander and sweetened
to taste. If the sauce is thin and very juicy, place it upon the range,
and simmer slowly till it is of the consistency of thick marmalade or
jelly. Add to the apples four tablespoonfuls of grated fresh or canned
pineapple for flavoring. Remove the hard crusts from slices of light
whole-wheat bread, spread them quite thickly with the prepared apple,
and pack in layers in a pudding mold. Cover with a simple custard made
of a quart of milk, three tablespoonfuls of sugar, and two eggs. Let it
stand half an hour, then bake. Do not press the bread or beat it after
the custard is turned on, as that will be likely to make the pudding
heavy. Other fruit marmalade may be used in place of the apple
preparation if preferred.

BANANA CUSTARD.--Prepare a custard as directed for Plain Custard
with a quart of milk, two well-beaten eggs, four tablespoonfuls of
sugar, and one of cornstarch. When the custard is cool, pour it over
four thinly sliced yellow bananas, over which a tablespoonful of sugar
and a teaspoonful of water have been sprinkled. Serve cold.

BOILED CUSTARD.--Beat thoroughly together one pint of milk, two
eggs, and a tablespoonful or two of sugar, until thoroughly mingled.
Turn the mixture into a double boiler, and cook until the custard is
set.

BOILED CUSTARD BREAD PUDDING.--Crumble enough of the soft portion
of stale whole-wheat bread to lightly fill a pint bowl. Heat a pint of
milk to boiling. Stir into it, as soon as it boils, two eggs, yolks and
whites well beaten separately, two heaping tablespoonfuls of sugar, a
little grated lemon rind, and the light bread crumbs; stir rapidly till
the whole thickens, pour into a deep dish, and when cold, dot the top
with bits of currant or cranberry jelly.

BREAD AND FRUIT CUSTARD.--Take for this, two cups of grated bread
crumbs, two cups of finely chopped tart apples, one cup of English
currants or stoned raisins, mixed with a very little chopped citron for
flavor, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, three cups of milk, and two eggs.
Beat the yolks of the eggs and the sugar together, then add the milk,
bread, fruit, and lastly the well-beaten whites of the eggs. Bake in a
dish set within a pan of hot water, until the custard is set.

BREAD CUSTARD PUDDING.--Take one cup of finely powdered bread
crumbs, one half cup of sugar, one quart of milk, and the beaten yolks
of three eggs and whites of two. Mix the bread and milk, and when well
softened, add the beaten yolks, sugar, and lastly the well-beaten
whites; beat all together thoroughly, season with a little grated lemon
rind; place the pudding dish in the oven in a pan of hot water, and bake
till firm and lightly brown. Take from the oven, cover the top with a
layer of apple marmalade made without sugar, or with some tart fruit
jelly; add to this a meringue made of the white of the remaining egg and
a tablespoonful of sugar, beaten to a stiff froth, and place in the oven
a moment to brown lightly.

Fresh fruit, strawberries, raspberries, chopped peaches, currants,
cherries, or shredded oranges are equally as good as the marmalade or
jelly for the top dressing, and may be used to vary this pudding in a
number of different ways. Canned fruits, if well drained from juice,
especially apricots and peaches, are excellent for this purpose. A
cocoanut custard pudding may be made of the above by flavoring the milk
before using, with two tablespoonfuls of desiccated cocoanut Another
variety still may be made by adding to the first recipe half a cup of
Zante currants and the same of seedless raisins, or a half cup of finely
shredded, tender citron.

BREAD AND FIG PUDDING.--Put together two cups of finely grated
bread crumbs, two cups of milk, one cup of finely chopped figs
previously steamed or cooked, one fourth cup of sugar, and lastly, two
well-beaten eggs. Bake in a moderate oven till the custard is set.

BREAD AND APRICOT PUDDING.--Fill a pudding dish with alternate
layers of bread crumbs and canned apricots well drained from juice. Pour
over it a custard made with two eggs, one half cup of sugar, and a pint
of milk. Bake one half hour, or only until the custard is set. Canned
peaches, to which a teaspoonful of lemon juice has been added after
draining, may be used in place of apricots.

CARAMEL CUSTARD.--Turn one fourth of a cup of sugar into a stewpan,
and stir it over the fire until it becomes liquid and brown. Scald a cup
and a half of milk, and add the browned sugar. Beat two eggs thoroughly,
add to them one half cup cold milk, and turn the mixture slowly,
stirring constantly that no lumps form, into the scalding milk; continue
to stir until the custard thickens. Set away to cool, and serve in
glasses.

CARROT PUDDING.--Take two cups of carrots, boiled tender and rubbed
through a colander, one pint of milk, two thirds of a cup of sugar, and
two well beaten eggs. Flavor with vanilla, and having beaten all well
together, turn into an earthen pudding dish, set the dish in a pan of
hot water, and place in the oven. Bake only till the custard sets.

COCOANUT CORNSTARCH PUDDING.--Simmer a cupful of grated cocoanut in
a quart of milk for twenty minutes. Strain the milk to remove the
cocoanut, adding enough more milk to make a full quart. With a small
portion of it braid smoothly one and one half tablespoonfuls of
cornstarch or rice flour, and put the remainder in a saucepan over the
fire. When the milk is boiling, add the cornstarch, stirring constantly
until it thickens; then remove from the fire and cool. Next add two
tablespoonfuls of sugar and two well-beaten eggs. Bake in a moderate
oven, in a dish set in a pan of hot water, until the custard is well
set.

COCOANUT CUSTARD.--Flavor a pint of milk with cocoanut, add a
tablespoonful of sugar and two well-beaten eggs, and boil till set in a
double boiler or a bowl set in a dish of boiling water. Richer custards
may be made by using three or four eggs, but the richer the custard the
more likely it is to curdle and become watery, as well as being less

Book of the day:
Facebook Google Reddit StumbleUpon Twitter Pinterest