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Sacred Books of the East by Various

Part 5 out of 9

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covereth their sight, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. There
are some who say, We believe in God and the last day, but are not really
believers; they seek to deceive God, and those who do believe, but they
deceive themselves only, and are not sensible thereof. There is an
infirmity in their hearts, and God hath increased that infirmity; and
they shall suffer a most painful punishment because they have
disbelieved. When one saith unto them, Act not corruptly in the earth,
they reply, Verily, we are men of integrity. Are not they themselves
corrupt doers? but they are not sensible thereof. And when one saith
unto them, Believe ye as others believe; they answer, Shall we believe
as fools believe? Are not they themselves fools? but they know it not.
When they meet those who believe, they say, We do believe: but when they
retire privately to their devils, they say, We really hold with you, and
only mock at those people: God shall mock at them, and continue them in
their impiety; they shall wander in confusion. These are the men who
have purchased error at the price of true direction: but their traffic
hath not been gainful, neither have they been rightly directed. They are
like unto one who kindleth a fire, and when it hath enlightened all
around him, God taketh away their light and leaveth them in darkness,
they shall not see; they are deaf, dumb, and blind, therefore will they
not repent. Or like a stormy cloud from heaven, fraught with darkness,
thunder, and lightning, they put their fingers in their ears, because of
the noise of the thunder, for fear of death; God encompasseth the
infidels: the lightning wanteth but little of taking away their sight;
so often as it enlighteneth them, they walk therein, but when darkness
cometh on them, they stand still; and if God so pleased, He would
certainly deprive them of their hearing and their sight, for God is
almighty. O men of Mecca! serve your Lord who hath created you, and
those who have been before you: peradventure ye will fear him; who hath
spread the earth as a bed for you, and the heaven as a covering, and
hath caused water to descend from heaven, and thereby produced fruits
for your sustenance. Set not up therefore any equals unto God, against
your own knowledge. If ye be in doubt concerning that revelation which
we have sent down unto our servant, produce a chapter like unto it, and
call upon your witnesses, besides God, if ye say truth. But if ye do it
not, nor shall ever be able to do it, justly fear the fire whose fuel is
men and stones, prepared for the unbelievers. But bear good tidings unto
those who believe, and do good works, that they shall have gardens
watered by rivers; so often as they eat of the fruit thereof for
sustenance, they shall say, This is what we have formerly eaten of; and
they shall be supplied with several sorts of fruit having a mutual
resemblance to one another. There shall they enjoy wives subject to no
impurity, and there shall they continue forever. Moreover God will not
be ashamed to propound in a parable a gnat, or even a more despicable
thing: for they who believe will know it to be the truth from their
Lord; but the unbelievers will say, What meaneth God by this parable? he
will thereby mislead many, and will direct many thereby: but he will not
mislead any thereby, except the transgressors, who make void the
covenant of God after the establishing thereof, and cut in sunder that
which God hath commanded to be joined, and act corruptly in the earth;
they shall perish. How is it that ye believe not in God? Since ye were
dead, and he gave you life; he will hereafter cause you to die, and will
again restore you to life; then shall ye return unto him. It is he who
hath created for you whatsoever is on earth, and then set his mind to
the creation of heaven, and formed it into seven heavens; he knoweth all
things. When thy Lord said unto the angels, I am going to place a
substitute on earth,[23] they said, Wilt thou place there one who will
do evil therein, and shed blood? but we celebrate thy praise, and
sanctify thee. God answered, Verily I know that which ye know not; and
he taught Adam the names of all things, and then proposed them to the
angels, and said, Declare unto me the names of these things if ye say
truth. They answered, Praise be unto thee, we have no knowledge but what
thou teachest us, for thou art knowing and wise. God said, O Adam, tell
them their names. And when he had told them their names, God said, Did I
not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and know that
which ye discover, and that which ye conceal? And when we said unto the
angels, Worship Adam, they all worshipped him, except Eblis, who
refused, and was puffed up with pride, and became of the number of
unbelievers.[24] And we said, O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife in the
garden, and eat of the fruit thereof plentifully wherever ye will; but
approach not this tree, lest ye become of the number of the
transgressors. But Satan caused them to forfeit paradise, and turned
them out of the state of happiness wherein they had been; whereupon we
said, Get ye down, the one of you an enemy unto the other; and there
shall be a dwelling-place for you on earth, and a provision for a
season. And Adam learned words of prayer from his Lord, and God turned
unto him, for he is easy to be reconciled and merciful. We said, Get ye
all down from hence; hereafter shall there come unto you a direction
from me, and whoever shall follow my direction, on them shall no fear
come, neither shall they be grieved; but they who shall be unbelievers,
and accuse our signs of falsehood, they shall be the companions of hell
fire, therein shall they remain forever. O children of Israel,[25]
remember my favor wherewith I have favored you; and perform your
covenant with me and I will perform my covenant with you; and revere me;
and believe in the revelation which I have sent down, confirming that
which is with you, and be not the first who believe not therein, neither
exchange my signs for a small price; and fear me. Clothe not the truth
with vanity, neither conceal the truth against your own knowledge;
observe the stated times of prayer, and pay your legal alms, and bow
down yourselves with those who bow down. Will ye command men to do
justice, and forget your own souls? yet ye read the book of the law: do
ye not therefore understand? Ask help with perseverance and prayer; this
indeed is grievous, unless to the humble, who seriously think they shall
meet their Lord, and that to him they shall return. O children of
Israel, remember my favor wherewith I have favored you, and that I have
preferred you above all nations: dread the day wherein one soul shall
not make satisfaction for another soul, neither shall any intercession
be accepted from them, nor shall any compensation be received, neither
shall they be helped. Remember when we delivered you from the people of
Pharaoh, who grievously oppressed you, they slew your male children, and
let your females live: therein was a great trial from your Lord. And
when we divided the sea for you and delivered you, and drowned Pharaoh's
people while ye looked on. And when we treated with Moses forty nights;
then ye took the calf[26] for your God, and did evil; yet afterwards we
forgave you, that peradventure ye might give thanks. And when we gave
Moses the book of the law, and the distinction between good and evil,
that peradventure ye might be directed. And when Moses said unto his
people, O my people, verily ye have injured your own souls, by your
taking the calf for your God; therefore be turned unto your Creator, and
slay those among you who have been guilty of that crime; this will be
better for you in the sight of your Creator; and thereupon he turned
unto you, for he is easy to be reconciled, and merciful. And when ye
said, O Moses, we will not believe thee, until we see God manifestly;
therefore a punishment came upon you, while ye looked on; then we raised
you to life after ye had been dead, that peradventure ye might give
thanks. And we caused clouds to overshadow you, and manna and quails[27]
to descend upon you, saying, Eat of the good things which we have given
you for food: and they injured not us, but injured their own souls. And
when we said, Enter into this city, and eat of the provisions thereof
plentifully as ye will; and enter the gate worshipping, and say,
Forgiveness! we will pardon you your sins, and give increase unto the
well-doers. But the ungodly changed the expression into another,
different from what had been spoken unto them; and we sent down upon the
ungodly indignation from heaven, because they had transgressed. And when
Moses asked drink for his people, we said, Strike the rock with thy rod;
and there gushed thereout twelve fountains according to the number of
the tribes, and all men knew their respective drinking-place. Eat and
drink of the bounty of God, and commit not evil in the earth, acting
unjustly. And when ye said, O Moses, we will by no means be satisfied
with one kind of food; pray unto thy Lord therefore for us, that he
would produce for us of that which the earth bringeth forth, herbs, and
cucumbers, and garlic, and lentils, and onions; Moses answered, Will ye
exchange that which is better, for that which is worse? Get ye down into
Egypt, for there shall ye find what ye desire; and they were smitten
with vileness and misery, and drew on themselves indignation from God.
This they suffered, because they believed not in the signs of God, and
killed the prophets unjustly; this, because they rebelled and
transgressed. Surely those who believe, and those who Judaize, and
Christians, and Sabeans, whoever believeth in God, and the last day, and
doth that which is right, they shall have their reward with their Lord;
there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved. Call to
mind also when we accepted your covenant, and lifted up the mountain of
Sinai over you, saying, Receive the law which we have given you, with a
resolution to keep it, and remember that which is contained therein,
that ye may beware. After this ye again turned back, so that if it had
not been for God's indulgence and mercy towards you, ye had certainly
been destroyed. Moreover, ye know what befell those of your nation who
transgressed on the Sabbath day: We said unto them, Be ye changed into
apes, driven away from the society of men. And we made them an example
unto those who were contemporary with them, and unto those who came
after them, and a warning to the pious. And when Moses said unto his
people, Verily God commandeth you to sacrifice a cow;[28] they answered,
Dost thou make a jest of us? Moses said, God forbid that I should be one
of the foolish. They said, Pray for us unto thy Lord, that he would show
us what cow it is. Moses answered, He saith, She is neither an old cow,
nor a young heifer, but of a middle-age between both: do ye therefore
that which ye are commanded. They said, Pray for us unto the Lord, that
he would show us what color she is of. Moses answered, He saith, She is
a red cow, intensely red, her color rejoiceth the beholders. They said,
Pray for us unto thy Lord, that he would further show us what cow it is,
for several cows with us are like one another, and we, if God please,
will be directed. Moses answered, He saith, She is a cow not broken to
plough the earth, or water the field: a sound one, there is no blemish
in her. They said, Now hast thou brought the truth. Then they sacrificed
her; yet they wanted little of leaving it undone. And when ye slew a
man, and contended among yourselves concerning him, God brought forth to
light that which ye concealed. For we said, Strike the dead body with
part of the sacrificed cow; so God raiseth the dead to life, and showeth
you his signs, that peradventure ye may understand. Then were your
hearts hardened after this, even as stones, or exceeding them in
hardness: for from some stones have rivers burst forth, others have been
rent in sunder, and water hath issued from them, and others have fallen
down for fear of God. But God is not regardless of that which ye do. Do
ye therefore desire that the Jews should believe you? yet a part of them
heard the word of God, and then perverted it, after they had understood
it, against their own conscience. And when they meet the true believers,
they say, We believe: but when they are privately assembled together,
they say, Will ye acquaint them with what God hath revealed unto you,
that they may dispute with you concerning it in the presence of your
Lord? Do ye not therefore understand? Do not they know that God knoweth
that which they conceal as well as that which they publish? But there
are illiterate men among them, who know not the book of the law, but
only lying stories, although they think otherwise. And woe unto them who
transcribe corruptly the book of the law with their hands, and then say,
This is from God: that they may sell it for a small price. Therefore woe
unto them because of that which their hands have written; and woe unto
them for that which they have gained. They say, The fire of hell shall
not touch us but for a certain number of days. Answer, Have ye received
any promise from God to that purpose? for God will not act contrary to
his promise: or do ye speak concerning God that which ye know not?
Verily whoso doth evil, and is encompassed by his iniquity, they shall
be the companions of hell fire, they shall remain therein forever: but
they who believe and do good works, they shall be the companions of
paradise, they shall continue therein forever. Remember also, when we
accepted the covenant of the children of Israel, saying, Ye shall not
worship any other except God, and ye shall show kindness to your parents
and kindred, and to orphans, and to the poor, and speak that which is
good unto men, and be constant at prayer, and give alms. Afterwards ye
turned back, except a few of you, and retired afar-off. And when we
accepted your covenant, saying, Ye shall not shed your brother's blood,
nor dispossess one another of your habitations, then ye confirmed it,
and were witnesses thereto. Afterwards ye were they who slew one
another, and turned several of your brethren out of their houses,
mutually assisting each other against them with injustice and enmity;
but if they come captives unto you, ye redeem them: yet it is equally
unlawful for you to dispossess them. Do ye therefore believe in part of
the book of the law, and reject other parts thereof? But whoso among you
doth this, shall have no other reward than shame in this life, and on
the day of resurrection they shall be sent to a most grievous
punishment; for God is not regardless of that which ye do. These are
they who have purchased this present life, at the price of that which is
to come; wherefore their punishment shall not be mitigated, neither
shall they be helped. We formerly delivered the book of the law unto
Moses, and caused apostles to succeed him, and gave evident miracles to
Jesus the son of Mary, and strengthened him with the holy spirit. Do ye
therefore, whenever an apostle cometh unto you with that which your
souls desire not, proudly reject him, and accuse some of imposture, and
slay others? The Jews say, Our hearts are uncircumcised: but God hath
cursed them with their infidelity, therefore few shall believe. And when
a book came unto them from God, confirming the scriptures which were
with them, although they had before prayed for assistance against those
who believed not, yet when that came unto them which they knew to be
from God, they would not believe therein: therefore the curse of God
shall be on the infidels. For a vile price have they sold their souls,
that they should not believe in that which God hath sent down; out of
envy, because God sendeth down his favors to such of his servants as he
pleaseth: therefore they brought on themselves indignation on
indignation; and the unbelievers shall suffer an ignominious punishment.
When one saith unto them, Believe in that which God hath sent down; they
answer, We believe in that which hath been sent down unto us: and they
reject what hath been revealed since, although it be the truth,
confirming that which is with them. Say, Why therefore have ye slain the
prophets of God in times past, if ye be true believers? Moses formerly
came unto you with evident signs, but ye afterwards took the calf for
your god and did wickedly. And when we accepted your covenant, and
lifted the mountain of Sinai over you, saying, Receive the law which we
have given you, with a resolution to perform it, and hear; they said, We
have heard, and have rebelled: and they were made to drink down the calf
into their hearts for their unbelief. Say, A grievous thing hath your
faith commanded you, if ye be true believers. Say, If the future mansion
with God be prepared peculiarly for you, exclusive of the rest of
mankind, wish for death, if ye say truth: but they will never wish for
it, because of that which their hands have sent before them; God knoweth
the wicked doers; and thou shalt surely find them of all men the most
covetous of life, even more than the idolaters: one of them would desire
his life to be prolonged a thousand years, but none shall reprieve
himself from punishment, that his life may be prolonged: God seeth that
which they do. Say, Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel (for he hath caused
the Koran to descend on thy heart, by the permission of God, confirming
that which was before revealed, a direction, and good tidings to the
faithful); whosoever is an enemy to God, or his angels, or his apostles,
or to Gabriel, or Michael, verily God is an enemy to the unbelievers.
And now we have sent down unto thee evident signs, and none will
disbelieve them but the evil-doers. Whenever they make a covenant, will
some of them reject it? yea, the greater part of them do not believe.
And when there came unto them an apostle from God, confirming that
scripture which was with them, some of those to whom the scriptures were
given, cast the book of God behind their backs, as if they knew it not:
and they followed the device which the devils devised against the
kingdom of Solomon; and Solomon was not an unbeliever; but the devils
believed not, they taught men sorcery, and that which was sent down to
the two angels at Babel, Harut, and Marut: yet those who taught no man
until they had said, Verily we are a temptation, therefore be not an
unbeliever. So men learned from those two a charm by which they might
cause division between a man and his wife; but they hurt none thereby,
unless by God's permission; and they learned that which would hurt them,
and not profit them; and yet they knew that he who bought that art
should have no part in the life to come, and woful is the price for
which they have sold their souls, if they knew it. But if they had
believed and feared God, verily the reward they would have had from God
would have been better, if they had known it. O true believers, say not
to our apostle, Raina; but say, Ondhorna;[29] and hearken: the infidels
shall suffer a grievous punishment. It is not the desire of the
unbelievers, either among those unto whom the scriptures have been
given, or among the idolaters, that any good should be sent down unto
you from your Lord: but God will appropriate his mercy unto whom he
pleaseth; for God is exceeding beneficent. Whatever verse we shall
abrogate, or cause thee to forget, we will bring a better than it, or
one like unto it. Dost thou not know that God is almighty? Dost thou not
know that unto God belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth? neither
have ye any protector or helper except God. Will ye require of your
apostle according to that which was formerly required of Moses? but he
that hath exchanged faith for infidelity, hath already erred from the
straight way. Many of those unto whom the scriptures have been given,
desire to render you again unbelievers, after ye have believed; out of
envy from their souls, even after the truth is become manifest unto
them; but forgive them, and avoid them, till God shall send his command;
for God is omnipotent. Be constant in prayer, and give alms; and what
good ye have sent before for your souls, ye shall find it with God;
surely God seeth that which ye do. They say, Verily none shall enter
paradise, except they who are Jews or Christians: this is their wish.
Say, Produce your proof of this, if ye speak truth. Nay, but he who
resigneth himself to God, and doth that which is right, he shall have
his reward with his Lord; there shall come no fear on them, neither
shall they be grieved. The Jews say, The Christians are grounded on
nothing; and the Christians say, The Jews are grounded on nothing; yet
they both read the scriptures. So likewise say they who know not the
scripture, according to their saying. But God shall judge between them
on the day of the resurrection, concerning that about which they now
disagree. Who is more unjust than he who prohibiteth the temples of God,
that his name should be remembered therein, and who hasteth to destroy
them? Those men cannot enter therein, but with fear: they shall have
shame in this world, and in the next a grievous punishment. To God
belongeth the east and the west; therefore, whithersoever ye turn
yourselves to pray, there is the face of God; for God is omnipresent and
omniscient. They say God hath begotten children. God forbid! To him
belongeth whatever is in heaven, and on earth; all is possessed by him,
the Creator of heaven and earth; and when he decreeth a thing, he only
saith unto it, Be, and it is. And they who know not the scriptures say,
Unless God speak unto us, or thou show us a sign, we will not believe.
So said those before them, according to their saying: their hearts
resemble each other. We have already shown manifest signs unto people
who firmly believe; we have sent thee in truth, a bearer of good
tidings, and a preacher; and thou shalt not be questioned concerning the
companions of hell. But the Jews will not be pleased with thee, neither
the Christians, until thou follow their religion; say, The direction of
God is the true direction. And verily if thou follow their desires,
after the knowledge which hath been given thee, thou shalt find no
patron or protector against God. They to whom we have given the book of
the Koran, and who read it with its true reading, they believe therein;
and whoever believeth not therein, they shall perish. O children of
Israel, remember my favor wherewith I have favored you, and that I have
preferred you before all nations; and dread the day wherein one soul
shall not make satisfaction for another soul, neither shall any
compensation be accepted from them, nor shall any intercession avail,
neither shall they be helped. Remember when the Lord tried Abraham by
certain words, which he fulfilled: God said, Verily I will constitute
thee a model of religion unto mankind; he answered, And also of my
posterity; God said, My covenant doth not comprehend the ungodly. And
when we appointed the holy house of Mecca to be the place of resort for
mankind, and a place of security; and said, Take the station of Abraham
for a place of prayer; and we covenanted with Abraham and Ismael, that
they should cleanse my house for those who should compass it, and those
who should be devoutly assiduous there, and those who should bow down
and worship. And when Abraham said, Lord, make this a territory of
security, and bounteously bestow fruits on its inhabitants, such of them
as believe in God and the last day; God answered, And whoever believeth
not, I will bestow on him little: afterwards I will drive him to the
punishment of hell fire; an ill journey shall it be! And when Abraham
and Ismael raised the foundations of the house, saying, Lord, accept it
from us, for thou art he who heareth and knoweth: Lord, make us also
resigned unto thee, and of our posterity a people resigned unto thee,
and show us our holy ceremonies, and be turned unto us, for thou art
easy to be reconciled, and merciful; Lord, send them likewise an apostle
from among them, who may declare thy signs unto them, and teach them the
book of the Koran and wisdom, and may purify them; for thou art mighty
and wise. Who will be averse to the religion of Abraham, but he whose
mind is infatuated? Surely we have chosen him in this world, and in that
which is to come he shall be one of the righteous. When his Lord said
unto him, Resign thyself unto me, he answered, I have resigned myself
unto the Lord of all creatures. And Abraham bequeathed this religion to
his children, and Jacob did the same, saying, My children, verily, God
hath chosen this religion for you, therefore die not, unless ye also be
resigned. Were ye present when Jacob was at the point of death? when he
said to his sons, Whom will ye worship after me? They answered, We will
worship thy God, and the God of thy fathers, Abraham and Ismael, and
Isaac, one God, and to him will we be resigned. That people are now
passed away, they have what they have gained, and ye shall have what ye
gain; and ye shall not be questioned concerning that which they have
done. They say, Become Jews or Christians that ye may be directed. Say,
Nay, we follow the religion of Abraham the orthodox, who was no
idolater. Say, We believe in God, and that which hath been sent down
unto us, and that which hath been sent down unto Abraham, and Ismael,
and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which was delivered unto
Moses, and Jesus, and that which was delivered unto the prophets from
their Lord: We make no distinction between any of them, and to God are
we resigned. Now if they believe according to what ye believe, they are
surely directed, but if they turn back, they are in schism. God shall
support thee against them, for he is the hearer, the wise. The baptism
of God[30] have we received, and who is better than God to baptize? him
do we worship. Say, Will ye dispute with us concerning God, who is our
Lord, and your Lord? we have our works, and ye have your works, and unto
him are we sincerely devoted. Will ye say, Truly Abraham, and Ismael,
and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes were Jews or Christians? Say, Are
ye wiser, or God? And who is more unjust than he who hideth the
testimony which he hath received from God? But God is not regardless of
that which ye do. That people are passed away, they have what they have
gained, and ye shall have what ye gain, nor shall ye be questioned
concerning that which they have done. The foolish men will say, What
hath turned them from their Keblah, towards which they formerly
prayed?[31] Say, Unto God belongeth the east and the west: he directeth
whom he pleaseth into the right way. Thus have we placed you, O
Arabians, an intermediate nation, that ye may be witnesses against the
rest of mankind, and that the apostle may be a witness against you. We
appointed the Keblah towards which thou didst formerly pray, only that
we might know him who followeth the apostle, from him who turneth back
on his heels; though this change seem a great matter, unless unto those
whom God hath directed. But God will not render your faith of no effect;
for God is gracious and merciful unto man. We have seen thee turn about
thy face towards heaven with uncertainty, but we will cause thee to turn
thyself towards a Keblah that will please thee. Turn, therefore, thy
face towards the holy temple of Mecca; and wherever ye be, turn your
faces towards that place. They to whom the scripture hath been given,
know this to be truth from their Lord. God is not regardless of that
which ye do. Verily although thou shouldst show unto those to whom the
scripture hath been given all kinds of signs, yet they will not follow
thy Keblah, neither shalt thou follow their Keblah; nor will one part of
them follow the Keblah of the other. And if thou follow their desires,
after the knowledge which hath been given thee, verily thou wilt become
one of the ungodly. They to whom we have given the scripture know our
apostle, even as they know their own children; but some of them hide the
truth, against their own knowledge. Truth is from thy Lord, therefore
thou shalt not doubt. Every sect hath a certain tract of heaven to which
they turn themselves in prayer; but do ye strive to run after good
things: wherever ye be, God will bring you all back at the resurrection,
for God is almighty. And from what place soever thou comest forth, turn
thy face towards the holy temple; for this is truth from thy Lord;
neither is God regardless of that which ye do. From what place soever
thou comest forth, turn thy face towards the holy temple; and wherever
ye be, thitherward turn your faces, lest men have matter of dispute
against you; but as for those among them who are unjust doers, fear them
not, but fear me, that I may accomplish my grace upon you, and that ye
may be directed. As we have sent unto you an apostle from among you, to
rehearse our signs unto you, and to purify you, and to teach you the
book of the Koran and wisdom, and to teach you that which ye knew not:
therefore remember me, and I will remember you, and give thanks unto me,
and be not unbelievers. O true believers, beg assistance with patience
and prayer, for God is with the patient. And say not of those who are
slain in fight for the religion of God, that they are dead; yea, they
are living: but ye do not understand. We will surely prove you by
afflicting you in some measure with fear, and hunger, and decrease of
wealth, and loss of lives, and scarcity of fruits; but bear good tidings
unto the patient, who when a misfortune befalleth them, say, We are
God's, and unto him shall we surely return. Upon them shall be blessings
from their Lord and mercy, and they are the rightly directed. Moreover
Safa and Merwah are two of the monuments of God: whoever therefore goeth
on pilgrimage to the temple of Mecca or visiteth it, it shall be no
crime in him if he compass them both. And as for him who voluntarily
performeth a good work; verily God is grateful and knowing. They who
conceal any of the evident signs, or the direction which we have sent
down, after what we have manifested unto men in the scripture, God shall
curse them; and they who curse shall curse them. But as for those who
repent and amend, and make known what they concealed, I will be turned
unto them, for I am easy to be reconciled and merciful. Surely they who
believe not, and die in their unbelief, upon them shall be the curse of
God, and of the angels, and of all men; they shall remain under it
forever, their punishment shall not be alleviated, neither shall they be
regarded. Your God is one God, there is no God but He, the most
merciful. Now in the creation of heaven and earth, and the vicissitude
of night and day, and in the ship which saileth in the sea, laden with
what is profitable for mankind, and in the rain-water which God sendeth
from heaven, quickening thereby the dead earth, and replenishing the
same with all sorts of cattle, and in the change of winds, and the
clouds that are compelled to do service between heaven and earth, are
signs to people of understanding: yet some men take idols beside God,
and love them as with the love due to God; but the true believers are
more fervent in love towards God. Oh that they who act unjustly did
perceive, when they behold their punishment, that all power belongeth
unto God, and that he is severe in punishing! When those who have been
followed, shall separate themselves from their followers, and shall see
the punishment, and the cords of relation between them shall be cut
asunder; the followers shall say, If we could return to life, we would
separate ourselves from them, as they have now separated themselves from
us. So God will show them their works; they shall sigh grievously, and
shall not come forth from the fire of hell. O men, eat of that which is
lawful and good on the earth; and tread not in the steps of the devil,
for he is your open enemy. Verily he commandeth you evil and wickedness,
and that ye should say that of God which ye know not. And when it is
said unto them who believe not, Follow that which God hath sent down;
they answer, Nay, but we will follow that which we found our fathers
practised. What? though their fathers knew nothing, and were not rightly
directed? The unbelievers are like unto one who crieth aloud to that
which heareth not so much as his calling, or the sound of his voice.
They are deaf, dumb, and blind, therefore they do not understand. O true
believers, eat of the good things which we have bestowed on you for
food, and return thanks unto God, if ye serve him. Verily he hath
forbidden you to eat that which dieth of itself, and blood, and swine's
flesh, and that on which any other name but God's hath been
invocated.[32] But he who is forced by necessity, not lusting, nor
returning to transgress, it shall be no crime in him if he eat of those
things, for God is gracious and merciful. Moreover they who conceal any
part of the scripture which God hath sent down unto them, and sell it
for a small price, they shall swallow into their bellies nothing but
fire; God shall not speak unto them on the day of resurrection, neither
shall he purify them, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. These
are they who have sold direction for error, and pardon for punishment:
but how great will their suffering be in the fire! This they shall
endure, because God sent down the book of the Koran with truth, and they
who disagree concerning that book, are certainly in a wide mistake. It
is not righteousness that ye turn your faces in prayer towards the east
and the west, but righteousness is of him who believeth in God and the
last day, and the angels, and the scriptures, and the prophets; who
giveth money for God's sake unto his kindred, and unto orphans, and the
needy, and the stranger, and those who ask, and for redemption of
captives; who is constant at prayer, and giveth alms; and of those who
perform their covenant, when they have covenanted, and who behave
themselves patiently in adversity, and hardships, and in time of
violence: these are they who are true, and these are they who fear God.
O true believers, the law of retaliation is ordained you for the slain:
the free shall die for the free, and the servant for the servant, and a
woman for a woman; but he whom his brother shall forgive, may be
prosecuted, and obliged to make satisfaction according to what is just,
and a fine shall be set on him[33] with humanity. This is indulgence
from your Lord, and mercy. And he who shall transgress after this, by
killing the murderer, shall suffer a grievous punishment. And in this
law of retaliation ye have life, O ye of understanding, that
peradventure ye may fear. It is ordained you, when any of you is at the
point of death, if he leave any goods, that he bequeath a legacy to his
parents and kindred, according to what shall be reasonable.[34] This is
a duty incumbent on those who fear God. But he who shall change the
legacy, after he hath heard it bequeathed by the dying person, surely
the sin thereof shall be on those who change it, for God is he who
heareth and knoweth. Howbeit he who apprehendeth from the testator any
mistake or injustice, and shall compose the matter between them, that
shall be no crime in him, for God is gracious and merciful. O true
believers, a fast is ordained you, as it was ordained unto those before
you, that ye may fear God. A certain number of days shall ye fast: but
he among you who shall be sick, or on a journey, shall fast an equal
number of other days. And those who can keep it, and do not, must redeem
their neglect by maintaining of a poor man. And he who voluntarily
dealeth better with the poor man than he is obliged, this shall be
better for him. But if ye fast it will be better for you, if ye knew it.
The month of Ramadhan shall ye fast, in which the Koran was sent down
from heaven, a direction unto men, and declarations of direction, and
the distinction between good and evil. Therefore let him among you who
shall be present in this month, fast the same month; but he who shall be
sick, or on a journey, shall fast the like number of other days. God
would make this an ease unto you, and would not make it a difficulty
unto you; that ye may fulfil the number of days, and glorify God, for
that he hath directed you, and that ye may give thanks. When my servants
ask thee concerning me, Verily I am near; I will hear the prayer of him
that prayeth, when he prayeth unto me: but let them hearken unto me, and
believe in me, that they may be rightly directed. It is lawful for you
on the night of the fast to go in unto your wives: they are a garment
unto you, and ye are a garment unto them. God knoweth that ye defraud
yourselves therein, wherefore he turneth unto you and forgiveth you. Now
therefore go in unto them; and earnestly desire that which God ordaineth
you, and eat and drink, until ye can plainly distinguish a white thread
from a black thread by the daybreak: then keep the fast until night, and
go not in unto them, but be constantly present in the places of worship.
These are the prescribed bounds of God, therefore draw not near them to
transgress them. Thus God declareth his signs unto men, that ye may fear
him. Consume not your wealth among yourselves in vain; nor present it
unto judges, that ye may devour part of men's substance unjustly,
against your own consciences. They will ask thee concerning the phases
of the moon. Answer, They are times appointed unto men, and to show the
season of the pilgrimage to Mecca. It is not righteousness that ye enter
your houses by the back part thereof, but righteousness is of him who
feareth God. Therefore enter your houses by their doors; and fear God,
that ye may be happy. And fight for the religion of God against those
who fight against you, but transgress not by attacking them first, for
God loveth not the transgressors. And kill them wherever ye find them,
and turn them out of that whereof they have dispossessed you; for
temptation to idolatry is more grievous than slaughter: yet fight not
against them in the holy temple, until they attack you therein; but if
they attack you, slay them there. This shall be the reward of the
infidels. But if they desist, God is gracious and merciful. Fight
therefore against them, until there be no temptation to idolatry, and
the religion be God's: but if they desist, then let there be no
hostility, except against the ungodly. A sacred month for a sacred
month, and the holy limits of Mecca, if they attack you therein, do ye
also attack them therein in retaliation; and whoever transgresseth
against you by so doing, do ye transgress against him in like manner as
he hath transgressed against you, and fear God, and know that God is
with those who fear him. Contribute out of your substance towards the
defence of the religion of God, and throw not yourselves with your own
hands into perdition; and do good, for God loveth those who do good.
Perform the pilgrimage of Mecca, and the visitation of God; if ye be
besieged, send that offering which shall be the easiest; and shave not
your heads, until your offering reacheth the place of sacrifice. But
whoever among you is sick, or is troubled with any distemper of the
head, must redeem the shaving his head by fasting, or alms, or some
offering. When ye are secure from enemies, he who tarrieth in the
visitation of the temple of Mecca until the pilgrimage, shall bring that
offering which shall be the easiest. But he who findeth not anything to
offer, shall fast three days in the pilgrimage, and seven when ye are
returned: they shall be ten days complete. This is incumbent on him
whose family shall not be present at the holy temple. And fear God, and
know that God is severe in punishing. The pilgrimage must be performed
in the known months; whosoever therefore purposeth to go on pilgrimage
therein, let him not know a woman, nor transgress, nor quarrel in the
pilgrimage. The good which ye do, God knoweth it. Make provision for
your journey; but the best provision is piety: and fear me, O ye of
understanding. It shall be no crime in you, if ye seek an increase from
your Lord, by trading during the pilgrimage. And when ye go in
procession from Arafat, remember God near the holy monument; and
remember him for that he hath directed you, although ye were before this
of the number of those who go astray. Therefore go in procession from
whence the people go in procession, and ask pardon of God, for God is
gracious and merciful. And when ye have finished your holy ceremonies,
remember God, according as ye remember your fathers, or with a more
reverent commemoration. There are some men who say, O Lord, give us our
portion in this world; but such shall have no portion in the next life:
and there are others who say, O Lord, give us good in this world, and
also good in the next world, and deliver us from the torment of hell
fire. They shall have a portion of that which they have gained: God is
swift in taking an account. Remember God the appointed number of days;
but if any haste to depart from the valley of Mina in two days, it shall
be no crime in him. And if any tarry longer, it shall be no crime in
him, in him who feareth God. Therefore fear God, and know that unto him
ye shall be gathered. There is a man who causeth thee to marvel[35] by
his speech concerning this present life, and calleth God to witness that
which is in his heart, yet he is most intent in opposing thee; and when
he turneth away from thee, he hasteth to act corruptly in the earth, and
to destroy that which is sown, and springeth up;[36] but God loveth not
corrupt doing. And if one say unto him, Fear God; pride seizeth him,
together with wickedness; but hell shall be his reward, and an unhappy
couch shall it be. There is also a man who selleth his soul for the sake
of those things which are pleasing unto God;[37] and God is gracious
unto his servants. O true believers, enter into the true religion
wholly, and follow not the steps of Satan, for he is your open enemy. If
ye have slipped after the declarations of our will have come unto you,
know that God is mighty and wise. Do the infidels expect less than that
God should come down to them overshadowed with clouds, and the angels
also? but the thing is decreed, and to God shall all things return. Ask
the children of Israel how many evident signs we have showed them; and
whoever shall change the grace of God, after it shall have come unto
him, verily God will be severe in punishing him. The present life was
ordained for those who believe not, and they laugh the faithful to
scorn; but they who fear God shall be above them, on the day of the
resurrection: for God is bountiful unto whom he pleaseth without
measure. Mankind was of one faith, and God sent prophets bearing good
tidings, and denouncing threats; and sent down with them the scripture
in truth, that it might judge between men of that concerning which they
disagreed: and none disagreed concerning it, except those to whom the
same scriptures were delivered, after the declarations of God's will had
come unto them, out of envy among themselves. And God directed those who
believed, to that truth concerning which they disagreed, by his will:
for God directeth whom he pleaseth into the right way. Did ye think ye
should enter paradise, when as yet no such thing had happened unto you,
as hath happened unto those who have been before you? They suffered
calamity and tribulation, and were afflicted; so that the apostle, and
they who believed with him, said, When will the help of God come? Is not
the help of God nigh? They will ask thee what they shall bestow in alms:
Answer, The good which ye bestow, let it be given to parents, and
kindred, and orphans, and the poor, and the stranger. Whatsoever good ye
do, God knoweth it. War is enjoined you against the Infidels; but this
is hateful unto you: yet perchance ye hate a thing which is better for
you, and perchance ye love a thing which is worse for you: but God
knoweth and ye know not. They will ask thee concerning the sacred month,
whether they may war therein: Answer, To war therein is grievous; but to
obstruct the way of God, and infidelity towards him, and to keep men
from the holy temple, and to drive out his people from thence, is more
grievous in the sight of God, and the temptation to idolatry is more
grievous than to kill in the sacred months. They will not cease to war
against you, until they turn you from your religion, if they be able:
but whoever among you shall turn back from his religion, and die an
infidel, their works shall be vain in this world and the next; they
shall be the companions of hell fire, they shall remain therein forever.
But they who believe, and who fly for the sake of religion, and fight in
God's cause, they shall hope for the mercy of God; for God is gracious
and merciful. They will ask thee concerning wine[38] and lots:[39]
Answer, In both there is great sin, and also some things of use unto
men, but their sinfulness is greater than their use. They will ask thee
also what they shall bestow in alms: Answer, What ye have to spare. Thus
God showeth his signs unto you, that peradventure ye might seriously
think of this present world, and of the next. They will also ask thee
concerning orphans: Answer, To deal righteously with them is best; and
if ye intermeddle with the management of what belongs to them, do them
no wrong; they are your brethren: God knoweth the corrupt dealer from
the righteous; and if God please, he will surely distress you, for God
is mighty and wise. Marry not women who are idolaters, until they
believe: verily a maid-servant who believeth is better than an
idolatress, although she please you more. And give not women who believe
in marriage to the idolaters, until they believe; for verily a servant
who is a true believer, is better than an idolater, though he please you
more. They invite into hell fire, but God inviteth unto paradise and
pardon through his will, and declareth his signs unto men, that they may
remember. They will ask thee also concerning the courses of women:
Answer, They are a pollution: therefore separate yourselves from women
in their courses, and go not near them until they be cleansed. But when
they are cleansed, go in unto them as God hath commanded you, for God
loveth those who repent, and loveth those who are clean. Your wives are
your tillage; go in therefore unto your tillage in what manner soever ye
will: and do first some act that may be profitable unto your souls; and
fear God, and know that ye must meet him; and bear good tidings unto the
faithful. Make not God the object of your oaths, that ye may deal
justly, and be devout, and make peace among men;[40] for God is he who
heareth and knoweth. God will not punish you for an inconsiderate word
in your oaths; but he will punish you for that which your hearts have
assented unto: God is merciful and gracious. They who vow to abstain
from their wives, are allowed to wait four months: but if they go back
from their vow, verily God is gracious and merciful; and if they resolve
on a divorce, God is he who heareth and knoweth. The women who are
divorced shall wait concerning themselves until they have their courses
thrice, and it shall not be lawful for them to conceal that which God
hath created in their wombs, if they believe in God and the last day;
and their husbands will act more justly to bring them back at this time,
if they desire a reconciliation. The women ought also to behave towards
their husbands in like manner as their husbands should behave towards
them, according to what is just: but the men ought to have a superiority
over them. God is mighty and wise. Ye may divorce your wives twice; and
then either retain them with humanity, or dismiss them with kindness.
But it is not lawful for you to take away anything of what ye have given
them, unless both fear that they cannot observe the ordinances of God.
And if ye fear that they cannot observe the ordinances of God, it shall
be no crime in either of them on account of that for which the wife
shall redeem herself. These are the ordinances of God; therefore
transgress them not; for whoever transgresseth the ordinances of God,
they are unjust doers. But if the husband divorce her a third time, she
shall not be lawful for him again, until she marry another husband. But
if he also divorce her, it shall be no crime in them, if they return to
each other, if they think they can observe the ordinances of God; and
these are the ordinances of God: he declareth them to people of
understanding. But when ye divorce women, and they have fulfilled their
prescribed time, either retain them with humanity, or dismiss them with
kindness; and retain them not by violence, so that ye transgress; for he
who doth this, surely injureth his own soul. And make not the signs of
God a jest: but remember God's favor towards you, and that he hath sent
down unto you the book of the Koran, and wisdom, admonishing you
thereby; and fear God, and know that God is omniscient. But when ye have
divorced your wives, and they have fulfilled their prescribed time,
hinder them not from marrying their husbands, when they have agreed
among themselves according to what is honorable. This is given in
admonition unto him among you who believeth in God, and the last day.
This is most righteous for you, and most pure. God knoweth, but ye know
not. Mothers, after they are divorced, shall give suck unto their
children two full years, to him who desireth the time of giving suck to
be completed; and the father shall be obliged to maintain them and
clothe them in the meantime, according to that which shall be
reasonable. No person shall be obliged beyond his ability. A mother
shall not be compelled to what is unreasonable on account of her child,
nor a father on account of his child. And the heir of the father shall
be obliged to do in like manner. But if they choose to wean the child
before the end of two years, by common consent and on mutual
consideration, it shall be no crime in them. And if ye have a mind to
provide a nurse for your children, it shall be no crime in you, in case
ye fully pay what ye offer her, according to that which is just. And
fear God, and know that God seeth whatever ye do. Such of you as die,
and leave wives, their wives must wait concerning themselves four months
and ten days, and when they shall have fulfilled their term, it shall be
no crime in you, for that which they shall do with themselves, according
to what is reasonable. God well knoweth that which ye do. And it shall
be no crime in you, whether ye make public overtures of marriage unto
such women, within the said four months and ten days, or whether ye
conceal such your designs in your minds: God knoweth that ye will
remember them. But make no promise unto them privately, unless ye speak
honorable words; and resolve not on the knot of marriage, until the
prescribed time be accomplished; and know that God knoweth that which is
in your minds, therefore beware of him, and know that God is gracious
and merciful. It shall be no crime in you, if ye divorce your wives, so
long as ye have not touched them, nor settled any dowry on them. And
provide for them (he who is at his ease must provide according to his
circumstances, and he who is straitened according to his circumstances)
necessaries, according to what shall be reasonable. This is a duty
incumbent on the righteous. But if ye divorce them before ye have
touched them, and have already settled a dowry on them, ye shall give
them half of what ye have settled, unless they release any part, or he
release part in whose hand the knot of marriage is; and if ye release
the whole, it will approach nearer unto piety. And forget not liberality
among you, for God seeth that which ye do. Carefully observe the
appointed prayers, and the middle prayer,[41] and be assiduous therein,
with devotion towards God. But if ye fear any danger, pray on foot or on
horseback; and when ye are safe, remember God, how he hath taught you
what as yet ye knew not. And such of you as shall die and leave wives,
ought to bequeath their wives a year's maintenance, without putting them
out of their houses: but if they go out voluntarily, it shall be no
crime in you, for that which they shall do with themselves, according to
what shall be reasonable; God is mighty and wise. And unto those who are
divorced, a reasonable provision is also due; this is a duty incumbent
on those who fear God. Thus God declareth his signs unto you, that ye
may understand. Hast thou not considered those who left their
habitations (and they were thousands) for fear of death? And God said
unto them, Die; then he restored them to life, for God is gracious
towards mankind; but the greater part of men do not give thanks. Fight
for the religion of God, and know that God is he who heareth and
knoweth. Who is he that will lend unto God on good usury? verily he will
double it unto him manifold; for God contracteth and extendeth his hand
as he pleaseth, and to him shall ye return. Hast thou not considered the
assembly of the children of Israel, after the time of Moses; when they
said unto their prophet Samuel, Set a king over us, that we may fight
for the religion of God? The prophet answered, If ye are enjoined to go
to war, will ye be near refusing to fight? They answered, And what
should ail us that we should not fight for the religion of God, seeing
we are dispossessed of our habitations, and deprived of our children?
But when they were enjoined to go to war, they turned back, except a few
of them: and God knew the ungodly. And their prophet said unto them,
Verily God hath set Talut king over you: they answered, How shall he
reign over us, seeing we are more worthy of the kingdom than he, neither
is he possessed of great riches? Samuel said, Verily God hath chosen him
before you, and hath caused him to increase in knowledge and stature,
for God giveth his kingdom unto whom he pleaseth; God is bounteous and
wise. And their prophet said unto them, Verily the sign of his kingdom
shall be, that the ark shall come unto you: therein shall be
tranquillity from your Lord, and the relics which have been left by the
family of Moses, and the family of Aaron; the angels shall bring it.
Verily this shall be a sign unto you, if ye believe. And when Talut
departed with his soldiers, he said, Verily God will prove you by the
river: for he who drinketh thereof, shall not be on my side (but he who
shall not taste thereof he shall be on my side) except he who drinketh a
draught out of his hand. And they drank thereof, except a few of them.
And when they had passed the river, he and those who believed with him,
they said, We have no strength to-day against Jalut and his forces. But
they who considered that they should meet God at the resurrection, said,
How often hath a small army discomfited a great army, by the will of
God? and God is with those who patiently persevere. And when they went
forth to battle against Jalut and his forces, they said, O Lord, pour on
us patience, and confirm our feet, and help us against the unbelieving
people. Therefore they discomfited them, by the will of God, and David
slew Jalut. And God gave him the kingdom and wisdom, and taught him his
will; and if God had not prevented men, the one by the other, verily the
earth had been corrupted: but God is beneficent towards his creatures.
These are the signs of God: we rehearse them unto thee with truth, and
thou art surely one of those who have been sent by God. These are the
apostles; we have preferred some of them before others: some of them
hath God spoken unto, and hath exalted the degree of others of them. And
we gave unto Jesus the son of Mary manifest signs, and strengthened him
with the holy spirit. And if God had pleased, they who came after those
apostles would not have contended among themselves, after manifest signs
had been shown unto them. But they fell to variance; therefore some of
them believed, and some of them believed not; and if God had so pleased,
they would not have contended among themselves, but God doeth what he
will. O true believers, give alms of that which we have bestowed on you,
before the day cometh wherein there shall be no merchandising, nor
friendship, nor intercession. The infidels are unjust doers. God! there
is no God but he;[42] the living, the self-subsisting: neither slumber
nor sleep seizeth him; to him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven, and on
earth. Who is he that can intercede with him, but through his good
pleasure! He knoweth that which is past, and that which is to come unto
them, and they shall not comprehend anything of his knowledge, but so
far as he pleaseth. His throne is extended over heaven and earth,[43]
and the preservation of both is no burden unto him. He is the high, the
mighty. Let there be no violence in religion. Now is right direction
manifestly distinguished from deceit: whoever therefore shall deny
Tagut, and believe in God, he shall surely take hold on a strong handle,
which shall not be broken; God is he who heareth and seeth. God is the
patron of those who believe; he shall lead them out of darkness into
light: but as to those who believe not, their patrons are Tagut; they
shall lead them from the light into darkness; they shall be the
companions of hell fire, they shall remain therein forever. Hast thou
not considered him who disputed with Abraham concerning his Lord,
because God had given him the kingdom? When Abraham said, My Lord is he
who giveth life, and killeth: he answered, I give life, and I kill.
Abraham said, Verily God bringeth the sun from the east, now do thou
bring it from the west. Whereupon the infidel was confounded; for God
directeth not the ungodly people. Or hast thou not considered how he
behaved who passed by a city which had been destroyed, even to her
foundations? He said, How shall God quicken this city, after she hath
been dead? And God caused him to die for a hundred years, and afterwards
raised him to life. And God said, How long hast thou tarried here? He
answered, A day, or part of a day. God said, Nay, thou hast tarried here
a hundred years. Now look on thy food and the drink, they are not yet
corrupted; and look on thine ass: and this have we done that we might
make thee a sign unto men. And look on the bones of thine ass, how we
raise them, and afterwards clothe them with flesh. And when this was
shown unto him, he said, I know that God is able to do all things. And
when Abraham said, O Lord, show me how thou wilt raise the dead; God
said, Dost thou not yet believe? He answered, Yea; but I ask this that
my heart may rest at ease. God said, take therefore four birds, and
divide them; then lay a part of them on every mountain; then call them,
and they shall come swiftly unto thee: and know that God is mighty and
wise. The similitude of those who lay out their substance for advancing
the religion of God, is as a grain of corn which produceth seven ears,
and in every ear a hundred grains; for God giveth twofold unto whom he
pleaseth: God is bounteous and wise. They who lay out their substance
for the religion of God, and afterwards follow not what they have so
laid out by reproaches or mischief, they shall have their reward with
their Lord; upon them shall no fear come, neither shall they be grieved.
A fair speech, and to forgive, is better than alms followed by mischief.
God is rich and merciful. O true believers, make not your alms of no
effect by reproaching, or mischief, as he who layeth out what he hath to
appear unto men to give alms, and believeth not in God and the last day.
The likeness of such a one is as a flint covered with earth, on which a
violent rain falleth, and leaveth it hard. They cannot prosper in
anything which they have gained, for God directeth not the unbelieving
people. And the likeness of those who lay out their substance from a
desire to please God, and for an establishment for their souls, is as a
garden on a hill, on which a violent rain falleth, and it bringeth forth
its fruits twofold; and if a violent rain falleth not on it, yet the dew
falleth thereon: and God seeth that which ye do. Doth any of you desire
to have a garden of palm-trees and vines, through which rivers flow,
wherein he may have all kinds of fruits, and that he may attain to old
age, and have a weak offspring? then a violent fiery wind shall strike
it, so that it shall be burned. Thus God declareth his signs unto you,
that ye may consider. O true believers, bestow alms of the good things
which ye have gained, and of that which we have produced for you out of
the earth, and choose not the bad thereof, to give it in alms, such as
ye would not accept yourselves, otherwise than by connivance: and know
that God is rich and worthy to be praised. The devil threateneth you
with poverty, and commandeth you filthy covetousness; but God promiseth
you pardon from himself and abundance: God is bounteous and wise. He
giveth wisdom unto whom he pleaseth; and he unto whom wisdom is given,
hath received much good: but none will consider, except the wise of
heart. And whatever alms ye shall give, or whatever vow ye shall vow,
verily God knoweth it; but the ungodly shall have none to help them. If
ye make your alms to appear, it is well; but if ye conceal them, and
give them unto the poor, this will be better for you, and will atone for
your sins: and God is well informed of that which ye do. The direction
of them belongeth not unto thee; but God directeth whom he pleaseth. The
good that ye shall give in alms shall redound unto yourselves; and ye
shall not give unless out of desire of seeing the face of God. And what
good thing ye shall give in alms, it shall be repaid you, and ye shall
not be treated unjustly; unto the poor who are wholly employed in
fighting for the religion of God, and cannot go to and fro in the earth;
whom the ignorant man thinketh rich, because of their modesty: thou
shalt know them by this mark, they ask not men with importunity; and
what good ye shall give in alms, verily God knoweth it. They who
distribute alms of their substance night and day, in private and in
public, shall have their reward with the Lord; on them shall no fear
come, neither shall they be grieved. They who devour usury shall not
arise from the dead, but as he ariseth whom Satan hath infected by a
touch: this shall happen to them because they say, Truly selling is but
as usury: and yet God hath permitted selling and forbidden usury. He
therefore who, when there cometh unto him an admonition from his Lord,
abstaineth from usury for the future, shall have what is past forgiven
him, and his affair belongeth unto God. But whoever returneth to usury,
they shall be the companions of hell fire, they shall continue therein
forever. God shall take his blessing from usury, and shall increase
alms: for God loveth no infidel, or ungodly person. But they who believe
and do that which is right, and observe the stated times of prayer, and
pay their legal alms, they shall have their reward with their Lord:
there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved. O true
believers, fear God, and remit that which remaineth of usury, if ye
really believe; but if ye do it not, hearken unto war, which is declared
against you from God and his apostle: yet if ye repent, ye shall have
the capital of your money. Deal not unjustly with others, and ye shall
not be dealt with unjustly. If there be any debtor under a difficulty of
paying his debt, let his creditor wait till it be easy for him to do it;
but if ye remit it as alms, it will be better for you, if ye knew it.
And fear the day wherein ye shall return unto God; then shall every soul
be paid what it hath gained, and they shall not be treated unjustly. O
true believers, when ye bind yourselves one to the other in a debt for a
certain time, write it down; and let a writer write between you
according to justice, and let not the writer refuse writing according to
what God hath taught him; but let him write, and let him who oweth the
debt dictate, and let him fear God his Lord, and not diminish aught
thereof. But if he who oweth the debt be foolish, or weak, or be not
able to dictate himself, let his agent dictate according to equity; and
call to witness two witnesses of your neighboring men; but if there be
not two men, let there be a man and two women of those whom ye shall
choose for witnesses: if one of those women should mistake, the other of
them will cause her to recollect. And the witnesses shall not refuse,
whensoever they shall be called. And disdain not to write it down, be it
a large debt, or be it a small one, until its time of payment: this will
be more just in the sight of God, and more right for bearing witness,
and more easy, that ye may not doubt. But if it be a present bargain
which ye transact between yourselves, it shall be no crime in you, if ye
write it not down. And take witnesses when ye sell one to the other, and
let no harm be done to the writer, nor to the witness; which if ye do,
it will surely be injustice in you: and fear God, and God will instruct
you, for God knoweth all things. And if ye be on a journey, and find no
writer, let pledges be taken: but if one of you trust the other, let him
who is trusted return what he is trusted with, and fear God his Lord.
And conceal not the testimony, for he who concealeth it hath surely a
wicked heart: God knoweth that which ye do. Whatever is in heaven and on
earth is God's; and whether ye manifest that which is in your minds, or
conceal it, God will call you to account for it, and will forgive whom
he pleaseth, and will punish whom he pleaseth; for God is almighty. The
apostle believeth in that which hath been sent down unto him from his
Lord, and the faithful also. Every one of them believeth in God, and his
angels, and his scriptures, and his apostles: we make no distinction at
all between his apostles.[44] And they say, We have heard, and do obey:
we implore thy mercy, O Lord, for unto thee must we return. God will not
force any soul beyond its capacity: it shall have the good which it
gaineth, and it shall suffer the evil which it gaineth. O Lord, punish
us not, if we forget, or act sinfully: O Lord, lay not on us a burden
like that which thou hast laid on those who have been before us;[45]
neither make us, O Lord, to bear what we have not strength to bear, but
be favorable unto us, and spare us, and be merciful unto us. Thou art
our patron, help us therefore against the unbelieving nations.

[Footnote 22: This title was occasioned by the story of the red heifer,
mentioned p. 217.]

[Footnote 23: Concerning the creation of Adam, here intimated, the
Mohammedans have several peculiar traditions. They say the angels,
Gabriel, Michael, and Israfil, were sent by God, one after another, to
fetch for that purpose seven handfuls of earth from different depths,
and of different colors (whence some account for the various complexion
of mankind); but the earth being apprehensive of the consequence, and
desiring them to represent her fear to God that the creature he designed
to form would rebel against him, and draw down his curse upon her, they
returned without performing God's command; whereupon he sent Azrail on
the same errand, who executed his commission without remorse, for which
reason God appointed that angel to separate the souls from the bodies,
being therefore called the angel of death. The earth he had taken was
carried into Arabia, to a place between Mecca and Tayef, where, being
first kneaded by the angels, it was afterwards fashioned by God himself
into a human form, and left to dry for the space of forty days, or, as
others say, as many years, the angels in the meantime often visiting it,
and Eblis (then one of the angels who are nearest to God's presence,
afterwards the devil) among the rest; but he, not contented with looking
on it, kicked it with his foot, and knowing God designed that creature
to be his superior, took a secret resolution never to acknowledge him as
such. After this, God animated the figure of clay and endued it with an
intelligent soul, and when he had placed him in paradise, formed Eve out
of his left side.]

[Footnote 24: This occasion of the devil's fall has some affinity with
an opinion which has been pretty much entertained among Christians,
viz., that the angels being informed of God's intention to create man
after his own image, and to dignify human nature by Christ's assuming
it, some of them, thinking their glory to be eclipsed thereby, envied
man's happiness, and so revolted.]

[Footnote 25: The Jews are here called upon to receive the Koran, as
verifying and confirming the Pentateuch, particularly with respect to
the unity of God, and the mission of Mohammed. And they are exhorted not
to conceal the passages of their law which bear witness to those truths,
nor to corrupt them by publishing false copies of the Pentateuch, for
which the writers were but poorly paid.]

[Footnote 26: The person who cast this calf, the Mohammedans say, was
(not Aaron but) al Sameri, one of the principal men among the children
of Israel, some of whose descendants it is pretended still inhabit an
island of that name in the Arabian Gulf. It was made of the rings and
bracelets of gold, silver, and other materials, which the Israelites had
borrowed of the Egyptians; for Aaron, who commanded in his brother's
absence, having ordered al Sameri to collect those ornaments from the
people, who carried on a wicked commerce with them, and to keep them
together till the return of Moses; al Sameri, understanding the
founder's art, put them into a furnace to melt them down into one mass,
which came out in the form of a calf.]

[Footnote 27: The eastern writers say these quails were of a peculiar
kind, to be found nowhere but in Yaman, from whence they were brought by
a south wind in great numbers to the Israelites' camp in the desert. The
Arabs call these birds Salwae, which is plainly the same with the Hebrew
Salwim, and say they have no bones, but are eaten whole.]

[Footnote 28: The occasion of this sacrifice is thus related: A certain
man at his death left his son, then a child, a cow-calf, which wandered
in the desert till he came to age; at which time his mother told him the
heifer was his, and bid him fetch her, and sell her for three pieces of
gold. When the young man came to the market with his heifer, an angel in
the shape of a man accosted him, and bid him six pieces of gold for her;
but he would not take the money till he had asked his mother's consent;
which when he had obtained, he returned to the market-place, and met the
angel, who now offered him twice as much for the heifer, provided he
would say nothing of it to his mother; but the young man refusing, went
and acquainted her with the additional offer. The woman perceiving it
was an angel, bid her son go back and ask him what must be done with the
heifer; whereupon the angel told the young man that in a little time the
children of Israel would buy that heifer of him at any price. And soon
after it happened that an Israelite, named Hammiel, was killed by a
relation of his, who, to prevent discovery, conveyed the body to a place
considerably distant from that where the act was committed. The friends
of the slain man accused some other persons of the murder before Moses;
but they denying the fact, and there being no evidence to convict them,
God commanded a cow, of such and such particular marks, to be killed;
but there being no other which answered the description except the
orphan's heifer, they were obliged to buy her for as much gold as her
hide would hold; according to some, for her full weight in gold, and as
others say, for ten times as much. This heifer they sacrificed, and the
dead body being, by divine direction, struck with a part of it, revived,
and standing up, named the person who had killed Him; after which it
immediately fell down dead again. The whole story seems to be borrowed
from the red heifer which was ordered by the Jewish law to be burnt, and
the ashes kept for purifying those who happened to touch a dead corpse;
and from the heifer directed to be slain for the expiation of an
uncertain murder. See Deut. xxi. 1-9.]

[Footnote 29: Those two Arabic words have both the same signification,
viz., Look on us; and are a kind of salutation. Mohammed had a great
aversion to the first, because the Jews frequently used it in derision,
it being a word of reproach in their tongue. They alluded, it seems, to
the Hebrew verb _rua_, which signifies to be bad or mischievous.]

[Footnote 30: By baptism is to be understood the religion which God
instituted in the beginning; because the signs of it appear in the
person who professes it, as the signs of water appear in the clothes of
him that is baptized.]

[Footnote 31: At first, Mohammed and his followers observed no
particular rite in turning their faces towards any certain place, or
quarter, of the world, when they prayed; it being declared to be
perfectly indifferent.]

[Footnote 32: For this reason, whenever the Mohammedans kill any animal
for food, they always say, _Bismi allah_, or "In the name of God";
which, if it be neglected, they think it not lawful to eat of it.]

[Footnote 33: This is the common practice in Mohammedan countries,
particularly in Persia, where the relations of the deceased may take
their choice, either to have the murderer put into their hands to be put
to death, or else to accept of a pecuniary satisfaction.]

[Footnote 34: That is, the legacy was not to exceed a third part of the
testator's substance, nor to be given where there was no necessity. But
this injunction is abrogated by the law concerning inheritances.]

[Footnote 35: This person was al Akhnas Ebn Shoraik, a fair-spoken
dissembler, who swore that he believed in Mohammed, and pretended to be
one of his friends, and to contemn this world. But God here reveals to
the prophet his hypocrisy and wickedness.]

[Footnote 36: Setting fire to his neighbor's corn, and killing his asses
by night.]

[Footnote 37: The person here meant was one Soheib, who being persecuted
by the idolaters of Mecca forsook all he had and fled to Medina.]

[Footnote 38: Under the name of wine all sorts of strong and inebriating
liquors are comprehended.]

[Footnote 39: The original word, _al Meiser_, properly signifies a
particular game performed with arrows, and much in use with the pagan
Arabs. But by lots we are here to understand all games whatsoever, which
are subject to chance or hazard, as dice and cards.]

[Footnote 40: Some commentators expound this negatively, "That ye will
not deal justly, nor be devout ..." For such wicked oaths, they say,
were customary among the idolatrous inhabitants of Mecca; which gave
occasion to the following saying of Mohammed: "When you swear to do a
thing, and afterwards find it better to do otherwise, do that which is
better, and make void your oath."]

[Footnote 41: Yahya interprets this from a tradition of Mohammed, who,
being asked which was the middle prayer, answered, The evening prayer,
which was instituted by the prophet Solomon.]

[Footnote 42: The following seven lines contain a magnificent
description of the divine majesty and providence; but it must not be
supposed the translation comes up to the dignity of the original. This
passage is justly admired by the Mohammedans, who recite it in their
prayers; and some of them wear it about them, engraved on an agate or
other precious stone.]

[Footnote 43: This throne, in Arabic called Corsi, is by the Mohammedans
supposed to be God's tribunal, or seat of justice.]

[Footnote 44: But this, say the Mohammedans, the Jews do, who receive
Moses but reject Jesus; and the Christians, who receive both those
prophets, but reject Mohammed.]

[Footnote 45: That is, on the Jews, who, as the commentators tell us,
were ordered to kill a man by way of atonement, to give one-fourth of
their substance in alms, and to cut off an unclean ulcerous part, and
were forbidden to eat fat, or animals that divided the hoof, and were
obliged to observe the Sabbath, and other particulars wherein the
Mohammedans are at liberty.]

CHAPTER III

Entitled, the Family of Imran[46]--Revealed at Medina

_In the Name of the Most Merciful God_.

A.L.M.[47] There is no God but God, the living, self-subsisting: He hath
sent down unto thee the book of the Koran with truth, confirming that
which was revealed before it; for he had formerly sent down the law and
the gospel, a direction unto men; and he had also sent down the
distinction between good and evil. Verily those who believe not the
signs of God, shall suffer a grievous punishment; for God is mighty,
able to revenge. Surely nothing is hidden from God, of that which is on
earth, or in heaven: it is he who formeth you in the wombs, as he
pleaseth; there is no God but he, the mighty, the wise. It is he who
hath sent down unto thee the book, wherein are some verses clear to be
understood, they are the foundation of the book; and others are
parabolical. But they whose hearts are perverse will follow that which
is parabolical therein, out of love of schism, and a desire of the
interpretation thereof; yet none knoweth the interpretation thereof,
except God. But they who are well grounded in knowledge say, We believe
therein, the whole is from our Lord; and none will consider except the
prudent. O Lord, cause not our hearts to swerve from truth, after thou
hast directed us: and give us from thee mercy, for thou art he who
giveth. O Lord, thou shalt surely gather mankind together, unto a day of
resurrection: there is no doubt of it, for God will not be contrary to
the promise. As for the infidels, their wealth shall not profit them
anything, nor their children, against God: they shall be the fuel of
hell fire. According to the wont of the people of Pharaoh, and of those
who went before them, they charged our signs with a lie; but God caught
them in their wickedness, and God is severe in punishing. Say unto those
who believe not, Ye shall be overcome, and thrown together into hell; an
unhappy couch shall it be. Ye have already had a miracle shown you in
two armies, which attacked each other:[48] one army fought for God's
true religion, but the other were infidels; they saw the faithful twice
as many as themselves in their eyesight; for God strengthened with his
help whom he pleaseth. Surely herein was an example unto men of
understanding. The love and eager desire of wives, and children, and
sums heaped up of gold and silver, and excellent horses, and cattle, and
land, is prepared for men: this is the provision of the present life;
but unto God shall be the most excellent return. Say, Shall I declare
unto you better things than this? For those who are devout are prepared
with their Lord, gardens through which rivers flow; therein shall they
continue forever: and they shall enjoy wives free from impurity, and the
favor of God; for God regardeth his servants; who say, O Lord, we do
sincerely believe; forgive us therefore our sins, and deliver us from
the pain of hell fire: the patient, and the lovers of truth, and the
devout, and the alms-givers, and those who ask pardon early in the
morning. God hath borne witness that there is no God but he; and the
angels, and those who are endowed with wisdom, profess the same; who
executed righteousness; there is no God but he; the mighty, the wise.
Verily the true religion in the sight of God, is Islam;[49] and they who
had received the scriptures dissented not therefrom, until after the
knowledge of God's unity had come unto them, out of envy among
themselves; but whosoever believeth not in the signs of God, verily God
will be swift in bringing him to account. If they dispute with thee,
say, I have resigned myself unto God, and he who followeth me doth the
same: and say unto them who have received the scriptures, and to the
ignorant, Do ye profess the religion of Islam? Now if they embrace
Islam, they are surely directed; but if they turn their backs, verily
unto thee belongeth preaching only; for God regardeth his servants. And
unto those who believe not in the signs of God, and slay the prophets
without a cause, and put those men to death who teach justice; denounce
unto them a painful punishment. These are they whose works perish in
this world, and in that which is to come; and they shall have none to
help them. Hast thou not observed those unto whom part of the scripture
was given? They were called unto the book of God, that it might judge
between them; then some of them turned their backs, and retired
afar-off. This they did because they said, The fire of hell shall by no
means touch us, but for a certain number of days: and that which they
had falsely devised, hath deceived them in their religion. How then will
it be with them, when we shall gather them together at the day of
judgment,[50] of which there is no doubt; and every soul shall be paid
that which it hath gained, neither shall they be treated unjustly? Say,
O God, who possessest the kingdom; thou givest the kingdom unto whom
thou wilt, and thou takest away the kingdom from whom thou wilt: thou
exaltest whom thou wilt, and thou humblest whom thou wilt: in thy hand
is good, for thou art almighty. Thou makest the night to succeed the
day: thou bringest forth the living out of the dead, and thou bringest
forth the dead out of the living; and providest food for whom thou wilt
without measure. Let not the faithful take the infidels for their
protectors, rather than the faithful: he who doth this shall not be
protected of God at all; unless ye fear any danger from them: but God
warneth you to beware of himself; for unto God must ye return. Say,
Whether ye conceal that which is in your breasts, or whether ye declare
it, God knoweth it: for he knoweth whatever is in heaven, and whatever
is on earth: God is almighty. On the last day every soul shall find the
good which it hath wrought, present; and the evil which it hath wrought,
it shall wish that between itself and that were a wide distance: but God
warneth you to beware of himself; for God is gracious unto his servants.
Say, If ye love God, follow me: then God shall love you, and forgive you
your sins; for God is gracious and merciful. Say, Obey God, and his
apostle: but if ye go back, verily God loveth not the unbelievers. God
hath surely chosen Adam, and Noah, and the family of Abraham, and the
family of Imran above the rest of the world; a race descending the one
from the other: God is he who heareth and knoweth. Remember when the
wife of Imran said, Lord, verily I have vowed unto thee that which is in
my womb, to be dedicated to thy service: accept it therefore of me; for
thou art he who heareth and knoweth. And when she was delivered of it,
she said, Lord, verily I have brought forth a female (and God well knew
what she had brought forth), and a male is not as a female: I have
called her Mary; and I commend her to thy protection, and also her
issue, against Satan driven away with stones. Therefore the Lord
accepted her with a gracious acceptance, and caused her to bear an
excellent offspring. And Zacharias took care of the child; whenever
Zacharias went into the chamber to her, he found provisions with her;
and he said, O Mary, whence hadst thou this? she answered, This is from
God: for God provideth for whom he pleaseth without measure. There
Zacharias called on his Lord, and said, Lord, give me from thee a good
offspring, for thou art the hearer of prayer. And the angels called to
him, while he stood praying in the chamber, saying, Verily God promiseth
thee a son named John, who shall bear witness to the Word which cometh
from God; an honorable person, chaste, and one of the righteous
prophets. He answered, Lord, how shall I have a son, when old age hath
overtaken me, and my wife is barren? The angel said, So God doth that
which he pleaseth. Zacharias answered, Lord, give me a sign. The angel
said, Thy sign shall be, that thou shalt speak unto no man for three
days, otherwise than by gesture: remember thy Lord often, and praise him
evening and morning. And when the angels said, O Mary, verily God hath
chosen thee, and hath purified thee, and hath chosen thee above all the
women of the world: O Mary, be devout towards thy Lord, and worship, and
bow down with those who bow down. This is a secret history: we reveal it
unto thee, although thou wast not present with them when they threw in
their rods to cast lots which of them should have the education of Mary:
neither wast thou with them, when they strove among themselves. When the
angels said, O Mary, verily God sendeth thee good tidings, that thou
shalt bear the Word, proceeding from himself; his name shall be Christ
Jesus the son of Mary, honorable in this world and in the world to come,
and one of those who approach near to the presence of God; and he shall
speak unto men in the cradle, and when he is grown up;[51] and he shall
be one of the righteous: she answered, Lord, how shall I have a son,
since a man hath not touched me? the angel said, So God createth that
which he pleaseth: when he decreeth a thing, he only saith unto it, Be,
and it is: God shall teach him the scripture, and wisdom, and the law,
and the gospel; and shall appoint him his apostle to the children of
Israel; and he shall say, Verily I come unto you with a sign from your
Lord; for I will make before you, of clay, as it were the figure of a
bird; then I will breathe thereon, and it shall become a bird, by the
permission of God: and I will heal him that hath been blind from his
birth, and the leper: and I will raise the dead by the permission of
God: and I will prophesy unto you what ye eat, and what ye lay up for
store in your houses. Verily herein will be a sign unto you, if ye
believe. And I come to confirm the Law which was revealed before me, and
to allow unto you as lawful, part of that which hath been forbidden
you:[52] and I come unto you with a sign from your Lord; therefore fear
God, and obey me. Verily God is my Lord, and your Lord: therefore serve
him. This is the right way. But when Jesus perceived their unbelief, he
said, Who will be my helpers towards God? The apostles[53] answered, We
will be the helpers of God; we believe in God, and do thou bear witness
that we are true believers. O Lord, we believe in that which thou has
sent down, and we have followed thy apostle; write us down therefore
with those who bear witness of him. And the Jews devised a stratagem
against him; but God devised a stratagem against them; and God is the
best deviser of stratagems. When God said, O Jesus, verily I will cause
thee to die, and I will take thee up unto me,[54] and I will deliver
thee from the unbelievers; and I will place those who follow thee above
the unbelievers, until the day of resurrection: then unto me shall ye
return, and I will judge between you of that concerning which ye
disagree. Moreover, as for the infidels, I will punish them with a
grievous punishment in this world, and in that which is to come; and
there shall be none to help them. But they who believe, and do that
which is right, he shall give them their reward; for God loveth not the
wicked doers. These signs and this prudent admonition do we rehearse
unto thee. Verily the likeness of Jesus in the sight of God is as the
likeness of Adam: he created him out of the dust, and then said unto
him, Be; and he was. This is the truth from thy Lord; be not therefore
one of those who doubt: and whoever shall dispute with thee concerning
him, after the knowledge which hath been given thee, say unto them,
Come, let us call together our sons, and your sons, and our wives, and
your wives, and ourselves, and yourselves; then let us make
imprecations, and lay the curse of God on those who lie. Verily this is
a true history: and there is no God but God; and God is most mighty, and
wise. If they turn back, God well knoweth the evil-doers. Say, O ye who
have received the scripture, come to a just determination between us and
you; that we worship not any except God, and associate no creature with
him; and that the one of us take not the other for lords, beside God.
But if they turn back, say, Bear witness that we are true believers. O
ye to whom the scriptures have been given, why do ye dispute concerning
Abraham, since the Law and the Gospel were not sent down until after
him? Do ye not therefore understand? Behold ye are they who dispute
concerning that which ye have some knowledge in; why therefore do ye
dispute concerning that which ye have no knowledge of? God knoweth, but
ye know not. Abraham was neither a Jew, nor a Christian; but he was of
the true religion, one resigned unto God, and was not of the number of
the idolaters. Verily the men who are the nearest of kin unto Abraham,
are they who follow him; and this prophet, and they who believe on him:
God is the patron of the faithful. Some of those who have received the
scriptures desire to seduce you; but they seduce themselves only, and
they perceive it not. O ye who have received the scriptures, why do ye
not believe in the signs of God, since ye are witnesses of them? O ye
who have received the scriptures, why do ye clothe truth with vanity,
and knowingly hide the truth? And some of those to whom the scriptures
were given, say, Believe in that which hath been sent down unto those
who believe, in the beginning of the day, and deny it in the end
thereof; that they may go back from their faith: and believe him only
who followeth your religion. Say, Verily the true direction is the
direction of God, that there may be given unto some other a revelation
like unto what hath been given unto you. Will they dispute with you
before your Lord? Say, Surely excellence is in the hand of God, he
giveth it unto whom he pleaseth; God is bounteous and wise: he will
confer peculiar mercy on whom he pleaseth; for God is endued with great
beneficence. There is of those who have received the scriptures, unto
whom if thou trust a talent, he will restore it unto thee; and there is
also of them, unto whom if thou trust a dinar,[55] he will not restore
it unto thee, unless thou stand over him continually with great urgency.
This they do because they say, We are not obliged to observe justice
with the heathen: but they utter a lie against God, knowingly. Yea;
whoso keepeth his covenant, and feareth God, God surely loveth those who
fear him. But they who make merchandise of God's covenant, and of their
oaths, for a small price, shall have no portion in the next life,
neither shall God speak to them or regard them on the day of
resurrection, nor shall he cleanse them; but they shall suffer a
grievous punishment. And there are certainly some of them, who read the
scriptures perversely, that ye may think what they read to be really in
the scriptures, yet it is not in the scripture; and they say, This is
from God; but it is not from God: and they speak that which is false
concerning God, against their own knowledge. It is not fit for a man,
that God should give him a book of revelations, and wisdom, and
prophecy; and then he should say unto men, Be ye worshippers of me,
besides God; but he ought to say, Be ye perfect in knowledge and in
works, since ye know the scriptures, and exercise yourselves therein.
God hath not commanded you to take the angels and the prophets for your
Lords: Will he command you to become infidels, after ye have been true
believers? And remember when God accepted the covenant of the prophets,
saying, This verily is the scripture and the wisdom which I have given
you: hereafter shall an apostle come unto you, confirming the truth of
that scripture which is with you; ye shall surely believe on him, and ye
shall assist him. God said, Are ye firmly resolved, and do ye accept my
covenant on this condition? They answered, We are firmly resolved: God
said, Be ye therefore witnesses; and I also bear witness with you: and
whosoever turneth back after this, they are surely the transgressors. Do
they therefore seek any other religion but God's? since to him is
resigned whosoever is in heaven or on earth, voluntarily, or of force:
and to him shall they return. Say, We believe in God, and that which
hath been sent down unto us, and that which was sent down unto Abraham,
and Ismael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which was
delivered to Moses, and Jesus, and the prophets from their Lord; we make
no distinction between any of them; and to him are we resigned. Whoever
followeth any other religion than Islam, it shall not be accepted of
him: and in the next life he shall be of those who perish. How shall God
direct men who have become infidels after they had believed, and borne
witness that the apostle was true, and manifest declarations of the
divine will had come unto them? for God directeth not the ungodly
people. Their reward shall be, that on them shall fall the curse of God,
and of angels, and of all mankind: they shall remain under the same
forever; their torment shall not be mitigated, neither shall they be
regarded; except those who repent after this, and amend; for God is
gracious and merciful. Moreover they who become infidels after they have
believed, and yet increase in infidelity, their repentance shall in no
wise be accepted, and they are those who go astray. Verily they who
believe not, and die in their unbelief, the world full of gold shall in
no wise be accepted from any of them, even though he should give it for
his ransom; they shall suffer a grievous punishment, and they shall have
none to help them. Ye will never attain unto righteousness, until ye
give in alms of that which ye love: and whatever ye give, God knoweth
it. All food was permitted unto the children of Israel, except what
Israel forbade unto himself before the Pentateuch was sent down. Say
unto the Jews, Bring hither the Pentateuch and read it, if ye speak
truth. Whoever therefore contriveth a lie against God after this, they
will be evil-doers. Say, God is true: follow ye therefore the religion
of Abraham the orthodox; for he was no idolater. Verily the first house
appointed unto men to worship in was that which is in Becca;[56]
blessed, and a direction to all creatures. Therein are manifest signs:
the place where Abraham stood; and whoever entereth therein, shall be
safe. And it is a duty towards God, incumbent on those who are able to
go thither, to visit this house; but whosoever disbelieveth, verily God
needeth not the service of any creature. Say, O ye who have received the
scriptures, why do ye not believe in the signs of God? Say, O ye who
have received the scriptures, why do ye keep back from the way of God
him who believeth? Ye seek to make it crooked, and yet are witnesses
that it is the right: but God will not be unmindful of what ye do. O
true believers, if ye obey some of those who have received the
scripture, they will render you infidels, after ye have believed: and
how can ye be infidels, when the signs of God are read unto you, and his
apostle is among you? But he who cleaveth firmly unto God, is already
directed into the right way. O believers, fear God with his true fear;
and die not unless ye also be true believers. And cleave all of you unto
the covenant of God, and depart not from it, and remember the favor of
God towards you: since ye were enemies, and he reconciled your hearts,
and ye became companions and brethren by his favor: and ye were on the
brink of a pit of fire, and he delivered you thence. Thus God declareth
unto you his signs, that ye may be directed. Let there be people among
you, who invite to the best religion; and command that which is just,
and forbid that which is evil; and they shall be happy. And be not as
they who are divided, and disagree in matters of religion, after
manifest proofs have been brought unto them: they shall suffer a great
torment. On the day of resurrection some faces shall become white, and
other faces shall become black. And unto them whose faces shall become
black, God will say, Have ye returned unto your unbelief, after ye had
believed? therefore taste the punishment, for that ye have been
unbelievers: but they whose faces shall become white shall be in the
mercy of God, therein shall they remain forever. These are the signs of
God: we recite them unto thee with truth. God will not deal unjustly
with his creatures. And to God belongeth whatever is in heaven and on
earth; and to God shall all things return. Ye are the best nation that
hath been raised up unto mankind: ye command that which is just, and ye
forbid that which is unjust, and ye believe in God. And if they who have
received the scriptures had believed, it had surely been the better for
them: there are believers among them, but the greater part of them are
transgressors. They shall not hurt you, unless with a slight hurt; and
if they fight against you, they shall turn their backs to you, and they
shall not be helped. They are smitten with vileness wheresoever they are
found; unless they obtain security by entering into a treaty with God,
and a treaty with men: and they draw on themselves indignation from God,
and they are afflicted with poverty. This they suffer, because they
disbelieved the signs of God, and slew the prophets unjustly; this,
because they were rebellious, and transgressed. Yet they are not all
alike: there are of those who have received the scriptures, upright
people; they meditate on the signs of God in the night season, and
worship; they believe in God and the last day; and command that which is
just, and forbid that which is unjust, and zealously strive to excel in
good works: these are of the righteous. And ye shall not be denied the
reward of the good which ye do; for God knoweth the pious. As for the
unbelievers, their wealth shall not profit them at all, neither their
children, against God: they shall be the companions of hell fire; they
shall continue therein forever. The likeness of that which they lay out
in this present life, is as a wind wherein there is a scorching cold: it
falleth on the standing corn of those men who have injured their own
souls, and destroyeth it. And God dealeth not unjustly with them; but
they injure their own souls. O true believers, contract not an intimate
friendship with any besides yourselves: they will not fail to corrupt
you. They wish for that which may cause you to perish: their hatred hath
already appeared from out of their mouths; but what their breasts
conceal is yet more inveterate. We have already shown you signs of their
ill-will towards you, if ye understand. Behold, ye love them, and they
do not love you: ye believe in all the scriptures, and when they meet
you, they say, We believe; but when they assemble privately together,
they bite their fingers' ends out of wrath against you. Say unto them,
Die in your wrath: verily God knoweth the innermost part of your
breasts. If good happen unto you, it grieveth them; and if evil befall
you, they rejoice at it. But if ye be patient, and fear God, their
subtlety shall not hurt you at all; for God comprehendeth whatever they
do. Call to mind when thou wentest forth early from thy family, that
thou mightest prepare the faithful a camp for war; and God heard and
knew it; when two companies of you were anxiously thoughtful, so that ye
became faint-hearted; but God was the supporter of them both; and in God
let the faithful trust. And God had already given you the victory at
Bedr, when ye were inferior in number; therefore fear God, that ye may
be thankful. When thou saidst unto the faithful, Is it not enough for
you, that your Lord should assist you with three thousand angels, sent
down from heaven? Verily if ye persevere, and fear God, and your enemies
come upon you suddenly, your Lord will assist you with five thousand
angels, distinguished by their horses and attire. And this God designed
only as good tidings for you that your hearts might rest secure: for
victory is from God alone, the mighty, the wise. That he should cut off
the uttermost part of the unbelievers, or cast them down, or that they
should be overthrown and unsuccessful, is nothing to thee. It is no
business of thine; whether God be turned unto them, or whether he punish
them; they are surely unjust doers. To God belongeth whatsoever is in
heaven and on earth: he spareth whom he pleaseth, and he punisheth whom
he pleaseth; for God is merciful. O true believers, devour not usury,
doubling it twofold; but fear God, that ye may prosper: and fear the
fire which is prepared for the unbelievers; and obey God, and his
apostle, that ye may obtain mercy. And run with emulation to obtain
remission from your Lord, and paradise, whose breath equalleth the
heavens and the earth, which is prepared for the godly; who give alms in
prosperity and adversity; who bridle their anger and forgive men: for
God loveth the beneficent.[57] And who, after they have committed a
crime, or dealt unjustly with their own souls, remember God, and ask
pardon for their sins (for who forgiveth sins except God?) and persevere
not in what they have done knowingly: their reward shall be pardon from
their Lord, and gardens wherein rivers flow, they shall remain therein
forever: and how excellent is the reward of those who labor! There have
already been before you examples of punishment of infidels, therefore go
through the earth, and behold what hath been the end of those who accuse
God's apostles of imposture. This book is a declaration unto men, and a
direction and an admonition to the pious. And be not dismayed, neither
be ye grieved; for ye shall be superior to the unbelievers if ye
believe. If a wound hath happened unto you in war, a like wound hath
already happened unto the unbelieving people: and we cause these days of
different success interchangeably to succeed each other among men; that
God may know those who believe, and may have martyrs from among you (God
loveth not the workers of iniquity); and that God might prove those who
believe, and destroy the infidels. Did ye imagine that ye should enter
paradise, when as yet God knew not those among you who fought
strenuously in his cause; nor knew those who persevered with patience?
Moreover ye did some time wish for death before that ye met it; but ye
have now seen it, and ye looked on, but retreated from it. Mohammed is
no more than an apostle; the other apostles have already deceased before
him: if he die therefore, or be slain, will ye turn back on your heels?
but he who turneth back on his heels, will not hurt God at all; and God
will surely reward the thankful. No soul can die unless by the
permission of God, according to what is written in the book containing
the determinations of things. And whoso chooseth the reward of this
world, we will give him thereof: but whoso chooseth the reward of the
world to come, we will give him thereof; and we will surely reward the
thankful. How many prophets have encountered those who had many myriads
of troops: and yet they desponded not in their mind for what had
befallen them in fighting for the religion of God, and were not
weakened, neither behaved themselves in an abject manner? God loveth
those who persevere patiently. And their speech was no other than that
they said, Our Lord forgive us our offences, and our transgressions in
our business; and confirm our feet, and help us against the unbelieving
people. And God gave them the reward of this world, and a glorious
reward in the life to come; for God loveth the well-doers. O ye who
believe, if ye obey the infidels, they will cause you to turn back on
your heels, and ye will be turned back and perish: but God is your Lord;
and he is the best helper. We will surely cast a dread into the hearts
of the unbelievers, because they have associated with God that
concerning which he sent them down no power: their dwelling shall be the
fire of hell; and the receptacle of the wicked shall be miserable. God
had already made good unto you his promise, when ye destroyed them by
his permission, until ye became faint-hearted, and disputed concerning
the command of the apostle, and were rebellious; after God had shown you
what ye desired. Some of you chose this present world, and others of you
chose the world to come. Then he turned you to flight from before them,
that he might make trial of you (but he hath now pardoned you; for God
is endued with beneficence towards the faithful); when ye went up as ye
fled, and looked not back on any; while the apostle called you, in the
uttermost part of you. Therefore God rewarded you with affliction on
affliction, that ye be not grieved hereafter for the spoils which ye
fail of, nor for that which befalleth you; for God is well acquainted
with whatever ye do. Then he sent down upon you after affliction
security; soft sleep which fell on some part of you; but other parts
were troubled by their own souls; falsely thinking of God a foolish
imagination, saying, Will anything of the matter happen unto us? Say,
Verily the matter belongeth wholly unto God. They concealed in their
minds what they declared not unto thee; saying, If anything of the
matter had happened unto us, we had not been slain here. Answer, If ye
had been in your houses, verily they would have gone forth to fight,
whose slaughter was decreed, to the places where they died, and this
came to pass that God might try what was in your breasts, and might
discern what was in your hearts; for God knoweth the innermost parts of
the breasts of men. Verily they among you who turned their backs on the
day whereon the two armies met each other at Ohod, Satan caused them to
slip, for some crime which they had committed: but now hath God forgiven
them; for God is gracious and merciful. O true believers, be not as they
who believe not, and said of their brethren, when they had journeyed in
the land or had been at war, If they had been with us, those had not
died, nor had these been slain: whereas what befell them was so ordained
that God might make it matter of sighing in their hearts. God giveth
life, and causeth to die: and God seeth that which ye do. Moreover, if
ye be slain, or die in defence of the religion of God; verily pardon
from God, and mercy, is better than what they heap together of worldly
riches. And if ye die, or be slain, verily unto God shall ye be
gathered. And as to the mercy granted unto the disobedient from God,
thou, O Mohammed, hast been mild towards them; but if thou hadst been
severe and hard-hearted, they had surely separated themselves from about
thee. Therefore forgive them, and ask pardon for them: and consult them
in the affair of war; and after thou hast deliberated, trust in God; for
God loveth those who trust in him. If God help you, none shall conquer
you; but if he desert you, who is it that will help you after him?
Therefore in God let the faithful trust. It is not the part of a prophet
to defraud, for he who defraudeth, shall bring with him what he hath
defrauded anyone of, on the day of the resurrection.[58] Then shall
every soul be paid what he hath gained; and they shall not be treated
unjustly. Shall he therefore who followeth that which is well pleasing
unto God, be as he who bringeth on himself wrath from God, and whose
receptacle is hell? an evil journey shall it be thither. There shall be
degrees of rewards and punishments with God, for God seeth what they do.
Now hath God been gracious unto the believers when he raised up among
them an apostle of their own nation,[59] who should recite his signs
unto them, and purify them, and teach them the book of the Koran and
wisdom; whereas they were before in manifest error. After a misfortune
hath befallen you at Ohod (ye had already obtained two equal
advantages), do ye say, Whence cometh this? Answer, This is from
yourselves: for God is almighty. And what happened unto you, on the day
whereon the two armies met, was certainly by the permission of God; and
that he might know the faithful, and that he might know the ungodly. It
was said unto them, Come, fight for the religion of God, or drive back
the enemy: they answered, If we had known ye went out to fight, we had
certainly followed you. They were on that day nearer unto unbelief than
they were to faith; they spake with their mouths what was not in their
hearts; but God perfectly knew what they concealed; who said of their
brethren, while themselves stayed at home, if they had obeyed us, they
had not been slain. Say, Then keep back death from yourselves, if ye say
truth. Thou shalt in no wise reckon those who have been slain at Ohod in
the cause of God, dead; nay, they are sustained alive with their Lord,
rejoicing for what God of his favor hath granted them; and being glad
for those who, coming after them, have not as yet overtaken them,
because there shall no fear come on them, neither shall they be grieved.
They are filled with joy for the favor which they have received from
God, and his bounty; and for that God suffereth not the reward of the
faithful to perish. They who hearkened unto God and his apostle, after a
wound had befallen them at Ohod, such of them as do good works, and fear
God, shall have a great reward; unto whom certain men said, Verily the
men of Mecca have already gathered forces against you, be ye therefore
afraid of them: but this increaseth their faith, and they said, God is
our support, and the most excellent patron. Wherefore they returned with
favor from God, and advantage; no evil befell them: and they followed
what was well pleasing unto God; for God is endowed with great
liberality. Verily that devil would cause you to fear his friends: but
be ye not afraid of them; but fear me, if ye be true believers. They
shall not grieve thee, who emulously hasten unto infidelity; for they
shall never hurt God at all. God will not give them a part in the next
life, and they shall suffer a great punishment. Surely those who
purchase infidelity with faith, shall by no means hurt God at all, but
they shall suffer a grievous punishment. And let not the unbelievers
think, because we grant them lives long and prosperous, that it is
better for their souls: we grant them long and prosperous lives only
that their iniquity may be increased; and they shall suffer an
ignominious punishment. God is not disposed to leave the faithful in the
condition which ye are now in, until he sever the wicked from the good;
nor is God disposed to make you acquainted with what is a hidden secret,
but God chooseth such of his apostles as he pleaseth, to reveal his mind
unto: believe, therefore, in God, and his apostles; and if ye believe,
and fear God, ye shall receive a great reward. And let not those who are
covetous of what God of his bounty hath granted them, imagine that their
avarice is better for them: nay, rather it is worse for them. That which
they have covetously reserved shall be bound as a collar about their
neck,[60] on the day of the resurrection; unto God belongeth the
inheritance of heaven and earth; and God is well acquainted with what ye
do. God hath already heard the saying of those who said, Verily God is
poor, and we are rich: we will surely write down what they have said,
and the slaughter which they have made of the prophets without a cause;
and we will say unto them, Taste ye the pain of burning. This shall they
suffer for the evil which their hands have sent before them, and because
God is not unjust towards mankind; who also say, Surely God hath
commanded us, that we should not give credit to any apostle, until one
should come unto us with a sacrifice, which should be consumed by fire.
Say, Apostles have already come unto you before me, with plain proofs,
and with the miracle which ye mention: why therefore have ye slain them,
if ye speak truth? If they accuse thee of imposture, the apostles before
thee have also been accounted impostors, who brought evident
demonstrations, and the scriptures, and the book which enlightened the
understanding. Every soul shall taste of death, and ye shall have your
rewards on the day of resurrection; and he who shall be far removed from
hell fire, and shall be admitted into paradise, shall be happy: but the
present life is only a deceitful provision. Ye shall surely be proved in
your possessions, and in your persons; and ye shall bear from those unto
whom the scripture was delivered before you, and from the idolaters,
much hurt: but if ye be patient, and fear God, this is a matter that is
absolutely determined. And when God accepted the covenant of those to
whom the book of the law was given, saying, Ye shall surely publish it
unto mankind, ye shall not hide it; yet they threw it behind their
backs, and sold it for a small price; but woful is the price for which
they have sold it.[61] Think not that they who rejoice at what they have
done, and expect to be praised for what they have not done; think not, O
prophet, that they shall escape from punishment, for they shall suffer a
painful punishment; and unto God belongeth the kingdom of heaven and
earth; God is almighty. Now in the creation of heaven and earth, and the
vicissitude of night and day, are signs unto those who are endued with
understanding; who remember God standing, and sitting, and lying on
their sides; and meditate on the creation of heaven and earth, saying, O
Lord, thou hast not created this in vain; far be it from thee: therefore
deliver us from the torment of hell fire. O Lord, surely whom thou shalt
throw into the fire, thou wilt also cover with shame; nor shall the
ungodly have any to help them. O Lord, we have heard of a preacher[62]
inviting us to the faith, and saying, Believe in your Lord: and we
believed. O Lord, forgive us therefore our sins, and expiate our evil
deeds from us, and make us to die with the righteous. O Lord, give us
also the reward which thou hast promised by thy apostles; and cover us
not with shame on the day of resurrection; for thou art not contrary to
the promise. Their Lord therefore answereth them, saying, I will not
suffer the work of him among you who worketh to be lost, whether he be
male or female: the one of you is from the other. They therefore who
have left their country, and have been turned out of their houses, and
have suffered for my sake, and have been slain in battle; verily I will
expiate their evil deeds from them, and I will surely bring them into
gardens watered by rivers; a reward from God: and with God is the most
excellent reward. Let not the prosperous dealing of the unbelievers in
the land deceive thee: it is but a slender provision; and then their
receptacle shall be hell; an unhappy couch shall it be. But they who
fear their Lord shall have gardens through which rivers flow, they shall
continue therein forever: this is the gift of God; for what is with God
shall be better for the righteous than short-lived worldly prosperity.
There are some of those who have received the scriptures, who believe in
God, and that which hath been sent down unto you, and that which hath
been sent down to them, submitting themselves unto God; they tell not
the signs of God for a small price: these shall have their reward with
their Lord; for God is swift in taking an account. O true believers, be
patient, and strive to excel in patience, and be constant-minded, and
fear God, that ye may be happy.

[Footnote 46: This name is given in the Koran to the father of the
Virgin Mary.]

[Footnote 47: The word Koran, derived from the verb _Karaa_, i.e., to
read, signifies in Arabic "the reading," or rather "that which is to be
read." The syllable _Al_, in the words Al Koran, is only the Arabic
article signifying "the," and ought to be omitted when the English
article is prefixed.]

[Footnote 48: The miracle, it is said, consisted in three things: (1.)
Mohammed, by the direction of the angel Gabriel, took a handful of
gravel and threw it towards the enemy in the attack, saying, "May their
faces be confounded"; whereupon they immediately turned their backs and
fled. But, though the prophet seemingly threw the gravel himself, yet it
is told in the Koran that it was not he, but God, who threw it, that is
to say, by the ministry of his angel. (2.) The Mohammedan troops seemed
to the infidels to be twice as many in number as themselves, which
greatly discouraged them. (3.) God sent down to their assistance first a
thousand, and afterwards three thousand angels, led by Gabriel, mounted
on his horse Haizum; and, according to the Koran, these celestial
auxiliaries really did all the execution, though Mohammed's men imagined
themselves did it, and fought stoutly at the same time.]

[Footnote 49: The proper name of the Mohammedan religion, which
signifies the resigning or devoting one's self entirely to God and his
service. This they say is the religion which all the prophets were sent
to teach, being founded on the unity of God.]

[Footnote 50: The Mohammedans have a tradition that the first banner of
the infidels that shall be set up, on the day of judgment, will be that
of the Jews; and that God will first reproach them with their
wickedness, over the heads of those who are present, and then order them
to hell.]

[Footnote 51: This phrase signifies a man in full age, that is, between
thirty and thirty-four.]

[Footnote 52: Such as the eating of fish that have neither fins nor
scales, the caul and fat of animals, and camel's flesh, and to work on
the Sabbath.]

[Footnote 53: In Arabic, _al Hawariyun_: which word they derive from
_Hara_, "to be white," and suppose the apostles were so-called either
from the candor and sincerity of their minds, or because they were
princes and wore white garments, or else because they were by trade
fullers.]

[Footnote 54: Some Mohammedans say this was done by the ministry of
Gabriel; but others that a strong whirlwind took him up from Mount
Olivet.]

[Footnote 55: A gold coin worth about $2.50.]

[Footnote 56: Becca is another name of Mecca. Al Beidawi observes that
the Arabs used the "M" and "B" promiscuously in several words.]

[Footnote 57: It is related of Hasan the son of Ali that a slave having
once thrown a dish on him boiling hot, as he sat at table, and fearing
his master's resentment, fell immediately on his knees, and repeated
these words, "Paradise is for those who bridle their anger." Hasan
answered, "I am not angry." The slave proceeded, "and for those who
forgive men." "I forgive you," said Hasan. The slave, however, finished
the verse, adding, "for God loveth the beneficent." "Since it is so,"
replied Hasan, "I give you your liberty, and four hundred pieces of
silver." A noble instance of moderation and generosity.]

[Footnote 58: According to a tradition of Mohammed, whoever cheateth
another will on the day of judgment carry his fraudulent purchase
publicly on his neck.]

[Footnote 59: Some copies, instead of _min anfosihim_, i.e., of
themselves, read _min anfasihim_, i.e., of the noblest among them; for
such was the tribe of Koreish, of which Mohammed was descended.]

[Footnote 60: Mohammed is said to have declared, that whoever pays not
his legal contribution of alms duly shall have a serpent twisted about
his neck at the resurrection.]

[Footnote 61: That is, dearly shall they pay hereafter for taking bribes
to stifle the truth. "Whoever concealeth the knowledge which God has
given him," says Mohammed, "God shall put on him a bridle of fire on the
day of resurrection."]

[Footnote 62: Namely, Mohammed, with the Koran.]

CHAPTER IV

Entitled, Women[63]--Revealed at Medina

_In the Name of the Most Merciful God._

O men, fear your Lord, who hath created you out of one man, and out of
him created his wife, and from them two hath multiplied many men and
women: and fear God by whom ye beseech one another; and respect women
who have borne you, for God is watching over you. And give the orphans
when they come to age their substance; and render them not in exchange
bad for good: and devour not their substance, by adding it to your
substance; for this is a great sin. And if ye fear that ye shall not act
with equity towards orphans of the female sex, take in marriage of such
other women as please you, two, or three, or four, and not more. But if
ye fear that ye cannot act equitably towards so many, marry one only, or
the slaves which ye shall have acquired. This will be easier, that ye
swerve not from righteousness. And give women their dowry freely; but if
they voluntarily remit unto you any part of it, enjoy it with
satisfaction and advantage. And give not unto those who are weak of
understanding, the substance which God hath appointed you to preserve
for them; but maintain them thereout, and clothe them, and speak kindly
unto them. And examine the orphans until they attain the age of
marriage: but if ye perceive they are able to manage their affairs well,
deliver their substance unto them; and waste it not extravagantly, or
hastily, because they grow up. Let him who is rich abstain entirely from
the orphan's estates; and let him who is poor take thereof according to
what shall be reasonable. And when ye deliver their substance unto them,
call witnesses thereof in their presence: God taketh sufficient account
of your actions. Men ought to have a part of what their parents and
kindred leave behind them when they die: and women also ought to have a
part of what their parents and kindred leave, whether it be little, or
whether it be much; a determinate part is due to them. And when they who
are of kin are present at the dividing of what is left, and also the
orphans, and the poor; distribute unto them some part thereof; and if
the estate be too small, at least speak comfortably unto them. And let
those fear to abuse orphans, who if they leave behind them a weak
offspring, are solicitous for them: let them therefore fear God, and
speak that which is convenient. Surely they who devour the possessions
of orphans unjustly, shall swallow down nothing but fire into their
bellies, and shall broil in raging flames. God hath thus commanded you
concerning your children. A male shall have as much as the share of two
females: but if they be females only, and above two in number, they
shall have two third-parts of what the deceased shall leave; and if
there be but one, she shall have the half. And the parents of the
deceased shall have each of them a sixth part of what he shall leave, if
he have a child: but if he have no child, and his parents be his heirs,
then his mother shall have the third part. And if he have brethren, his
mother shall have a sixth part, after the legacies[64] which he shall
bequeath, and his debts be paid. Ye know not whether your parents or
your children be of greater use unto you. This is an ordinance from God,
and God is knowing and wise. Moreover, ye may claim half of what your
wives shall leave, if they have no issue; but if they have issue, then
ye shall have the fourth part of what they shall leave, after the
legacies which they shall bequeath, and the debts be paid. They also
shall have the fourth part of what ye shall leave, in case ye have no
issue; but if ye have issue, then they shall have the eighth part of
what ye shall leave, after the legacies which ye shall bequeath and your
debts be paid. And if a man or woman's substance be inherited by a
distant relation, and he or she have a brother or sister; each of them
two shall have a sixth part of the estate. But if there be more than
this number, they shall be equal sharers in a third part, after payment
of the legacies which shall be bequeathed, and the debts, without
prejudice to the heirs. This is an ordinance from God: and God is
knowing and gracious. These are the statutes of God. And whoso obeyeth
God and his apostle, God shall lead him into gardens wherein rivers
flow, they shall continue therein forever; and this shall be great
happiness. But whoso disobeyeth God, and his apostle, and transgresseth
his statutes, God shall cast him into hell fire; he shall remain therein
forever, and he shall suffer a shameful punishment. If any of your women
be guilty of whoredom, produce four witnesses from among you against
them, and if they bear witness against them, imprison them in separate
apartments until death release them, or God affordeth them a way to
escape.[65] And if two of you commit the like wickedness, punish them
both: but if they repent and amend, let them both alone; for God is easy
to be reconciled and merciful. Verily repentance will be accepted with
God, from those who do evil ignorantly, and then repent speedily; unto
them will God be turned: for God is knowing and wise. But no repentance
shall be accepted from those who do evil until the time when death
presenteth itself unto one of them, and he saith, Verily, I repent now;
nor unto those who die unbelievers: for them have we prepared a grievous
punishment. O true believers, it is not lawful for you to be heirs of
women against their will, nor to hinder them from marrying others, that
ye may take away part of what ye have given them in dowry; unless they
have been guilty of a manifest crime: but converse kindly with them. And
if ye hate them, it may happen that ye may hate a thing wherein God hath
placed much good. If ye be desirous to exchange a wife for another wife,
and ye have already given one of them a talent; take not away anything
therefrom: will ye take it by slandering her, and doing her manifest
injustice? And how can ye take it, since the one of you hath gone in
unto the other, and they have received from you a firm covenant? Marry
not women whom your fathers have had to wife (except what is already
past): for this is uncleanness, and an abomination, and an evil way. Ye
are forbidden to marry your mothers, and your daughters, and your
sisters, and your aunts both on the father's and on the mother's side,
and your brother's daughters, and your sister's daughters, and your
mothers who have given you suck, and your foster-sisters, and your
wives' mothers, and your daughters-in-law which are under your tuition,
born of your wives unto whom ye have gone in (but if ye have not gone in
unto them, it shall be no sin in you to marry them), and the wives of
your sons who proceed out of your loins; and ye are also forbidden to
take to wife two sisters; except what is already past: for God is
gracious and merciful. Ye are also forbidden to take to wife free women
who are married, except those women whom your right hands shall possess
as slaves.[66] This is ordained you from God. Whatever is beside this,
is allowed you; that ye may with your substance provide wives for
yourselves, acting that which is right, and avoiding whoredom. And for
the advantage which ye receive from them, give them their reward,
according to what is ordained: but it shall be no crime in you to make
any other agreement among yourselves, after the ordinance shall be
complied with; for God is knowing and wise. Whoso among you hath not
means sufficient that he may marry free women, who are believers, let
him marry with such of your maid-servants whom your right hands possess,
as are true believers; for God well knoweth your faith. Ye are the one
from the other; therefore marry them with the consent of their masters;
and give them their dower according to justice; such as are modest, not
guilty of whoredom, nor entertaining lovers. And when they are married,
if they be guilty of adultery, they shall suffer half the punishment
which is appointed for the free women.[67] This is allowed unto him
among you, who feareth to sin by marrying free women; but if ye abstain
from marrying slaves, it will be better for you; God is gracious and
merciful. God is willing to declare these things unto you, and to direct
you according to the ordinances of those who have gone before you, and
to be merciful unto you. God is knowing and wise. God desireth to be
gracious unto you; but they who follow their lusts, desire that ye
should turn aside from the truth with great deviation. God is minded to
make his religion light unto you: for man was created weak. O true
believers, consume not your wealth among yourselves in vanity; unless
there be merchandising among you by mutual consent: neither slay
yourselves; for God is merciful towards you: and whoever doth this
maliciously and wickedly, he will surely cast him to be broiled in hell
fire; and this is easy with God. If ye turn aside from the grievous
sins,[68] of those which ye are forbidden to commit, we will cleanse you
from your smaller faults; and will introduce you into paradise with an
honorable entry. Covet not that which God hath bestowed on some of you
preferably to others.[69] Unto the men shall be given a portion of what
they shall have gained, and unto the women shall be given a portion of
what they shall have gained: therefore ask God of his bounty; for God is
omniscient. We have appointed unto everyone kindred, to inherit part of
what their parents and relations shall leave at their deaths. And unto
those with whom your right hands have made an alliance, give their part
of the inheritance; for God is witness of all things. Men shall have the
preeminence above women, because of those advantages wherein God hath
caused the one of them to excel the other, and for that which they
expend of their substance in maintaining their wives. The honest women
are obedient, careful in the absence of their husbands, for that God
preserveth them, by committing them to the care and protection of the
men. But those, whose perverseness ye shall be apprehensive of, rebuke;
and remove them into separate apartments, and chastise them.[70] But if
they shall be obedient unto you, seek not an occasion of quarrel against
them; for God is high and great. And if ye fear a breach between the
husband and wife, send a judge out of his family, and a judge out of her
family: if they shall desire a reconciliation, God will cause them to
agree; for God is knowing and wise. Serve God, and associate no creature
with him; and show kindness unto parents, and relations, and orphans,
and the poor, and your neighbor who is of kin to you, and also your
neighbor who is a stranger, and to your familiar companion, and the
traveller, and the captives whom your right hands shall possess; for God
loveth not the proud or vain-glorious, who are covetous, and recommend
covetousness unto men, and conceal that which God of his bounty hath
given them (we have prepared a shameful punishment for the unbelievers);
and who bestow their wealth in charity to be observed of men, and
believe not in God, nor in the last day; and whoever hath Satan for a
companion, an evil companion hath he! And what harm would befall them if
they should believe in God and the last day, and give alms out of that
which God hath bestowed on them? since God knoweth them who do this.
Verily God will not wrong anyone even the weight of an ant: and if it be
a good action, he will double it, and will recompense it in his sight
with a great reward. How will it be with the unbelievers when we shall
bring a witness out of each nation against itself, and shall bring thee,
O Mohammed, a witness against these people? In that day they who have
not believed, and have rebelled against the apostle of God, shall wish
the earth was levelled with them; and they shall not be able to hide any
matter from God. O true believers, come not to prayers when ye are
drunk, until ye understand what ye say; nor when ye are polluted by
emission of seed, unless ye be travelling on the road, until ye wash
yourselves. But if ye be sick, or on a journey, or any of you come from
easing nature, or have touched women, and find no water; take fine clean
sand and rub your faces and your hands therewith; for God is merciful
and inclined to forgive. Hast thou not observed those unto whom part of
the scriptures was delivered? they sell error, and desire that ye may
wander from the right way; but God well knoweth your enemies. God is a
sufficient patron, and God is a sufficient helper. Of the Jews there are
some who pervert words from their places; and say, We have heard, and
have disobeyed; and do thou hear without understanding our meaning, and
look upon us: perplexing with their tongues, and reviling the true
religion. But if they had said, We have heard, and do obey; and do thou
hear, and regard us: certainly it were better for them, and more right.
But God hath cursed them by reason of their infidelity; therefore a few
of them only shall believe. O ye to whom the scriptures have been given,
believe in the revelation which we have sent down, confirming that which
is with you; before we deface your countenances, and render them as the
back parts thereof; or curse them, as we cursed those who transgressed
on the Sabbath day; and the command of God was fulfilled. Surely God
will not pardon the giving him an equal; but will pardon any other sin,
except that, to whom he pleaseth; and whoso giveth a companion unto God,
hath devised a great wickedness. Hast thou not observed those who
justify themselves? But God justifieth whomsoever he pleaseth, nor shall
they be wronged a hair. Behold, how they imagine a lie against God; and
therein is iniquity sufficiently manifest. Hast thou not considered
those to whom part of the scripture hath been given? They believe in
false gods and idols,[71] and say of those who believe not, These are
more rightly directed in the way of truth than they who believe on
Mohammed. Those are the men whom God hath cursed; and unto him whom God
shall curse, thou shalt surely find no helper. Shall they have a part of
the kingdom, since even then they would not bestow the smallest matter
on men? Do they envy other men that which God of his bounty hath given
them? We formerly gave unto the family of Abraham a book of revelations
and wisdom; and we gave them a great kingdom. There is of them who
believeth on him; and there is of them who turneth aside from him: but
the raging fire of hell is a sufficient punishment. Verily, those who
disbelieve our signs, we will surely cast to be broiled in hell fire; so
often as their skins shall be well burned, we will give them other skins
in exchange, that they may taste the sharper torment; for God is mighty
and wise. But those who believe and do that which is right, we will
bring into gardens watered by rivers: therein shall they remain forever,
and there shall they enjoy wives free from all impurity; and we will
lead them into perpetual shades. Moreover, God commandeth you to restore
what ye are trusted with, to the owners; and when ye judge between men,
that ye judge according to equity: and surely an excellent virtue it is
to which God exhorteth you; for God both heareth and seeth. O true

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