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Sacred Books of the East by Various

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TO THE EARTH AND THE SACRED WATERS

And now we worship this earth which bears us, together with Thy wives, O
Ahura Mazda! yea, those Thy wives do we worship which are so desired
from their sanctity. We sacrifice to their zealous wishes, and their
capabilities, their inquiries, and their wise acts of pious reverence,
and with these their blessedness, their full vigor and good portions,
their good fame and ample wealth. O ye waters! now we worship you, you
that are showered down, and you that stand in pools and vats, and you
that bear forth our loaded vessels, ye female Ahuras of Ahura, you that
serve us in helpful ways, well forded and full-flowing, and effective
for the bathings, we will seek you and for both the worlds! Therefore
did Ahura Mazda give you names, O ye beneficent ones! when He who made
the good bestowed you. And by these names we worship you, and by them we
would ingratiate ourselves with you, and with them would we bow before
you, and direct our prayers to you with free confessions of our debt. O
waters, ye who are productive, and ye maternal ones, ye with heat that
suckles the frail and needy before birth, ye waters that have once been
rulers of us all, we will now address you as the best, and the most
bountiful; those are yours, those good objects of our offerings, ye long
of arm to reach our sickness, or misfortune, ye mothers of our life!

PRAYER FOR HELPERS

And now in these Thy dispensations, O Ahura Mazda! do Thou wisely act
for us, and with abundance with Thy bounty and Thy tenderness as
touching us; and grant that reward which Thou hast appointed to our
souls, O Ahura Mazda! Of this do Thou Thyself bestow upon us for this
world and the spiritual; and now as part thereof do Thou grant that we
may attain to fellowship with Thee, and Thy Righteousness for all
duration. And do Thou grant us, O Ahura! men who are righteous, and both
lovers and producers of the Right as well. And give us trained beasts
for the pastures, broken in for riding, and for bearing, that they may
be in helpful companionship with us, and as a source of long enduring
vigor, and a means of rejoicing grace to us for this. So let there be a
kinsman lord for us, with the laborers of the village, and so likewise
let there be the clients. And by the help of those may we arise. So may
we be to You, O Ahura Mazda! holy and true, and with free giving of our
gifts.

A PRAYER FOR SANCTITY AND ITS BENEFITS

I pray with benedictions for a benefit, and for the good, even for the
entire creation of the holy and the clean; I beseech for them the
generation which is now alive, for that which is just coming into life,
and for that which shall be hereafter. And I pray for that sanctity
which leads to prosperity, and which has long afforded shelter, which
goes on hand in hand with it, which joins it in its walk, and of itself
becoming its close companion as it delivers forth its precepts, bearing
every form of healing virtue which comes to us in waters, appertains to
cattle, or is found in plants, and overwhelming all the harmful malice
of the Devas, and their servants who might harm this dwelling and its
lord, bringing good gifts, and better blessings, given very early, and
later gifts, leading to successes, and for a long time giving shelter.
And so the greatest, and the best, and most beautiful benefits of
sanctity fall likewise to our lot for the sacrifice, homage,
propitiation, and the praise of the Bountiful Immortals, for the
bringing prosperity to this abode, and for the prosperity of the entire
creation of the holy, and the clean, and as for this, so for the
opposition of the entire evil creation. And I pray for this as I praise
through Righteousness, I who am beneficent, those who are likewise of a
better mind.

TO THE FIRE

I offer my sacrifice and homage to thee, the Fire, as a good offering,
and an offering with our hail of salvation, even as an offering of
praise with benedictions, to thee, the Fire, O Ahura Mazda's son! Meet
for sacrifice art thou, and worthy of our homage. And as meet for
sacrifice, and thus worthy of our homage, mayest thou be in the houses
of men who worship Mazda. Salvation be to this man who worships thee in
verity and truth, with wood in hand, and Baresma ready, with flesh in
hand, and holding too the mortar. And mayest thou be ever fed with wood
as the prescription orders. Yea, mayest thou have thy perfume justly,
and thy sacred butter without fail, and thine andirons regularly placed.
Be of full-age as to thy nourishment, of the canon's age as to the
measure of thy food, O Fire, Ahura Mazda's son! Be now aflame within
this house; be ever without fail in flame; be all a-shine within this
house; be on thy growth within this house; for long time be thou thus to
the furtherance of the heroic renovation, to the completion of all
progress, yea, even till the good heroic millennial time when that
renovation shall have become complete. Give me, O Fire, Ahura Mazda's
son! a speedy glory, speedy nourishment, and speedy booty, and abundant
glory, abundant nourishment, abundant booty, an expanded mind, and
nimbleness of tongue for soul and understanding, even an understanding
continually growing in its largeness, and that never wanders, and long
enduring virile power, an offspring sure of foot, that never sleeps on
watch, and that rises quick from bed, and likewise a wakeful offspring,
helpful to nurture, or reclaim, legitimate, keeping order in men's
meetings, yea, drawing men to assemblies through their influence and
word, grown to power, skilful, redeeming others from oppression, served
by many followers, which may advance my line in prosperity and fame, and
my Vis, and my Bantu, and my province, yea, an offering which may
deliver orders to the Province as firm and righteous rulers. And mayest
thou grant me, O Fire, Ahura Mazda's Son! that whereby instructors may
be given me, now and for evermore, giving light to me of Heaven, the
best life of the saints, brilliant, all glorious. And may I have
experience of the good reward, and the good renown, and of the long
forecasting preparation of the soul. The Fire of Ahura Mazda addresses
this admonition to all for whom he cooks the night and morning meal.
From all these, O Spitama! he wishes to secure good care, and healthful
care as guarding for salvation, the care of a true praiser. At both the
hands of all who come by me, I, the Fire, keenly look: What brings the
mate to his mate, the one who walks at large, to him who sits at home?
We worship the bounteous Fire, the swift-driving charioteer. And if this
man who passes brings him wood brought with sacred care, or if he brings
the Baresma spread with sanctity, or the Hadha-naepata plant, then
afterwards Ahura Mazda's Fire will bless him, contented, not offended,
and in its satisfaction saying thus: May a herd of kine be with thee,
and a multitude of men, may an active mind go with thee, and an active
soul as well. As a blest soul mayest thou live through thy life, the
nights which thou shall live. This is the blessing of the Fire for him
who brings it wood well dried, sought out for flaming, purified with the
earnest blessing of the sacred ritual truth. We strive after the flowing
on of the good waters, and their ebb as well, and the sounding of their
waves, desiring their propitiation; I desire to approach them with my
praise.

TO THE BOUNTIFUL IMMORTALS

I would worship these with my sacrifice, those who rule aright, and who
dispose of all aright, and this one especially I would approach with my
praise (Ahura Mazda). He is thus hymned in our praise-songs. Yea, we
worship in our sacrifice that deity and lord, who is Ahura Mazda, the
Creator, the gracious helper, the maker of all good things; and we
worship in our sacrifice Spitama Zarathustra, that chieftain of the
rite. And we would declare those institutions established for us, exact
and undeviating as they are. And I would declare forth those of Ahura
Mazda, those of the Good Mind, and of Asha Vahista, and those of
Khshatra-vairya, and those of the Bountiful Aramaiti, and those of Weal
and Immortality, and those which appertain to the body of the Kine, and
to the Kine's soul, and those which appertain to Ahura Mazda's Fire, and
those of Sraosha the blessed, and of Rashnu the most just, and those of
Mithra of the wide pastures, and of the good and holy Wind, and of the
good Mazdayasnian Religion, and of the good and pious Prayer for
blessings, and those of the good and pious Prayer which frees one from
belying, and the good and pious Prayer for blessing against unbelieving
words. And these we would declare in order that we may attain unto that
speech which is uttered with true religious zeal, or that we may be as
prophets of the provinces, that we may succor him who lifts his voice
for Mazda, that we may be as prophets who smite with victory, the
befriended of Ahura Mazda, and persons the most useful to him, holy men
who think good thoughts, and speak good words, and do good deeds. That
he may approach us with the Good Mind, and that our souls may advance in
good, let it thus come; yea, "how may my soul advance in good? let it
thus advance."

PRAISE OF THE HOLY BULL

Hail, bounteous bull! Hail to thee, beneficent bull! Hail to thee, who
makest increase! Hail to thee, who makest growth! Hail to thee, who dost
bestow his part upon the righteous faithful, and wilt bestow it on the
faithful yet unborn! Hail to thee, whom the Gahi kills, and the ungodly
Ashemaogha, and the wicked tyrant.

TO RAIN AS A HEALING POWER

"Come, come on, O clouds, from up above, down on the earth, by thousands
of drops, by myriads of drops"--thus say, O holy Zarathustra! "to
destroy sickness, to destroy death, to destroy the sickness that kills,
to destroy death that kills, to destroy Gadha and Apagadha. If death
come after noon, may healing come at eve! If death come at eve, may
healing come at night! If death come at night, may healing come at dawn!
And showers shower down new water, new earth, new plants, new healing
powers, and new healing."

TO THE WATERS AND LIGHT OF THE SUN

"As the sea Vouru-kasha is the gathering place of the waters, rising up
and going down, up the aerial way and down the earth, down the earth and
up the aerial way: thus rise up and roll along! thou in whose rising and
growing Ahura Mazda made the aerial way. Up! rise up and roll along!
thou swift-horsed Sun, above Hara Berezaiti, and produce light for the
world, and mayest thou, O man! rise up there, if thou art to abide in
Garo-nmanem, along the path made by Mazda, along the way made by the
gods, the watery way they opened. And the Holy Word shall keep away the
evil. Of thee, O child! I will cleanse the birth and growth; of thee, O
woman! I will make the body and the strength pure; I make thee rich in
children and rich in milk; rich in seed, in milk, in fat, in marrow, and
in offspring. I shall bring to thee a thousand pure springs, running
towards the pastures that give food to the child."

TO THE WATERS AND LIGHT OF THE MOON

As the sea Vouru-kasha is the gathering place of the waters, rising up
and going down, up the aerial way and down the earth, down the earth and
up the aerial way: Thus rise up and roll along! thou in whose rising and
growing Ahura Mazda made the earth. Up! rise up, thou Moon, that dost
keep in thee the seed of the bull; rise up above Hara Berezaiti, and
produce light for the world, and mayest thou, O man! rise up there, if
thou art to abide in Garo-nmanem, along the path made by Mazda, along
the way made by the gods, the watery way they opened. And the Holy Word
shall keep away the evil: Of thee, O child! I will cleanse the birth and
growth; of thee, O woman! I will make the body and the strength pure; I
make thee rich in children and rich in milk; rich in seed, in milk, in
fat, in marrow, and in offspring. I shall bring to thee a thousand pure
springs, running towards the pastures that give food to the child.

TO THE WATERS AND LIGHT OF THE STARS

As the sea Vouru-kasha is the gathering place of the waters, rising up
and going down, up the aerial way and down the earth, down the earth and
up the aerial way: Thus rise up and roll along! thou in whose rising and
growing Ahura Mazda made everything that grows. Up! rise up, ye deep
Stars, that have in you the seed of waters; rise up above Hara
Berezaiti, and produce light for the world, and mayest thou, O man! rise
up there, if thou art to abide in Garo-nmanem, along the path made by
Mazda, along the way made by the gods, the watery way they opened. Thus
rise up and roll along! ye in whose rising and growing Ahura Mazda made
everything that rises. In your rising, away will the Kahvuzi fly and
cry; away will the Ayehi fly and cry; away will the Gahi, who follows
the Yatu, fly and cry.

THE DHAMMAPADA

Translation by F. Max Mueller

INTRODUCTION

The "Dhammapada," or "Path to Virtue," is one of the most practical
ethical hand-books of Buddhism. It is included in the canon of
Buddhistic Scriptures, and is one of the Eastern books which can be read
with delight to-day by those who are classed as general readers. It is
divided into twenty-six chapters, and the keynote of it is struck by the
sentence "The virtuous man is happy in this world, and he is happy in
the next; he is happy in both. He is happy when he thinks of the good he
has done; he is still more happy when going on the good path." The first
step in the "good path" is earnestness, for as the writer says,
"Earnestness is the path of immortality (Nirvana), thoughtlessness the
path of death; those who are in earnest do not die, those who are
thoughtless are as if dead already." Earnestness, in this connection,
evidently means the power of reflection, and of abstracting the mind
from mundane things. There is something very inspiring in the sentence,
"When the learned man drives away vanity by earnestness, he, the wise,
climbing the terraced heights of wisdom, looks down upon the fools: free
from sorrow he looks upon the sorrowing crowd, as one that stands on a
mountain looks down upon them that stand upon the plain." This reminds
us of Lucretius,

"How sweet to stand, when tempests tear the main,
On the firm cliff, and mark the seaman's toil!
Not that another's danger soothes the soul,
But from such toil how sweet to feel secure!
How sweet, at distance from the strife, to view
Contending hosts, and hear the clash of war!
But sweeter far on Wisdom's height serene,
Upheld by Truth, to fix our firm abode;
To watch the giddy crowd that, deep below,
Forever wander in pursuit of bliss;
To mark the strife for honors, and renown,
For wit and wealth, insatiate, ceaseless urged,
Day after day, with labor unrestrained."

It is curious to see the atheistic Epicurean and the devout Buddhist
meeting on a common ground. But the beauties of the "Dhammapada" can
only be realized by a careful study of this charming work. We would
point out, for instance, in the chapter on Flowers, what is a piece of
golden advice to all readers of books: "The disciple will find out the
plainly shown path of virtue, as a clever man finds the right flower."

Neither the date nor the authorship of the "Dhammapada" is known, but
there is conclusive evidence that this canon existed before the
Christian era. Many scholars agree in ascribing its utterances to Buddha
himself, while others are of the opinion that it is a compilation made
by Buddhist monks from various sources.

E.W.

THE DHAMMAPADA

CHAPTER I

THE TWIN-VERSES

All that we are is the result of what we have thought: it is founded on
our thoughts, it is made up of our thoughts. If a man speaks or acts
with an evil thought, pain follows him, as the wheel follows the foot of
the ox that draws the carriage.

All that we are is the result of what we have thought: it is founded on
our thoughts, it is made up of our thoughts. If a man speaks or acts
with a pure thought, happiness follows him, like a shadow that never
leaves him.

"He abused me, he beat me, he defeated me, he robbed me"--in those who
harbor such thoughts hatred will never cease.

"He abused me, he beat me, he defeated me, he robbed me"--in those who
do not harbor such thoughts hatred will cease.

For hatred does not cease by hatred at any time: hatred ceases by
love--this is an old rule.

The world does not know that we must all come to an end here; but those
who know it, their quarrels cease at once.

He who lives looking for pleasures only, his senses uncontrolled,
immoderate in his food, idle, and weak, Mara (the tempter) will
certainly overthrow him, as the wind throws down a weak tree.

He who lives without looking for pleasures, his senses well controlled,
moderate in his food, faithful and strong, him Mara will certainly not
overthrow, any more than the wind throws down a rocky mountain.

He who wishes to put on the yellow dress without having cleansed himself
from sin, who disregards also temperance and truth, is unworthy of the
yellow dress.

But he who has cleansed himself from sin, is well grounded in all
virtues, and endowed also with temperance and truth: he is indeed worthy
of the yellow dress.

They who imagine truth in untruth, and see untruth in truth, never
arrive at truth, but follow vain desires.

They who know truth in truth, and untruth in untruth, arrive at truth,
and follow true desires.

As rain breaks through an ill-thatched house, passion will break through
an unreflecting mind.

As rain does not break through a well-thatched house, passion will not
break through a well-reflecting mind.

The evil-doer mourns in this world, and he mourns in the next; he mourns
in both. He mourns and suffers when he sees the evil result of his own
work.

The virtuous man delights in this world, and he delights in the next; he
delights in both. He delights and rejoices, when he sees the purity of
his own work.

The evil-doer suffers in this world, and he suffers in the next; he
suffers in both. He suffers when he thinks of the evil he has done; he
suffers more when going on the evil path.

The virtuous man is happy in this world, and he is happy in the next; he
is happy in both. He is happy when he thinks of the good he has done; he
is still more happy when going on the good path.

The thoughtless man, even if he can recite a large portion of the law,
but is not a doer of it, has no share in the priesthood, but is like a
cow-herd counting the cows of others.

The follower of the law, even if he can recite only a small portion of
the law, but, having forsaken passion and hatred and foolishness,
possesses true knowledge and serenity of mind, he, caring for nothing in
this world or that to come, has indeed a share in the priesthood.

CHAPTER II

ON EARNESTNESS

Earnestness is the path of immortality (Nirvana), thoughtlessness the
path of death. Those who are in earnest do not die, those who are
thoughtless are as if dead already.

Having understood this clearly, those who are advanced in earnestness
delight in earnestness, and rejoice in the knowledge of the elect.

These wise people, meditative, steady, always possessed of strong
powers, attain to Nirvana, the highest happiness.

If an earnest person has roused himself, if he is not forgetful, if his
deeds are pure, if he acts with consideration, if he restrains himself,
and lives according to law--then his glory will increase.

By rousing himself, by earnestness, by restraint and control, the wise
man may make for himself an island which no flood can overwhelm.

Fools follow after vanity. The wise man keeps earnestness as his best
jewel.

Follow not after vanity, nor after the enjoyment of love and lust! He
who is earnest and meditative, obtains ample joy.

When the learned man drives away vanity by earnestness, he, the wise,
climbing the terraced heights of wisdom, looks down upon the fools: free
from sorrow he looks upon the sorrowing crowd, as one that stands on a
mountain looks down upon them that stand upon the plain.

Earnest among the thoughtless, awake among the sleepers, the wise man
advances like a racer, leaving behind the hack.

By earnestness did Maghavan (Indra) rise to the lordship of the gods.
People praise earnestness; thoughtlessness is always blamed.

A Bhikshu (mendicant) who delights in earnestness, who looks with fear
on thoughtlessness, moves about like fire, burning all his fetters,
small or large.

A Bhikshu (mendicant) who delights in reflection, who looks with fear on
thoughtlessness, cannot fall away from his perfect state--he is close
upon Nirvana.

CHAPTER III

THOUGHT

As a fletcher makes straight his arrow, a wise man makes straight his
trembling and unsteady thought, which is difficult to guard, difficult
to hold back.

As a fish taken from his watery home and thrown on the dry ground, our
thought trembles all over in order to escape the dominion of Mara, the
tempter.

It is good to tame the mind, which is difficult to hold in and flighty,
rushing wherever it listeth; a tamed mind brings happiness.

Let the wise man guard his thoughts, for they are difficult to perceive,
very artful, and they rush wherever they list: thoughts well guarded
bring happiness.

Those who bridle their mind which travels far, moves about alone, is
without a body, and hides in the chamber of the heart, will be free from
the bonds of Mara, the tempter.

If a man's faith is unsteady, if he does not know the true law, if his
peace of mind is troubled, his knowledge will never be perfect.

If a man's thoughts are not dissipated, if his mind is not perplexed, if
he has ceased to think of good or evil, then there is no fear for him
while he is watchful.

Knowing that this body is fragile like a jar, and making his thought
firm like a fortress, one should attack Mara, the tempter, with the
weapon of knowledge, one should watch him when conquered, and should
never rest.

Before long, alas! this body will lie on the earth, despised, without
understanding, like a useless log.

Whatever a hater may do to a hater, or an enemy to an enemy, a
wrongly-directed mind will do him greater mischief.

Not a mother, not a father, will do so much, nor any other relatives; a
well-directed mind will do us greater service.

CHAPTER IV

FLOWERS

Who shall overcome this earth, and the world of Yama, the lord of the
departed, and the world of the gods? Who shall find out the plainly
shown path of virtue, as a clever man finds the right flower?

The disciple will overcome the earth, and the world of Yama, and the
world of the gods. The disciple will find out the plainly shown path of
virtue, as a clever man finds the right flower.

He who knows that this body is like froth, and has learnt that it is as
unsubstantial as a mirage, will break the flower-pointed arrow of Mara,
and never see the king of death.

Death carries off a man who is gathering flowers, and whose mind is
distracted, as a flood carries off a sleeping village.

Death subdues a man who is gathering flowers, and whose mind is
distracted, before he is satiated in his pleasures.

As the bee collects nectar and departs without injuring the flower, or
its color or scent, so let a sage dwell in his village.

Not the perversities of others, not their sins of commission or
omission, but his own misdeeds and negligences should a sage take notice
of.

Like a beautiful flower, full of color, but without scent, are the fine
but fruitless words of him who does not act accordingly.

But, like a beautiful flower, full of color and full of scent, are the
fine and fruitful words of him who acts accordingly.

As many kinds of wreaths can be made from a heap of flowers, so many
good things may be achieved by a mortal when once he is born.

The scent of flowers does not travel against the wind, nor that of
sandal-wood, or of Tagara and Mallika flowers; but the odor of good
people travels even against the wind; a good man pervades every place.

Sandal-wood or Tagara, a lotus-flower, or a Vassiki, among these sorts
of perfumes, the perfume of virtue is unsurpassed.

Mean is the scent that comes from Tagara and sandal-wood; the perfume of
those who possess virtue rises up to the gods as the highest.

Of the people who possess these virtues, who live without
thoughtlessness, and who are emancipated through true knowledge, Mara,
the tempter, never finds the way.

As on a heap of rubbish cast upon the highway the lily will grow full of
sweet perfume and delight, thus among those who are mere rubbish the
disciple of the truly enlightened Buddha shines forth by his knowledge
above the blinded worldling.

CHAPTER V

THE FOOL

Long is the night to him who is awake; long is a mile to him who is
tired; long is life to the foolish who do not know the true law.

If a traveller does not meet with one who is his better, or his equal,
let him firmly keep to his solitary journey; there is no companionship
with a fool.

"These sons belong to me, and this wealth belongs to me," with such
thoughts a fool is tormented. He himself does not belong to himself; how
much less sons and wealth?

The fool who knows his foolishness, is wise at least so far. But a fool
who thinks himself wise, he is called a fool indeed.

If a fool be associated with a wise man even all his life, he will
perceive the truth as little as a spoon perceives the taste of soup.

If an intelligent man be associated for one minute only with a wise man,
he will soon perceive the truth, as the tongue perceives the taste of
soup.

Fools of poor understanding have themselves for their greatest enemies,
for they do evil deeds which bear bitter fruits.

That deed is not well done of which a man must repent, and the reward of
which he receives crying and with a tearful face.

No, that deed is well done of which a man does not repent, and the
reward of which he receives gladly and cheerfully.

As long as the evil deed done does not bear fruit, the fool thinks it is
like honey; but when it ripens, then the fool suffers grief.

Let a fool month after month eat his food (like an ascetic) with the tip
of a blade of Ku['s]a-grass, yet is he not worth the sixteenth particle
of those who have well weighed the law.

An evil deed, like newly-drawn milk, does not turn suddenly;
smouldering, like fire covered by ashes, it follows the fool.

And when the evil deed, after it has become known, turns to sorrow for
the fool, then it destroys his bright lot, nay, it cleaves his head.

Let the fool wish for a false reputation, for precedence among the
Bhikshus, for lordship in the convents, for worship among other people!

"May both the layman and he who has left the world think that this is
done by me; may they be subject to me in everything which is to be done
or is not to be done," thus is the mind of the fool, and his desire and
pride increase.

"One is the road that leads to wealth, another the road that leads to
Nirvana"--if the Bhikshu, the disciple of Buddha, has learnt this, he
will not yearn for honor, he will strive after separation from the
world.

CHAPTER VI

THE WISE MAN

If you see a man who shows you what is to be avoided, who administers
reproofs, and is intelligent, follow that wise man as you would one who
tells of hidden treasures; it will be better, not worse, for him who
follows him.

Let him admonish, let him teach, let him forbid what is improper!--he
will be beloved of the good, by the bad he will be hated.

Do not have evil-doers for friends, do not have low people for friends:
have virtuous people for friends, have for friends the best of men.

He who drinks in the law lives happily with a serene mind: the sage
rejoices always in the law, as preached by the elect.

Well-makers lead the water wherever they like; fletchers bend the arrow;
carpenters bend a log of wood; wise people fashion themselves.

As a solid rock is not shaken by the wind, wise people falter not amidst
blame and praise.

Wise people, after they have listened to the laws, become serene, like a
deep, smooth, and still lake.

Good men indeed walk warily under all circumstances; good men speak not
out of a desire for sensual gratification; whether touched by happiness
or sorrow wise people never appear elated or depressed.

If, whether for his own sake, or for the sake of others, a man wishes
neither for a son, nor for wealth, nor for lordship, and if he does not
wish for his own success by unfair means, then he is good, wise, and
virtuous.

Few are there among men who arrive at the other shore (become Arhats);
the other people here run up and down the shore.

But those who, when the law has been well preached to them, follow the
law, will pass over the dominion of death, however difficult to cross.

A wise man should leave the dark state of ordinary life, and follow the
bright state of the Bhikshu. After going from his home to a homeless
state, he should in his retirement look for enjoyment where enjoyment
seemed difficult. Leaving all pleasures behind, and calling nothing his
own, the wise man should purge himself from all the troubles of the
mind.

Those whose mind is well grounded in the seven elements of knowledge,
who without clinging to anything, rejoice in freedom from attachment,
whose appetites have been conquered, and who are full of light, they are
free even in this world.

CHAPTER VII

THE VENERABLE

There is no suffering for him who has finished his journey, and
abandoned grief, who has freed himself on all sides, and thrown off all
fetters.

They exert themselves with their thoughts well-collected, they do not
tarry in their abode; like swans who have left their lake, they leave
their house and home.

Men who have no riches, who live on recognized food, who have perceived
void and unconditioned freedom (Nirvana), their path is difficult to
understand, like that of birds in the air.

He whose appetites are stilled, who is not absorbed in enjoyment, who
has perceived void and unconditioned freedom (Nirvana), his path is
difficult to understand, like that of birds in the air.

The gods even envy him whose senses, like horses well broken in by the
driver, have been subdued, who is free from pride, and free from
appetites; such a one who does his duty is tolerant like the earth, or
like a threshold; he is like a lake without mud; no new births are in
store for him.

His thought is quiet, quiet are his word and deed, when he has obtained
freedom by true knowledge, when he has thus become a quiet man.

The man who is free from credulity, but knows the uncreated, who has cut
all ties, removed all temptations, renounced all desires, he is the
greatest of men.

In a hamlet or in a forest, on sea or on dry land, wherever venerable
persons (Arahanta) dwell, that place is delightful.

Forests are delightful; where the world finds no delight, there the
passionless will find delight, for they look not for pleasures.

CHAPTER VIII

THE THOUSANDS

Even though a speech be a thousand (of words), but made up of senseless
words, one word of sense is better, which if a man hears, he becomes
quiet.

Even though a Gatha (poem) be a thousand (of words), but made up of
senseless words, one word of a Gatha is better, which if a man hears, he
becomes quiet.

Though a man recite a hundred Gathas made up of senseless words, one
word of the law is better, which if a man hears, he becomes quiet.

If one man conquer in battle a thousand times a thousand men, and if
another conquer himself, he is the greatest of conquerors.

One's own self conquered is better than all other people; not even a
god, a Gandharva, not Mara (with Brahman) could change into defeat the
victory of a man who has vanquished himself, and always lives under
restraint.

If a man for a hundred years sacrifice month by month with a thousand,
and if he but for one moment pay homage to a man whose soul is grounded
in true knowledge, better is that homage than a sacrifice for a hundred
years.

If a man for a hundred years worship Agni (fire) in the forest, and if
he but for one moment pay homage to a man whose soul is grounded in true
knowledge, better is that homage than sacrifice for a hundred years.

Whatever a man sacrifice in this world as an offering or as an oblation
for a whole year in order to gain merit, the whole of it is not worth a
quarter a farthing; reverence shown to the righteous is better.

He who always greets and constantly reveres the aged, four things will
increase to him: life, beauty, happiness, power.

But he who lives a hundred years, vicious and unrestrained, a life of
one day is better if a man is virtuous and reflecting.

And he who lives a hundred years, ignorant and unrestrained, a life of
one day is better if a man is wise and reflecting.

And he who lives a hundred years, idle and weak, a life of one day is
better if a man has attained firm strength.

And he who lives a hundred years, not seeing beginning and end, a life
of one day is better if a man sees beginning and end.

And he who lives a hundred years, not seeing the immortal place, a life
of one day is better if a man sees the immortal place.

And he who lives a hundred years, not seeing the highest law, a life of
one day is better if a man sees the highest law.

CHAPTER IX

EVIL

A man should hasten towards the good, and should keep his thought away
from evil; if a man does what is good slothfully, his mind delights in
evil.

If a man commits a sin, let him not do it again; let him not delight in
sin: the accumulation of evil is painful.

If a man does what is good, let him do it again; let him delight in it:
the accumulation of good is delightful.

Even an evil-doer sees happiness so long as his evil deed does not
ripen; but when his evil deed ripens, then does the evil-doer see evil.

Even a good man sees evil days so long as his good deed does not ripen;
but when his good deed ripens, then does the good man see good things.

Let no man think lightly of evil, saying in his heart, It will not come
nigh unto me. Even by the falling of water-drops a water-pot is filled;
the fool becomes full of evil, even if he gather it little by little.

Let no man think lightly of good, saying in his heart, It will not come
nigh unto me. Even by the falling of water-drops a water-pot is filled;
the wise man becomes full of good, even if he gather it little by
little.

Let a man avoid evil deeds, as a merchant, if he has few companions and
carries much wealth, avoids a dangerous road; as a man who loves life
avoids poison.

He who has no wound on his hand, may touch poison with his hand; poison
does not affect one who has no wound; nor is there evil for one who does
not commit evil.

If a man offend a harmless, pure, and innocent person, the evil falls
back upon that fool, like light dust thrown up against the wind.

Some people are born again; evil-doers go to hell; righteous people go
to heaven; those who are free from all worldly desires attain Nirvana.

Not in the sky, not in the midst of the sea, not if we enter into the
clefts of the mountains, is there known a spot in the whole world where
a man might be freed from an evil deed.

Not in the sky, not in the midst of the sea, not if we enter into the
clefts of the mountains, is there known a spot in the whole world where
death could not overcome the mortal.

CHAPTER X

PUNISHMENT

All men tremble at punishment, all men fear death; remember that you are
like unto them, and do not kill, nor cause slaughter.

All men tremble at punishment, all men love life; remember that thou art
like unto them, and do not kill, nor cause slaughter.

He who, seeking his own happiness, punishes or kills beings who also
long for happiness, will not find happiness after death.

He who, seeking his own happiness, does not punish or kill beings who
also long for happiness, will find happiness after death.

Do not speak harshly to anyone; those who are spoken to will answer thee
in the same way. Angry speech is painful: blows for blows will touch
thee.

If, like a shattered metal plate (gong), thou utter nothing, then thou
hast reached Nirvana; anger is not known to thee.

As a cow-herd with his staff drives his cows into the stable, so do Age
and Death drive the life of men.

A fool does not know when he commits his evil deeds: but the wicked man
burns by his own deeds, as if burnt by fire.

He who inflicts pain on innocent and harmless persons, will soon come to
one of these ten states:--

He will have cruel suffering, loss, injury of the body, heavy
affliction, or loss of mind.

A misfortune coming from the king, or a fearful accusation, or loss of
relations, or destruction of treasures.

Lightning-fire will burn his houses; and when his body is destroyed, the
fool will go to hell.

Not nakedness, not platted hair, not dirt, not fasting, or lying on the
earth, not rubbing with dust, not sitting motionless, can purify a
mortal who has not overcome desires.

He who, though dressed in fine apparel, exercises tranquillity, is
quiet, subdued, restrained, chaste, and has ceased to find fault with
all other beings, he indeed is a Brahmana, an ascetic (Sramana), a friar
(Bhikshu).

Is there in this world any man so restrained by shame that he does not
provoke reproof, as a noble horse the whip?

Like a noble horse when touched by the whip, be ye strenuous and eager,
and by faith, by virtue, by energy, by meditation, by discernment of the
law, you will overcome this great pain, perfect in knowledge and in
behavior, and never forgetful.

Well-makers lead the water wherever they like; fletchers bend the arrow;
carpenters bend a log of wood; good people fashion themselves.

CHAPTER XI

OLD AGE

How is there laughter, how is there joy, as this world is always
burning? Do you not seek a light, ye who are surrounded by darkness?

Look at this dressed-up lump, covered with wounds, joined together,
sickly, full of many schemes, but which has no strength, no hold!

This body is wasted, full of sickness, and frail; this heap of
corruption breaks to pieces, life indeed ends in death.

After one has looked at those gray bones, thrown away like gourds in the
autumn, what pleasure is there left in life!

After a stronghold has been made of the bones, it is covered with flesh
and blood, and there dwell in it old age and death, pride and deceit.

The brilliant chariots of kings are destroyed, the body also approaches
destruction, but the virtue of good people never approaches
destruction--thus do the good say to the good.

A man who has learnt little, grows old like an ox; his flesh grows, but
his knowledge does not grow.

Looking for the maker of this tabernacle, I have run through a course of
many births, not finding him; and painful is birth again and again. But
now, maker of the tabernacle, thou hast been seen; thou shalt not make
up this tabernacle again. All thy rafters are broken, thy ridge-pole is
sundered; the mind, approaching the Eternal (Visankhara, Nirvana), has
attained to the extinction of all desires.

Men who have not observed proper discipline, and have not gained wealth
in their youth, perish like old herons in a lake without fish.

Men who have not observed proper discipline, and have not gained wealth
in their youth, lie, like broken bows, sighing after the past.

CHAPTER XII

SELF

If a man hold himself dear, let him watch himself carefully; during one
at least out of the three watches a wise man should be watchful.

Let each man direct himself first to what is proper, then let him teach
others; thus a wise man will not suffer.

If a man make himself as he teaches others to be, then, being himself
well subdued, he may subdue others; for one's own self is difficult to
subdue.

Self is the lord of self, who else could be the lord? With self well
subdued, a man finds a lord such as few can find.

The evil done by one's self, self-forgotten, self-bred, crushes the
foolish, as a diamond breaks even a precious stone.

He whose wickedness is very great brings himself down to that state
where his enemy wishes him to be, as a creeper does with the tree which
it surrounds.

Bad deeds, and deeds hurtful to ourselves, are easy to do; what is
beneficial and good, that is very difficult to do.

The foolish man who scorns the rule of the venerable (Arhat), of the
elect (Ariya), of the virtuous, and follows a false doctrine, he bears
fruit to his own destruction, like the fruits of the Katthaka reed.

By one's self the evil is done, by one's self one suffers; by one's self
evil is left undone, by one's self one is purified. The pure and the
impure stand and fall by themselves, no one can purify another.

Let no one forget his own duty for the sake of another's, however great;
let a man, after he has discerned his own duty, be always attentive to
his duty.

CHAPTER XIII

THE WORLD

Do not follow the evil law! Do not live on in thoughtlessness! Do not
follow false doctrine! Be not a friend of the world.

Rouse thyself! do not be idle! Follow the law of virtue! The virtuous
rest in bliss in this world and in the next.

Follow the law of virtue; do not follow that of sin. The virtuous rest
in bliss in this world and in the next.

Look upon the world as you would on a bubble, look upon it as you would
on a mirage: the king of death does not see him who thus looks down upon
the world.

Come, look at this world, glittering like a royal chariot; the foolish
are immersed in it, but the wise do not touch it.

He who formerly was reckless and afterwards became sober brightens up
this world, like the moon when freed from clouds.

He whose evil deeds are covered by good deeds, brightens up this world,
like the moon when freed from clouds.

This world is dark, few only can see here; a few only go to heaven, like
birds escaped from the net.

The swans go on the path of the sun, they go miraculously through the
ether; the wise are led out of this world, when they have conquered Mara
and his train.

If a man has transgressed the one law, and speaks lies, and scoffs at
another world, there is no evil he will not do.

The uncharitable do not go to the world of the gods; fools only do not
praise liberality; a wise man rejoices in liberality, and through it
becomes blessed in the other world.

Better than sovereignty over the earth, better than going to heaven,
better than lordship over all worlds, is the reward of Sotapatti, the
first step in holiness.

CHAPTER XIV

THE BUDDHA--THE AWAKENED

He whose conquest cannot be conquered again, into whose conquest no one
in this world enters, by what track can you lead him, the Awakened, the
Omniscient, the trackless?

He whom no desire with its snares and poisons can lead astray, by what
track can you lead him, the Awakened, the Omniscient, the trackless?

Even the gods envy those who are awakened and not forgetful, who are
given to meditation, who are wise, and who delight in the repose of
retirement from the world.

Difficult to obtain is the conception of men, difficult is the life of
mortals, difficult is the hearing of the True Law, difficult is the
birth of the Awakened (the attainment of Buddhahood).

Not to commit any sin, to do good, and to purify one's mind, that is the
teaching of all the Awakened.

The Awakened call patience the highest penance, long-suffering the
highest Nirvana; for he is not an anchorite (Pravra-gita) who strikes
others, he is not an ascetic (Sramana) who insults others.

Not to blame, not to strike, to live restrained under the law, to be
moderate in eating, to sleep and sit alone, and to dwell on the highest
thoughts--this is the teaching of the Awakened.

There is no satisfying lusts, even by a shower of gold pieces; he who
knows that lusts have a short taste and cause pain, he is wise; even in
heavenly pleasures he finds no satisfaction, the disciple who is fully
awakened delights only in the destruction of all desires.

Men, driven by fear, go to many a refuge, to mountains and forests, to
groves and sacred trees.

But that is not a safe refuge, that is not the best refuge; a man is not
delivered from all pains after having gone to that refuge.

He who takes refuge with Buddha, the Law, and the Church; he who, with
clear understanding, sees the four holy truths: pain, the origin of
pain, the destruction of pain, and the eightfold holy way that leads to
the quieting of pain;--that is the safe refuge, that is the best refuge;
having gone to that refuge, a man is delivered from all pain.

A supernatural person (a Buddha) is not easily found: he is not born
everywhere. Wherever such a sage is born, that race prospers.

Happy is the arising of the Awakened, happy is the teaching of the True
Law, happy is peace in the church, happy is the devotion of those who
are at peace.

He who pays homage to those who deserve homage, whether the awakened
(Buddha) or their disciples, those who have overcome the host of evils,
and crossed the flood of sorrow, he who pays homage to such as have
found deliverance and know no fear, his merit can never be measured by
anyone.

CHAPTER XV

HAPPINESS

We live happily indeed, not hating those who hate us! among men who hate
us we dwell free from hatred! We live happily indeed, free from ailments
among the ailing! among men who are ailing let us dwell free from
ailments!

We live happily indeed, free from greed among the greedy! among men who
are greedy let us dwell free from greed!

We live happily indeed, though we call nothing our own! We shall be like
the bright gods, feeding on happiness!

Victory breeds hatred, for the conquered is unhappy. He who has given up
both victory and defeat, he, the contented, is happy.

There is no fire like passion; there is no losing throw like hatred;
there is no pain like this body; there is no happiness higher than rest.

Hunger is the worst of diseases, the elements of the body the greatest
evil; if one knows this truly, that is Nirvana, the highest happiness.

Health is the greatest of gifts, contentedness the best riches; trust is
the best of relationships, Nirvana the highest happiness.

He who has tasted the sweetness of solitude and tranquillity, is free
from fear and free from sin, while he tastes the sweetness of drinking
in the law.

The sight of the elect (Ariya) is good, to live with them is always
happiness; if a man does not see fools, he will be truly happy.

He who walks in the company of fools suffers a long way; company with
fools, as with an enemy, is always painful; company with the wise is
pleasure, like meeting with kinsfolk.

Therefore, one ought to follow the wise, the intelligent, the learned,
the much enduring, the dutiful, the elect; one ought to follow such a
good and wise man, as the moon follows the path of the stars.

CHAPTER XVI

PLEASURE

He who gives himself to vanity, and does not give himself to meditation,
forgetting the real aim of life and grasping at pleasure, will in time
envy him who has exerted himself in meditation.

Let no man ever cling to what is pleasant, or to what is unpleasant. Not
to see what is pleasant is pain, and it is pain to see what is
unpleasant.

Let, therefore, no man love anything; loss of the beloved is evil. Those
who love nothing, and hate nothing, have no fetters.

From pleasure comes grief, from pleasure comes fear; he who is free from
pleasure knows neither grief nor fear.

From affection comes grief, from affection comes fear; he who is free
from affection knows neither grief nor fear.

From lust comes grief, from lust comes fear; he who is free from lust
knows neither grief nor fear.

From love comes grief, from love comes fear; he who is free from love
knows neither grief nor fear.

From greed comes grief, from greed comes fear; he who is free from greed
knows neither grief nor fear.

He who possesses virtue and intelligence, who is just, speaks the truth,
and does what is his own business, him the world will hold dear.

He in whom a desire for the Ineffable (Nirvana) has sprung up, who in
his mind is satisfied, and whose thoughts are not bewildered by love, he
is called urdhvamsrotas (carried upwards by the stream).

Kinsmen, friends, and lovers salute a man who has been long away, and
returns safe from afar.

In like manner his good works receive him who has done good, and has
gone from this world to the other;--as kinsmen receive a friend on his
return.

CHAPTER XVII

ANGER

Let a man leave anger, let him forsake pride, let him overcome all
bondage! No sufferings befall the man who is not attached to name and
form, and who calls nothing his own.

He who holds back rising anger like a rolling chariot, him I call a real
driver; other people are but holding the reins.

Let a man overcome anger by love, let him overcome evil by good; let him
overcome the greedy by liberality, the liar by truth!

Speak the truth, do not yield to anger; give, if thou art asked for
little; by these three steps thou wilt go near the gods.

The sages who injure nobody, and who always control their body, they
will go to the unchangeable place (Nirvana), where, if they have gone,
they will suffer no more.

Those who are ever watchful, who study day and night, and who strive
after Nirvana, their passions will come to an end.

This is an old saying, O Atula, this is not as if of to-day: "They blame
him who sits silent, they blame him who speaks much, they also blame him
who says little; there is no one on earth who is not blamed."

There never was, there never will be, nor is there now, a man who is
always blamed, or a man who is always praised.

But he whom those who discriminate praise continually day after day, as
without blemish, wise, rich in knowledge and virtue, who would dare to
blame him, like a coin made of gold from the Gambu river? Even the gods
praise him, he is praised even by Brahman.

Beware of bodily anger, and control thy body! Leave the sins of the
body, and with thy body practise virtue!

Beware of the anger of the tongue, and control thy tongue! Leave the
sins of the tongue, and practise virtue with thy tongue!

Beware of the anger of the mind, and control thy mind! Leave the sins of
the mind, and practise virtue with thy mind!

The wise who control their body, who control their tongue, the wise who
control their mind, are indeed well controlled.

CHAPTER XVIII

IMPURITY

Thou art now like a sear leaf, the messengers of death (Yama) have come
near to thee; thou standest at the door of thy departure, and thou hast
no provision for thy journey.

Make thyself an island, work hard, be wise! When thy impurities are
blown away, and thou art free from guilt, thou wilt enter into the
heavenly world of the elect (Ariya).

Thy life has come to an end, thou art come near to death (Yama), there
is no resting-place for thee on the road, and thou hast no provision for
thy journey.

Make thyself an island, work hard, be wise! When thy impurities are
blown away, and thou art free from guilt, thou wilt not enter again into
birth and decay.

Let a wise man blow off the impurities of himself, as a smith blows off
the impurities of silver, one by one, little by little, and from time to
time.

As the impurity which springs from the iron, when it springs from it,
destroys it; thus do a transgressor's own works lead him to the evil
path.

The taint of prayers is non-repetition; the taint of houses, non-repair;
the taint of complexion is sloth; the taint of a watchman,
thoughtlessness.

Bad conduct is the taint of woman, niggardliness the taint of a
benefactor; tainted are all evil ways, in this world and in the next.

But there is a taint worse than all taints--ignorance is the greatest
taint. O mendicants! throw off that taint, and become taintless!

Life is easy to live for a man who is without shame: a crow hero, a
mischief-maker, an insulting, bold, and wretched fellow.

But life is hard to live for a modest man, who always looks for what is
pure, who is disinterested, quiet, spotless, and intelligent.

He who destroys life, who speaks untruth, who in the world takes what is
not given him, who goes to another man's wife; and the man who gives
himself to drinking intoxicating liquors, he, even in this world, digs
up his own root.

O man, know this, that the unrestrained are in a bad state; take care
that greediness and vice do not bring thee to grief for a long time!

The world gives according to their faith or according to their pleasure:
if a man frets about the food and the drink given to others, he will
find no rest either by day or by night.

He in whom that feeling is destroyed, and taken out with the very root,
finds rest by day and by night.

There is no fire like passion, there is no shark like hatred, there is
no snare like folly, there is no torrent like greed.

The fault of others is easily perceived, but that of one's self is
difficult to perceive; a man winnows his neighbor's faults like chaff,
but his own fault he hides, as a cheat hides the bad die from the
player.

If a man looks after the faults of others, and is always inclined to be
offended, his own passions will grow, and he is far from the destruction
of passions.

There is no path through the air, a man is not a Samana outwardly. The
world delights in vanity, the Tathagatas (the Buddhas) are free from
vanity.

There is no path through the air, a man is not a Samana outwardly. No
creatures are eternal; but the awakened (Buddha) are never shaken.

CHAPTER XIX

THE JUST

A man is not just if he carries a matter by violence; no, he who
distinguishes both right and wrong, who is learned and guides others,
not by violence, but by the same law, being a guardian of the law and
intelligent, he is called just.

A man is not learned because he talks much; he who is patient, free from
hatred and fear, he is called learned.

A man is not a supporter of the law because he talks much; even if a man
has learnt little, but sees the law bodily, he is a supporter of the
law, a man who never neglects the law.

A man is not an elder because his head is gray; his age may be ripe, but
he is called "Old-in-vain."

He in whom there is truth, virtue, pity, restraint, moderation, he who
is free from impurity and is wise, he is called an elder.

An envious, stingy, dishonest man does not become respectable by means
of much talking only, or by the beauty of his complexion.

He in whom all this is destroyed, and taken out with the very root, he,
when freed from hatred, is called respectable.

Not by tonsure does an undisciplined man who speaks falsehood become a
Samana; can a man be a Samana who is still held captive by desire and
greediness?

He who always quiets the evil, whether small or large, he is called a
Samana (a quiet man), because he has quieted all evil.

A man is not a mendicant (Bhikshu) simply because he asks others for
alms; he who adopts the whole law is a Bhikshu, not he who only begs.

He who is above good and evil, who is chaste, who with care passes
through the world, he indeed is called a Bhikshu.

A man is not a Muni because he observes silence if he is foolish and
ignorant; but the wise who, as with the balance, chooses the good and
avoids evil, he is a Muni, and is a Muni thereby; he who in this world
weighs both sides is called a Muni.

A man is not an elect (Ariya) because he injures living creatures;
because he has pity on all living creatures, therefore is a man called
Ariya.

Not only by discipline and vows, not only by much learning, not by
entering into a trance, not by sleeping alone, do I earn the happiness
of release which no worldling can know. O Bhikshu, he who has obtained
the extinction of desires has obtained confidence.

CHAPTER XX

THE WAY

The best of ways is the eightfold; the best of truths the four words;
the best of virtues passionlessness; the best of men he who has eyes to
see.

This is the way, there is no other that leads to the purifying of
intelligence. Go on this path! This is the confusion of Mara, the
tempter.

If you go on this way, you will make an end of pain! The way preached by
me, when I had understood the removal of the thorns in the flesh.

You yourself must make an effort. The Tathagatas (Buddhas) are only
preachers. The thoughtful who enter the way are freed from the bondage
of Mara.

"All created things perish," he who knows and sees this becomes passive
in pain; this is the way to purity.

"All created things are grief and pain," he who knows and sees this
becomes passive in pain; this is the way that leads to purity.

"All forms are unreal," he who knows and sees this becomes passive in
pain; this is the way that leads to purity.

He who does not rouse himself when it is time to rise, who, though young
and strong, is full of sloth, whose will and thought are weak, that lazy
and idle man never finds the way to knowledge.

Watching his speech, well restrained in mind, let a man never commit any
wrong with his body! Let a man but keep these three roads of action
clear, and he will achieve the way which is taught by the wise.

Through zeal knowledge is gained, through lack of zeal knowledge is
lost; let a man who knows this double path of gain and loss thus place
himself that knowledge may grow.

Cut down the whole forest of desires, not a tree only! Danger comes out
of the forest of desires. When you have cut down both the forest of
desires and its undergrowth, then, Bhikshus, you will be rid of the
forest and of desires!

So long as the desire of man towards women, even the smallest, is not
destroyed, so long is his mind in bondage, as the calf that drinks milk
is to its mother.

Cut out the love of self, like an autumn lotus, with thy hand! Cherish
the road of peace. Nirvana has been shown by Sugata (Buddha).

"Here I shall dwell in the rain, here in winter and summer," thus the
fool meditates, and does not think of death.

Death comes and carries off that man, honored for his children and
flocks, his mind distracted, as a flood carries off a sleeping village.

Sons are no help, nor a father, nor relations; there is no help from
kinsfolk for one whom death has seized.

A wise and well-behaved man who knows the meaning of this should quickly
clear the way that leads to Nirvana.

CHAPTER XXI

MISCELLANEOUS

If by leaving a small pleasure one sees a great pleasure, let a wise man
leave the small pleasure, and look to the great.

He who, by causing pain to others, wishes to obtain pleasure for
himself, he, entangled in the bonds of hatred, will never be free from
hatred.

What ought to be done is neglected, what ought not to be done is done;
the desires of unruly, thoughtless people are always increasing.

But they whose whole watchfulness is always directed to their body, who
do not follow what ought not to be done, and who steadfastly do what
ought to be done, the desires of such watchful and wise people will come
to an end.

A true Brahmana goes scathless, though he have killed father and mother,
and two valiant kings, though he has destroyed a kingdom with all its
subjects.

A true Brahmana goes scathless, though he have killed father and mother,
and two holy kings, and an eminent man besides.

The disciples of Gotama (Buddha) are always well awake, and their
thoughts day and night are always set on Buddha.

The disciples of Gotama are always well awake, and their thoughts day
and night are always set on the law.

The disciples of Gotama are always well awake, and their thoughts day
and night are always set on the church.

The disciples of Gotama are always well awake, and their thoughts day
and night are always set on their body.

The disciples of Gotama are always well awake, and their mind day and
night always delights in compassion.

The disciples of Gotama are always well awake, and their mind day and
night always delights in meditation.

It is hard to leave the world to become a friar, it is hard to enjoy the
world; hard is the monastery, painful are the houses; painful it is to
dwell with equals to share everything in common, and the itinerant
mendicant is beset with pain. Therefore let no man be an itinerant
mendicant, and he will not be beset with pain.

A man full of faith, if endowed with virtue and glory, is respected,
whatever place he may choose.

Good people shine from afar, like the snowy mountains; bad people are
not seen, like arrows shot by night.

Sitting alone, lying down alone, walking alone without ceasing, and
alone subduing himself, let a man be happy near the edge of a forest.

CHAPTER XXII

THE DOWNWARD COURSE

He who says what is not goes to hell; he also who, having done a thing,
says I have not done it. After death both are equal: they are men with
evil deeds in the next world.

Many men whose shoulders are covered with the yellow gown are
ill-conditioned and unrestrained; such evil-doers by their evil deeds go
to hell.

Better it would be to swallow a heated iron ball, like flaring fire,
than that a bad unrestrained fellow should live on the charity of the
land.

Four things does a reckless man gain who covets his neighbor's
wife--demerit, an uncomfortable bed, thirdly, punishment, and lastly,
hell.

There is demerit, and the evil way to hell: there is the short pleasure
of the frightened in the arms of the frightened, and the king imposes
heavy punishment; therefore let no man think of his neighbor's wife.

As a grass-blade, if badly grasped, cuts the arm, badly-practised
asceticism leads to hell.

An act carelessly performed, a broken vow, and hesitating obedience to
discipline (Brahma-kariyam), all these bring no great reward.

If anything is to be done, let a man do it, let him attack it
vigorously! A careless pilgrim only scatters the dust of his passions
more widely.

An evil deed is better left undone, for a man repents of it afterwards;
a good deed is better done, for having done it, one does not repent.

Like a well-guarded frontier fort, with defences within and without, so
let a man guard himself. Not a moment should escape, for they who allow
the right moment to pass, suffer pain when they are in hell.

They who are ashamed of what they ought not to be ashamed of, and are
not ashamed of what they ought to be ashamed of, such men, embracing
false doctrines, enter the evil path.

They who fear when they ought not to fear, and fear not when they ought
to fear, such men, embracing false doctrines, enter the evil path.

They who see sin where there is no sin, and see no sin where there is
sin, such men, embracing false doctrines, enter the evil path.

They who see sin where there is sin, and no sin where there is no sin,
such men, embracing the true doctrine, enter the good path.

CHAPTER XXIII

THE ELEPHANT

Silently I endured abuse as the elephant in battle endures the arrow
sent from the bow: for the world is ill-natured.

They lead a tamed elephant to battle, the king mounts a tamed elephant;
the tamed is the best among men, he who silently endures abuse.

Mules are good, if tamed, and noble Sindhu horses, and elephants with
large tusks; but he who tames himself is better still.

For with these animals does no man reach the untrodden country
(Nirvana), where a tamed man goes on a tamed animal--on his own
well-tamed self.

The elephant called Dhanapalaka, his temples running with pungent sap,
and who is difficult to hold, does not eat a morsel when bound; the
elephant longs for the elephant grove.

If a man becomes fat and a great eater, if he is sleepy and rolls
himself about, that fool, like a hog fed on grains, is born again and
again.

This mind of mine went formerly wandering about as it liked, as it
listed, as it pleased; but I shall now hold it in thoroughly, as the
rider who holds the hook holds in the furious elephant.

Be not thoughtless, watch your thoughts! Draw yourself out of the evil
way, like an elephant sunk in mud.

If a man find a prudent companion who walks with him, is wise, and lives
soberly, he may walk with him, overcoming all dangers, happy, but
considerate.

If a man find no prudent companion who walks with him, is wise, and
lives soberly, let him walk alone, like a king who has left his
conquered country behind--like an elephant in the forest.

It is better to live alone: there is no companionship with a fool; let a
man walk alone, let him commit no sin, with few wishes, like an elephant
in the forest.

If the occasion arises, friends are pleasant; enjoyment is pleasant,
whatever be the cause; a good work is pleasant in the hour of death; the
giving up of all grief is pleasant.

Pleasant in the world is the state of a mother, pleasant the state of a
father, pleasant the state of a Samana, pleasant the state of a
Brahmana.

Pleasant is virtue lasting to old age, pleasant is a faith firmly
rooted; pleasant is attainment of intelligence, pleasant is avoiding of
sins.

CHAPTER XXIV

THIRST

The thirst of a thoughtless man grows like a creeper; he runs from life
to life, like a monkey seeking fruit in the forest.

Whomsoever this fierce poisonous thirst overcomes, in this world, his
sufferings increase like the abounding Birana grass.

But from him who overcomes this fierce thirst, difficult to be conquered
in this world, sufferings fall off, like water-drops from a lotus leaf.

This salutary word I tell you, "Do ye, as many as are here assembled,
dig up the root of thirst, as he who wants the sweet-scented Usira root
must dig up the Birana grass, that Mara, the tempter, may not crush you
again and again, as the stream crushes the reeds."

As a tree, even though it has been cut down, is firm so long as its root
is safe, and grows again, thus, unless the feeders of thirst are
destroyed, this pain of life will return again and again.

He whose thirty-six streams are strongly flowing in the channels of
pleasure, the waves--his desires which are set on passion--will carry
away that misguided man.

The channels run everywhere, the creeper of passion stands sprouting; if
you see the creeper springing up, cut its root by means of knowledge.

A creature's pleasures are extravagant and luxurious; given up to
pleasure and deriving happiness, men undergo again and again birth and
decay.

Beset with lust, men run about like a snared hare; held in fetters and
bonds, they undergo pain for a long time, again and again.

Beset with lust, men run about like a snared hare; let therefore the
mendicant drive out thirst, by striving after passionlessness for
himself.

He who, having got rid of the forest of lust (after having reached
Nirvana), gives himself over to forest-life (to lust), and who, when
free from the forest (from lust), runs to the forest (to lust), look at
that man! though free, he runs into bondage.

Wise people do not call that a strong fetter which is made of iron,
wood, or hemp; passionately strong is the care for precious stones and
rings, for sons and a wife.

That fetter wise people call strong which drags down, yields, but is
difficult to undo; after having cut this at last, people leave the
world, free from cares, and leaving the pleasures of love behind.

Those who are slaves to passions, run down the stream of desires, as a
spider runs down the web which he has made himself; when they have cut
this, at last, wise people go onwards, free from cares, leaving all pain
behind.

Give up what is before, give up what is behind, give up what is between,
when thou goest to the other shore of existence; if thy mind is
altogether free, thou wilt not again enter into birth and decay.

If a man is tossed about by doubts, full of strong passions, and
yearning only for what is delightful, his thirst will grow more and
more, and he will indeed make his fetters strong.

If a man delights in quieting doubts, and, always reflecting, dwells on
what is not delightful, he certainly will remove, nay, he will cut the
fetter of Mara.

He who has reached the consummation, who does not tremble, who is
without thirst and without sin, he has broken all the thorns of life:
this will be his last body.

He who is without thirst and without affection, who understands the
words and their interpretation, who knows the order of letters (those
which are before and which are after), he has received his last body, he
is called the great sage, the great man.

"I have conquered all, I know all, in all conditions of life I am free
from taint; I have left all, and through the destruction of thirst I am
free; having learnt myself, whom should I indicate as my teacher?"

The gift of the law exceeds all gifts; the sweetness of the law exceeds
all sweetness; the delight in the law exceeds all delights; the
extinction of thirst overcomes all pain.

Riches destroy the foolish, if they look not for the other shore; the
foolish by his thirst for riches destroys himself, as if he were
destroying others.

The fields are damaged by weeds, mankind is damaged by passion:
therefore a gift bestowed on the passionless brings great reward.

The fields are damaged by weeds, mankind is damaged by hatred: therefore
a gift bestowed on those who do not hate brings great reward.

The fields are damaged by weeds, mankind is damaged by vanity: therefore
a gift bestowed on those who are free from vanity brings great reward.

The fields are damaged by weeds, mankind is damaged by lust: therefore a
gift bestowed on those who are free from lust brings great reward.

CHAPTER XXV

THE BHIKSHU

Restraint in the eye is good, good is restraint in the ear, in the nose
restraint is good, good is restraint in the tongue.

In the body restraint is good, good is restraint in speech, in thought
restraint is good, good is restraint in all things. A Bhikshu,
restrained in all things, is freed from all pain.

He who controls his hand, he who controls his feet, he who controls his
speech, he who is well controlled, he who delights inwardly, who is
collected, who is solitary and content, him they call Bhikshu.

The Bhikshu who controls his mouth, who speaks wisely and calmly, who
teaches the meaning and the law, his word is sweet.

He who dwells in the law, delights in the law, meditates on the law,
recollects the law: that Bhikshu will never fall away from the true law.

Let him not despise what he has received, nor ever envy others: a
mendicant who envies others does not obtain peace of mind.

A Bhikshu who, though he receives little, does not despise what he has
received, even the gods will praise him, if his life is pure, and if he
is not slothful.

He who never identifies himself with name and form, and does not grieve
over what is no more, he indeed is called a Bhikshu.

The Bhikshu who behaves with kindness, who is happy in the doctrine of
Buddha, will reach the quiet place (Nirvana), happiness arising from the
cessation of natural inclinations.

O Bhikshu, empty this boat! if emptied, it will go quickly; having cut
off passion and hatred, thou wilt go to Nirvana.

Cut off the five fetters, leave the five, rise above the five. A
Bhikshu, who has escaped from the five fetters, he is called
Oghatinna--"saved from the flood."

Meditate, O Bhikshu, and be not heedless! Do not direct thy thought to
what gives pleasure, that thou mayest not for thy heedlessness have to
swallow the iron ball in hell, and that thou mayest not cry out when
burning, "This is pain."

Without knowledge there is no meditation, without meditation there is no
knowledge: he who has knowledge and meditation is near unto Nirvana.

A Bhikshu who has entered his empty house, and whose mind is tranquil,
feels a more than human delight when he sees the law clearly.

As soon as he has considered the origin and destruction of the elements
of the body, he finds happiness and joy which belong to those who know
the immortal (Nirvana).

And this is the beginning here for a wise Bhikshu: watchfulness over the
senses, contentedness, restraint under the law; keep noble friends whose
life is pure, and who are not slothful.

Let him live in charity, let him be perfect in his duties; then in the
fulness of delight he will make an end of suffering.

As the Vassika plant sheds its withered flowers, men should shed passion
and hatred, O ye Bhikshus!

The Bhikshu whose body and tongue and mind are quieted, who is
collected, and has rejected the baits of the world, he is called quiet.

Rouse thyself by thyself, examine thyself by thyself, thus
self-protected and attentive wilt thou live happily, O Bhikshu!

For self is the lord of self, self is the refuge of self; therefore curb
thyself as the merchant curbs a noble horse.

The Bhikshu, full of delight, who is happy in the doctrine of Buddha
will reach the quiet place (Nirvana), happiness consisting in the
cessation of natural inclinations.

He who, even as a young Bhikshu, applies himself to the doctrine of
Buddha, brightens up this world, like the moon when free from clouds.

CHAPTER XXVI

THE BRAHMANA

Stop the stream valiantly, drive away the desires, O Brahmana! When you
have understood the destruction of all that was made, you will
understand that which was not made.

If the Brahmana has reached the other shore in both laws, in restraint
and contemplation, all bonds vanish from him who has obtained knowledge.

He for whom there is neither the hither nor the further shore, nor both,
him, the fearless and unshackled, I call indeed a Brahmana.

He who is thoughtful, blameless, settled, dutiful, without passions, and
who has attained the highest end, him I call indeed a Brahmana.

The sun is bright by day, the moon shines by night, the warrior is
bright in his armor, the Brahmana is bright in his meditation; but
Buddha, the Awakened, is bright with splendor day and night.

Because a man is rid of evil, therefore he is called Brahmana; because
he walks quietly, therefore he is called Samana; because he has sent
away his own impurities, therefore he is called Pravragita (Pabbagita, a
pilgrim).

No one should attack a Brahmana, but no Brahmana, if attacked, should
let himself fly at his aggressor! Woe to him who strikes a Brahmana,
more woe to him who flies at his aggressor!

It advantages a Brahmana not a little if he holds his mind back from the
pleasures of life; the more all wish to injure has vanished, the more
all pain will cease.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who does not offend by body, word, or
thought, and is controlled on these three points.

He from whom he may learn the law, as taught by the Well-awakened
(Buddha), him let him worship assiduously, as the Brahmana worships the
sacrificial fire.

A man does not become a Brahmana by his plaited hair, by his family, or
by birth; in whom there is truth and righteousness, he is blessed, he is
a Brahmana.

What is the use of plaited hair, O fool! what of the raiment of
goat-skins? Within thee there is ravening, but the outside thou makest
clean.

The man who wears dirty raiments, who is emaciated and covered with
veins, who meditates alone in the forest, him I call indeed a Brahmana.

I do not call a man a Brahmana because of his origin or of his mother.
He is indeed arrogant, and he is wealthy: but the poor, who is free from
all attachments, him I call indeed a Brahmana.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who, after cutting all fetters, never
trembles, is free from bonds and unshackled.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who, after cutting the strap and the thong,
the rope with all that pertains to it, has destroyed all obstacles, and
is awakened.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who, though he has committed no offence,
endures reproach, stripes, and bonds: who has endurance for his force,
and strength for his army.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who is free from anger, dutiful, virtuous,
without appetites, who is subdued, and has received his last body.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who does not cling to sensual pleasures,
like water on a lotus leaf, like a mustard seed on the point of a
needle.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who, even here, knows the end of his own
suffering, has put down his burden, and is unshackled.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana whose knowledge is deep, who possesses
wisdom, who knows the right way and the wrong, and has attained the
highest end.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who keeps aloof both from laymen and from
mendicants, who frequents no houses, and has but few desires.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who without hurting any creatures, whether
feeble or strong, does not kill nor cause slaughter.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who is tolerant with the intolerant, mild
with the violent, and free from greed among the greedy.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana from whom anger and hatred, pride and
hypocrisy have dropped like a mustard seed from the point of a needle.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who utters true speech, instructive and
free from harshness, so that he offend no one.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who takes nothing in the world that is not
given him, be it long or short, small or large, good or bad.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who fosters no desires for this world or
for the next, has no inclinations, and is unshackled.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who has no interests, and when he has
understood the truth, does not say How, how? and who has reached the
depth of the Immortal.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who in this world has risen above both
ties, good and evil, who is free from grief, from sin, and from
impurity.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who is bright like the moon, pure, serene,
undisturbed, and in whom all gayety is extinct.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who has traversed this miry road, the
impassable world, difficult to pass, and its vanity, who has gone
through, and reached the other shore, is thoughtful, steadfast, free
from doubts, free from attachment, and content.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who in this world, having abandoned all
desires, travels about without a home, and in whom all concupiscence is
extinct.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who, having abandoned all longings, travels
about without a home, and in whom all covetousness is extinct.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who, after leaving all bondage to men, has
risen above all bondage to the gods, and is free from all and every
bondage.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who has left what gives pleasure and what
gives pain, who is cold, and free from all germs of renewed life: the
hero who has conquered all the worlds.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who knows the destruction and the return of
beings everywhere, who is free from bondage, welfaring (Sugata), and
awakened (Buddha).

Him I call indeed a Brahmana whose path the gods do not know, nor
spirits (Gandharvas), nor men, whose passions are extinct, and who is an
Arhat.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who calls nothing his own, whether it be
before, behind, or between; who is poor, and free from the love of the
world.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana, the manly, the noble, the hero, the great
sage, the conqueror, the indifferent, the accomplished, the awakened.

Him I call indeed a Brahmana who knows his former abodes, who sees
heaven and hell, has reached the end of births, is perfect in knowledge,
a sage, and whose perfections are all perfect.

THE UPANISHADS

Translation by F. Max Mueller

INTRODUCTION

The "Upanishads" are reckoned to be from a hundred and fifty to a
hundred and seventy in number. The date of the earliest of them is about
B.C. 600; that is an age anterior to the rise of Buddha. They consist of
various disquisitions on the nature of man, the Supreme Being, the human
soul, and immortality. They are part of Sanscrit Brahmanic literature,
and have the authority of revealed, in contradistinction to traditional
truth. We see in these books the struggle of the human mind to attain to
a knowledge of God and the destiny of man. The result is the formulation
of a definite theosophy, in which we find the Brahman in his meditation
trusting to the intuitions of his own spirit, the promptings of his own
reason, or the combinations of his own fancy, for a revelation of the
truth. The result is given us in these wonderful books. We call them
wonderful, because the unaided mind of man never attained, in any other
literature, to a profounder insight into spiritual things. The Western
reader may find in an "Upanishad" many things that seem to him trifling
and absurd, many things obscure and apparently meaningless. It is very
easy to ridicule this kind of literature. But as a matter of fact these
ancient writings well repay study, as the most astounding productions of
the human intellect. In them we see the human mind wrestling with the
greatest thoughts that had ever yet dawned upon it, and trying to grasp
and to measure the mighty vision before which it was humbled to the
dust. The seer, in order to communicate to the world the result of his
meditations, seems to catch at every symbol and every word hallowed by
familiar usage, in order to set out in concrete shape the color and
dimensions of mystic verities; he is employing an old language for the
expression of new truths; he is putting new wine into old wine-skins,
which burst and the wine is spilt; words fail, and the meaning is lost.
It is not lost, however, to those who will try to study the "Upanishads"
from within, and not from without: who will try to put himself in the
attitude of those earnest and patient explorers who brought so much

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