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Romano Lavo-Lil Romany Dictionary Gypsy Dictionary by George Borrow

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Mumli, s.f. Candle.

Mumli-mescro, s. Chandler.

Munjee, s. A blow on the mouth, seemingly a cant word. Hin. Munh,
mouth. Ger. Mund.

Murces / Mursior, s. pl. Arms. Span. Gyp. Murciales.

Muscro, s. Constable. See Muskerro.

Mush, s. Man. Rus. Mouge. Finnish, Mies. Tibetian, Mi. Lat. Mas
(a male).

Mushi, s. Woman.

Mushipen, s. A little man, a lad. Toulousian, Massip (a young man),
massipo (a young woman).

Muskerro, s. Constable.

Muskerriskoe cost, s. Constable's staff.

Mutra, s. Urine.

Mutrava, v. a. To void urine. Sans. Mutra.

Mutra-mengri, s. Tea.

Mutzi, s. Skin. Span. Gyp. Morchas.

Mutzior, s. pl. Skins.


NA, ad. Not.

Naflipen, s. Sickness. Span. Gyp. Nasallipen. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Naflo, a. Sick.

Nai. Properly Na hi, there is not: nai men chior, we have no girls.

Naior, s. pl. Nails of the fingers or toes. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Nangipen, s. Nakedness.

Nango, a. Naked.

Narilla / Narrila, A female Gypsy name.

Nash, v. a. To run. Span. Gyp. Najar.

Nashimescro, s. Runner, racer.

Nashimescro-tan, s. Race-course.

Nash, v. a. To lose, destroy, to hang. Sans. Nasa. Span. Gyp.
Najabar (to lose). Sans. Nakha (to destroy). Eng. Nacker (a killer
of old horses).

Nashado, part. pret. Lost, destroyed, hung.

Nashimescro, s. Hangman.

Nashko, part. pass. Hung: nashko pre rukh, hung on a tree.

Nasho, part. pass. Hung.

Nastis, a. Impossible. See Astis.

Nav, s. Name. Hun. Nev.

Naval, s. Thread. Span. Gyp. Nafre.

Naes / Nes, postpos. According to, after the manner of:
gorgikonaes, after the manner of the Gentiles; Romano-chalugo-naes,
after the manner of the Gypsies.

Ne, ad. No, not: ne burroder, no more; ne riddo, not dressed.

Nevo, a. New.

Nevi, a. fem. New: nevi tud from the guveni, new milk from the cow.

Nevey Rukhies. The New Forest. Lit. new trees.

Nevi Wesh. The New Forest.

Nick, v. a. To take away, steal. Span. Gyp. Nicabar.

Nick the cost. To steal sticks for skewers and linen-pegs.

Nogo, s. Own, one's own; nogo dad, one's own father; nogo tan, one's
own country.

Nok, s. Nose. Hin. Nakh.

Nok-engro, s. A glandered horse. Lit. a nose-fellow.

Nokkipen, s. Snuff.


O, art. def. The.

O, pron. He.

Odoi, ad. There. Hun. Ott, oda.

Oduvvu, pron. dem. That. Span. Gyp. Odoba.

Olevas / Olivas / Olivor, s. pl. Stockings. Span. Gyp. Olibias.
Wal. Chorapul.

Opral / Opre / Oprey, prep. Upon, above. Wal. Pre, asoupra.

Or. A plural termination; for example, Shock, a cabbage, pl. shock-
or. It is perhaps derived from Ouri, the plural termination of
Wallachian neuter nouns ending in 'e.'

Ora, s.f. A watch. Hun. Ora.

Ora, s. An hour: so si ora, what's o'clock?

Orlenda. Gypsy female name. Rus. Orlitza (female eagle).

Os. A common termination of Gypsy nouns. It is frequently appended
by the Gypsies to English nouns in order to disguise them.

Owli, ad. Yes. See Avali.


PA, prep. By: pa mui, by mouth. Rus. Po.

Padlo, ad. Across: padlo pawnie, across the water, transported.

Pahamengro, s. Turnip.

Pailloes, s. Filberts.

Pal, s. Brother.

Pal of the bor. Brother of the hedge, hedgehog.

Palal, prep. ad. Behind, after, back again: av palal, come back,
come again: palal the welgorus, after the fair. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]
(again). Rus. Opiat (id.).

Pali, ad. Again, back.

Pand, v. a. To bind. Sans. Bandh.

Pandipen, s. Pinfold, prison, pound.

Pandlo, part. pass. Bound, imprisoned, pounded.

Pand opre, v. a. To bind up.

Pandlo-mengro, s. Tollgate, thing that's shut.

Pangushi, s.f. Handkerchief.

Pani, s. Water. See Pawni.

Panishey shock, s. Watercress. Lit. water-cabbage. See Shok.

Panj, a. Five. See Pansch.

Pani-mengro, s. Sailor, waterman.

Panni-mengri, s. Garden.

Panno, s. Cloth. Lat. Pannus. Wal. Penzie.

Pansch, s. Five. Hin. Panch.

Pappins / Pappior, s. pl. Ducks. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Paracrow, v. a. To thank: paracrow tute, I thank you.

Parava / Parra, v. a. To change, exchange. See Porra.

Parriken, s. Trust, credit. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] (trusted goods).

Parno, a. White. See Pauno.

Pas, s. Half. See Posh.

Pasherro, s. Halfpenny; pl. pasherie. Pers. [Persian: ] Pasheez
(a farthing).

Pas-more, v. a. Half-kill.

Patch, s. Shame. Span. Gyp. Pachi, modesty, virginity. Sans.

Patnies, s. pl. Ducks.

Patrin, s. A Gypsy trail; handfuls of leaves or grass cast by the
Gypsies on the road, to denote to those behind the way which they
have taken.

Pattin, s. A leaf. Span. Gyp. Patia. Sans. Patra.

Pattinor. Leaves.

Paub / Paubi, s. An apple. Hung. Gyp. Paboy.

Paub tan, s. Orchard.

Pauno, a. White. Sans. Pandu. Gaelic, Ban.

Pauno gad. Clean shirt.

Pauno sherro. Grey head, white head.

Pauno, s. Flour. Lit. what is white. The Latin 'panis' seems to be
connected with this word.

Pauno-mengro, s. A miller, white fellow.

Pauno-mui, s. Pale face; generally applied to a vain, foolish girl,
who prefers the company of the pallid Gentiles to that of the dark

Pauvi, s. An apple.

Pauvi-pani, s. Cyder, apple-water.

Pawdel, ad. Across, over: pawdel puve and pawni, across land and
water; pawdel the chumba, over the hill.

Pawnee / Pawni, s. Water. Sans. Paniya. Hin. Panie. Eng. Pond.
See Pani.

Pawnugo, a. Watery: pawnugo hev, water-hole, well.

Pazorrhus, part. pass. Indebted. See Pizarris.

Peava, v. a. To drink. Sans. Pa.

Pea-mengri, s. Tea-pot. Wal. Bea. Lit. drinking thing.

Peeapen, s. Health: ako's your peeapen! here's your health!

Pea-mengro, s. Drunkard.

Pedloer, s. Nuts; prop. Acorns. Pers. Peleed.

Peerdie, s. Female tramper.

Peerdo, s. Male tramper.

Pek'd / Pekt, part. pass. Roasted. Span. Gyp. Peco. Sans. Paka
(cooking). Pers. Pekhtan. Rus. Petsch (oven).

Pele, s. pl. Testicles. Sans. P'hala.

Pelengo gry / Pelengro gry, s. Stone-horse.

Pen, a particle affixed to an adjective or a verb when some property
or quality, affection or action is to be expressed, the termination
of the first word being occasionally slightly modified: for example,
Kosko, good, koskipen, goodness; Tatcho, true, tatchipen, truth;
Camo, I love, camipen, love; Chingar, to fight, chingaripen, war. It
is of much the same service in expressing what is abstract and ideal
as Engro, Mescro, and Engri are in expressing what is living and
tangible. It is sometimes used as a diminutive, e.g. Mushipen, a
little fellow.

Pen, s. Sister.

Pen / Penav, v. a. To say, speak. Wal. Spoune.

Penchava, v. n. To think. Pers. Pendashten. Sans. Vi-cit.

Penliois, s. Nuts. See Pedloer.

Per, s. Belly.

Per, v. n. To fall. Span. Gyp. Petrar. Sans. Pat.

Per tuley. To fall down.

Perdo, a. Full. Sans. Purva, to fill.

Pes / Pessa, v. a. To pay. Span. Gyp. Plaserar. Rus. Platit. Wal.
Pleti. Hun. Fizetni.

Pes apopli. To repay.

Petul, s. A horse-shoe. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] Wal. Potkoavie. Heb.
Bedel (tin).

Petul-engro, s. Horseshoe-maker, smith, tinker; the name of a Gypsy

Pi, v. a. To drink. Sans. Piva (drinking). See Peava.

Pias, s. Fun. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] (to play).

Pikkis / Pikkaris, s. pl. Breasts. See Birk, bark. Wal. Piept.

Pikko, s. Shoulder.

Pios, part. pass. Drunken. Only employed when a health is drunk:
e.g. aukko tu pios adrey Romanes, your health is drunk in Romany.

Pire, s. pl. Feet.

Pire, s. pl. Trampers.

Pire-gueros, s. pl. Travellers, trampers. Lit. foot-fellows.

Pireni, s.f. Sweetheart.

Pireno, s. m. Sweetheart.

Piro, v. a. To walk: pirel, he walks.

Piro-mengro, s. Walker.

Pirry, s. Pot, boiler. This is a west-country Gypsy word. Span.
Gyp. Piri. Sans. Pithara, patra.

Pishen, s. Flea, any kind of insect: guldo pishen, honey-insect,
bee, honey.

Pivli, s. A widow.

Pivlo, s. A widower.

Pivley-gueri, s. A widowed female.

Pivley-guero, s. A widowed fellow.

Pivley-raunie, s. A widow lady.

Piya-mengro, s. Drunkard. See Pea-mengro.

Pizarris / Pizaurus, part. pass. Trusted, credited, in debt. Sans.
Vishvas (to trust). Wal. Se bizoui (to trust, to credit). Mod. Gr.
[Greek: ] (he who has been credited). Span. Gyp. Bisarar (to owe),
bisauras (debts), pista (an account).

Pizarri-mengro, s. A trusted person, a debtor.

Plakta, s. Sheet: bero-rukiskie plakta, a ship's sail.

Plashta, s. Cloak: lolli plashta, red cloak. Span. Gyp. Plata.
Plakta and plashta are probably both derived from the Wallachian
postat, a sheet.

Plastra, v. a. To run.

Plastra lesti. Run it; run for your life.

Plastra-mengro, s. a. A Bow Street runner, a pursuer. In Spanish
Gypsy, Plastani means a company which pursues robbers.

Poggado, part. pass. Broken.

Poggado bavol-engro, s. Broken-winded horse.

Poggado habben, s. Broken victuals.

Poggra, v. a. To break. Wal. Pokni.

Poggra-mengri, s. A mill. Lit. a breaking thing.

Poknies, s. Justice of the peace. Rus. Pokoio (to pacify).

Pokiniskoe ker, s. House of a justice of the peace.

Pooshed / Poosheno, part. pass. Buried: mulo ta poosheno, dead and

Por, s. Feather. Pers. Par. Sans. Parna.

Por-engro, s. Pen-master, penman, one able to write.

Por-engri-pen, s. Penmanship, writing.

Porior, s. pl. Feathers.

Pordo, a. Heavy. Wal. Povarie (a weight). Lat. Pondus.

Porra, v. a. To exchange.

Posh, s. Half.

Posherro / Poshoro, s. Halfpenny.

Possey-mengri, s. Pitchfork; improperly used for any fork. The
literal meaning is a straw-thing; a thing used for the removal of
straw. See Pus.

Potan, s. Tinder. Wal. Postabh (sheet, cloth). Sans. Pata (cloth).

Poov / Pov, s. Earth, ground. Sans. Bhu.

Poov, v. To poov a gry, to put a horse in a field at night.

Pov-engro, s. An earth thing, potato.

Pov-engreskoe, a. Belonging to the potato.

Povengreskoe gav. Potato town--Norwich.

Povengreskoe tem. Potato country--Norfolk.

Povo-guero, s. Mole, earth-fellow.

Praio, a. Upper: praio tem, upper country, heaven. Span. Gyp.
Tarpe (heaven). See Opre.

Prala, s. Brother.

Pude, v. a. To blow.

Pude-mengri, s. Blowing thing, bellows.

Pudge, s. Bridge. Wal. Pod, podoul. Pers. Pul. Sans. Pali.

Pukker, v. a. To tell, declare, answer, say, speak. Span. Gyp.
Pucanar (to proclaim). Hin. Pukar, pukarnar.

Pur, s. Belly. See Per.

Pureno, a. Ancient, old: pureno foky, the old people. Sans. Purvya

Puro, a. Old. Sans. Pura.

Puro dad, s. Grandfather.

Purrum, s. Leek, onion. Lat. Porrum.

Purrum / Purrun, n. pr. Lee, or Leek; the name of a numerous Gypsy
tribe in the neighbourhood of London. Wal. Pur (onion). Lat.
Porrum. Sans. Purana (ancient).

Pus, s. Straw. Sans. Busa, chaff.

Putch, v. a. To ask. Hin. Puchhna.

Putsi, s. Purse, pocket. Sans. Puta, pocket. Wal. Pountsi. Old
cant, Boung.

Putsi-lil, s. Pocket-book.

Puvvo, s. Earth, ground. See Poov.

Puvvesti churi, s. a. Plough.


RAIA, s. Gentleman, lord. See Rye.

Rak, v. n. To beware, take care; rak tute, take care of yourself.
Sans. Raksh (to guard, preserve).

Rakli, s.f. Girl.

Raklo, s. Boy, lad.

Ran, s. Rod: ranior, rods. Sans. Ratha (cane, ratan).

Rarde, s. Night. Sans. Ratri.

Rardiskey, a. Nightly.

Rardiskey kair poggring, s. Housebreaking by night, burglary.

Rashengro, s. Clergyman.

Rashi, s. Clergyman, priest. Sans. Rishi (holy person).

Rashieskey rokkring tan, s. Pulpit.

Ratcheta, s. A goose, duck. See Retsa.

Ratti, s. Blood. Sans. Rudhira.

Ratniken chiriclo, s. Nightingale.

Rawnie, s. Lady.

Rawniskie dicking gueri, s. Lady-like looking woman.

Rawniskie tatti naflipen, s. The lady's fever, maladie de France.

Retza, s. Duck. Wal. Rierzoiou. See Rossar-mescro. Hun. Recze.

Reyna. A female Gypsy name.

Riddo, part. pass. Dressed. Span. Gyp. Vriardao.

Rig / Riggur / Riggurava, v. a. To bear, carry, bring.

Rig in zi. To remember, bear in mind.

Rig to zi. To bring to mind.

Rinkeno, a. Handsome.

Rivipen, s. Dress. Lit. linen clothes, women's dress. Wal. Ruphe.
Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] (a tailor). In Spanish Gypsy clothes are called
Goneles, from the Wallachian Khainele.

Rodra, v. a. To search, seek.

Roi, s. Spoon.

Rokra, v. a. To talk, speak. Rus. Rek (he said). Lat. Loquor.

Rokrenchericlo, s. Parrot, magpie.

Rokrenguero, s. A lawyer, talker. Gaelic, Racaire (a chatterer).

Rokrengueriskey gav. Talking fellows' town--Norwich.

Rokunyes, s. Trousers, breeches. Hun. Gyp. Roklia (gown). Mod.
Gr. [Greek: ] (cloth).

Rom, s. A husband. Sans. Rama (a husband), Rama (an incarnation of
Vishnu), Rum (to sport, fondle). Lat. Roma (City of Rama). Gaelic,
Rom (organ of manhood). Eng. Ram (aries, male sheep). Heb. Ream
(monoceros, unicorn).

Rommado, part. pass. s. Married, husband.

Romm'd, part. pass. Married.

Romano Chal / Romany Chal, A Gypsy fellow, Gypsy lad. See Chal.

Romani chi. Gypsy lass, female Gypsy.

Romanes / Romany, Gypsy language.

Romaneskoenaes. After the Gypsy fashion. Wal. Roumainesk
(Roumainean, Wallachian.)

Romano Rye / Romany Rye, Gypsy gentleman.

Romipen, s. Marriage.

Rook / Rukh, s. Tree. Sans. Vriksha. Hun. Gyp. Rukh. Span. Gyp.
Erucal (an olive-tree).

Rookeskey cost. Branch of a tree.

Rooko-mengro, s. Squirrel. Lit. tree-fellow.

Roshto, a. Angry. Wal. Resti (to be angry).

Rossar-mescro, s. Gypsy name of the tribe Heron, or Herne. Lit.

Roujiou, a. Clean. See Iuziou.

Rove, v. n. To weep. Sans. Rud.

Rup, s. Silver. Sans. Raupya. Hin. Rupee.

Rupenoe, a. Silver: rupenoe pea-mengri, silver tea-pots.

Ruslipen, s. Strength.

Ruslo, a. Strong. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] (roborabo). Rus. Rosluy
(great, huge of stature). Hun. Ero (strength), eros (strong).

Rye, s. A lord, gentleman. Sans. Raj, Raya.

Ryeskoe, a. Gentlemanly.

Ryeskoe dicking guero. Gentlemanly looking man.

Ryoriskey rokkaring keir, s. The House of Commons. Lit. the
gentlemen's talking house.


SACKI. Name of a Gypsy man.

Sainyor, s. Pins. Span. Gyp. Chingabar (a pin).

Sal, v. n. To laugh; properly, he laughs. Span. Gyp. Asaselarse.
Sans. Has.

Salla. She laughs.

Salivaris, s.f. Bridle. See Sollibari.

Sap / Sarp, s. Snake, serpent. Wal. Sharpele. Span. Gyp.

Sappors, s. pl. Snakes.

Sap drey chaw. A snake in the grass: sap drey bor, a snake in the

Sapnis, s. Soap. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] Wal. Sipoun.

Sar, postpos., prepos. With: mensar, with us; sar amande, with me.

Sar, conjunct. As.

Sar, ad. How.

Sar shin, How are you? Sar shin, meero rye? Sar shin, meeri rawnie?
How are you, sir? How are you, madam?

Sas. If it were. See Is.

Sas, s. Nest. See Tass.

Sarla, s. Evening: koshti sarla, good evening. See Tasarla. Wal.
Seara. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ].

Saster, s. Iron.

Saster-mengri, s. A piece of iron worn above the knee by the skewer-
makers whilst engaged in whittling.

Saster-mengro, s. Ironmonger.

Sasters, sastris. Nails: chokkiskey sastris, shoe-nails.

Sau, adv. How.

Sau kisi. How much?

Saulohaul / Sovlehaul, v. a. To swear.

Saulohaul bango. To swear falsely.

Sauloholomus, s. Oath. Span. Gyp. Solaja (a curse). Arab. [Arabic:
] Salat (prayer). Lat. Solemnis. Fr. Serment. Wal. Jourirnint

Savo, pron. Who, that, which.

Saw, v. n. I laugh. Sawschan tu, you laugh.

Scamp. Name of a small Gypsy tribe. Sans. Kshump (to go).

Scourdilla, s.f. Platter. Lat. Scutella.

Scunyes / Scunyor, s. pl. Pins, skewers. See Escunyes.

Se, 3rd pers. sing. pres. Is, there is: kosko guero se, he is a
good fellow; se les, there is to him, he has.

Shab, v. a. Cut away, run hard, escape. Hun. Szabni. This word is
chiefly used by the tobair coves, or vagrants.

Shan. You are, they are. See Shin.

Shauvo, v. To get with child. See Shuvvli.

Shehaury. Sixpence. See Shohaury.

Shello, s. Rope. Span. Gyp. Jele.

Shello-hokta-mengro, s. Rope-dancer.

Sher-engro, s. A head-man, leader of a Gypsy tribe.

Sher-engri, s. A halter.

Shero, s. A head. Pers. [Persian: ]

Sherro's kairipen, s. Learning, head-work.

Sheshu, s. Hare, rabbit. See Shoshoi.

Sherrafo, a. Religious, converted. Arab. Sherif.

Shilleno / Shillero / Shillo, a. Cold: shillo chik, cold ground.

Shillipen, s. Cold.

Shin. Thou art: sar shin, how art thou?

Sho, s. Thing.

Sho, a. Six.

Shohaury, s. Sixpence.

Shok, s. Cabbage: shockor, cabbages. Span. Gyp. Chaja.

Shom, v. 1st pers. pres. I am. Used in the pure Roman tongue to
express necessity: e.g. shom te jav, I must go. Lat. Sum. Hun.
Gyp. Hom.

Shoob, s. Gown. Rus. Shoob. See Shubbo.

Shoon, v. n. To hear. Pers. Shiniden. Sans. Sru.

Shoonaben, s. Hearing, audience. To lel shoonaben of the covar, to
take hearing of the matter.

Shoshoi, s. A hare or rabbit, but generally used by the Gypsies for
the latter. Sans. Sasa (a hare or rabbit). Hun. Gyp. Shoshoi.

Shubbo, s. A gown. Rus. Shoob. Wal. Djoube.

Shubley patnies, s. pl. Geese.

Shun. A female Gypsy name.

Shuvvali, a. Enceinte, with child.

Si, 3rd pers. sing. pres. It is, she is: tatchipen si, it is truth;
coin si rawnie, who is the lady? sossi your nav, what is your name?

Sicovar, ad. Evermore, eternally. Hun. Gyp. Sekovar.

Si covar ajaw. So it is.

Sig, ad. Quick, soon: cana sig, now soon. Span. Gyp. Singo. Hun.

Sig, s. Haste.

Sikker, v. a. To show: sikker-mengri, a show.

Simen, s. a. Equal, alike. Sans. Samana.

Simen. We are, it is we. Wal. Semeina (to resemble).

Simmeno, s. Broth. See Zimmen.

Simmer, v. a. Pledge, pawn.

Simmery-mengre, s. pl. Pawnbrokers.

Sis. Thou art: misto sis riddo, thou art well dressed.

Siva, v. a. To sew. Sans. Siv.

Siva-mengri, s. A needle, sewing-thing.

Siva-mengri, s. Sempstress.

Siva-mengro, s. Tailor.

Skammen, s. Chair. Wal. Skaun. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Skammen-engro, s. Chair-maker.

Skraunior, s. pl. Boots.

Slom / Slum, v. a. Follow, trace, track. Rus. Sliedovat.

Smentini, s. Cream. Wal. Zmentenie. Rus. Smetana.

So, pron. rel. Which, what: so se tute's kairing, what are you

Sollibari, s. Bridle. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Sonakey / Sonneco, s. Gold. Sans. Svarna.

Sore / Soro, a. All, every. Sans. Sarva.

Sorlo, a. Early. Arab. [Arabic:] Sohr, Sahr (morning, day-break).
Wal. Zorile.

Soro-ruslo, a. Almighty. Dad soro-ruslo, Father Almighty.

Se se? Who is it?

So si? What is it? So si ora, what's o'clock?

Soskey, ad. Wherefore, for what.

Sovaharri, s. Carpet, blanket.

Sove, v. n. To sleep. Hun. Gyp. Sovella (he sleeps). Span. Gyp.
Sobelar (to sleep). Danish, Sove (to sleep).

Sove tuley. To lie down.

Sovie, s. Needle. See Su.

Soving aley. Lying down to sleep.

Spikor, s. pl. Skewers. Wal. Spik.

Spinyor, s. pl. Carrots.

Spinyor, s. pl. Pins. Span. Gyp. Chingabar (a pin).

Stadj, s. Hat.

Stanya / Stanye, s. A stable. Hun. Sanya. Wal. Staula, steinie

Stanya-mengro, s. Groom, stable-fellow.

Stardo, part. pass. Imprisoned.

Staripen, s. Prison.

Staro-mengro, s. Prisoner.

Stannyi / Staunyo, s. A deer.

Stiggur, s. Gate, turnpike. Old cant, Giger (a door).

Stiggur-engro, s. Turnpike-keeper.

Stor, a. Four.

Storey, s. Prisoner.

Stuggur, s. A stack.

Su, s. Needle. Hun. Tu.

Subie / Subye, s. Needle: subye ta naval, needle and thread.

Sueti, s. People. Lithuanian, Swetas.

Sungella, v. It stinks.

Sutta / Suttur / Suta, s. Sleep. Sans. Subta (asleep). Hin. Sutta
(sleeping). Lat. Sopitus.

Suttur-gillie, s. Sleep-song, lullaby.

Swegler / Swingle, s. Pipe.

Syeira. A female Gypsy name.


Ta, conj. And.

Talleno, a. Woollen: talleno chofa, woollen or flannel petticoat.

Tan, s. Place, tent. Hun. Tanya.

Tard / Tardra, v. a. To raise, build, pull, draw: the kair is
tardrad opre, the house is built; tard the chaw opre, pull up the
grass. Hin. Torna (to pluck). Wal. Tratze. Gaelic, Tarruinn.

Tardra-mengre. Hop-pickers.

Tas, s. Cup, nest of a bird. See Dui tas, doo das.

Tasarla / Tasorlo, s. To-morrow. Lit. to-early. See Sorlo.

Tasarla, s. The evening. This word must not be confounded with the
one which precedes it; the present is derived from the Wallachian
Seari (evening), whilst the other is from the Arabic Sohr, Sahar

Tassa-mengri, s. A frying-pan. See Tattra-mengri.

Tatchipen, s. Truth. Sans. Satyata.

Tatcho, a. True. Sans. Sat.

Tatti-pani / Tatti-pauni, s. Brandy. Lit. hot water.

Tatti-pen, s. Heat.

Tatto, a. Hot, warm. Sans. Tapta. Tap (to be hot). Gaelic, Teth.

Tatto yeck, s. A hot un, or hot one; a stinging blow given in some
very sensitive part.

Tattra-mengri, s. A frying-pan.

Tawno m. / Tawnie f., a. Little, small, tiny. Sans. Tarana (young).
Wal. Tienir (young). Lat. Tener. Span. Gyp. Chinoro.

Tawnie yecks, s. pl. Little ones, grandchildren.

Te, prep. To: te lesti, to her; this word is not properly Gypsy.

Te, conjunct. That: te jinnen, that they may know, an optative
word; O beng te poggar his men, may the devil break his neck. Wal.

Tel, v. a. imp. Hold: tel te jib, hold your tongue.

Tem, s. Country.

Temeskoe, a. Belonging to a country.

Temno, a. Dark. Rus. Temnoy. Sans. Tama (darkness).

Ten, s. See Tan.

Tikno, s. A child. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ]

Tikno, a. Small, little. Span. Gyp. Chinoro. Lat. Tener.

Tippoty, a. Malicious, spiteful: tippoty drey mande, bearing malice
against me.

Tiro, pron. Thine.

Tobbar, s. The Road; a Rapparee word. Boro-tobbarkillipen (the Game
of High Toby--highway robbery). Irish, Tobar (a source, fountain).

Tornapo. Name of a Gypsy man.

Tororo, s. A poor fellow, a beggar, a tramp. Sans. Daridra.

Tove, v. a. To wash: tovipen, washing. Sans. Dhav.

Toving divvus, s. Washing day, Monday.

Traish, v. a. To frighten, terrify: it traishes mande, it frightens

Trihool, s. Cross: Mi doveleskoe trihool, holy cross. Span. Gyp.
Trijul. Hin. Trisool.

Trin, a. Three.

Tringrosh / Tringurushee, Shilling. Lit. three groats.

Tringurushengre, s. pl. Things costing a shilling.

Tringush, s. Shilling.

Trito, a. Third. Sans. Tritiya.

Truffeni. Female Gypsy name: Truffeni Kaumlo, Jack Wardomescres
dieyas nav--Truffeni Lovel, the name of John Cooper's mother. Mod.
Gr. [Greek: ]

Truppior, s. pl. Stays.

Trupo, s. Body. Wal. Troup. Rus. Trup

Trushni, s. Faggot.

Trusno, a. Thirsty, dry. Sans. Trishnaj.

Tu, pron. Thou: shoon tu, dieya! do thou hear, mother!

Tud, s. Milk. Sans. Duh (to milk).

Tudlo gueri. Milkmaid.

Tug, a. Sad, afflicted.

Tugnipen, s. Affliction.

Tugnis amande. Woe is me; I am sad.

Tugno, a. Sad, mournful.

Tule / Tuley, prep. Below, under: tuley the bor, under the hedge.
Slavonian, doly.

Tulipen, s. Fat, grease.

Tulo, a. Fat.

Tute, pron. Accusative of Tu; generally used instead of the

Tuv, s. Smoke, tobacco.

Tuvalo / Tuvvalo, a. Smoky. Span. Gyp. Chibalo (a cigar).


VANGUS, s. Finger. Sans. Angula.

Vangustri, s. Ring. Sans. Angulika, anguri. See Wangustri.

Vaneshu, s. Nothing. From the Wallachian Ba nitchi, not at all.

Var, s. Flour: var-engro, a miller. See Waro.

Vardo, s. Cart. See Wardo.

Vassavo / Vassavy, a. Bad, evil.

Vast, s. Hand.

Vava. An affix, by which the future of a verb is formed, as Heta-
vava. It seems to be the Wallachian Wa-fi, he shall or will be.

Vellin, s. A bottle.

Vauros, s. A city. Hun. Varos. Sans. Puri. Hin. Poor. Wal.

Venor / Vennor, Bowels, entrails. See Wendror,


WAFO, a. Another. Sans. Apara.

Wafo divvus, s. Yesterday. Lit. the other day.

Wafo tem. Another country, foreign land.

Wafo temeskoe mush, s. A foreigner, another countryman.

Wafo tem-engre. Foreigners.

Wafodu / Wafudo, a. Bad, evil.

Wafoduder. Worse: wafoduder than dovor, worse than they.

Wafodu-pen, s. Wickedness.

Wafodu guero, s. The Evil One, Satan.

Wafodu tan, s. Hell, bad place.

Wangar, s. Coals, charcoal. Sans. Angara. See Wongar.

Wangustri, s. Ring.

Warda, v. To guard, take care: warda tu coccorus, take care of

Wardo, s. Cart. Sans. Pattra.

Wardo-mescro, s. Carter, cartwright, cooper, name of a Gypsy tribe.

Waro, s. Flour.

Waro-mescro, s. Miller.

Wast, s. Hand. See Vast. Wastrors, hands. Gaelic, Bas (the palm
of the hand).

Weggaulus / Welgorus / Welgaulus, s. A fair. Wal. Bieltchiou.

Wel, v. a. He comes; from Ava. Sometimes used imperatively; e.g.
Wel adrey, come in.

Welling pali. Coming back, returning from transportation.

Wen, s. Winter.

Wendror, s. pl. Bowels, inside. Wal. Pentetche. Lat. Venter.

Wentzelow. Name of a Gypsy man.

Werriga, s. Chain. Rus. Veriga. Wal. Verigie (bolt).

Wesh, s. Forest, wood. Pers. [Persian: ]

Wesh-engro, s. Woodman, gamekeeper.

Weshen-juggal, s. Fox. Lit. dog of the wood.

Woddrus / Wuddrus, s. Bed. Hun. Gyp. Patos. Wal. Pat. The Spanish
Gypsies retain the pure Indian word Charipe.

Wongar, s. Coal. Also a term for money; probably because Coal in
the cant language signifies money. See Wangar.

Wongar-camming mush, s. A miser. Lit. one who loves coal.

Wuddur, s. Door. Span. Gyp. Burda. Wal. Poartie.

Wuddur-mescro, s. Doorkeeper.

Wust, v. a. To cast, throw.

Wusto-mengro, s. Wrestler, hurler.


YACK, s. Eye. Sans. Akshi. Germ. Auge. Rus. Oko. Lithuanian,
Akis. Lat. Oculus.

Yackor. Eyes.

Yag, s. Fire. Sans. Agni. Rus. Ogon. Lithuanian, Ugnis. Lat.
Ignis. Irish, An (water, fire).

Yag-engri, s. Gun, fire-thing.

Yag- engro / Yago-mengro, s. Gamekeeper, sportsman, fireman.

Yag-kairepenes, s. Fireworks.

Yag-vardo, s. Fire-car, railroad carriage.

Yarb, s. Herb.

Yarb-tan, s. Garden.

Yeck, a. One. Sans. Eka. Hin. Yak.

Yeckoro, a. Only: yeckoro chavo, only son.

Yeckorus, ad. Once.

Yo, pron. He.

Yoi, pron. She. Sometimes used for La or Las, her; e.g. Mande
putch'd yoi, I asked she, her.

Yokki, a. Clever, expert: a yokki juva, a yokki woman--a female
expert at filching, ringing the changes, telling fortunes, and other
Gypsy arts. Sans. Yoga (artifice, plan), Yuj (to combine, put
together, plan).

Yora, s. Hour. See Ora.

Yoro, s. An egg. Wal. Ou.


ZI, s. The heart, mind. Hun. Sziv. Sans. Dhi.

Zimmen, s. Broth. Wal. Zmenteni (cream).

Zoomi, s. f. Broth, soup. Mod. Gr. [Greek: ] Wal. Zamie (juice).

Zingaro. A Gypsy, a person of mixed blood, one who springs from
various races, a made-up person. Sans. Sangkara, compositus (made-


To dick and jin,
To bikn and kin;
To pee and hal,
And av and jal;
To kair and poggra,
Shoon and rokra;
To caur and chore,
Heta and cour,
Moar and more,
To drab and dook,
And nash on rook;
To pek and tove,
And sove and rove,
And nash on poove;
To tardra oprey,
And chiv aley;
To pes and gin,
To mang and chin,
To pootch and pukker,
Hok and dukker;
To besh and kel,
To del and lel,
And jib to tel;
Bitch, atch, and hatch,
Roddra and latch;
To gool and saul,
And sollohaul;
To pand and wustra,
Hokta and plastra,
Busna and kistur,
Maila and grista;
To an and riggur;
To pen and sikker,
Porra and simmer,
Chungra and chingra,
Pude and grommena,
Grovena, gruvena;
To dand and choom,
Chauva and rom,
Rok and gare,
Jib and mer
With camova,
And paracrova,
And mekello,
And kitsi wasror,
Sore are lavior,
For kairing chomany,
In jib of Romany.


If foky kek jins bute,
Ma sal at lende;
For sore mush jins chomany
That tute kek jins.

Whatever ignorance men may show,
From none disdainful turn;
For every one doth something know
Which you have yet to learn.


So must I ker, daiya, to ker tute mistos?
It is my Dovvel's kerrimus, and we can't help asarlus.
Mi Dovvel opral, dick tuley opre mande.
If I could lel bonnek tute, het-avava tute.
Misto kedast tute.
Dovey si fino covar, ratfelo jukkal, sas miro.

The plastra-mengro sollohaul'd bango.
Me camava jaw drey the Nevi Wesh to dick the purey Bare-mescrey.
You jin feter dovey oduvu.
Will you pes for a coro levinor?
Ma pi kekomi.
Ma rokra kekomi.
Bori shil se mande.
Tatto tu coccori, pen.
Kekkeno pawni dov odoi.
Sore simensar si men.

Tatto ratti se len.
Wafudu lavior you do pen, miry deary Dovvel.
Kair pias to kair the gorgies sal.
Nai men chior.
So se drey lis?
Misto sis riddo.
Muk man av abri.
Ma kair jaw.
Si covar ajaw.
An men posseymengri.
Colliko sorlo me deavlis.
Pukker zi te lesti.
Soving lasa.
Tatto si can.
Mande kinyo, nastis jalno durroder.
Ma muk de gorgey jinnen sore lidan dovvu luvvu so garridan.
Dui trins ta yeck ta pas.
Pes apopli.
Chiv'd his vast adrey tiro putsi.
Penchavo chavo savo shan tu.

I'd sooner shoon his rokrapen than shoon Lally gil a gillie.
Kekkeno jinava mande ne burreder denne chavo.
Aukko tu pios adrey Romanes.


What must I do, mother, to make you well?
It is my God's doing, and we can't help at all.

My God above, look down upon me!
If I could get hold of you, I would slay you.
Thou hast done well.
That is a fine thing, you bloody dog, if it were mine.
The Bow-street runner swore falsely.
I will go into the New Forest to see the old Stanleys.
You know better than that.
Will you pay for a pot of ale?
Don't drink any more.
Do not speak any more.
I have a great cold.
Warm thyself, sister.
There is no water there.
We are all relations: all who are with us are ourselves.
They have hot blood.
Evil words you do speak, O my dear God.
Make fun, to make the Gentiles laugh.
I have no girls.
What is in it?
Thou art well dressed.
Let me come out.
Don't do so.
The thing is so: so it is.
Bring me a fork.
To-morrow morning I will give it.
Tell her your mind.
Sleeping with her.
The sun is hot.
I am tired, I can go no farther.
Don't let the Gentiles know all the money you took which you hid.
Seven pound ten.
Pay again.
Put his hand into your pocket.
The boy is thinking who you are.

I would rather hear him speak than hear Lally sing.
I know no more than a child.
Here's your health in Romany!


THE FIRST DAY--Genesis i. 1, 2, 3, 4

Drey the sherripen Midibble kair'd the temoprey ta the puv;
Ta the puv was chungalo, ta chichi was adrey lis;
Ta temnopen was oprey the mui of the boro put.
Ta Midibble's bavol-engri besh'd oprey the panior;
Ta Midibble penn'd: Mook there be dute! ta there was dute.
Ta Midibble dick'd that the doot was koosho-koshko.
Ta Midibble chinn'd enrey the dute ta the temnopen;
Ta Midibble kor'd the dute divvus, ta the temnopen kor'd yo rarde;
Ta the sarla, ta the sorlo were yeckto divvus.

THE FIFTH DAY--Genesis i. 20, 21, 22, 23

Then Midibble penn'd; Mook sore the panior
Chinn tairie jibbing engris bute dosta,
Ta prey puv be bute dosta chiricles
To vol adrey the rek of the tarpe.

Then Midibble kair'd the borie baulo-matches,
Ta sore covar that has jibbing zi adreylis,
The bute, bute tairie covars drey the panior
Sore yeck drey its genos kair'd Midibble,

The chiricles that vol adrey the tarpe
Sore yeck drey its genos kair'd he lende:
Then Midibble dick'd that sore was koosho-koshko,
And he chiv'd his koshto rokrapen opreylen:

Penn'd Midibble: Dey ye frute ever-komi,
Ever-komi be burreder your nummer,
Per with covars the panior ta durior,
Ta prey puv be burreder the chiricles!

Then was sarla ta sorlo panschto divvus.

THE CREATION OF MAN--Genesis i. 27, 28

Then Mi-dibble kair'd Manoo drey his dikkipen,
Drey Mi-dibble's dikkipen kair'd he leste;
Mush and mushi kair'd Dibble lende
And he chiv'd his koshto rokrapen opreylen:

Penn'd Mi-dibble: Dey ye frute ever-komi,
Ever-komi be burreder your nummer;
Per with chauves and chiyor the puvo
And oprey sore the puvo be krallior,

Oprey the dooiya and its matches,
And oprey the chiricles of the tarpe,
And oprey soro covar that's jibbing
And peers prey the mui of the puvo.


Meery dearie Dad, sauvo jivves drey the tem oprey, be sharrafo teero
nav, te awel teero tem, be kedo sore so caumes oprey ye poov, sar
kairdios drey the tem oprey. Dey man to divvus meery divvuskey
morro; ta for-dey mande mande's pizzaripenes, sar mande fordeava
wafor mushes lende's pizzaripenes; ma mook te petrav drey kek
tentacionos, but lel mande abri from sore wafodupen; for teero se o
tem, Mi-dibble, teero o ruslopen, ta yi corauni knaw ta ever-komi.
Si covar ajaw.


Apasavello drey Mi-dovel; Dad sore-ruslo savo kerdo o praio tem, ta
cav acoi tuley: ta drey lescro yekkero Chauvo Jesus Christus moro
erray, beano of wendror of Mi-develeskey Geiry Mary; was curredo by
the wast of Poknish Pontius Pilatos; was nash'd oprey ye Trihool; was
mored, and chived adrey ye puve; jall'd tuley ye temno drom ke wafudo
tan, bengeskoe starriben; ta prey ye trito divvus jall'd yo oprey ke
koshto tan, Mi-dovels ker; beshel yo knaw odoy prey Mi-dovels tatcho
wast, Dad sore-ruslo; cad odoy avellava to lel shoonapen oprey jibben
and merripen; Apasavello drey Mi-dibbleskey Ducos; drey the Bori Mi-
develesky Bollisky Congri; that sore tatcho fokey shall jib in
mestepen kettaney; that Mi-dibble will fordel sore wafudopenes; that
soror mulor will jongor, and there will be kek merripen asarlus. Si
covar ajaw. Avali.


Miro gulo Devel, savo hal ote ando Cheros, te avel swuntunos tiro
nav; te avel catari tiro tem; te keren saro so cames oppo puv, sar
ando Cheros. De man sekhonus miro diveskoe manro, ta ierta mangue
saro so na he plaskerava tuke, sar me ierstavava wafo manuschengue
saro so na plaskerelen mangue. Ma muk te petrow ando chungalo
camoben; tama lel man abri saro doschdar. Weika tiro sin o tem, tiri
yi potea, tiri yi proslava akana ta sekovar.

Te del amen o gulo Del eg meschibo pa amara choribo.

Te vas del o Del amengue; te n'avel man pascotia ando drom, te na
hoden pen mandar.

Ja Develehi!
Az Develehi!
Ja Develeskey!
Az Develeskey!
Heri Devlis!

My sweet God, who art there in Heaven, may thy name come hallowed;
may thy kingdom come hither; may they do all that thou wishest upon
earth, as in Heaven. Give me to-day my daily bread, and forgive me
all that I cannot pay thee, as I shall forgive other men all that
they do not pay me. Do not let me fall into evil desire; but take me
out from all wickedness. For thine is the kingdom, thine the power,
thine the glory now and ever.

May the sweet God give us a remedy for our poverty.

May God help us! May no misfortune happen to me in the road, and may
no one steal anything me.

Go with God!
Stay with God!
Go, for God's sake!
Stay, for God's sake!
By God!


The tawno fokey often putches so koskipen se drey the Romano jib?
Mande pens ye are sore dinneles; bute, bute koskipen se adrey lis, ta
dusta, dosta of moro foky would have been bitcheno or nash'd, but for
the puro, choveno Romano jib. A lav in Romany, penn'd in cheeros to
a tawnie rakli, and rigg'd to the tan, has kair'd a boro kisi of
luvvo and wafor covars, which had been chor'd, to be chived tuley
pov, so that when the muskerres well'd they could latch vanisho, and
had kek yeckly to muk the Romano they had lell'd opre, jal his drom,
but to mang also his artapen.

His bitchenipenskie cheeros is knau abri, and it were but kosko in
leste to wel ken, if it were yeckly to lel care of lescri puri,
choveny romady; she's been a tatchi, tatchi romady to leste, and kek
man apasavello that she has jall'd with a wafu mush ever since he's
been bitcheno.

When yeck's tardrad yeck's beti ten oprey, kair'd yeck's beti yag
anglo the wuddur, ta nash'd yeck's kekauvi by the kekauviskey saster
oprey lis, yeck kek cams that a dikkimengro or muskerro should wel
and pen: so's tute kairing acai? Jaw oprey, Romano juggal.

Prey Juliken yeckto Frydivvus, anglo nango muyiskie staunyi naveni
kitchema, prey the chong opral Bororukeskoe Gav, drey the Wesh, tute
dickavavasa bute Romany foky, mushor ta juvar, chalor ta cheiar.

Jinnes tu miro puro prala Rye Stanniwix, the puro rye savo rigs a
bawlo-dumo-mengri, ta kair'd desh ta stor mille barior by covar-

He jall'd on rokkring ta rokkring dinneleskoenaes till mande pukker'd
leste: if tute jasas on dovodoiskoenaes mande curavava tute a tatto
yeck prey the nok.

You putches mande so si patrins. Patrins are Romany drom sikkering
engris, by which the Romany who jal anglo muk lende that wels palal
jin the drom they have jall'd by: we wusts wastperdes of chaw oprey
the puv at the jalling adrey of the drom, or we kairs sar a wangust a
trihool oprey the chik, or we chins ranior tuley from the rukhies,
and chivs lende oprey drey the puv aligatas the bor; but the tatcho
patrin is wast-perdes of leaves, for patrin or patten in puro Romano
jib is the uav of a rukheskoe leaf.

The tatcho drom to be a jinney-mengro is to shoon, dick, and rig in

The mush savo kek se les the juckni-wast oprey his jib and his zi is
keck kosko to jal adrey sweti.

The lil to lel oprey the kekkeno mushe's puvior and to keir the
choveno foky mer of buklipen and shillipen, is wusted abri the
Raioriskey rokkaring ker.

The nav they dins lati is Bokht drey Cuesni, because she rigs about a
cuesni, which sore the rardies when she jals keri, is sure to be
perdo of chored covars.

Cav acoi, pralor, se the nav of a lil, the sherrokairipen of a puro
kladjis of Roumany tem. The Borobeshemescrotan, or the lav-
chingaripen between ye jinneynengro ta yi sweti; or the merripenskie
rokrapen chiv'd by the zi oprey the trupo.

When the shello was about his men they rigg'd leste his artapen, and
muk'd leste jal; but from dovo divvus he would rig a men-pangushi
kekkomi, for he penn'd it rigg'd to his zee the shello about his men.

Jack Vardomescro could del oprey dosta to jin sore was oprey the mea-
bars and the drom-sikkering engris.

The Romano drom to pek a chiriclo is to kair it oprey with its porior
drey chik, and then to chiv it adrey the yag for a beti burroder than
a posh ora. When the chik and the hatch'd porior are lell'd from the
chiriclesky trupos, the per's chinn'd aley, and the wendror's wusted
abri, 'tis a hobben dosta koshto for a crallissa to hal without lon.

When Gorgio mushe's merripen and Romany Chal's merripen wels
kettaney, kek kosto merripen see.

Yeckorus he pukker'd mande that when he was a bis beschengro he mored
a gorgio, and chived the mulo mas tuley the poov; he was lell'd oprey
for the moripen, but as kekkeno could latch the shillo mas, the
pokiniuses muk'd him jal; he penn'd that the butsi did not besh pordo
pre his zi for bute chiros, but then sore on a sudden he became
tugnis and atraish of the mulo gorgio's bavol-engro, and that often
of a rarde, as he was jalling posh motto from the kitchema by his
cocoro, he would dick over his tatcho pikko and his bango pikko, to
jin if the mulo mush's bavol-engro was kek welling palal to lel
bonnek of leste.

Does tute jin the Romano drom of lelling the wast?

Avali, prala.

Sikker mande lis.

They kairs it ajaw, prala.

A chorredo has burreder peeas than a Romany Chal.

Tute has shoon'd the lav pazorrus. Dovodoy is so is kored
gorgikonaes "Trusted." Drey the puro cheeros the Romano savo lelled
lovvu, or wafor covars from lescro prala in parriken, ta kek pess'd
leste apopli, could be kair'd to buty for leste as gry, mailla or
cost-chinnimengro for a besh ta divvus. To divvus kek si covar ajaw.
If a Romano lelled lovvu or wafu covars from meero vast in parriken,
ta kek pessed mande apopli, sar estist for mande te kair leste buty
as gry, mailla, or cost-chinnimengro for mande for yek divvus, kek to
pen for sore a besh?

Do you nav cavacoi a weilgorus? Ratfelo rinkeno weilgorus cav acoi:
you might chiv lis sore drey teero putsi.

Kek jinnipenskey covar se to pen tute's been bango. If tute pens
tute's been bango, foky will pen: Estist tute's a koosho koshko
mushipen, but tatchipe a ratfelo dinnelo.

Car's tute jibbing?

Mande's kek jibbing; mande's is atching, at the feredest; mande's a
pirremengri, prala!

Cauna Romany foky rokkerelan yeck sar wafu penelan pal ta pen; cauna
dado or deya rokkerelan ke lendes chauves penelan meero chauvo or
meeri chi; or my child, gorgikonaes, to ye dui; cauna chauves
rokkerelan te dad or deya penelan meero dad or meeri deya!

Meero dado, soskey were creminor kair'd? Meero chauvo, that puvo-
baulor might jib by haIling lende. Meero dado, soskey were
puvobaulor kair'd? Meero chauvo, that tute and mande might jib by
lelling lende. Meero dado, soskey were tu ta mande kair'd? Meero
chauvo, that creminor might jib by halling mende.

Sore giv-engres shan dinneles. When they shoons a gav-engro drey the
tem pen: Dov-odoy's a fino grye! they pens: Kekkeno grye se; grasni
si; whether the covar's a grasni or kekkeni. Kek jinellan the
dinneles that a grasni's a grye, though a grye is kek a grasni.

Kekkeni like Romano Will's rawnie for kelling drey a chauro.

Cauna Constance Petulengri merr'd she was shel ta desch beshor puri.

Does tute jin Rawnie Wardomescri?

Mande jins lati misto, prala.

Does tute cam lati?

Mande cams lati bute, prala; and mande has dosta, dosta cheeros
penn'd to the wafor Romany Chals, when they were rokkering wafudo of
lati: She's a rawnie; she lels care of sore of you; if it were kek
for lati, you would sore jal to the beng.

So kerella for a jivipen?

She dukkers, prala; she dukkers.

Can she dukker misto?

There's kekkeny Romany juva tuley the can for dukkering sar Rawnie
Wardomescri; nastis not to be dukker'd by lati; she's a tatchi
chovahan; she lels foky by the wast and dukkers lende, whether they
cams or kek.

Kek koskipen si to jal roddring after Romany Chals. When tute cams
to dick lende nestist to latch yeck o' lende; but when tute's
penching o' wafor covars tute dicks o' lende dosta dosta.

Mande will sollohaul neither bango nor tatcho against kekkeno; if
they cams to latch abri chomoni, muk lende latch it abri their

If he had been bitcheno for a boro luripen mande would have penn'd
chi; but it kairs mande diviou to pentch that he was bitcheno, all
along of a bori lubbeny, for trin tringurishis ta posh.

When he had kair'd the moripen, he kair'd sig and plastrar'd adrey
the wesh, where he gared himself drey the hev of a boro, puro rukh;
but it was kek koskipen asarlus; the plastra-mengres slomm'd his pire
sore along the wesh till they well'd to the rukh.

Sau kisi foky has tute dukker'd to divvus?

Yeck rawnie coccori, prala; dov ody she wels palal; mande jins lati
by the kaulo dori prey laki shubba.

Sau bute luvvu did she del tute?

Yeck gurush, prala; yeck gurush coccoro. The beng te lilly a truppy!

Shoon the kosko rokkrapen so Micail jinney-mengro penn'd ke Rawnie
Trullifer: Rawnie Trollopr, you must jib by your jibben: and if a
base se tukey you must chiv lis tuley.

Can you rokkra Romanes?
Avali, prala!
So si Weshenjuggalslomomengreskeytemskey tudlogueri?
Mande don't jin what you pens, prala.
Then tute is kek Romano lavomengro.


The young people often ask: What good is there in the Romany tongue?
I answers: Ye are all fools! There is plenty, plenty of good in it,
and plenty, plenty of our people would have been transported or hung,
but for the old, poor Roman language. A word in Romany said in time
to a little girl, and carried to the camp, has caused a great purse
of money and other things, which had been stolen, to be stowed
underground; so that when the constables came they could find
nothing, and had not only to let the Gypsy they had taken up go his
way, but also to beg his pardon.

His term of transportation has now expired, and it were but right in
him to come home, if it were only to take care of his poor old wife:
she has been a true, true wife to him, and I don't believe that she
has taken up with another man ever since he was sent across.

When one's pitched up one's little tent, made one's little fire
before the door, and hung one's kettle by the kettle-iron over it,
one doesn't like that an inspector or constable should come and say:
What are you doing here? Take yourself off, you Gypsy dog.

On the first Friday of July, before the public-house called the Bald-
faced Stag, on the hill above the town of the great tree in the
Forest, you will see many Roman people, men and women, lads and

Do you know my old friend Mr. Stanniwix, the old gentleman that wears
a pigtail, and made fourteen thousand pounds by smuggling?

He went on talking and talking foolishness till I said to him: If
you goes on in that 'ere way I'll hit you a hot 'un on the nose.

You ask me what are patrins. Patrin is the name of the signs by
which the Gypsies who go before show the road they have taken to
those who follow behind. We flings handfuls of grass down at the
head of the road we takes, or we makes with the finger a cross-mark
on the ground, we sticks up branches of trees by the side the hedge.
But the true patrin is handfuls of leaves flung down; for patrin or
patten in old Roman language means the leaf of a tree.

The true way to be a wise man is to hear, see, and bear in mind.

The man who has not the whip-hand of his tongue and his temper is not
fit to go into company.

The Bill to take up the no-man's lands (comons), and to make the poor
people die of hunger and cold, has been flung out of the House of

The name they gives her is "Luck in a basket," because she carries
about a basket, which every night, when she goes home, is sure to be
full of stolen property.

This here, brothers, is the title of a book, the head-work of an old
king of Roumany land: the Tribunal, or the dispute between the wise
man and the world: or, the death-sentence passed by the soul upon
the body.

When the rope was about his neck they brought him his pardon, and let
him go; but from that day he would wear a neck-kerchief no more, for
he said it brought to his mind the rope about his neck.

Jack Cooper could read enough to know all that was upon the
milestones and the sign-posts.

The Roman way to cook a fowl is to do it up with its feathers in
clay, and then to put it in fire for a little more than half an hour.
When the clay and the burnt feathers are taken from the fowl, the
belly cut open, and the inside flung out, 'tis a food good enough for
a queen to eat without salt.

When the Gentile way of living and the Gypsy way of living come
together, it is anything but a good way of living.

He told me once that when he was a chap of twenty he killed a
Gentile, and buried the dead meat under ground. He was taken up for
the murder, but as no one could find the cold meat, the justices let
him go. He said that the job did not sit heavy upon his mind for a
long time, but then all of a sudden he became sad, and afraid of the
dead Gentile's ghost; and that often of a night, as he was coming
half-drunk from the public-house by himself, he would look over his
right shoulder and over his left shoulder, to know if the dead man's
ghost was not coming behind to lay hold of him.

Do you know the Gypsy way of taking the hand?
Aye, aye, brother.
Show it to me.
They does it so, brother.

A tramp has more fun than a Gypsy.

You have heard the word pazorrus. That is what is called by the
Gentiles "trusted," or in debt. In the old time the Roman who got
from his brother money or other things on trust, and did not pay him
again, could be made to work for him as horse, ass, or wood cutter
for a year and a day. At present the matter is not so. If a Roman
got money, or other things, from my hand on credit, and did not repay
me, how could I make him labour for me as horse, ass, or stick-cutter
for one day, not to say for a year?

Do you call this a fair? A very pretty fair is this: you might put
it all into your pocket.

It is not a wise thing to say you have been wrong. If you allow you
have been wrong, people will say: You may be a very honest fellow,
but are certainly a very great fool.

Where are you living?

Mine is not living; mine is staying, to say the best of it; I am a
traveller, brother!

When Roman people speak to one another, they say brother and sister.
When parents speak to their children, they say, my son, or my
daughter, or my child, gorgiko-like, to either. When children speak
to their parents, they say, my father, or my mother.

My father, why were worms made? My son, that moles might live by
eating them. My father, why were moles made? My son, that you and I
might live by catching them. My father, why were you and I made? My
son, that worms might live by eating us.

All farmers are fools. When they hear a citizen in the country say:
That's a fine horse! they say: 'Tis no horse, 'tis a mare; whether
the thing's a horse or not. The simpletons don't know that a mare's
a horse, though a horse is not a mare.

No one like Gypsy Will's wife for dancing in a platter.

When Constance Smith died, she was a hundred ten years old.

Do you know Mrs. Cooper?

I knows her very well, brother.

Do you like her?

I loves her very much, brother; and I have often, often said to the
other Gypsies, when they speaking ill of her: She's a gentlewoman;
takes care of all of you; if it were not for her, you would all go to
the devil.

What does she do for a living?

She tells fortunes, brother; she tells fortunes.

Is she a good hand at fortune-telling?

There's no Roman woman under the sun so good at fortune-telling as
Mrs. Cooper; it is impossible not to have your fortune told by her;
she's a true witch; she takes people by the hand, and tells their
fortunes, whether they will or no.

'Tis no use to go seeking after Gypsies. When you wants to see them
'tis impossible to find one of them; but when you are thinking of
other matters you see plenty, plenty of them.

I will swear neither falsely nor truly against any one; if they
wishes to find out something, let them find it out themselves.

If he had been transported for a great robbery, I would have said
nothing; but it makes me mad to think that he has been sent away, all
along of a vile harlot, for the value of three-and-sixpence.

When he had committed the murder he made haste, and ran into the
wood, where he hid himself in the hollow of a great old tree; but it
was no use at all; the runners followed his track all along the
forest till they came to the tree.

How many fortunes have you told to-day?

Only one lady's, brother; yonder she's coming back; I knows her by
the black lace on her gown.

How much money did she give you?

Only one groat, brother; only one groat. May the devil run away with
her bodily!

Hear the words of wisdom which Mike the Grecian said to Mrs.
Trullifer: Mrs. Trollopr, you must live by your living; and if you
have a pound you must spend it.

Can you speak Romany?
Aye, aye, brother!
What is Weshenjuggalslomomengreskeytemskeytudlogueri?
I don't know what you say, brother.
Then you are no master of Romany.


Baulo-mengreskey tem Swineherds' country, Hampshire
Bitcheno padlengreskey tem Transported fellows' country, Botany
Bokra-mengreskey tem Shepherds' country, Sussex
Bori-congriken gav Great church town, York
Boro-rukeneskey gav Great tree town, Fairlop
Boro gueroneskey tem Big fellows' country, Northumberland
Chohawniskey tem Witches' country, Lancashire
Choko-mengreskey gav Shoemakers' town, Northampton
Churi-mengreskey gav Cutlers' town, Sheffield
Coro-mengreskey tem Potters' country, Staffordshire
Cosht-killimengreskey tem Cudgel players' country, Cornwall
Curo-mengreskey gav Boxers' town, Nottingham
Dinelo tem Fools' country, Suffolk
Giv-engreskey tem Farmers' country, Buckinghamshire
Gry-engreskey gav Horsedealers' town, Horncastle
Guyo-mengreskey tem Pudding-eaters' country, Yorkshire
Hindity-mengreskey tem Dirty fellows' country, Ireland
Jinney-mengreskey gav Sharpers' town, Manchester
Juggal-engreskey gav Dog-fanciers' town, Dudley
Juvlo-mengreskey tem Lousy fellows' country, Scotland
Kaulo gav The black town, Birmingham
Levin-engriskey tem Hop country, Kent
Lil-engreskey gav Book fellows' town, Oxford
Match-eneskey gav Fishy town, Yarmouth
Mi-develeskey gav My God's town, Canterbury
Mi-krauliskey gav Royal town, London
Nashi-mescro gav Racers' town, Newmarket
Pappin-eskey tem Duck country, Lincolnshire
Paub-pawnugo tem Apple-water country, Herefordshire
Porrum-engreskey tem Leek-eaters' country, Wales
Pov-engreskey tem Potato country, Norfolk
Rashayeskey gav Clergyman's town, Ely
Rokrengreskey gav Talking fellows' town, Norwich
Shammin-engreskey gav Chairmakers' town, Windsor
Tudlo tem Milk country, Cheshire
Weshen-eskey gav Forest town, Epping
Weshen-juggal-slommo-mengreskey tem Fox-hunting fellows' country,
Wongareskey gav Coal town, Newcastle
Wusto-mengresky tem Wrestlers' country, Devonshire


Prey Juniken bis diuto divvus, drey the besh yeck mille ochto shel
shovardesh ta trin, mande jaw'd to dick Thomas Rossar-mescro, a puro
Romano, of whom mande had shoon'd bute. He was jibbing drey a tan
naveno Rye Groby's Court, kek dur from the Coromengreskoe Tan ta
Bokkar-engreskey Wesh. When mande dick'd leste he was beshing prey
the poov by his wuddur, chiving misto the poggado tuleskey part of a
skammin. His ker was posh ker, posh wardo, and stood drey a corner
of the tan; kek dur from lesti were dui or trin wafor ker-wardoes.
There was a wafudo canipen of baulor, though mande dick'd kekkeney.
I penn'd "Sarshin?" in Romany jib, and we had some rokrapen kettaney.
He was a boro mush, as mande could dick, though he was beshing. But
though boro he was kek tulo, ta lescre wastes were tarney sar yek
rawnie's. Lollo leste mui sar yeck weneskoe paub, ta lescro bal
rather lollo than parno. Prey his shero was a beti stadj, and he was
kek wafudo riddo. On my putching leste kisi boro he was, ta kisi
puro, he penn'd that he was sho pire sore but an inch boro, ta
enyovardesh ta dui besh puro. He didn't jin to rokkra bute in
Romano, but jinn'd almost sore so mande rokkar'd te leste. Moro
rokkrapen was mostly in gorgiko jib. Yeck covar yecklo drey lescro
drom of rokkring mande pennsch'd kosko to rig in zi. In tan of
penning Romany, sar wafor Romany chals, penn'd o Roumany, a lav which
sig, sig rigg'd to my zi Roumain, the tatcho, puro nav of the
Vallackiskie jib and foky. He seem'd a biti aladge of being of
Romany rat. He penn'd that he was beano drey the Givengreskey Tem,
that he was kek tatcho Romano, but yeckly posh ta posh: lescro dado
was Romano, but lescri daya a gorgie of the Lilengreskoe Gav; he had
never camm'd bute to jib Romaneskoenaes, and when tarno had been a
givengreskoe raklo. When he was boro he jall'd adrey the
Lilengrotemskey militia, and was desh ta stor besh a militia
curomengro. He had jall'd bute about Engli-tem and the juvalo-
mengreskey, Tem, drey the cheeros of the puri chingaripen, and had
been adrey Monseer-tem, having volunteered to jal odoy to cour agen
the parley-woo gueros. He had dick'd Bordeaux and the boro gav
Paris. After the chingaripen, he had lell'd oprey skamminengring,
and had jall'd about the tem, but had been knau for buter than
trianda beshor jibbing in Lundra. He had been romado, but his romadi
had been mullee bute, bute cheeros; she had dinn'd leste yeck chavo,
so was knau a heftwardesh beshengro, dicking bute puroder than yo
cocoro, ta kanau lying naflo of a tatti naflipen drey yeck of the
wardes. He penn'd that at yeck cheeros he could kair dosta luvvu by
skammin-engring, but kanau from his bori puripen could scarcely kair
yeck tringurushee a divvus. "Ladjipen si," I penn'd, "that a mush so
puro as tute should have to booty." "Kosko zi! kosko zi!" he penn'd;
"Paracrow Dibble that mande is dosta ruslo to booty, and that mande
has koskey camomescres; I shan't be tugnis to jib to be a shel
beshengro, though tatchipen si if mande was a rye mande would kair
kek booty." His chaveskoe chavo, a trianda ta pansch beshengro,
well'd kanau ta rokkar'd mansar. He was a misto dicking ta rather
misto riddo mush, sar chimouni jinneymengreskey drey lescro mui. He
penn'd that his dadeskoe dad was a fino puro mush, savo had dick'd
bute, and that dosta, dosta foky well'd odoy to shoon lescre
rokkrapenes of the puro cheeros, of the Franciskie ta Amencanskie
chingaripenes, and of what yo had dick'd drey wafu tems. That
tatchipen to pen there was a cheeros when his drom was dur from
kosko, for that he camm'd to cour, sollohaul ta kair himself motto,
but that kanau he was a wafu mush, that he had muk'd sore curopen and
wafudo rokkrapen, and, to corauni sore, was yeck tee-totaller, yo
cocoro having kair'd leste sollohaul that he would pi kekomi neither
tatti panie nor levinor: that he jall'd sore the curques either to
congri or Tabernacle, and that tho' he kek jinn'd to del oprey he
camm'd to shoon the Miduveleskoe lil dell'd oprey to leste; that the
panishkie ryor held leste drey boro camopen, and that the congriskoe
rashi, and oprey sore Dr. P. of the Tabernacle had a boro opinionos
of leste, ta penn'd that he would hal the Miduveleskoe habben sar
moro Araunyo Jesus drey the kosko tem opral. Mande putch'd whether
the Romany Chals well'd often to dick leste? He penn'd that they
well'd knau and then to pen Koshto divvus and Sarshin? but dov' odoy
was sore; that neither his dadeskoe dad nor yo cocoro camm'd to dick
lende, because they were wafodu foky, perdo of wafodupen and bango
camopen, ta oprey sore bute envyous; that drey the wen they jall'd
sore cattaney to the ryor, and rokkar'd wafodu of the puno mush, and
pukker'd the ryor to let lester a coppur which the ryor had lent
leste, to kair tatto his choveno puro truppo drey the cheeros of the
trashlo shillipen; that tatchipen si their wafodupen kaired the puro
mush kek dosh, for the ryor pukker'd lende to jal their drom and be
aladge of their cocore, but that it was kek misto to pensch that yeck
was of the same rat as such foky. After some cheeros I dinn'd the
puro mush a tawno cuttor of rupe, shook leste by ye wast, penn'd that
it would be mistos amande to dick leste a shel-beshengro, and jaw'd
away keri.


On the twenty-second day of June, in the year one thousand eight
hundred and sixty-three, I went to see Thomas Herne, an old Gypsy, of
whom I had heard a great deal. He was living at a place called Mr.
Groby's Court, not far from the Potteries and the Shepherd's Bush.
When I saw him, he was sitting on the ground by his door, mending the
broken bottom of a chair. His house was half-house half-waggon, and
stood in a corner of the court; not far from it were two or three
other waggon-houses. There was a disagreeable smell of hogs, though
I saw none. I said, "How you do?" in the Gypsy tongue, and we had
discourse together. He was a tall man, as I could see, though he was
sitting. But, though tall, he was not stout, and his hands were
small as those of a lady. His face was as red as a winter apple, and
his hair was rather red than grey. He had a small hat on his head,
and he was not badly dressed. On my asking him how tall he was, and
how old, he said that he was six foot high, all but an inch, and that
he was ninety-two years old. He could not talk much Gypsy, but
understood almost all that I said to him. Our discourse was chiefly
in English. One thing only in his manner of speaking I thought
worthy of remembrance. Instead of saying Romany, like other Gypsies,
he said Roumany, a word which instantly brought to my mind Roumain,
the genuine, ancient name of the Wallachian tongue and people. He
seemed to be rather ashamed of being of Gypsy blood. He told me that

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