Part 9 out of 15
at, drive at, point at, level at, aspire at; take aim; set before oneself;
take upon oneself &c. (undertake) 676; take into one's head; meditate,
contemplate of, think of, dream of, talk of; premeditate &c. 611; compass,
calculate; destine, destinate[obs3]; propose.
project &c. (plan) 626; have a mind to &c. (be willing) 602; desire
&c. 865; pursue &c. 622.
Adj. intended &c. v.; intentional, advised, express, determinate;
prepense &c. 611[obs3]; bound for; intending &c. v.; minded; bent upon &c.
(earnest) 604; at stake; on the anvil, on the tapis[obs3]; in view, in
prospect, in the breast of; in petto; teleological
Adv. intentionally &c. adj.; advisedly, wittingly, knowingly,
designedly, purposely, on purpose, by design, studiously, pointedly; with
intent &c. n.; deliberately &c. (with premeditation) 611; with one's eyes
open, in cold blood.
for; with a view, with an eye to; in order to, in order that; to the
end that, with the intent that; for the purpose of, with the view of, in
contemplation of, on account of.
in pursuance of, pursuant to; quo animo[Lat]; to all intents and
Phr. "The road to hell is paved with good intentions" [Johnson];
sublimi feriam sidera vertice [Lat][Horace].
<-- p. 193 -->
#621. [Absence of purpose in the succession of events] Chance. 2 -- N.
chance &c. 156; lot, fate &c. (necessity) 601; luck; good luck &c. (good)
speculation, venture, stake, game of chance; mere shot, random shot;
blind bargain, leap in the dark; pig in a poke &c. (uncertainty) 475;
fluke, potluck; faro bank; flyer*; limit.
uncertainty; uncertainty principle, Heisenberg's uncertainty
drawing lots; sortilegy[obs3], sortition|; sortes[obs3], sortes
Virgilianae[obs3]; rouge et noir[Fr], hazard, ante, chuck-a-luck, crack-loo
[obs3][U.S.], craps, faro, roulette, pitch and toss, chuck, farthing, cup
tossing, heads or tails cross and pile, poker-dice; wager; bet, betting;
gambling; the turf.
gaming house, gambling house, betting house; bucket shop; gambling
joint; totalizator, totalizer; hell; betting ring; dice, dice box.
[person who takes chances] gambler, gamester; man of the turf;
V. chance &c. (hap) 156; stand a chance &c. (be possible) 470.
toss up; cast lots, draw lots; leave to chance, trust to chance, leave
to the chapter of accidents, trust to the chapter of accidents; tempt
fortune; chance it, take one's chance, take a shot at it (attempt) 675; run
the risk, run the chance, incur the risk, incur the chance, encounter the
risk, encounter the chance; stand the hazard of the die.
speculate, try one's luck, set on a cast, raffle, put into a lottery,
buy a pig in a poke, shuffle the cards.
risk, venture, hazard, stake; ante; lay, lay a wager; make a bet,
wager, bet, gamble, game, play for; play at chuck farthing.
Adj. fortuitous &c. 156; unintentional, unintended; accidental; not
meant; undesigned, purposed; unpremeditated &c. 612; unforeseen,
uncontemplated, never thought of.
random, indiscriminate, promiscuous; undirected; aimless,
driftless[obs3], designless[obs3], purposeless, causeless; without purpose.
possible &c. 470.
unforeseeable, unpredictable, chancy, risky, speculative, dicey.
Adv. randomly, by chance, fortuitously; unpredictably, unforeseeably;
casually &c. 156; unintentionally &c. adj.; unwittingly.
en passant[Fr], by the way, incidentally; as it may happen; at random,
at a venture, at haphazard.
Phr. acierta errando[Lat]; dextro tempore[Lat]; "fearful concatenation
of circumstances" [D. Webster]; "fortuitous combination of circumstances"
[Dickens]; le jeu est le fils d'avarice et le pere du desespoir[Fr]; "the
happy combination of fortuitous circumstances" [Scott]; "the fortuitous or
casual concourse of atoms" [Bentley]; "God does not play dice with the
universe" [A. Einstein].
#622. [Purpose in action.] Pursuit -- N. pursuit; pursuing &c. v.;
prosecution; pursuance; enterprise &c. (undertaking) 676; business &c. 625;
adventure &c. (essay) 675; quest &c. (search) 461; scramble, hue and cry,
game; hobby; still-hunt.
chase, hunt, battue[obs3], race, steeple chase, hunting, coursing;
venation, venery; fox chase; sport, sporting; shooting, angling, fishing,
pursuer; hunter, huntsman; shikari[Geogloc:India], sportsman, Nimrod;
hound &c. 366.
V. pursue, prosecute, follow; run after, make after, be after, hunt
after, prowl after; shadow; carry on &c. (do) 680; engage in &c.
(undertake) 676; set about &c. (begin) 66; endeavor &c. 675; court &c.
(request) 765 seek &c. (search) 461; aim at &c. (intention) 620; follow the
trail &c. (trace) 461; fish for &c. (experiment) 463; press on &c. (haste)
684; run a race &c. (velocity) 274.
chase, give chase, course, dog, hunt, hound; tread on the heels,
follow on the heels of, &c. (sequence) 281.
rush upon; rush headlong &c. (violence) 173 ride full tilt at, run
full tilt at; make a leap at, jump at, snatch at run down; start game.
tread a path; take a course, hold- a course; shape one's steps, direct
one's steps, bend one's steps, course; play a game; fight one's way, elbow
one's way; follow up; take to, take up; go in for; ride one's hobby.
Adj. pursuing &c. v.; in quest of &c. (inquiry) 461 in pursuit, in
full cry, in hot pursuit; on the scent.
Adv. in pursuance of &c. (intention) 620; after.
Int. tallyho! yoicks! soho[obs3]!
#623. [Absence of pursuit.] Avoidance. -- N. abstention, abstinence;
for bearance[obs3]; refraining &c. v.; inaction &c. 681; neutrality.
avoidance, evasion, elusion; seclusion &c. 893.
avolation|, flight; escape &c. 671; retreat &c. 287; recoil &c. 277;
departure &c. 293; rejection &c. 610.
shirker &c. v.; truant; fugitive, refugee; runaway, runagate; maroon.
V. abstain, refrain, spare, not attempt; not do &c. 681; maintain the
even tenor of one's way.
eschew, keep from, let alone, have nothing to do with; keep aloof keep
off, stand aloof, stand off, hold aloof, hold off; take no part in, have no
avoid, shun; steer clear of, keep clear of; fight shy of; keep one's
distance, keep at a respectful distance; keep out of the way, get out of
the way; evade, elude, turn away from; set one's face against &c. (oppose)
708; deny oneself.
shrink back; hang back, hold back, draw back; recoil &c. 277; retire
&c. (recede) 287; flinch, blink, blench, shy, shirk, dodge, parry, make way
for, give place to.
beat a retreat; turn tail, turn one's back; take to one's heels;
runaway, run for one's life; cut and run; be off like a shot; fly, flee;
fly away, flee away, run away from; take flight, take to flight; desert,
elope; make off, scamper off, sneak off, shuffle off, sheer off; break
away, tear oneself away, slip away, slink away, steel away, make away from,
scamper away from, sneak away from, shuffle away from, sheer away from;
slip cable, part company, turn one's heel; sneak out of, play truant, give
one the go by, give leg bail, take French leave, slope, decamp, flit, bolt,
abscond, levant, skedaddle, absquatulate [obs3][U.S.], cut one's stick,
walk one's chalks, show a light pair of heels, make oneself scarce; escape
&c. 671; go away &c. (depart) 293; abandon &c. 624; reject &c. 610.
lead one a dance, lead one a pretty dance; throw off the scent, play
at hide and seek.
Adj. unsought, unattempted; avoiding &c. v.; neutral, shy of &c.
(unwilling) 603; elusive, evasive; fugitive, runaway; shy, wild.
Adj. lest, in order to avoid.
Int. forbear! keep off, hands off! sauve qui peut[Fr]! [French: every
man for himself]; devil take the hindmost!
Phr. "things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme" [Paradise Lost].
<-- p. 194 -->
#624. Relinquishment. -- N. relinquishment, abandonment; desertion,
defection, secession, withdrawal; cave of Adullam[obs3]; nolle
discontinuance &c. (cessation) 142; renunciation &c. (recantation)
607; abrogation &c. 756; resignation &c. (retirement) 757; desuetude &c.
614; cession &c. (of property) 782.
V. relinquish, give up, abandon, desert, forsake, leave in the lurch;
go back on; depart from, secede from, withdraw from; back out of; leave,
quit, take leave of, bid a long farewell; vacate &c. (resign) 757.
renounce &c (abjure) 607; forego, have done with, drop; disuse &c.
678; discard &c. 782; wash one's hands of; drop all idea of.
break off, leave off; desist; stop &c. (cease) 142; hold one's hand,
stay one's hand; quit one's hold; give over, shut up shop.
throw up the game, throw up the cards; give up the point, give up the
argument; pass to the order of the day, move to the previous question.
Adj. unpursued[obs3]; relinquished &c. v.; relinquishing &c. v.
Int. avast! &c. (stop) 142.
Phr. aufgeschoben ist nicht aufgehoben[Ger]; entbehre gern was du
#625. Business. -- N. business, occupation, employment; pursuit &c.
622; what one is doing, what one is about; affair, concern, matter, case.
matter in hand, irons in the fire; thing to do, agendum, task, work,
job, chore [U.S.], errand, commission, mission, charge, care; duty &c. 926.
part, role, cue; province, function, lookout, department, capacity,
sphere, orb, field, line; walk, walk of life; beat, round, routine; race,
office, place, post, chargeship[obs3], incumbency, living; situation,
berth, employ; service &c. (servitude) 749; engagement; undertaking &c.
vocation, calling, profession, cloth, faculty; industry, art;
industrial arts; craft, mystery, handicraft; trade &c. (commerce) 794.
exercise; work &c. (action) 680; avocation; press of business &c.
V. pass one's time in, employ one's time in, spend one's time in;
employ oneself in, employ oneself upon; occupy oneself with, concern
oneself with; make it one's business &c. n.; undertake &c. 676; enter a
profession; betake oneself to, turn one's hand to; have to do with &c. (do)
office, place, post, chargeship[obs3], incumbency, living; situation,
berth, employ; service &c. (servitude) 749; engagement; undertaking &c.
drive a trade; carry on a trade, do a trade, transact a trade, carry
on business, do business, transact business &c. n.; keep a shop; ply one's
task, ply one's trade; labor in one's vocation; pursue the even tenor of
one's way; attend to business, attend to one's work.
officiate, serve, act; act one's part, play one's part; do duty; serve
the office of, discharge the office of, perform the office of, perform the
duties of, perform the functions of; hold an office, fill an office, fill a
place, fill a situation; hold a portfolio, hold a place, hold a situation.
be about, be doing, be engaged in, be employed in, be occupied with,
be at work on; have one's hands in, have in hand; have on one's hands, have
on one's shoulders; bear the burden; have one's hands full &c. (activity)
be in the hands of, be on the stocks, be on the anvil; pass through
Adj. businesslike; workaday; professional; official, functional; busy
&c. (actively employed) 682; on hand, in hand, in one's hands; afoot; on
foot, on the anvil; going on; acting.
Adv. in the course of business, all in one's day's work;
professionally &c. Adj.
Phr. "a business with an income at its heels" [Cowper]; amoto
quaeramus seria ludo [Lat][Horace]; par negotiis neque supra
<-- p. 195 -->
#626. Plan. -- N. plan, scheme, design, project; proposal,
proposition, suggestion; resolution, motion; precaution &c. (provision)
673; deep-laid plan &c. (premeditated) 611;
system &c. (order) 58; organization &c. (arrangement) 60; germ &c.
sketch, skeleton, outline, draught, draft, ebauche[Fr], brouillon[Fr];
rough cast, rough draft, draught copy; copy; proof, revise.
drawing, scheme, schematic, graphic, chart, flow chart
forecast, program(me), prospectus; carte du pays[Fr]; card; bill,
protocol; order of the day, list of agenda; bill of fare &c. (food) 298;
base of operations; platform, plank, slate [U. S.], ticket [U. S.].
role; policy &c. (line of conduct) 692.
contrivance, invention, expedient, receipt, nostrum, artifice, device;
pipelaying [U. S.]; stratagem &c. (cunning) 702; trick &c. (deception) 545;
alternative, loophole; shift &c. (substitute) 147; last shift &c.
measure, step; stroke, stroke of policy; master stroke; trump card,
court card; cheval de bataille[Fr], great gun; coup, coup d'etat[Fr];
clever stroke, bold stroke, good move, good hit, good stroke; bright
thought, bright idea.
intrigue, cabal, plot, conspiracy, complot[obs3], machination;
subplot, underplot[obs3], counterplot.
schemer, schemist[obs3], schematist|; strategist, machinator;
projector, artist, promoter, designer &c. v.; conspirator; intrigant &c.
V. plan,,scheme, design, frame, contrive, project, forecast, sketch;
devise, invent &c. (imagine) 515; set one's wits to work &c. 515; spring a
project; fall upon, hit upon; strike out, chalk out, cut out, lay out, map
out; lay down a plan; shape out a course, mark out a course; predetermine
&c. 611; concert, preconcert, preestablish; prepare &c. 673; hatch, hatch a
plot concoct; take steps, take measures.
cast, recast, systematize, organize; arrange &c. 60; digest, mature.
plot; counter-plot, counter-mine; dig a mine; lay a train; intrigue
&c. (cunning) 702.
Adj. planned &c. v.; strategic, strategical; planning &c. v.;
prepared, in course of preparation &c. 673; under consideration; on the
tapis[obs3], on the carpet, on the floor.
#627. Method. [Path.] -- N. method, way, manner, wise, gait, form,
mode, fashion, tone, guise; modus operandi, MO; procedure &c. (line of
path, road, route, course; line of way, line of road; trajectory,
orbit, track, beat, tack.
steps; stair, staircase; flight of stairs, ladder, stile;
bridge, footbridge, viaduct, pontoon, steppingstone, plank, gangway;
drawbridge; pass, ford, ferry, tunnel; pipe &c. 260.
door; gateway &c. (opening) 260; channel, passage, avenue, means of
access, approach, adit[obs3]; artery, lane, alley, aisle, lobby, corridor;
back-door, back-stairs; secret passage; covert way; vennel[obs3].
roadway, pathway, stairway; express; thoroughfare; highway; turnpike,
freeway, royal road, coach road; broad highway, King's highway, Queen's
highway; beaten track, beaten path; horse road, bridle road, bridle track,
bridle path; walk, trottoir[obs3], footpath, pavement, flags, sidewalk;
crossroad, byroad, bypath, byway; cut; short cut &c. (mid-course) 628;
carrefour[obs3]; private road, occupation road; highways and byways;
railroad, railway, tram road, tramway; towpath; causeway; canal &c.
(conduit) 350; street &c. (abode) 189; speedway.
adv. how; in what way, in what manner; by what mode; so, in this way, after
one way or another, anyhow; somehow or other &c. (instrumentality)
631; by way of; via; in transitu &c. 270[Lat]; on the high road to.
Phr. hae tibi erunt artes[Lat].
<-- p. 196 -->
#628. Mid-course. -- N. middle course, midcourse; mean &c. 29 middle
&c. 68; juste milieu[Fr], mezzo termine[It], golden mean,
straight &c. (direct) 278 straight course, straight path; short cut,
cross cut; great circle sailing.
neutrality; half measure, half and half measures; compromise.
V. keep in a middle course, preserve a middle course, preserve an even
course, go straight &c. (direct) 278.
go halfway, compromise, make a compromise.
Adj. straight &c. (direct) 278.
Phr. medium tenuere beati[Lat].
#629. Circuit. -- N. circuit, roundabout way, digression, detour,
circumbendibus, ambages[obs3], loop; winding &c. (circuition) 311[obs3];
zigzag &c. (deviation) 279.
V. perform a circuit; go round about, go out of one's way; make a
detour; meander &c. (deviate) 279.
lead a pretty dance; beat about the bush; make two bites of a cherry.
Adj. circuitous, indirect, roundabout; zigzag &c. (deviating) 279;
Adv. by a side wind, by an indirect course; in a roundabout way; from
pillar to post.
#630. Requirement. -- N. requirement, need, wants, necessities;
necessaries, necessaries of life; stress, exigency, pinch, sine qua non,
matter of necessity; case of need, case of life or death.
needfulness, essentiality, necessity, indispensability, urgency.
requisition &c. (request) 765, (exaction) 741; run upon; demand, call
charge, claim, command, injunction, mandate, order, precept.
desideratum &c. (desire) 865; want &c. (deficiency) 640.
V. require, need, want, have occasion for; not be able to do without,
not be able to dispense with; prerequire[obs3].
render necessary, necessitate, create a, necessity for, call for, put
in requisition; make a requisition &c. (ask for) 765, (demand) 741.
stand in need of; lack &c. 640; desiderate[obs3]; desire &c. 865; be
necessary &c. Adj.
Adj. required &c. v.; requisite, needful, necessary, imperative,
essential, indispensable, prerequisite; called for; in demand, in request.
urgent, exigent, pressing, instant, crying, absorbing.
in want of; destitute of &c. 640.
Adv. ex necessitate rei &c. (necessarily) 601[Lat]; of necessity.
Phr. there is no time to lose; it cannot be spared, it cannot be
dispensed with; mendacem memorem esse oportet [Lat][Quintilian]; necessitas
non habet legem[Lat]; nec tecum possum trivere nec sine te [Lat][Martial].
2. Subservience to Ends
#631. Instrumentality. -- N. instrumentality; aid &c. 707;
subservience, subserviency; mediation, intervention, medium,
intermedium[obs3], vehicle, hand; agency &c. 170.
minister, handmaid; midwife, accoucheur[Fr], accoucheuse[Fr],
obstetrician; gobetween; cat's-paw; stepping-stone.
opener &c. 260; key; master key, passkey, latchkey; "open sesame";
passport, passe-partout, safe-conduct, password.
instrument &c. 633; expedient &c. (plan) 626; means &c. 632.
V. subserve, minister, mediate, intervene; be instrumental &c. adj.;
pander to; officiate; tend.
Adj. instrumental; useful &c. 644; ministerial, subservient,
mediatorial[obs3]; intermediate, intervening; conducive.
Adv. through, by, per; whereby, thereby, hereby; by the agency of &c.
170; by dint of; by virtue of, in virtue of; through the medium of &c. n.;
along with; on the shoulders of; by means of &c. 632; by the aid of, with
the aid of &c. (assistance) 707.
<-- p. 197 -->
per fas et nefas[Lat], by fair means or foul; somehow, somehow or
other; by hook or by crook.
#632. Means. -- N. means, resources, wherewithal, ways and means;
capital &c. (money) 800; revenue; stock in trade &c. 636; provision &c.
637; a shot in the locker; appliances &c. (machinery) 633; means and
appliances; conveniences; cards to play; expedients &c. (measures) 626; two
strings to one's bow; sheet anchor &c. (safety) 666; aid &c. 707; medium
V. find means, have means, possess means &c. n.
Adj. instrumental &c. 631; mechanical &c. 633.
Adv. by means of, with; by what means, by all means, by any means, by
some means; wherewith, herewith, therewith; wherewithal.
how &c. (in what manner) 627; through &c. (by the instrumentality of)
631; with the aid of, by the aid of &c. (assistance) 707; by the agency of
#633. Instrument. -- N. machinery, mechanism, engineering.
instrument, organ, tool, implement, utensil, machine, engine, lathe,
gin, mill; air engine, caloric engine, heat engine.
gear; tackle, tackling, rig, rigging, apparatus, appliances; plant,
materiel; harness, trappings, fittings, accouterments; barde[obs3];
equipment, equipmentage[obs3]; appointments, furniture, upholstery;
chattels; paraphernalia &c. (belongings) 780.
mechanical powers; lever, leverage; mechanical advantage; crow,
crowbar; handspike[obs3], gavelock[obs3], jemmy[obs3], jimmy, arm, limb,
wing; oar, paddle; pulley; wheel and axle; wheelwork, clockwork; wheels
within wheels; pinion, crank, winch; cam; pedal; capstan &c. (lift) 307;
wheel &c. (rotation) 312; inclined plane; wedge; screw; spring, mainspring;
can hook, glut, heald[obs3], heddle[obs3], jenny, parbuckle[obs3],
sprag[obs3], water wheel.
handle, hilt, haft, shaft, heft, shank, blade, trigger, tiller, helm,
treadle, key; turnscrew, screwdriver; knocker.
hammer &c. (impulse) 276; edge tool &c. (cut) 253; borer &c. 262;
vice, teeth, &c. (hold) 781; nail, rope &c. (join) 45; peg &c. (hang) 214;
support &c. 215; spoon &c. (vehicle) 272; arms &c. 727; oar &c.
(navigation) 267; cardiograph, recapper[obs3], snowplow, tenpenny[obs3],
Adj. instrumental &c. 631; mechanical, machinal[obs3]; brachial[Med].
#634. Substitute. -- N. substitute &c. 147; deputy &c. 759;
#635. Materials. -- N. material, raw material, stuff, stock, staple;
adobe, brown stone; chinking; clapboard; daubing; puncheon; shake; shingle,
bricks and mortar; metal; stone; clay, brick crockery &c. 384; compo,
composition; concrete; reinforced concrete, cement; wood, ore, timber.
materials; supplies, munition, fuel, grist, household stuff pabulum
&c. (food) 298; ammunition &c. (arms) 727; contingents; relay,
reinforcement, reenforcement[obs3]; baggage &c. (personal property) 780;
means &c. 632; calico, cambric, cashmere.
Adj. raw &c. (unprepared) 674; wooden &c. n.; adobe.
#636. Store. -- N. stock, fund, mine, vein, lode, quarry; spring;
fount, fountain; well, wellspring; milch cow.
stock in trade, supply; heap &c. (collection) 72; treasure; reserve,
corps de reserve, reserved fund, nest egg, savings, bonne bouche[Fr].
crop, harvest, mow, vintage.
store, accumulation, hoard, rick, stack; lumber; relay &c. (provision)
storehouse, storeroom, storecloset[obs3]; depository, depot, cache,
repository, reservatory[obs3], repertory; repertorium[obs3];
promptuary[obs3], warehouse, entrepot[Fr], magazine; buttery, larder,
spence[obs3]; garner, granary; cannery, safe-deposit vault,
stillroom[obs3]; thesaurus; bank &c. (treasury) 802; armory; arsenal; dock;
gallery, museum, conservatory; menagery[obs3], menagerie.
<-- p. 198 -->
reservoir, cistern, aljibar[obs3], tank, pond, mill pond;
budget, quiver, bandolier, portfolio; coffer &c. (receptacle) 191.
conservation; storing &c. v.; storage.
V. store; put by, lay by, set by; stow away; set apart, lay apart;
store treasure, hoard treasure, lay up, heap up, put up, garner up, save
up; bank; cache; accumulate, amass, hoard, fund, garner, save.
reserve; keep back, hold back; husband, husband one's resources.
deposit; stow, stack, load; harvest; heap, collect &c. 72; lay in
Adj.; keep, file [papers]; lay in &c. (provide) 637; preserve &c. 670.
Adj. stored &c. v.; in store, in reserve, in ordinary; spare,
Phr. adde parvum parvo magnus acervus erit[Lat].
#637. Provision. -- N. provision, supply; grist, grist for the mill;
subvention &c. (aid) 707; resources &c. (means) 632; groceries, grocery.
providing &c. v.; purveyance; reinforcement, reenforcement[obs3];
provender &c. (food) 298; ensilage; viaticum.
caterer, purveyor, commissary, quartermaster, manciple[obs3], feeder,
batman, victualer, grocer, comprador[Sp], restaurateur; jackal, pelican;
sutler &c. (merchant) 797[obs3].
grocery shop [U. S.], grocery store.
V. provide; make provision, make due provision for; lay in, lay in a
stock, lay in a store.
supply, suppeditate|; furnish; find, find one in; arm.
cater, victual, provision, purvey, forage; beat up for; stock, stock
with; make good, replenish; fill, fill up; recruit, feed.
have in store, have in reserve; keep, keep by one, keep on foot, keep
on hand; have to fall back upon; store &c. 636; provide against a rainy day
&c. (economy) 817.
#638. Waste. -- N. consumption, expenditure, exhaustion; dispersion
&c. 73; ebb; leakage &c. (exudation) 295; loss &c. 776; wear and tear;
waste; prodigality &c. 818; misuse &c. 679; wasting &c. v.; rubbish &c.
(useless) 645. mountain in labor.
V. spend, expend, use, consume, swallow up, exhaust; impoverish;
spill, drain, empty; disperse &c. 73.
cast away, fool away, muddle away, throw away, fling away, fritter
away; burn the candle at both ends, waste; squander &c. 818.
"waste its sweetness on the desert air" [Gray]; cast one's bread
upon the waters, cast pearls before swine; employ a steam engine to crack a
nut, waste powder and shot, break a butterfly on a wheel; labor in vain &c.
(useless) 645; cut blocks with a razor, pour water into a sieve.
leak &c. (run out) 295; run to waste; ebb; melt away, run dry, dry up.
Adj. wasted &c. v.; at a low ebb.
wasteful &c. (prodigal) 818; penny wise and pound foolish.
Phr. magno conatu magnas nugas[Lat]; le jeu ne vaut pas la
chandelle[Fr]; "idly busy rolls their world away" [Goldsmith].
#639. Sufficiency. -- N. sufficiency, adequacy, enough, withal,
satisfaction, competence; no less; quantum sufficit[Lat], Q.S..
mediocrity &c. (average) 29.
fill; fullness &c. (completeness) 52; plenitude, plenty; abundance;
copiousness &c. Adj.; amplitude, galore, lots, profusion; full measure;
"good measure pressed down and running, over." luxuriance &c. (fertility)
168; affluence &c. (wealth) 803; fat of the land; "a land flowing with milk
and honey"; cornucopia; horn of plenty, horn of Amalthaea; mine &c.
outpouring; flood &c. (great quantity) 31; tide &c. (river) 348;
repletion &c. (redundancy) 641; satiety &c. 869.
V. be sufficient &c. Adj.; suffice, do, just do, satisfy, pass muster;
have enough &c. n.; eat. one's fill, drink one's fill, have one's fill;
roll in, swim in; wallow in &c. (superabundance) 641; wanton.
abound, exuberate, teem, flow, stream, rain, shower down; pour, pour
in; swarm; bristle with; superabound.
render sufficient &c. Adj.; replenish &c. (fill) 52.
Adj. sufficient, enough, adequate, up to the mark, commensurate,
competent, satisfactory, valid, tangible.
measured; moderate &c. (temperate) 953.
full.&c. (complete) 52; ample; plenty, plentiful, plenteous; plenty as
blackberries; copious, abundant; abounding &c. v.; replete, enough and to
spare, flush; choke-full, chock-full; well-stocked, well-provided; liberal;
unstinted, unstinting; stintless[obs3]; without stint; unsparing,
unmeasured; lavish &c. 641; wholesale.
rich; luxuriant &c. (fertile) 168; affluent &c. (wealthy) 803;
wantless[obs3]; big with &c. (pregnant) 161.
unexhausted[obs3], unwasted[obs3]; exhaustless, inexhaustible.
Adv. sufficiently, amply &c. Adj.; full; in abundance &c. n. with no
sparing hand; to one's heart's content, ad libitum, without stint.
Phr. "cut and come again" [Crabbe]; das Beste ist gut genug[Ger].
#640. Insufficiency. -- N. insufficiency; inadequacy, inadequateness;
incompetence &c. (impotence) 158; deficiency &c. (incompleteness) 53;
imperfection &c. 651; shortcoming &c. 304; paucity; stint; scantiness &c.
(smallness) 32; none to spare, bare subsistence.
scarcity, dearth; want, need, lack, poverty, exigency; inanition,
starvation, famine, drought.
dole, mite, pittance; short allowance, short commons; half rations;
emptiness, poorness &c. Adj.; depletion, vacancy, flaccidity; ebb
tide; low water; "a beggarly account of empty boxes" [Romeo and Jul.];
indigence &c. 804; insolvency &c. (nonpayment) 808.
V. be insufficient &c. Adj.; not suffice &c. 639; come short of &c.
304 run dry.
want, lack, need, require; caret; be in want &c. (poor) 804, live from
hand to mouth.
render insufficient &c. Adj.; drain of resources, impoverish &c.
(waste) 638; stint &c. (begrudge) 819; put on short allowance.
do insufficiently &c. adv.; scotch the snake.
Adj. insufficient, inadequate; too little &c. 32; not enough &c. 639;
unequal to; incompetent &c. (impotent) 158; "weighed in the balance and
found wanting"; perfunctory &c. (neglect) 460; deficient &c. (incomplete)
53; wanting, &c. v.; imperfect &c. 651; ill-furnished, ill-provided, ill-
slack, at a low ebb; empty, vacant, bare; short of, out of, destitute
of, devoid of, bereft of &c. 789; denuded of; dry, drained.
unprovided, unsupplied[obs3], unfurnished; unreplenished, unfed[obs3];
unstored[obs3], untreasured[obs3]; empty-handed.
meager, poor, thin, scrimp, sparing, spare, stinted; starved,
starving; halfstarved, famine-stricken, famished; jejune.
scant &c. (small) 32; scarce; not to be had, not to be had for love or
money, not to be had at any price; scurvy; stingy &c. 819; at the end of
one's tether; without resources &c. 632; in want &c. (poor) 804; in debt
Adv. insufficiently &c. Adj.; in default of, for want of; failing.
Phr. semper avarus eget [Lat][Horace].
<-- p. 199 -->
#641. Redundancy. -- N. redundancy, redundance[obs3]; too much, too
many; superabundance, superfluity, superfluence|, saturation;
nimiety[obs3], transcendency, exuberance, profuseness; profusion &c.
(plenty) 639; repletion, enough in all conscience, satis superque[Lat],
lion's share; more than enough &c. 639; plethora, engorgement, congestion,
load, surfeit, sickener[obs3]; turgescence &c. (expansion) 194[obs3];
overdose, overmeasure[obs3], oversupply, overflow; inundation &c. (water)
accumulation &c. (store) 636; heap &c. 72; drug, drug in the market;
glut; crowd; burden.
excess; surplus, overplus[obs3]; epact[obs3]; margin; remainder &c.
40; duplicate; surplusage[obs3], expletive; work of supererogation; bonus,
luxury; intemperance &c. 954; extravagance &c. (prodigality) 818;
pleonasm &c. (diffuseness) 573; too many irons in the fire; embarras
V. superabound, overabound[obs3]; know no bounds, swarm; meet one at
every turn; creep with, crawl with, bristle with; overflow; run over, flow
over, well over, brim over; run riot; overrun, overstock, overlay,
overcharge, overdose, overfeed, overburden, overload, overdo, overwhelm,
overshoot the mark &c. (go beyond) 303; surcharge, supersaturate, gorge,
glut, load, drench, whelm, inundate, deluge, flood; drug, drug the market;
<-- p. 200 -->
choke, cloy, accloy[obs3], suffocate; pile up, lay on thick;
impregnate with; lavish &c. (squander) 818.
send coals to Newcastle, carry coals to Newcastle, carry owls to
Athens[obs3]; teach one's grandmother to suck eggs; pisces natare
docere[Lat]; kill the slain, "gild refined gold", "gild the lily", butter
one's bread on both sides, put butter upon bacon; employ a steam engine to
crack a nut &c. (waste) 638.
exaggerate &c. 549; wallow in roll in &c. (plenty) 639 remain on one's
hands, hang heavy on hand, go a begging.
Adj. redundant; too much, too many; exuberant, inordinate,
superabundant, excessive, overmuch, replete, profuse, lavish; prodigal &c.
818; exorbitant; overweening; extravagant; overcharged &c. v.;
supersaturated, drenched, overflowing; running over, running to waste,
crammed to overflowing, filled to overflowing; gorged, ready to burst;
dropsical, turgid, plethoric; obese &c. 194.
superfluous, unnecessary, needless, supervacaneous|, uncalled for, to
spare, in excess; over and above &c. (remainder) 40; de trop[Fr];
adscititious &c. (additional) 37; supernumerary &c. (reserve) 636; on one's
hands, spare, duplicate, supererogatory, expletive; un peu fort[Fr].
Adv. over, too, over and above; overmuch, too much; too far; without
measure, beyond measure, out of measure; with . . . to spare; over head and
ears; up to one's eyes, up to one's ears; extra; beyond the mark &c.
(transcursion) 303; acervatim [Lat].
Phr. it never rains but it pours; fortuna multis dat nimium nulli
#642. Importance. -- N. importance, consequence, moment, prominence,
consideration, mark, materialness.
import, significance, concern; emphasis, interest.
greatness &c. 31; superiority &c. 33; notability &c. (repute) 873;
weight &c. (influence) 175; value &c. (goodness) 648; usefulness &c. 644.
gravity, seriousness, solemnity; no joke, no laughing matter;
pressure, urgency, stress; matter of life and death.
memorabilia, notabilia[obs3], great doings; red-letter day.
great thing, great point; main chance, "the be all and the end all"
[Macbeth]; cardinal point; substance, gist &c. (essence) 5; sum and
substance, gravamen, head and front; important part, principal part,
prominent part, essential part; half the battle; sine qua non; breath of
one's nostrils &c. (life) 359;cream, salt, core, kernel, heart, nucleus;
keynote, keystone; corner stone; trump card &c. (device) 626; salient
top sawyer, first fiddle, prima donna[Sp], chief; triton among the
minnows; "it" [U.S.].
V. be important &c. adj., be somebody, be something; import, signify,
matter, boot, be an object; carry weight &c. (influence) 175; make a figure
&c. (repute) 873; be in the ascendant, come to the front, lead the way,
take the lead, play first fiddle, throw all else into the shade; lie at the
root of; deserve notice, merit notice, be worthy of notice, be worthy of
regard, be worthy of consideration.
attach importance to, ascribe importance to, give importance to &c.
n.; value, care for, set store upon, set store by; mark &c. 550; mark with
a white stone, underline; write in italics, put in italics, print in
italics, print in capitals, print in large letters, put in large type, put
in letters. of gold; accentuate, emphasize, lay stress on.
make a fuss about, make a fuss over, make a stir about, make a piece
of work about[Fr], make much ado about; make much ado of, make much of.
Adj. important; of importance &c. n.; momentous, material; to the
point; not to be overlooked, not to be despised, not to be sneezed at;
egregious; weighty &c. (influential) 175; of note &c. (repute) 873;
notable, prominent, salient, signal; memorable, remarkable; unforgettable;
worthy of remark, worthy of notice; never to be forgotten; stirring,
grave, serious, earnest, noble, grand, solemn, impressive, commanding,
urgent, pressing, critical, instant.
paramount, essential, vital, all-absorbing, radical, cardinal, chief,
main, prime, primary, principal, leading, capital, foremost, overruling; of
vital &c. importance.
in the front rank, first-rate; superior &c. 33; considerable &c.
(great) 31; marked &c. v.; rare &c. 137.
significant, telling, trenchant, emphatic, pregnant; tanti[Lat].
Adv. materially &c. adj.; in the main; above all,
Phr. expende Hannibalem![Lat] [Juvenal].
#643. Unimportance. -- N. unimportance, insignificance, nothingness,
triviality, levity, frivolity; paltriness &c. Adj.; poverty; smallness
&c. 32; vanity &c. (uselessness) 645; matter of indifference &c. 866; no
nothing, nothing to signify,, nothing worth speaking of, nothing
particular, nothing to boast of, nothing to speak of; small matter, no
great matter, trifling matter &c. Adj.; mere joke, mere nothing; hardly
anything; scarcely anything; nonentity, small beer, cipher; no great
shakes, peu de chose[Fr]; child's play, kinderspiel.
toy, plaything, popgun, paper pellet, gimcrack, gewgaw, bauble,
trinket, bagatelle, Rickshaw, knickknack, whim-wham, trifle, "trifles
light as air"; yankee notions [U. S.].
trumpery, trash, rubbish, stuff, fatras[obs3], frippery; "leather or
prunello"; chaff, drug, froth bubble smoke, cobweb; weed; refuse &c.
(inutility) 645; scum &c. (dirt) 653.
joke, jest, snap of the fingers; fudge &c. (unmeaning) 517;
fiddlestick[obs3], fiddlestick end[obs3]; pack of nonsense, mere farce.
straw, pin, fig, button, rush; bulrush, feather, halfpenny, farthing,
brass farthing, doit[obs3], peppercorn, jot, rap, pinch of snuff, old son;
cent, mill, picayune, pistareen[obs3], red cent [U.S.].
<-- p. 201 -->
minutiae, details, minor details, small fry; dust in the balance,
feather in the scale, drop in the ocean, flea-bite, molehill.
nine days' wonder, ridiculus mus[Lat]; flash in the pan &c.
(impotence) 158; much ado about nothing &c. (overestimation) 482.
V. be unimportant &c. Adj.; not matter &c. 642; go for nothing, matter
nothing, signify nothing, matter little, matter little or nothing; not
matter a straw &c. n.
make light of &c. (underestimate) 483; catch at straws &c.
Adj. unimportant; of little account, of small account, of no account,
of little importance, of no importance &c. 642; immaterial; unessential,
subordinate &c. (inferior) 34; mediocre &c. (average) 29; passable,
fair, respectable, tolerable, commonplace; uneventful, mere, common;
ordinary &c. (habitual) 613; inconsiderable, so-so, insignificant,
trifling, trivial; slight, slender, light, flimsy, frothy, idle;
puerile &c. (foolish) 499; airy, shallow; weak &c. 160; powerless &c. 158;
frivolous, petty, niggling; piddling, peddling; fribble[obs3], inane,
ridiculous, farcical; finical, finikin[obs3]; fiddle-faddle, fingle-
fangle[obs3], namby-pamby, wishy-washy, milk and water.
poor, paltry, pitiful; contemptible &c. (contempt) 930; sorry, mean,
meager, shabby, miserable, wretched, vile, scrubby, scrannel[obs3], weedy,
niggardly, scurvy, putid[obs3], beggarly, worthless, twopennyhalfpenny,
cheap, trashy, catchpenny, gimcrack, trumpery; one-horse [U. S.]. not worth
the pains, not worth while, not worth mentioning, not worth speaking of,
not worth a thought, not worth a curse, not worth a straw &c. n.;1 beneath
notice, unworthy of notice, beneath regard, unworthy of regard, beneath
consideration, unworthy of consideration; de lana caprina[It][obs3]; vain
&c. (useless) 645.
Adv. slightly &c. adj.; rather, somewhat, pretty well, tolerably. for
aught one cares.
Int. no matter! pish! tush! tut! pshaw! pugh! pooh, pooh-pooh! fudge!
bosh! humbug! fiddlestick[obs3], fiddlestick end[obs3]! fiddlededee! never
mind! n'importe[Fr]! what signifies it, what boots it, what of it, what of
that, what matter, what's the odds, a fig for' stuff and nonsense, stuff!
Phr. magno conatu magnas nugas[Lat]; le jeu ne vaut pas la
chandelle[Fr]; it matters not, it does not signify; it is of no
consequence, it is of no importance; elephantus non capit murem[Lat];
tempete dans un verre d'eau[Fr].
<-- p. 202 -->
#644. Utility. -- N. utility; usefulness &c. adj.; efficacy,
efficiency, adequacy; service, use, stead, avail; help &c. (aid) 707;
applicability &c. adj.; subservience &c. (instrumentality) 631; function
&c. (business) 625; value; worth &c. (goodness) 648; money's worth;
productiveness &c. 168; cui bono &c. (intention) 620[Lat]; utilization &c.
(use) 677 step in the right direction.
common weal; commonwealth public good, public interest; utilitarianism
&c. (philanthropy) 910.
V. be useful &c. adj.; avail, serve; subserve &c. (be instrumental to)
631; conduce &c. (tend) 176; answer, serve one's turn, answer a purpose,
serve a purpose.
act a part &c. (action) 680; perform a function, discharge a function
&c.; render a service, render good service, render yeoman's service;
bestead[obs3], stand one in good stead be the making of; help &c. 707.
bear fruit &c. (produce) 161; bring grist to the mill; profit,
remunerate; benefit &c. (do good) 648.
find one's account in, find one's advantage in; reap the benefit of
&c. (be better for) 658. render useful &c. (use) 677.
Adj. useful; of use &c. n.; serviceable, proficuous|, good for;
subservient &c. (instrumental) 631.; conducive &c. (tending) 176;
subsidiary &c. (helping) 707.
advantageous &c. (beneficial) 648; profitable, gainful, remunerative,
worth one's salt; valuable; prolific &c. (productive) 168.
adequate; efficient, efficacious; effective, effectual; expedient &c.
applicable, available, ready, handy, at hand, tangible; commodious,
adaptable; of all work.
Adv. usefully &c. adj.; pro bono publico[Lat].
<-- p. 203 -->
#645. Inutility. -- N. inutility; uselessness &c. adj.;
inefficacy[obs3], futility; ineptitude, inaptitude; unsubservience[obs3];
inadequacy &c. (insufficiency) 640; inefficiency.&c. (incompetence) 158;
unskillfulness &c. 699; disservice; unfruitfulness &c.(unproductiveness).
169; labor in vain, labor lost, labor of Sisyphus; lost trouble, lost
labor; work of Penelope; sleeveless errand, wild goose chase, mere farce.
tautology &c. (repetition) 104; supererogation &c. (redundancy) 641.
vanitas vanitatum[Lat], vanity, inanity, worthlessness,
nugacity[obs3]; triviality &c. (unimportance) 643.
caput mortuum[Lat][obs3], waste paper, dead letter; blunt tool.
litter, rubbish, junk, lumber, odds and ends, cast-off clothes; button
top; shoddy; rags, orts[obs3], trash, refuse, sweepings, scourings,
offscourings[obs3], waste, rubble, debris, detritus; stubble, leavings;
broken meat; dregs &c. (dirt) 653; weeds, tares; rubbish heap, dust hole;
fruges consumere natus &c. (drone) 683[Lat][Horace].
V. be useless &c. Adj.; go a begging &c. (redundant) 641; fail &c.
seek after impossibilities, strive after impossibilities; use vain
efforts, labor in vain, roll the stone of Sisyphus, beat the air, lash the
waves, battre l'eau avec un baton[Fr], donner un coup d'epee dans
l'eau[Fr], fish in the air, milk the ram, drop a bucket into an empty well,
sow the sand; bay the moon; preach to the winds, speak to the winds;
whistle jigs to a milestone; kick against the pricks, se battre contre des
moulins[Fr]; lock the stable door when the steed is stolen, lock the barn
door after the horse is stolen &c. (too late) 135; hold a farthing candle
to the sun; cast pearls before swine &c. (waste) 638; carry coals to
Newcastle &c. (redundancy) 641; wash a blackamoor white &c. (impossible)
render useless &c. adj.; dismantle, dismast, dismount, disqualify,
disable; unrig; cripple, lame &c. (injure) 659; spike guns, clip the wings;
put out of gear.
Adj. useless, inutile, inefficacious, futile, unavailing, bootless;
inoperative &c. 158; inadequate &c. (insufficient) 640; inservient|,
unsubservient; inept, inefficient &c. (impotent) 158; of no avail &c. (use)
644; ineffectual &c. (failure) 732; incompetent &c. (unskillful) 699;
"stale, flat and unprofitable"; superfluous &c. (redundant) 641;
dispensable; thrown away &c. (wasted) 638; abortive &c. (immature) 674.
worthless, valueless, priceless; unsalable; not worth a straw &c.
(trifling) 643 dear at any price.
vain, empty, inane; gainless[obs3], profitless, fruitless;
unserviceable, unprofitable; ill-spent; unproductive &c. 169; hors de
combat[Fr]; effete, past work &c. (impaired) 659; obsolete &c. (old) 124;
fit for the dust hole; good for nothing; of no earthly use; not worth
having, not worth powder and shot; leading to no end, uncalled for;
Adv. uselessly &c. adj.; to little purpose, to no purpose, to little
or no purpose.
Int. cui bono?[Lat]; what's the good!
Phr. actum ne agas[Lat][obs3]; chercher une aiguille dans une botte de
foin[obs3][Fr]; tanto buon che val niente[It].
#646. [Specific subservience.] Expedience. -- N. expedience,
expediency; desirableness, desirability &c. adj.; fitness &c. (agreement)
23; utility &c. 644; propriety; opportunism; advantage.
high time &c. (occasion) 134.
V. be expedient &c. Adj.; suit &c. (agree) 23; befit; suit the time,
befit the time, suit the season, befit the season, suit the occasion,
befit the occasion.
conform &c. 82.
Adj. expedient; desirable, advisable, acceptable; convenient; worth
while, meet; fit, fitting; due, proper, eligible, seemly, becoming;
befitting &c. v.; opportune &c. (in season) 134; in loco; suitable &c.
(accordant) 23; applicable &c. (useful) 644.
Adv. in the right place; conveniently &c. adj.
Phr. operae pretium est[Lat].
#647. Inexpedience. -- N. inexpedience, inexpediency; undesirableness,
undesirability &c. Adj.; discommodity[obs3], impropriety; unfitness &c.
(disagreement) 24; inutility &c. 645; disadvantage.
V. be inexpedient &c. Adj.; come amiss &c. (disagree) 24; embarrass
&c. (hinder) 706; put to inconvenience; pay too dear for one's whistle.
Adj. inexpedient, undesirable; unadvisable, inadvisable;
objectionable; inapt, ineligible, inadmissible, inconvenient; incommodious,
discommodious[obs3]; disadvantageous; inappropriate, unfit &c.
ill-contrived, ill-advised; unsatisfactory; unprofitable &c.,
unsubservient &c. (useless) 645; inopportune &c. (unseasonable) 135; out of
place, in the wrong place; improper, unseemly.
clumsy, awkward; cumbrous, cumbersome; lumbering, unwieldy,
hulky[obs3]; unmanageable &c. (impracticable) 704; impedient &c. (in the
unnecessary &c. (redundant) 641.
Phr. it will never do.
#648. [Capability of producing good. Good qualities.] Goodness. -- N.
goodness &c. adj.; excellence, merit; virtue &c. 944; value, worth, price.
super-excellence, supereminence; superiority &c. 33; perfection &c.
650; coup de maitre[Fr]; masterpiece, chef d'ouvre[Fr], prime, flower,
cream, elite, pick, A1, nonesuch, nonpareil, creme de la creme, flower of
the flock, cock of the roost, salt of the earth; champion; prodigy.
tidbit; gem, gem of the first water; bijou, precious stone, jewel,
pearl, diamond, ruby, brilliant, treasure; good thing; rara avis[Lat], one
in a thousand.
beneficence &c. 906; good man &c. 948.
V. be beneficial &c. Adj.; produce good, do good &c. 618; profit &c.
(be of use) 644; benefit; confer a benefit &c. 618.
be the making of, do a world of good, make a man of.
produce a good effect; do a good turn, confer an obligation; improve
do no harm, break no bones.
be good &c. adj.; excel, transcend &c. (be superior) 33; bear away the
stand the proof, stand the test; pass muster, pass an examination.
challenge comparison, vie, emulate, rival.
Adj. harmless, hurtless[obs3]; unobnoxious[obs3], innocuous, innocent,
beneficial, valuable, of value; serviceable &c. (useful) 644;
advantageous, edifying, profitable; salutary &c. (healthful) 656.
favorable; propitious &c. (hope-giving) 858; fair.
good, good as gold; excellent; better; superior &c. 33; above par;
nice, fine; genuine &c. (true) 494.
best, choice, select, picked, elect, recherche, rare, priceless;
unparagoned[obs3], unparalleled &c. (supreme) 33; superlatively &c. 33;
good; bully*, crackajack*[obs3], giltedged; superfine,
superexcellent[obs3]; of the first water; first-rate, first-class; high-
wrought, exquisite, very best, crack, prime, tiptop, capital, cardinal;
standard &c. (perfect) 650; inimitable.
admirable, estimable; praiseworthy &c. (approve) 931; pleasing &c.
829; couleur de rose[Fr], precious, of great price; costly &c. (dear) 814;
worth its weight in gold, worth a Jew's eye; priceless, invaluable,
inestimable, precious as the apple of the eye.
tolerable &c. (not very good) 651; up to the mark, unexceptionable,
unobjectionable; satisfactory, tidy.
in good condition, in fair condition; fresh; sound &c. (perfect) 650.
Adv. beneficially &c. adj.; well &c. 618.
Phr. "Jewels five words long" [Tennyson]; "long may such goodness
live!" [Rogers]; "the luxury of doing good" [Goldsmith].
<-- p. 204 -->
#649. [Capability of producing evil. Bad qualities.] Badness. -- N.
hurtfulness &c. Adj[obs3].; virulence.
evil doer &c. 913; bane &c. 663; plague spot &c. (insalubrity) 657;
evil star, ill wind; hoodoo; Jonah; snake in the grass, skeleton in the
closet; amari aliquid[Lat][obs3], thorn in the side.
malignity; malevolence &c. 907; tender mercies [ironically].
ill-treatment, annoyance, molestation, abuse, oppression, persecution,
outrage; misusage &c. 679; injury &c. (damage) 659; knockout drops [U. S.].
badness &c. adj.; peccancy[obs3], abomination; painfulness &c. 830;
pestilence &c. (disease) 655; guilt &c. 947; depravity &c. 945.
V. be hurtful &c. adj.; cause evil, produce evil, inflict evil, work
evil, do evil &c. 619; damnify[obs3], endamage[obs3], hurt, harm; injure
&c. (damage) 659; pain &c. 830.
wrong, aggrieve, oppress, persecute; trample upon, tread upon, bear
hard upon, put upon; overburden; weigh down, weigh heavy on; victimize; run
down; molest &c. 830.
maltreat, abuse; ill-use, ill-treat; buffet, bruise, scratch, maul;
smite &c. (scourge) 972; do violence, do harm, do a mischief; stab, pierce,
do mischief, make mischief; bring into trouble.
destroy &c. 162.
Adj. hurtful, harmful, scathful[obs3], baneful, baleful; injurious,
deleterious, detrimental, noxious, pernicious, mischievous, full of
mischief, mischief-making, malefic, malignant, nocuous, noisome;
prejudicial; disserviceable[obs3], disadvantageous; wide-wasting.
unlucky, sinister; obnoxious; untoward, disastrous.
oppressive, burdensome, onerous; malign &c. (malevolent) 907.
corrupting &c. (corrupt &c. 659); virulent, venomous, envenomed,
corrosive; poisonous &c. (morbific) 657[obs3]; deadly &c. (killing) 361;
destructive &c. (destroying) 162; inauspicious &c. 859.
bad, ill, arrant, as bad as bad can be, dreadful; horrid, horrible;
dire; rank, peccant, foul, fulsome; rotten, rotten at the core.
vile, base, villainous; mean &c. (paltry) 643; injured &c.
deteriorated &c. 659; unsatisfactory, exceptionable, indifferent; below par
&c. (imperfect) 651; illcontrived, ill-conditioned; wretched, sad,
grievous, deplorable, lamentable; pitiful, pitiable, woeful &c. (painful)
evil, wrong; depraved &c. 945; shocking; reprehensible &c.
(disapprove) 932. hateful, hateful as a toad; abominable, detestable,
execrable, cursed, accursed, confounded; damned, damnable; infernal;
diabolic &c. (malevolent) 907.
unadvisable &c. (inexpedient) 647; unprofitable &c. (useless) 645;
incompetent &c. (unskillful) 699; irremediable &c. (hopeless) 859.
Adv. badly &c. Adj.; wrong, ill; to one's cost; where the shoe
Phr. bad is the best; the worst come to the worst; herba mala presto
cresco [Lat]; "wrongs unredressed or insults unavenged" [Wordsworth].
#650. Perfection. -- N. perfection; perfectness &c. adj.;
indefectibility[obs3]; impeccancy[obs3], impeccability.
pink, beau ideal, phenix, paragon; pink of perfection, acme of
perfection; ne plus ultra[Lat]; summit &c. 210.
cygne noir[Fr]; philosopher's stone; chrysolite, Koh-i-noor.
model, standard, pattern, mirror, admirable Crichton; trump, very
masterpiece, superexcellence &c. (goodness) 648[obs3]; transcendence
&c. (superiority) 33.
V. be perfect &c. adj.; transcend &c. (be supreme) 33.
bring to perfection, perfect, ripen, mature; complete &,,c. 729; put
in trim &c. (prepare) 673; maturate.
Adj. perfect, faultless; indefective[obs3], indeficient[obs3],
indefectible; immaculate, spotless, impeccable; free from imperfection &c.
651; unblemished, uninjured &c. 659; sound, sound as a roach; in perfect
condition; scathless[obs3], intact, harmless; seaworthy &c. (safe) 644;
right as a trivet; in seipso totus teres atque rotundus [Lat][Horace];
consummate &c. (complete) 52; finished &c. 729.
best &c. (good) 648; model, standard; inimitable, unparagoned[obs3],
unparalleled &c. (supreme) 33; superhuman, divine; beyond all praise &c.
(approbation) 931; sans peur et sans reproche[Fr].
adv. to perfection; perfectly &c. adj.; ad unguem[Lat]; clean, - as a
phr. "let us go on unto perfection" [ Hebrews vi, 1]; "the
perfection of art is to conceal art" [Quintilian].
<-- p. 205 -->
#651. Imperfection. -- N. imperfection; imperfectness &c. Adj.;
deficiency; inadequacy &c. (insufficiency) 640; peccancy &c. (badness)
649[obs3]; immaturity &c. 674.
fault, defect, weak point; screw loose; flaw &c. (break) 70; gap &c.
198; twist &c. 243; taint, attainder; bar sinister, hole in one's coat;
blemish &c. 848; weakness &c. 160; half blood; shortcoming &c. 304;
drawback; seamy side.
mediocrity; no great shakes, no great catch; not much to boast of;
V. be imperfect &c. adj.; have a defect &c. n.; lie under a
disadvantage; spring a leak.
not pass muster, barely pass muster; fall short &c. 304.
Adj. imperfect; not perfect &c. 650; deficient, defective; faulty,
unsound, tainted; out of order, out of tune; cracked, leaky; sprung; warped
&c. (distort) 243; lame; injured &c. (deteriorated) 659; peccant &c. (bad)
649; frail &c. (weak) 160; inadequate &c. (insufficient) 640; crude &c.
(unprepared) 674; incomplete &c. 53; found wanting; below par; short-
handed; below its full strength, under its full strength, below its full
indifferent, middling, ordinary, mediocre; average &c. 29; so-so;
coucicouci, milk and water; tolerable, fair, passable; pretty well, pretty
good; rather good, moderately good; good; good enough, well enough,
adequate; decent; not bad, not amiss; inobjectionable[obs3],
unobjectionable, admissible, bearable, only better than nothing.
secondary, inferior; second-rate, second-best; one-horse [U.S.].
Adv. almost &c.; to a limited extent, rather &c. 32; pretty,
moderately, passing; only, considering, all things considered, enough.
Phr. surgit amari aliquid[Lat].
#652. Cleanness. -- N. cleanness, cleanliness &c. adj.; purity;
cleaning &c. v.; purification, defecation &c. v.; purgation,
lustration[obs3]; detersion[obs3], abstersion[obs3]; epuration[obs3],
mundation|; ablution, lavation[obs3], colature|; disinfection &c. v.;
lavatory, laundry, washhouse[obs3]; washerwoman, laundress,
dhobi[obs3], laundryman, washerman[obs3]; scavenger, dustman[obs3], sweep;
brush[Local U. S.]; broom, besom[obs3], mop, rake, shovel, sieve,
riddle, screen, filter; blotter.
napkin, cloth, maukin|, malkin|, handkerchief, towel, sudary[obs3];
doyley[obs3], doily, duster, sponge, mop, swab.
wash, lotion, detergent, cathartic, purgative; purifier &c. v.;
disinfectant; aperient[obs3]; benzene, benzine benzol, benolin[obs3];
bleaching powder, chloride of lime, dentifrice, deobstruent[obs3],
V. be clean, render clean &c. Adj.
clean, cleanse; mundify|, rinse, wring, flush, full, wipe, mop,
sponge, scour, swab, scrub, brush up.
wash, lave, launder, buck; absterge|, deterge[obs3]; decrassify[obs3];
clear, purify; depurate[obs3], despumate[obs3], defecate; purge, expurgate,
elutriate[Chem], lixiviate[obs3], edulcorate[obs3], clarify, refine, rack;
filter, filtrate; drain, strain.
disinfect, fumigate, ventilate, deodorize; whitewash; castrate,
sift, winnow, pick, weed, comb, rake, brush, sweep.
rout out, clear out, sweep out &c.; make a clean sweep of.
Adj. clean, cleanly; pure; immaculate; spotless, stainless, taintless;
trig; without a stain, unstained, unspotted, unsoiled, unsullied,
untainted, uninfected; sweet, sweet as a nut.
neat, spruce, tidy, trim, gimp, clean as a new penny, like a cat in
pattens; cleaned &c. v.; kempt[obs3].
abstergent[obs3], cathartic, cleansing, purifying.
Adv. neatly &c. adj.; clean as a whistle.
<-- p. 206 -->
#653. Uncleanness. -- N. uncleanness &c. Adj.; impurity;
immundity[obs3], immundicity[obs3]; impurity &c. 961[of mind].
defilement, contamination &c. v.; defoedation|; soilure[obs3],
soiliness|; abomination; leaven; taint, tainture|; fetor &c. 401[obs3].
decay; putrescence, putrefaction; corruption; mold, must, mildew, dry rot,
slovenry[obs3]; slovenliness &c. Adj. squalor.
dowdy, drab, slut, malkin[obs3], slattern, sloven, slammerkin|,
slammock[obs3], slummock[obs3], scrub, draggle-tail, mudlark[obs3], dust-
man, sweep; beast.
dirt, filth, soil, slop; dust, cobweb, flue; smoke, soot, smudge,
smut, grit, grime, raff[obs3]; sossle[obs3], sozzle[obs3].
sordes[obs3], dregs, grounds, lees; argol[obs3]; sediment, settlement
heeltap[obs3]; dross, drossiness[obs3]; mother|, precipitate, scoriae,
ashes, cinders. recrement[obs3], slag; scum, froth.
hogwash; ditchwater[obs3], dishwater, bilgewater[obs3]; rinsings,
cheeseparings; sweepings &c. (useless refuse) 645; offscourings[obs3],
outscourings[obs3]; off scum; caput mortuum[Lat][obs3], residuum, sprue,
fecula[Lat], clinker, draff[obs3]; scurf, scurfiness[obs3]; exuviae[Lat],
morphea; fur, furfur[obs3]; dandruff, tartar.
riffraff; vermin, louse, flea, bug, chinch[obs3].
mud, mire, quagmire, alluvium, silt, sludge, slime, slush, slosh,
sposh [obs3][U. S.].
spawn, offal, gurry [obs3][U. S.]; lientery[obs3]; garbage, carrion;
excreta &c. 299; slough, peccant humor, pus, matter, suppuration,
lienteria[obs3]; faeces, feces, excrement, ordure, dung, crap[vulgar],
shit[vulgar]; sewage, sewerage; muck; coprolite; guano, manure, compost.
dunghill, colluvies[obs3], mixen[obs3], midden, bog, laystall[obs3],
sink, privy, jakes; toilet, john, head; cess[obs3], cesspool; sump, sough,
cloaca, latrines, drain, sewer, common sewer; Cloacina; dust hole.
sty, pigsty, lair, den, Augean stable[obs3], sink of corruption; slum,
V. be unclean, become unclean &c. Adj.; rot, putrefy, ferment, fester,
rankle, reek; stink &c. 401; mold, molder; go bad &c. adj.
render unclean &c. adj.; dirt, dirty; daub, blot, blur, smudge,
smutch[obs3], soil, smoke, tarnish, slaver, spot, smear; smirch;
begrease[obs3]; dabble, drabble[obs3], draggle, daggle[obs3]; spatter,
slubber; besmear &c., bemire, beslime[obs3], begrime, befoul; splash,
stain, distain[obs3], maculate, sully, pollute, defile, debase,
contaminate, taint, leaven; corrupt &c. (injure) 659; cover with dust &c.
n.; drabble in the mud[obs3]; roil.
wallow in the mire; slobber, slabber[obs3].
Adj. dirty, filthy, grimy; unclean, impure; soiled &c. v.; not to be
handled with kid gloves; dusty, snuffy[obs3], smutty, sooty, smoky; thick,
turbid, dreggy; slimy; mussy [U.S.].
slovenly, untidy, messy, uncleanly.
[of people] unkempt, sluttish, dowdy, draggle-tailed; uncombed.
unscoured[obs3], unswept[obs3], unwiped[obs3], unwashed, unstrained,
unpurified[obs3]; squalid; lutose[obs3], slammocky[obs3], slummocky[obs3],
nasty, coarse, foul, offensive, abominable, beastly, reeky,
reechy[obs3]; fetid &c. 401.
[of rotting living matter] decayed, moldy, musty, mildewed, rusty,
moth-eaten, mucid[obs3], rancid, weak, bad, gone bad, etercoral[obs3],
lentiginous[obs3], touched, fusty, effete, reasty[obs3], rotten, corrupt,
tainted, high, flyblown, maggoty; putrid, putrefactive, putrescent,
putrefied; saprogenic, saprogenous[obs3]; purulent, carious, peccant;
fecal, feculent; stercoraceous[obs3], excrementitious[obs3]; scurfy,
scurvy, impetiginous[obs3]; gory, bloody; rotting &c. v.; rotten as a pear,
rotten as cheese.
crapulous &c. (intemperate) 954[obs3]; gross &c. (impure in mind) 961;
Phr. "they that touch pitch will be defiled" [Much Ado About
<-- p. 207 -->
#654. Health. -- N. health, sanity; soundness &c. adj.; vigor; good
health, perfect health, excellent health, rude health, robust health;
bloom. mens sana in corpore sano[Lat]; Hygeia[obs3]; incorruption,
incorruptibility; good state of health, clean bill of health;
eupepsia[obs3]; euphoria, euphory[obs3]; St. Anthony's fire[obs3].
V. be in health &c. adj. bloom, flourish.
keep body and soul together, keep on one's legs; enjoy good health,
enjoy a good state of health; have a clean bill of health.
return to health; recover &c. 660; get better &c. (improve) 658; take
a new lease of life, fresh lease of life; recruit; restore to health; cure
&c. (restore) 660; tinker.
Adj. healthy, healthful; in health &c. n.; well, sound, hearty, hale,
fresh, green, whole; florid, flush, hardy, stanch, staunch, brave, robust,
unscathed, uninjured, unmaimed[obs3], unmarred, untainted; sound of
wind and limb, safe and sound.
on one's legs; sound as a roach, sound as a bell; fresh as a daisy,
fresh as a rose, fresh as April[obs3]; hearty as a buck; in fine feather,
in high feather; in good case, in full bloom; pretty bobbish[obs3],
tolerably well, as well as can be expected.
sanitary &c. (health-giving) 656; sanatory &c. (remedial) 662[obs3].
Phr. "health that snuffs the morning air" [Grainger]; non est vivere
sed valere vita [Lat][Martial].
#655. Disease. -- N. disease; illness, sickness &c. adj.; ailing &c.
"all the ills that flesh is heir to" [Hamlet]; morbidity, morbosity|;
infirmity, ailment, indisposition; complaint, disorder, malady; distemper,
visitation, attack, seizure, stroke, fit.
delicacy, loss of health, invalidation, cachexy[obs3]; cachexia[Med],
atrophy, marasmus[obs3]; indigestion, dyspepsia; decay &c. (deterioration)
659; decline, consumption, palsy, paralysis, prostration.
taint, pollution, infection, sepsis, septicity[obs3], infestation;
epidemic, pandemic, endemic, epizootic; murrain, plague, pestilence, pox.
sore, ulcer, abscess, fester, boil; pimple, wen &c. (swelling) 250;
carbuncle, gathering, imposthume[obs3], peccant humor, issue; rot, canker,
cold sore, fever sore; cancer, carcinoma, leukemia, neoplastic disease,
malignancy, tumor; caries, mortification, corruption, gangrene,
sphacelus[obs3], sphacelation[obs3], leprosy; eruption, rash, breaking out.
fever, temperature, calenture[obs3]; inflammation.
ague, angina pectoris[Lat], appendicitis; Asiatic cholera[obs3],
spasmodic cholera; biliary calculus, kidney stone, black death, bubonic
plague, pneumonic plague; blennorrhagia[obs3], blennorrhoea[obs3]; blood
poisoning, bloodstroke[obs3], bloody flux, brash; breakbone fever[obs3],
dengue fever, malarial fever, Q-fever; heart attack, cardiac arrest,
cardiomyopathy[Med]; hardening of the arteries, arteriosclerosis,
atherosclerosis; bronchocele[Med], canker rash, cardialgia[Med],
carditis[Med], endocarditis[Med]; cholera, asphyxia; chlorosis, chorea,
cynanche[obs3], dartre[Fr]; enanthem[obs3], enanthema[obs3]; erysipelas;
exanthem[obs3], exanthema; gallstone, goiter, gonorrhea, green sickness;
grip, grippe, influenza, flu; hay fever, heartburn, heaves, rupture,
hernia, hemorrhoids, piles, herpes, itch, king's evil, lockjaw; measles,
mumps[obs3], polio; necrosis, pertussis, phthisis[obs3], pneumonia,
psora[obs3], pyaemia[obs3], pyrosis[Med], quinsy, rachitis[obs3], ringworm,
rubeola, St. Vitus's dance, scabies, scarlatina, scarlet fever, scrofula,
seasickness, struma[obs3], syntexis[obs3], tetanus, tetter[obs3],
tonsillitis, tonsilitis[obs3], tracheocele[Med], trachoma, trismus[Med],
varicella[Med], varicosis[Med], variola[Med], water qualm, whooping cough;
yellow fever, yellow jack.
fatal disease &c. (hopeless) 859; dangerous illness, galloping
consumption, churchyard cough; general breaking up, break up of the system.
[Disease of mind] idiocy &c. 499; insanity &c. 503.
martyr to disease; cripple; "the halt the lame and the blind";
valetudinary[obs3], valetudinarian; invalid, patient, case; sickroom, sick-
[Science of disease] pathology, etiology, nosology[obs3].
[Veterinary] anthrax, bighead; blackleg, blackquarter[obs3]; cattle
plague, glanders[obs3], mange, scrapie, milk sickness; heartworm, feline
leukemia, roundworms; quarter-evil, quarter-ill; rinderpest.
[disease-causing agents] virus, bacterium, bacteria.
[types of viruses] DNA virus; RNA virus.
[RNA viruses] rhinovirus; rhabdovirus; picornavirus.
[DNA viruses] herpesvirus; cytomegalovirus, CMV; human
immunodefficiency virus, HIV.
V. be ill &c. adj.; ail, suffer, labor under, be affected with,
complain of, have; droop, flag, languish, halt; sicken, peak, pine; gasp.
keep one's bed; feign sickness &c. (falsehood) 544.
lay by, lay up; take a disease, catch a disease &c. n., catch an
infection; break out.
Adj. diseased; ailing &c. v.; ill, ill of; taken ill, seized with;
indisposed, unwell, sick, squeamish, poorly, seedy; affected with illness,
afflicted with illness; laid up, confined, bedridden, invalided, in
hospital, on the sick list; out of health, out of sorts; under the weather
[U. S.]; valetudinary[obs3].
unsound, unhealthy; sickly, morbid, morbose[obs3], healthless[obs3],
infirm, chlorotic[Med], unbraced[obs3]. drooping, flagging, lame, crippled,
morbid, tainted, vitiated, peccant, contaminated, poisoned,
tabid[obs3], mangy, leprous, cankered; rotten, rotten to the core, rotten
at the core; withered, palsied, paralytic; dyspeptic; luetic[obs3],
pneumonic, pulmonic[Med], phthisic[obs3], rachitic; syntectic[obs3],
syntectical[obs3]; tabetic[obs3], varicose.
touched in the wind, broken-winded, spavined, gasping; hors de combat
&c. (useless) 645[Fr].
weakly, weakened &c. (weak) 160; decrepit; decayed &c. (deteriorated)
659; incurable &c. (hopeless) 859; in declining health; cranky; in a bad
way, in danger, prostrate; moribund &c. (death) 360.
morbific &c. 657[obs3]; epidemic, endemic; zymotic[obs3].
<-- p. 208 -->
#656. Salubrity. -- N. salubrity; healthiness &c. Adj.
fine air, fine climate; eudiometer[obs3].
[Preservation of health] hygiene; valetudinarian, valetudinarianism;
sanitarian; sanitarium, sanitorium.
V. be salubrious &c. Adj.; agree with; assimilate &c. 23.
Adj. salubrious, salutary, salutiferous[obs3]; wholesome; healthy,
healthful; sanitary, prophYlactic, benign, bracing, tonic, invigorating,
good for, nutritious; hygeian[obs3], hygienic.
innoxious[obs3], innocuous, innocent; harmless, uninjurious,
sanative &c. (remedial) 662; restorative &c. (reinstate) 660; useful
#657. Insalubrity. -- N. insalubrity; unhealthiness &c. Adj.;
nonnaturals[obs3]; plague spot; malaria &c. (poison) 663; death in the pot,
Adj. insalubrious; unhealthy, unwholesome; noxious, noisome;
morbific[obs3], morbiferous[obs3]; mephitic, septic, azotic[obs3],
deleterious; pestilent, pestiferous, pestilential; virulent, venomous,
envenomed; poisonous, toxic, toxiferous[obs3], teratogenic; narcotic.
contagious, infectious, catching, taking, epidemic, zymotic[obs3];
innutritious[obs3], indigestible, ungenial; uncongenial &c.
deadly &c. (killing) 361.
#658. Improvement. -- N. improvement; amelioration, melioration;
betterment; mend, amendment, emendation; mending &c. v.; advancement;
advance &c. (progress) 282; ascent &c. 305; promotion, preferment;
elevation &c. 307; increase &c. 35; cultivation, civilization; culture,
march of intellect; menticulture[obs3]; race-culture, eugenics.
reform, reformation; revision, radical reform; second thoughts,
correction, limoe labor[Lat], refinement, elaboration; purification &c.
652; oxidation; repair &c. (restoration) 660; recovery &c. 660.
revise, new edition.
V. improve; be better, become better, get better; mend, amend.
advance &c. (progress) 282; ascend &c. 305; increase &c. 35; fructify,
ripen, mature; pick up, come about, rally, take a favorable turn; turn over
a new leaf, turn the corner; raise one's head, sow one's wild oats; recover
be better &c. adj., be improved by; turn to right account, turn to
good account, turn to best account; profit by, reap the benefit of; make
good use of, make capital out of; place to good account.
render better, improve, mend, amend, better; ameliorate, meliorate;
improve upon, refine upon; rectify; enrich, mellow, elaborate, fatten.
promote, cultivate, advance, forward, enhance; bring forward, bring
on; foster &c. 707; invigorate &c. (strengthen) 159.
touch up, rub up, brush up, furbish up, bolster up, vamp up, brighten
up, warm up; polish, cook, make the most of, set off to advantage; prune;
repair &c. (restore) 660; put in order &c. (arrange) 60.
review, revise; make corrections, make improvements &c. n.; doctor &c.
(remedy) 662; purify,&c. 652.
relieve, refresh, infuse new blood into, recruit.
reform, remodel, reorganize; new model.
view in a new light, think better of, appeal from Philip drunk to
palliate, mitigate; lessen an evil &c. 36.
Adj. improving &c. v.; progressive, improved &c. v.; better, better
off, better for; all the better for; better advised.
reformatory, emendatory[obs3]; reparatory &c. (restorative) 660[obs3];
remedial &c. 662.
corrigible, improvable; accultural[obs3].
adv. on consideration, on reconsideration, on second thoughts, on
better advice; ad melius inquirendum[Lat].
phr. urbent latericiam invenit marmoream reliquit[Lat].
<-- p. 209 -->
#659. Deterioration. -- N. deterioration, debasement; wane, ebb;
recession &c. 287; retrogradation &c. 283[obs3]; decrease &c. 36.
degeneracy, degeneration, degenerateness; degradation; depravation,
depravement; devolution; depravity &c. 945; demoralization, retrogression;
impairment, inquination|, injury, damage, loss, detriment,
delaceration|, outrage, havoc, inroad, ravage, scath[obs3]; perversion,
prostitution, vitiation, discoloration, oxidation, pollution, defoedation|,
poisoning, venenation|, leaven, contamination, canker, corruption,
decline, declension, declination; decadence, decadency[obs3]; falling
off &c. v.; caducity[obs3], decrepitude.
decay, dilapidation, ravages of time, wear and tear; corrosion,
erosion; moldiness, rottenness; moth and rust, dry rot, blight,
marasmus[obs3], atrophy, collapse; disorganization; delabrement &c.
(destruction)[Fr]. 162; aphid, Aphis, plant louse, puceron[obs3];
wreck, mere wreck, honeycomb, magni nominis umbra[Lat]; jade, plug,
rackabones [obs3][U. S.], skate [U. S.]; tackey[obs3], tacky [U. S.].
V. be worse, be deteriorated, become worse, become deteriorated &c.
Adj.; have seen better days, deteriorate, degenerate, fall off; wane &c.
(decrease) 36; ebb; retrograde &c. 283- decline, droop; go down &c. (sink)
306; go downhill, go from bad to worse, go farther and fare worse; jump out
of the frying pan into the fire.
run to seed, go to seed, run to waste swale|, sweal|; lapse, be the
worse for; sphacelate; break[obs3], break down; spring a leak, crack,
start; shrivel &c. (contract) 195; fade, go off, wither, molder, rot,
rankle, decay, go bad; go to decay, fall into decay; "fall into the sear
and yellow leaf", rust, crumble, shake; totter, totter to its fall; perish
&c. 162; die &c. 360.
[Render less good] deteriorate; weaken &c. 160; put back, set back;
taint, infect, contaminate, poison, empoison[obs3], envenom, canker,
corrupt, exulcerate|, pollute, vitiate, inquinate|; debase, embase|;
denaturalize, denature, leaven; deflower, debauch, defile, deprave,
degrade; ulcerate; stain &c. (dirt) 653; discolor; alloy, adulterate,
sophisticate, tamper with, prejudice.
pervert, prostitute, demoralize, brutalize; render vicious &c. 945.
embitter, acerbate, exacerbate, aggravate.
injure, impair, labefy[obs3], damage, harm, hurt, shend|, scath|,
scathe, spoil, mar, despoil, dilapidate, waste; overrun; ravage; pillage
wound, stab, pierce, maim, lame, surbate|, cripple, hough[obs3],
hamstring, hit between wind and water, scotch, mangle, mutilate, disfigure,
blemish, deface, warp.
blight, rot; corrode, erode; wear away, wear out; gnaw, gnaw at the
root of; sap, mine, undermine, shake, sap the foundations of, break up;
disorganize, dismantle, dismast; destroy &c. 162.
damnify &c. (aggrieve) 649[obs3]; do one's worst; knock down; deal a
blow to; play havoc with, play sad havoc with, play the mischief with, play
the deuce with, play the very devil with, play havoc among, play sad havoc
among, play the mischief among, play the deuce among, play the very devil
Adj. unimproved &c. (improve &c. 658); deteriorated &c. v.; altered,
altered for the worse; injured &c. v.; sprung; withering, spoiling &c. v.;
on the wane, on the decline; tabid[obs3]; degenerate; marescent[obs3];
worse; the worse for, all the worse for; out of repair, out of tune;
imperfect &c. 651; the worse for wear; battered; weathered, weather-beaten;
stale, passe, shaken, dilapidated, frayed, faded, wilted, shabby,
secondhand, threadbare; worn, worn to a thread, worn to a shadow, worn to
the stump, worn to rags; reduced, reduced to a skeleton; far gone; tacky
decayed &c. v.; moth-eaten, worm-eaten; mildewed, rusty, moldy,
spotted, seedy, time-worn, moss-grown; discolored; effete, wasted,
crumbling, moldering, rotten, cankered, blighted, tainted; depraved &c.
(vicious) 945; decrepid[obs3], decrepit; broke, busted, broken, out of
commission, hors de combat[Fr], out of action, broken down; done, done for,
done up; worn out, used up, finished; beyond saving, fit for the dust hole,
fit for the wastepaper basket, past work &c. (useless) 645.
at a low ebb, in a bad way, on one's last legs; undermined, deciduous;
nodding to its fall &c. (destruction) 162; tottering &c,. (dangerous) 665:
past cure &c. (hopeless) 859; fatigued &c. 688; retrograde &c.
(retrogressive) 283; deleterious &c. 649.
Phr. out of the frying pan into the fire; agrescit medendo[Latin];
"what a falling off was there!" [Hamlet].
<-- p. 210 -->
#660. Restoration. -- N. restoration, restoral; reinstatement,
replacement, rehabilitation, reestablishment, reconstitution,
reconstruction; reproduction &c. 163; renovation, renewal; revival,
revivessence[obs3], reviviscence[obs3]; refreshment &c. 689; resuscitation,
reanimation, revivification, reviction|; Phenix; reorganization.
renaissance, second youth, rejuvenescence[obs3],. new birth;
regeneration, regeneracy[obs3], regenerateness[obs3]; palingenesis[obs3],
redress, retrieval, reclamation, recovery; convalescence; resumption,
recurrence &c. (repetition) 104; rechauffe[Fr], rifacimento[It].
cure, recure|, sanation|; healing &c. v.; redintegration[obs3];
repair, reparation, remanufacture; recruiting &c. v.; cicatrization;
reaction; redemption &c. (deliverance) 672; restitution &c. 790;
relief &c. 834.
tinker, cobbler; vis medicatrix &c. (remedy) 662[obs3]. curableness.
V. return to the original state; recover, rally, revive; come come to,
come round, come to oneself; pull through, weather the storm, be oneself
again; get well ,get round, get the better of, get over, get about; rise
from one's ashes, rise from the grave; survive &c. (outlive) 110; resume,
reappear; come to, come to life again; live again, rise again.
heal, skin over, cicatrize; right itself.
restore, put back, place in statu quo[Lat]; reinstate, replace,
reseat, rehabilitate, reestablish, reestate[obs3], reinstall.
reconstruct, rebuild, reorganize, reconstitute; reconvert; renew,
renovate; regenerate; rejuvenate.
redeem, reclaim, recover, retrieve; rescue &c. (deliver) 672.
redress, recure[obs3]; cure, heal, remedy, doctor, physic, medicate;
break of; bring round, set on one's legs.
resuscitate, revive, reanimate, revivify, recall to life; reproduce
&c. 163; warm up; reinvigorate, refresh &c. 689.
make whole, redintegrate[obs3]; recoup &c. 790; make good, make all
square; rectify, correct; put right, put to rights, set right, set to
rights, set straight; set up; put in order &c. (arrange) 60; refit,
recruit; fill up, fill up the ranks; reinforce.
repair; put in repair, remanufacture, put in thorough repair, put in
complete repair; retouch, refashion, botch|, vamp, tinker, cobble; do up,
patch up, touch up, plaster up, vamp up; darn, finedraw[obs3],
heelpiece[obs3]; stop a gap, stanch, staunch, caulk, calk, careen, splice,
bind up wounds.
Adj. restored &c. v.; redivivus[Lat], convalescent; in a fair way;
none the worse; rejuvenated.
restoring &c. v.; restorative, recuperative; sanative, reparative,
sanatory[obs3], reparatory[obs3]; curative, remedial.
restorable, recoverable, sanable[obs3], remediable, retrievable,
Adv. in statu quo[Lat]; as you were.
phr. revenons a nos moutons[Fr]; medecin[Fr], gueris-toi toi-meme[Fr];
vestigia nulla retrorsum [Lat][Horace].
#661. Relapse. -- N. relapse, lapse; falling back &c. v.;
retrogradation &c. (retrogression) 283[obs3]; deterioration &c. 659.
[Return to, or recurrence of a bad state] backsliding, recidivation |;
recidivism, recidivity[obs3]; recrudescence.
V. relapse, lapse; fall back, slide back, sink back; return;
retrograde &c. 283; recidivate; fall off again &c. 659.
<-- p. 211 -->
<-- remedy = medicine; needs to be greatly expanded -->
#662. Remedy. -- N. remedy, help, cure, redress; medicine, medicament;
diagnosis, medical examination; medical treatment; surgery; preventive
[medical devices] clinical thermometer, stethoscope, X-ray machine.
anthelmintic[Med]; antidote, antifebrile[Med], antipoison[obs3],
counterpoison[obs3], antitoxin, antispasmodic; bracer, faith cure, placebo;
helminthagogue[obs3], lithagogue[obs3], pick-meup, stimulant, tonic;
vermifuge, prophylactic, corrective, restorative; sedative &c. 174;
palliative; febrifuge; alterant[obs3], alterative; specific; antiseptic,
emetic, analgesic, pain-killer, antitussive[Med], antiinflammatory[Med],
antibiotic, antiviral[Med], antifungal[Med], carminative; Nepenthe,
cure, treatment, regimen; radical cure, perfect cure, certain cure;
examination, diagnosis, diagnostics; analysis, urinalysis, biopsy,
medicine, physic, Galenicals[obs3], simples, drug, pharmaceutical,
prescription, potion, draught, dose, pill, bolus, injection, infusion,
drip, suppository, electuary[obs3]; linctus[obs3], lincture[obs3];
nostrum, receipt, recipe, prescription; catholicon[obs3], panacea,
elixir, elixir vitae, philosopher's stone; balm, balsam, cordial,
agueweed[obs3], arnica, benzoin, bitartrate of potash, boneset[obs3],
calomel, catnip, cinchona, cream of tartar, Epsom salts[Chem];
feverroot[obs3], feverwort; friar's balsam, Indian sage; ipecac,
ipecacuanha; jonquil, mercurous chloride, Peruvian bark; quinine,
quinquina[obs3]; sassafras, yarrow.
salve, ointment, cerate, oil, lenitive, lotion, cosmetic; plaster;
epithem[obs3], embrocation[obs3], liniment, cataplasm[obs3],
sinapism[obs3], arquebusade[obs3], traumatic, vulnerary, pepastic[obs3],
poultice, collyrium[obs3], depilatory; emplastrum[obs3]; eyewater[obs3],
compress, pledget[obs3]; bandage &c. (support) 215.
treatment, medical treatment, regimen; dietary, dietetics; vis
medicatrix[obs3], vis medicatrix naturae[Lat][obs3]; medecine
expectante[Fr]; bloodletting, bleeding, venesection[Med], phlebotomy,
cupping, sanguisae, leeches; operation, surgical operation; transfusion,
infusion, intravenous infusion, catheter, feeding tube;
prevention, preventative medicine, immunization, inoculation,
vaccination, vaccine, shot, booster, gamma globulin.
pharmacy, pharmacology, pharmaceutics; pharmacopoeia, formulary;
acology[obs3], Materia Medica[Lat], therapeutics, posology[obs3];
homeopathy, allopathy[obs3], heteropathy[Med], osteopathy, hydropathy[Med];
cold water cure; dietetics; surgery, chirurgery[Med], chirurgy[obs3];
healing art, leechcraft[obs3];
orthopedics, orthopedy[obs3], orthopraxy[obs3]; pediatrics;
dentistry, midwifery, obstetrics, gynecology; tocology[obs3];
hospital, infirmary; pesthouse[obs3], lazarhouse[obs3]; lazaretto;
lock hospital; maison de sante[Fr]; ambulance.
dispensary; dispensatory[obs3], drug store, pharmacy, apothecary,
Hotel des Invalides; sanatorium, spa, pump room, well; hospice; Red
doctor, physician, surgeon; medical practitioner, general
practitioner, specialist; medical attendant, apothecary, druggist; leech;
osteopath, osteopathist[obs3]; optometrist, ophthalmologist; internist,
oncologist, gastroenterologist; epidemiologist[Med], public health
specialist; dermatologist; podiatrist; witch doctor, shaman, faith healer,
quack, exorcist; Aesculapius[obs3], Hippocrates, Galen; accoucheur[Fr],
accoucheuse[Fr], midwife, oculist, aurist[obs3]; operator; nurse,
registered nurse, practical nurse, monthly nurse, sister; nurse's aide,
candystriper; dresser; bonesetter; pharmaceutist[obs3], pharmacist,
druggist, chemist, pharmacopolist[obs3].
V. apply a remedy &c. n.; doctor, dose, physic, nurse, minister to,
attend, dress the wounds, plaster; drain; prevent &c. 706; relieve &c. 834;
palliate &c. 658; restore &c. 660; drench with physic; bleed, cup, let
operate, excise, cut out; incise.
Adj. remedial; restorative &c. 660; corrective, palliative, healing;
sanatory[obs3], sanative; prophylactic, preventative, immunizing;
salutiferous &c. (salutary) 656[obs3]; medical, medicinal; therapeutic,
chirurgical[Med], epulotic|, paregoric, tonic, corroborant,
analeptic[obs3], balsamic, anodyne, hypnotic, neurotic, narcotic, sedative,
lenitive, demulcent|, emollient; depuratory[obs3]; detersive[obs3],
detergent; abstersive[obs3], disinfectant, febrifugal[obs3], alterative;
allopathic[obs3], heteropathic[obs3], homeopathic, hydropathic[Med];
anthelmintic[Med]; antifebrile[Med], antiluetic[obs3]; aperient[obs3],
chalybeate[obs3], deobstruent[obs3], depurative[obs3], laxative,
dietetic, alimentary; nutritious, nutritive; peptic;
alexipharmic[obs3], alexiteric[obs3]; remediable, curable.
phr. aux grands maux les grands remedes[Fr]; Dios que da la llaga da
la medicina[Sp]; para todo hay remedio sino para la muerte[Sp]; temporis
ars medicina fere est [Lat][Ovid]; "the remedy is worse than the disease"
[Dryden]; "throw physic to the dogs, I'll none of it" [Macbeth].
<-- p. 212 -->
#663. Bane. -- N. bane, curse; evil &c. 619; hurtfulness &c. (badness)
649[obs3]; painfulness &c. (cause of pain) 830; scourge &c. (punishment)
975; damnosa hereditas[Lat]; white elephant.
sting, fang, thorn, tang, bramble, brier, nettle.
poison, toxin; teratogen; leaven, virus venom; arsenic; antimony,
tartar emetic; strychnine, nicotine; miasma, miasm[obs3], mephitis[obs3],
malaria, azote[obs3], sewer gas; pest.
[poisonous substances, examples] Albany hemp[obs3], arsenious oxide,
arsenious acid; bichloride of mercury; carbonic acid, carbonic gas; choke
damp, corrosive sublimate, fire damp; hydrocyanic acid, cyanide, Prussic
acid[ISA:chemsubcfp], hydrogen cyanide; marsh gas, nux vomica[Lat],
[poisonous plants] hemlock, hellebore, nightshade, belladonna,
henbane, aconite; banewort[obs3], bhang, ganja[obs3], hashish; Upas tree.
[list of poisonous substances(on-line)] Toxline.
rust, worm, helminth[Med], moth, moth and rust, fungus, mildew; dry
rot; canker, cankerworm; cancer; torpedo; viper &c. (evil doer) 913; demon
[Science of poisons] toxicology.
Adj. baneful &c. (bad) 649; poisonous &c. (unwholesome) 657.
phr. bibere venenum in auro[Lat].
#664. Safety. -- N. safety, security, surety, impregnability;
invulnerability, invulnerableness &c. Adj.; danger past, danger over;
storm blown over; coast clear; escape &c. 671; means of escape; blow valve,
safety valve, release valve, sniffing valve; safeguard, palladium.
guardianship, wardship, wardenship; tutelage, custody, safekeeping;
preservation &c. 670; protection, auspices.
safe-conduct, escort, convoy; guard, shield &c. (defense) 717;
guardian angel; tutelary god, tutelary deity, tutelary saint; genius loci.
protector, guardian; warden, warder; preserver, custodian, duenna[Sp],
chaperon, third person.
watchdog, bandog[obs3]; Cerberus; watchman, patrolman, policeman; cop,
dick, fuzz, smokey, peeler|, zarp|[all slang]; sentinel, sentry, scout &c.
(warning) 668; garrison; guardship[obs3].
[Means of safety] refuge &c. anchor &c. 666; precaution &c.
(preparation) 673; quarantine, cordon sanitaire[Fr]. confidence &c.
858[Sense of security].
V. be safe &c. Adj.; keep one's head above water, tide over, save
one's bacon; ride out the storm, weather the storm; light upon one's feet,
land on one's feet; bear a charmed life; escape &c. 671.
make safe, render safe &c. Adj.; protect; take care of &c. (care)
459; preserve &c. 670; cover, screen, shelter, shroud, flank, ward; guard
&c. (defend) 717; secure &c. (restrain) 751; entrench, intrench[obs3],
fence round &c. (circumscribe) 229; house, nestle, ensconce; take charge
escort, convoy; garrison; watch, mount guard, patrol.
make assurance doubly sure &c. (caution) 864; take up a loose thread;
take precautions &c. (prepare for) 673; double reef topsails.
seek safety; take shelter, find shelter &c. 666.
Adj. safe, secure, sure; in safety, in security; on the safe side;
under the shield of, under the shade of, under the wing of, under the
shadow of one's wing; under cover, under lock and key; out of danger, out
of the woods, out of the meshes, out of harm's way; unharmed, unscathed; on
sure ground, at anchor, high and dry, above water; unthreatened[obs3],
unmolested; protected &c. v.; cavendo tutus[Lat]; panoplied &c. (defended)
snug, seaworthy; weatherproof, waterproof, fireproof.
defensible, tenable, proof against, invulnerable; unassailable,
unattackable, impenetrable; impregnable, imperdible|; inexpugnable;
safe and sound &c. (preserved) 670;scathless &c. (perfect) 650[obs3];
unhazarded[obs3]; not dangerous &c. 665.
unthreatening, harmless; friendly (cooperative) 709.
protecting, protective &c. v.; guardian, tutelary; preservative &c.
670; trustworthy &c 939.
adv. ex abundanti cautela[Lat][obs3]; with impunity.
phr. all's well; salva res est[Lat]; suave mari magno[Lat]; a
couvert[Fr]; e terra alterius spectare laborem [Lat][Lucretius]; Dieu vous
<-- p. 213 -->
#665. Danger. -- N. danger, peril, insecurity, jeopardy, risk, hazard,
venture, precariousness, slipperiness; instability &c. 149; defenselessness
&c. Adj. exposure &c. (liability) 177; vulnerability; vulnerable point,
heel of Achilles[obs3]; forlorn hope &c. (hopelessness) 859.
[Dangerous course] leap in the dark &c. (rashness) 863; road to ruin,
faciles descensus Averni [Lat][Vergil], hairbreadth escape.
cause for alarm; source of danger &c. 667. rock ahead[Approach of
danger], breakers ahead; storm brewing; clouds in the horizon, clouds
gathering; warning &c. 668; alarm &c. 669.
[Sense of danger] apprehension &c. 860.
V. be in danger &c. Adj.; be exposed to danger, run into danger, incur
danger, encounter danger &c. n.; run a risk; lay oneself open to &c.
(liability) 177; lean on a broken reed, trust to a broken reed; feel the
ground sliding from under one, have to run for it; have the chances against
one, have the odds against one, face long odds; be in deep trouble, be
between a rock and a hard place.
hang by a thread, totter; sleep on a volcano, stand on a volcano; sit
on a barrel of gunpowder, live in a glass house.
bring in danger, place in danger, put in danger, place in jeopardy,
put in jeopardy &c. n.; endanger, expose to danger, imperil; jeopard[obs3],
jeopardize; compromise; sail too near the wind &c. (rash) 863.
adventure, risk, hazard, venture, stake, set at hazard; run the
gauntlet &c. (dare) 861; engage in a forlorn hope.
threaten danger &c. 909; run one hard; lay a trap for &c. (deceive)
Adj. in danger &c. n.; endangered &c. v.; fraught with danger;
dangerous, hazardous, perilous, parlous, periculous|; unsafe, unprotected
&c. (safe, protect &c. 664);insecure, untrustworthy; built upon sand, on
a sandy basis; wildcat.
defenseless, fenceless, guardless[obs3], harborless; unshielded;
vulnerable, expugnable[obs3], exposed; open to &c. (liable) 177.
aux abois[Fr], at bay; on the wrong side of the wall, on a lee shore,
on the rocks.
at stake, in question; precarious, critical, ticklish; slippery,
slippy; hanging by a thread &c. v.; with a halter round one's neck; between
the hammer and the anvil, between Scylla and Charybdis, between a rock and
a hard place, between the devil and the deep blue sea, between two fires;
on the edge of a precipice, on the brink of a precipice, on the verge of a
precipice, on the edge of a volcano; in the lion's den, on slippery ground,
under fire; not out of the wood.
unwarned, unadmonished, unadvised, unprepared &c. 674; off one's guard
&c. (inexpectant) 508[obs3].
tottering; unstable, unsteady; shaky, top-heavy, tumbledown,
ramshackle, crumbling, waterlogged; helpless, guideless[obs3]; in a bad
way; reduced to the last extremity, at the last extremity; trembling in the
balance; nodding to its fall &c. (destruction) 162. threatening &c. 909;
ominous, illomened; alarming &c. (fear) 860; explosive.
adventurous &c. (rash) 863, (bold) 861.
Phr. incidit in Scyllam qui vult vitare Charybdim[Lat]; nam tua res
agitur paries dum proximus ardet[Lat].
#666. [Means of safety.] Refuge. -- N. refuge, sanctuary, retreat,
fastness; acropolis; keep, last resort; ward; prison &c. 752; asylum, ark,
home, refuge for the destitute; almshouse[obs3]; hiding place &c. (ambush)
530; sanctum sanctorum &c. (privacy) 893[Lat].
roadstead, anchorage; breakwater, mole, port, haven; harbor, harbor of
refuge; seaport; pier, jetty, embankment, quay.
covert, cover, shelter, screen, lee wall, wing, shield, umbrella;
barrier; dashboard, dasher [U.S.].
wall &c. (inclosure) 232; fort &c. (defense) 717.
anchor, kedge; grapnel, grappling iron; sheet anchor, killick[obs3];
mainstay; support &c. 215; cheek &c. 706; ballast.
jury mast; vent-peg; safety valve, blow-off valve; safety lamp; lightning
rod, lightning conductor; safety belt, airbag, seat belt; antilock brakes,
antiskid tires, snow tires.
means of escape &c. (escape) 671 lifeboat, lifejacket, life buoy,
swimming belt, cork jacket; parachute, plank, steppingstone; emergency
safeguard &c. (protection) 664.
V. seek refuge, take refuge, find refuge &c. n.; seek safety, find
safety &c. 664; throw oneself into the arms of; break for taller timber [U.
create a diversion.
Phr. any port in a storm; bibere venenum in auro[Lat]; valet anchora
<-- pitfall is related to deceiver and danger
#667. [Source of danger.] Pitfall. -- N. rocks, reefs, coral reef,
sunken rocks, snags; sands, quicksands; syrt|, syrtis|; Goodwin sands,
sandy foundation; slippery ground; breakers, shoals, shallows, bank, shelf,
flat, lee shore, ironbound coast; rock ahead, breakers ahead.
precipice; maelstrom, volcano; ambush &c. 530; pitfall, trapdoor; trap
&c. (snare) 545.
sword of Damocles; wolf at the door, snake in the grass, death in the
pot; latency &c. 526.
ugly customer, dangerous person, le chat qui dort[Fr]; firebrand,
Phr. latet anquis in herba [Lat][Vergil]; proximus ardet Ucalegon
<-- p. 214 -->
#668. Warning. -- N. warning, early warning, caution, caveat; notice
&c. (information) 527; premonition, premonishment[obs3]; prediction &c.
511; contraindication, lesson, dehortation[obs3]; admonition, monition;
alarm &c. 669.
handwriting on the wall, mene mene tekel upharsin, red flag, yellow
flag; fog-signal, foghorn; siren; monitor, warning voice, Cassandra[obs3],
signs of the times, Mother Cary's chickens[obs3], stormy petrel, bird of
ill omen, gathering clouds, clouds in the horizon, death watch.
watchtower, beacon, signal post; lighthouse &c. (indication of
locality) 550. sentinel, sentry; watch, watchman; watch and ward;
watchdog, bandog[obs3], housedog[obs3]; patrol, patrolman, vedette[obs3],
picket, bivouac, scout, spy, spial|; undercover agent, mole,
plainclothesman; advanced guard, rear guard; lookout.
cautiousness &c. 864.
monitor, guard camera,
radar, AWACS, spy satellite, spy-in-the-sky, U2 plane, spy plane.
V. warn, caution; forewarn, prewarn[obs3]; admonish, premonish[obs3];
give notice, give warning, dehort[obs3]; menace &c. (threaten) 909; put on
one's guard; sound the alarm &c. 669; croak.
beware, ware; take warning, take heed at one's peril; keep watch and
ward &c. (care) 459.
Adj. warning &c. v.; premonitory, monitory, cautionary; admonitory,
warned, forewarned &c. v.; on one's guard &c. (careful) 459,
Adv. in terrorem[Lat] &c. (threat) 909.
Int. beware! ware! take care! look out! fore![golf], mind what you are
about!, take care what you are about! mind!
Phr. ne reveillez pas le chat qui dort [French: don't wake a sleeping
cat]; foenum habet in cornu[Lat]; caveat actor; le silence du people est la
legon des rois[Fr]; verbum sat sapienti [Latin: a word to the wise is
sufficient]; un averti en vaut deux[Fr].
#669. [Indication of danger.] Alarm. -- N. alarm; alarum, larum[obs3],
alarm bell, tocsin, alerts, beat of drum, sound of trumpet, note of alarm,
hue and cry, fire cross, signal of distress; blue lights; war-cry, war-
whoop; warning &c. 668; fogsignal, foghorn; yellow flag; danger signal; red
light, red flag; fire bell; police whistle.
false alarm, cry of wolf; bug-bear, bugaboo.
V. give the alarm, raise the alarm, sound the alarm, turn in the
alarm, beat the alarm, give an alarm, raise an alarm, sound an alarm, turn
in an alarm, beat an alarm &c. n.; alarm; warn &c. 668; ring the tocsin;
battre la generale[Fr]; cry wolf.
Adj. alarming &c. v.
Int. sauve qui peut[Fr]! [French: every man for himself]; qui vive?
#670. Preservation. -- N. preservation; safe-keeping; conservation &c.
(storage) 636; maintenance, support, susteritation[obs3], conservatism; vis
conservatrix[obs3]; salvation &c. (deliverance) 672.
[Means of preservation] prophylaxis; preserver, preservative,
additive; antibiotics, antifungals[Med], biocide; hygiastics[obs3],
hygiantics[obs3]; cover, drugget[obs3]; cordon sanitaire[Fr]; canning;
ensilage; tinned goods, canned goods.
[Superstitious remedies] snake oil, spider webs, cure-all; laetrile;
charm &c. 993.
V. preserve, maintain, keep, sustain, support, hold; keep up, keep
alive; refrigerate, keep on ice; not willingly let die; bank up; nurse;
save, rescue; be safe, make safe &c. 664; take care of &c. (care) 459;
guard &c. (defend) 717.
stare super antiquas vias [Lat][Bacon]; hold one's own; hold one's
ground, stand one's ground &c. (resist) 719.
embalm, cure, salt, pickle, season, kyanize|, bottle, pot, tin, can;
sterilize, pasteurize, radiate; dry, lyophilize[Chem], freeze-dry,
concentrate, evaporate; freeze, quick-freeze, deep-freeze; husband &c.
Adj. preserving &c. v.; conservative; prophylactic;
preservatory[obs3], preservative; hygienic.
preserved &c. v.; unimpaired, unbroken, uninjured, unhurt,
unsinged[obs3], unmarred; safe, safe and sound; intact, with a whole skin.
Phr. nolumus leges Angliae mutari[Lat][obs3].
#671. Escape. -- N. escape, scape; avolation|, elopement, flight;
evasion &c. (avoidance) 623; retreat; narrow escape, hairbreadth escape;
close call; come off, impunity.
[Means of escape] loophole &c. (opening) 260; path &c. 627; refuse &c.
666; vent, vent peg; safety valve; drawbridge, fire escape.
reprieve &c. (deliverance) 672; liberation &c. 750. refugee &c.
V. escape, scape; make one's escape, effect one's escape, make good
one's escape; break jail; get off, get clear off, get well out of; echapper
belle[Fr], save one's bacon, save one's skin; weather the storm &c. (safe)
664; escape scot-free.
elude &c., make off &c. (avoid) 623; march off &c. (go away) 293;
give one the slip; slip through the hands, slip through the fingers; slip
the collar, wriggle out of prison, break out, break loose, break loose
from prison; break away, slip away, get away; find vent, find a hole to
creep out of.
Adj..escaping, escaped &c. v. stolen away, fled.
Phr. the bird has flown the coop.
<-- p. 215 -->
#672. Deliverance. -- N. deliverance, extrication, rescue; reprieve,
reprieval[obs3]; respite; liberation &c. 750; emancipation; redemption,
salvation; riddance; gaol delivery; redeemableness[obs3].
V. deliver, extricate, rescue, save, emancipate, redeem, ransom; bring
off, bring through; tirer d'affaire[Fr], get the wheel out of the rut,
snatch from the jaws of death, come to the rescue; rid; retrieve &c.
(restore) 660; be rid of, get rid of.
Adj. saved &c. v. extricable, redeemable, rescuable.
Int. to the rescue!
3. Precursory Measures
#673. Preparation. -- N. preparation; providing &c. v.; provision,
providence; anticipation &c. (foresight) 510; precaution,
preconcertation[obs3], predisposition; forecast &c. (plan) 626; rehearsal,
note of preparation.
[Putting in order] arrangement &c. 60; clearance; adjustment &c. 23;
tuning; equipment, outfit, accouterment, armament, array.
ripening &c. v.; maturation, evolution; elaboration, concoction,
digestion; gestation, batching, incubation, sitting.
groundwork, first stone, cradle, stepping-stone; foundation, scaffold
&c. (support) 215; scaffolding, echafaudage[Fr].
[Preparation of men] training &c. (education) 537; inurement &c.
(habit) 613; novitiate; cooking[ Preparation of food], cookery; brewing,
culinary art; tilling[ Preparation of the soil], plowing, sowing;
[State of being prepared] preparedness, readiness, ripeness,
mellowness; maturity; un impromptu fait a loisir[Fr].
[Preparer] preparer, trainer; pioneer, trailblazer; avant-
courrier[Fr], avant-coureur[Fr]; voortrekker[Afrikaans]; sappers and
miners, pavior[obs3], navvy[obs3]; packer, stevedore; warming pan.
V. prepare; get ready, make ready; make preparations, settle
preliminaries, get up, sound the note of preparation. set in order, put in
order &c. (arrange) 60; forecast &c. (plan) 626 prepare the ground, plow
the ground, dress the ground; till the soil, cultivate the soil;
predispose, sow the seed, lay a train, dig a mine; lay the groundwork, fix
the groundwork, lay the basis, fix the basis, lay the foundations, fix
the foundations; dig the foundations, erect the scaffolding; lay the first
stone &c. (begin) 66.
roughhew; cut out work; block out, hammer out; lick into shape &c.
elaborate, mature, ripen, mellow, season, bring to maturity; nurture
&c. (aid) 707; hatch, cook, brew; temper, anneal, smelt; barbecue;
infumate|; maturate. equip, arm, man; fit-out, fit up; furnish, rig, dress,
garnish, betrim[obs3], accouter, array, fettle, fledge; dress up, furbish
up, brush up, vamp up; refurbish; sharpen one's tools, trim one's foils,
set, prime, attune; whet the knife, whet the sword; wind up, screw up;
adjust &c. (fit) 27; put in trim, put in train, put in gear, put in working
order, put in tune, put in a groove for, put in harness; pack.
train &c. (teach) 537; inure &c. (habituate) 613; breed; prepare &c.
for; rehearse; make provision for; take steps, take measures, take
precautions; provide, provide against; beat up for recruits; open the door
to &c. (facilitate) 705.
set one's house in order, make all snug; clear the decks, clear for
action; close one's ranks; shuffle the cards.
prepare oneself; serve an apprenticeship &c. (learn) 539; lay oneself
out for, get into harness, gird up one's loins, buckle on one's armor,
reculer pour mieux sauter[Fr], prime and load, shoulder arms, get the steam
up, put the horses to.
guard against, make sure against; forearm, make sure, prepare for the
evil day, have a rod in pickle, provide against a rainy day, feather one's
nest; lay in provisions &c. 637; make investments; keep on foot.
be prepared, be ready &c. Adj.; hold oneself in readiness, keep one's
powder dry; lie in wait for &c. (expect) 507; anticipate &c. (foresee) 510;
principiis obstare[Lat]; veniente occurrere morbo[Lat].
Adj. preparing &c. v.; in preparation, in course of preparation, in
agitation, in embryo, in hand, in train; afoot, afloat; on foot, on the
stocks, on the anvil; under consideration &c. (plan) 626; brewing,
batching, forthcoming, brooding; in store for, in reserve.
precautionary, provident; preparative, preparatory; provisional,
inchoate, under revision; preliminary &c. (precedent) 62.
prepared &c. v.; in readiness; ready, ready to one's band, ready made,
ready cut and dried; made to one's hand, handy, on the table; in gear; in
working order, in working gear; snug; in practice.
ripe, mature, mellow; pukka[obs3]; practiced &c. (skilled) 698;
labored, elaborate, highly-wrought, smelling of the lamp, worked up.
in full feather, in best bib and tucker; in harness, at harness; in
the saddle, in arms, in battle array, in war paint; up in arms; armed at
all points, armed to the teeth, armed cap a pie; sword in hand; booted
in utrumque paratus[Lat], semper paratus[Lat]; on the alert &c.
(vigilant) 459; at one's post.
Adv. in preparation, in anticipation of; against, for; abroach[obs3].
Phr. a bove majori discit arare minor[Lat]; "looking before and after"
[Hamlet], si vis pacem para bellum[Lat].
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#674. Nonpreparation. -- N. non-preparation, absence of preparation,
want of preparation; inculture|, inconcoction|, improvidence.
immaturity, crudity; rawness &c. Adj.; abortion; disqualification.
[Absence of art] nature, state of nature; virgin soil, unweeded
garden; neglect &c. 460.
rough copy &c. (plan) 626; germ &c. 153; raw material &c. 635.
improvisation &c. (impulse) 612.
V. be unprepared &c. Adj.; want preparation, lack preparation; lie
fallow; s'embarquer sans biscuits[Fr]; live from hand to mouth.
[Render unprepared] dismantle &c. (render useless) 645; undress &c.
226. extemporize, improvise, ad lib.
Adj. unprepared &c. [prepare &c. 673]; without preparation &c. 673;
incomplete &c. 53; rudimental, embryonic, abortive; immature, unripe,
kachcha[obs3], raw, green, crude; coarse; rough cast, rough hewn; in the
rough; unhewn[obs3], unformed, unfashioned[obs3], unwrought,
unlabored[obs3], unblown, uncooked, unboiled, unconcocted, unpolished.
unhatched, unfledged, unnurtured[obs3], unlicked[obs3], untaught,
uneducated, uncultivated,. untrained, untutored, undrilled, unexercised;
deckle-edged[obs3]; precocious, premature; undigested, indigested[obs3];
unmellowed[obs3], unseasoned, unleavened.
unrehearsed, unscripted, extemporaneous, improvised, spontaneous, ad
lib, ad libitem [Latin].
fallow; unsown, untilled; natural, in a state of nature; undressed; in
dishabille, en deshabille[Fr].
unqualified, disqualified; unfitted; ill-digested; unbegun, unready,
unarranged[obs3], unorganized, unfurnished, unprovided, unequipped,
untrimmed; out of gear, out of order; dismantled &c. v.
shiftless, improvident, unthrifty, thriftless, thoughtless, unguarded;
happy-go-lucky; caught napping &c. (inexpectant) 508[obs3]; unpremeditated
Adv. extempore &c. 612.
#675. Essay. -- N. essay, trial, endeavor, attempt; aim, struggle,
venture, adventure, speculation, coup d'essai[Fr], debut; probation &c.
V. try, essay; experiment &c. 463; endeavor, strive; tempt, attempt,
make an attempt; venture, adventure, speculate, take one's chance, tempt
fortune; try one's fortune, try one's luck, try one's hand; use one's
endeavor; feel one's way, grope one's way, pick one's way.
try hard, push, make a bold push, use one's best endeavor; do one's
best &c. (exertion) 686.
Adj. essaying &c. v.; experimental &c. 463; tentative, empirical,
Adv. experimentally &c. Adj.; on trial, at a venture; by rule of
thumb. if one may be so bold.
Phr. aut non tentaris aut perfice [Lat][Ovid]; chi non s'arrischia non
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#676. Undertaking. -- N. undertaking; compact &c. 769; adventure,
venture; engagement &c. (promise) 768; enterprise, emprise[obs3];
pilgrimage; matter in hand &c. (business ) 625; move; first move &c.
V. undertake; engage in, embark in; launch into, plunge into;
volunteer; apprentice oneself to; engage &c. (promise) 768; contract &c.
769; take upon oneself, take upon one's shoulders; devote oneself to &c.
take up, take in hand; tackle; set about, go about; set to, fall to,
set to work; launch forth; set up shop; put in hand, put in execution; set
forward; break the neck of a business, be in, for; put one's hand to, put
one's foot in; betake oneself to, turn one's hand to, go to do; begin &c.
66; broach, institute &c. one's (originate) 153; put one's hand to the
plow, lay one's hand to the plow, put one's shoulder to the wheel.
have in hand &c. (business) 625; have many irons in the fire &c.
Adj. undertaking &c. v.; on the anvil &c. 625.
Int. here goes!
#677. Use. -- N. use; employ, employment; exercise,
exercitation[obs3]; application, appliance; adhibition[obs3], disposal;
consumption; agency &c. (physical) 170; usufruct; usefulness &c. 644;
benefit; recourse, resort, avail.
[Conversion to use] utilization, service, wear.
[Way of using] usage.
V. use,.make use of, employ, put to use; put in action, put in
operation, put in practice; set in motion, set to work.
ply, work, wield, handle, manipulate; play, play off; exert, exercise,
practice, avail oneself of, profit by, resort to, have recourse to, recur
to, take betake oneself to; take up with, take advantage of; lay one's
hands on, try.
render useful &c. 644; mold; turn to account, turn to use; convert to
use, utilize; work up; call into play, bring into play; put into
requisition; call forth, draw forth; press into service, enlist into the
service; bring to bear upon, devote, dedicate, consecrate, apply,
adhibit[obs3], dispose of; make a handle of, make a cat's-paw of.
fall back upon, make a shift with; make the most of, make the best of.
use up, swallow up; consume, absorb, expend; tax, task, wear, put to
Adj. in use; used &c. v.; well-worn, well-trodden.
useful &c. 644; subservient &c. (instrumental) 631.
#678. Disuse. -- N. forbearance, abstinence; disuse; relinquishment
&c. 782; desuetude &c. (want of habit) 614; disusage[obs3].
V. not use; do without, dispense with, let alone, not touch, forbear,
abstain, spare, waive, neglect; keep back, reserve. lay up, lay by, lay on
the shelf, keep on the shelf, lay up in ordinary; lay up in a napkin;
shelve; set aside, put aside, lay aside; disuse, leave off, have done with;
supersede; discard &c. (eject) 297; dismiss, give warning.
throw aside &c. (relinquish) 782; make away with &c. (destroy) 162;
cast overboard, heave overboard, throw overboard; cast to the dogs, cast
to the winds; dismantle &c. (Render useless) 645.
lie unemployed, remain unemployed &c. Adj.
Adj. not used &c. v.; unemployed, unapplied, undisposed of, unspent,
unexercised, untouched, untrodden, unessayed[obs3], ungathered[obs3],
unculled; uncalled for, not required.
disused &c. v.; done with.
#679. Misuse. -- N. misuse, misusage, misemployment[obs3],
abuse, profanation, prostitution, desecration; waste &c. 638.
V. misuse, misemploy, misapply, misappropriate.
desecrate, abuse, profane, prostitute; waste &c. 638; overtask,
overtax, overwork; squander &c. 818.
cut blocks with a razor, employ a steam engine to crack a nut; catch
at a straw.
Adj. misused &c. v.
Phr. ludere cum sacris[Lat].
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Section III. VOLUNTARY ACTION
1. Simple voluntary Action
#680. Action. -- N. action, performance; doing, &c. v.; perpetration;
exercise, excitation; movement, operation, evolution, work; labor &c.
(exertion) 686; praxis, execution; procedure &c. (conduct) 692; handicraft;
business &c. 625; agency &c. (power at work) 170.
deed, act, overt act, stitch, touch, gest transaction[obs3], job,
doings, dealings, proceeding, measure, step, maneuver, bout, passage, move,
stroke, blow; coup, coup de main, coup d'etat[Fr]; tour de force &c.