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Roget's Thesaurus by Peter Mark Roget

Part 8 out of 15

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imposition, imposture; fraud, deceit, guile; fraudulence,
fraudulency[obs3]; covin[obs3]; knavery &c. (cunning) 702;
misrepresentation &c (falsehood) 544; bluff; straw-bail, straw bid [U.S.];
delusion, gullery[obs3]; juggling, jugglery[obs3]; slight of hand,
legerdemain; prestigiation|, prestidigitation; magic &c 992; conjuring,
conjuration; hocus-pocus, escamoterie[obs3], jockeyship[obs3]; trickery,
coggery|, chicanery; supercherie[obs3], cozenage[obs3], circumvention,
ingannation|, collusion; treachery &c 940; practical joke.
trick, cheat, wile, blind, feint, plant, bubble, fetch, catch,
chicane, juggle, reach, hocus, bite; card sharping, stacked deck, loaded
dice, quick shuffle, double dealing, dealing seconds, dealing from the
bottom of the deck; artful dodge, swindle; tricks upon travelers; stratagem
&c (artifice) 702; confidence trick, fake, hoax; theft &c. 791; ballot-box
stuffing barney*[obs3][U.S.], brace* game, bunko game, drop* game, gum*
game, panel game[U.S.]; shell game, thimblerig; skin* game [U.S.].
snare, trap, pitfall, decoy, gin; springe[obs3], springle|; noose,
hoot; bait, decoy-duck, tub to the whale, baited trap, guet-a-pens; cobweb,
net, meshes, toils, mouse trap, birdlime; dionaea[obs3], Venus's
flytrap[obs3]; ambush &c 530; trapdoor, sliding panel, false bottom;
spring-net, spring net, spring gun, mask, masked battery; mine;
flytrap[obs3]; green goods [U.S.]; panel house.
Cornish hug; wolf in sheep's clothing &c (deceiver) 548; disguise,
disguisement[obs3]; false colors, masquerade, mummery, borrowed plumes;
pattes de velours[Fr].
mockery &c (imitation) 19; copy &c 21; counterfeit, sham, make-
believe, forgery, fraud; lie &c 546; "a delusion a mockery and a snare"
[Denman], hollow mockery.
whited sepulcher, painted sepulcher; tinsel; paste, junk jewelry,
costume jewelry, false jewelry, synthetic jewels; scagliola[obs3], ormolu,
German silver, albata[obs3], paktong[obs3], white metal, Britannia metal,
paint; veneer; jerry building; man of straw.
illusion &c (error) 495; ignis fatuus &c 423[Lat]; mirage &c 443.
V. deceive, take in; defraud, cheat, jockey, do, cozen, diddle, nab,
chouse, play one false, bilk, cully[obs3], jilt, bite, pluck, swindle,
victimize; abuse; mystify; blind one's eyes; blindfold, hoodwink; throw
dust into the eyes; dupe, gull, hoax, fool, befool[obs3], bamboozle,
flimflam, hornswoggle; trick.
impose upon, practice upon, play upon, put upon, palm off on, palm
upon, foist upon; snatch a verdict; bluff off, bluff; bunko, four flush*,
gum* [U.S.], spoof*, stuff (a ballot box) [U.S.].
circumvent, overreach; outreach, out wit, out maneuver; steal a march
upon, give the go-by, to leave in the lurch
decoy, waylay, lure, beguile, delude, inveigle; entrap, intrap[obs3],
ensnare; nick, springe[obs3]; set a trap, lay a trap, lay a snare for; bait
the hook, forelay[obs3], spread the toils, lime; trapan[obs3], trepan;
kidnap; let in, hook in; nousle[obs3], nousel[obs3]; blind a trail; enmesh,
immesh[obs3]; shanghai; catch, catch in a trap; sniggle, entangle,
illaqueate[obs3], hocus, escamoter[obs3], practice on one's credulity; hum,
humbug; gammon, stuff up*, sell; play a trick upon one, play a practical
joke upon one, put something over on one, put one over on; balk, trip up,
throw a tub to a whale; fool to the top of one's bent, send on a fool's
errand; make game, make a fool of, make an April fool of[obs3], make an ass
of; trifle with, cajole, flatter; come over &c. (influence) 615; gild the
pill, make things pleasant, divert, put a good face upon; dissemble &c
cog, cog the dice, load the dice, stack the deck; live by one's wits,
play at hide and seek; obtain money under false pretenses &c (steal) 791;
conjure, juggle, practice chicanery; deacon [U.S.].
play off, palm off, foist off, fob- off.
lie &c 544; misinform &c 538; mislead &c (error) 495; betray &c 940;
be deceived &c 547.
Adj. deceived &c v.; deceiving &c; cunning &c 702; prestigious|,
prestigiatory|; deceptive, deceptious[obs3]; deceitful, covinous[obs3];
delusive, delusory; illusive, illusory; elusive, insidious, ad captandum
untrue &c 546; mock, sham, make-believe, counterfeit, snide*, pseudo,
spurious, supposititious, so-called, pretended, feigned, trumped up, bogus,
scamped, fraudulent, tricky, factitious;bastard; surreptitious,
illegitimate, contraband, adulterated, sophisticated; unsound, rotten at
the core; colorable; disguised; meretricious, tinsel, pinchbeck, plated;
catchpenny; Brummagem.
artificial, synthetic, ersatz[&German]; simulated &c 544.
Adv. under false colors, under the garb of, under cover of; over the
Phr. "keep the word of promise to the ear and break it to the hope"
[Macbeth]; fronti nulla fides[Lat]; "ah that deceit should steal such
gentle shapes" [Richard III]; "a quicksand of deceit" [Henry VI]; decipimur
specie recti [Lat][Horace]; falsi crimen[Lat]; fraus est celare
fraudem[Lat]; lupus in fabula[Lat]; "so smooth, he daubed his vice with
show of virtue" [Richard III].

<-- p. 167 -->

#546. Untruth.-- N. untruth, falsehood, lie, story, thing that is not,
fib, bounce, crammer, taradiddle[obs3], whopper; jhuth[obs3].
forgery, fabrication, invention; misstatement, misrepresentation;
perversion, falsification, gloss, suggestio falsi[Lat]; exaggeration &c
invention, fabrication, fiction; fable, nursery tale; romance &c
(imagination) 515; absurd story, untrue story, false story, trumped up
story, trumped up statement; thing devised by the enemy; canard; shave,
sell, hum, traveler's tale, Canterbury tale, cock and bull story, fairy
tale, fake; claptrap.
press agent's yarn; puff, puffery (exaggeration) 549.
myth, moonshine, bosh, all my eye and Betty Martin, mare's nest,
irony; half truth, white lie, pious fraud; mental reservation &c
(concealment) 528.
pretense, pretext; false plea &c 617; subterfuge, evasion, shift,
shuffle, make-believe; sham &c (deception) 545.
profession, empty words; Judas kiss &c (hypocrisy) 544; disguise &c
(mask) 530.
V. have a false meaning.
Adj. untrue, false, phony, trumped up; void of foundation, without-
foundation; fictive, far from the truth, false as dicer's oaths; unfounded,
ben trovato[It], invented, fabulous, fabricated, forged; fictitious,
factitious, supposititious, surreptitious; elusory[obs3], illusory;
ironical; soi-disant &c (misnamed) 565[Fr].
Phr. se non e vero e ben trovato[It]; "where none is meant that meets
the ear"[Milton].

<-- p. 168 -->

#547. Dupe.-- N. dupe, gull, gudgeon, gobemouche[obs3], cull*,
cully[obs3], victim, pigeon, April fool[obs3]; jay*, sucker*; laughingstock
&c 857; Cyclops, simple Simon, flat; greenhorn; fool &c 501; puppet, cat's
V. be deceived &c 545, be the dupe of; fall into a trap; swallow the
bait, nibble at the bait; bite, catch a Tartar.
Adj. credulous &c 486; mistaken &c. (error) 495.

#548. Deceiver.-- N. deceiver &c (deceive &c 545); dissembler,
hypocrite; sophist, Pharisee, Jesuit, Mawworm[obs3], Pecksniff, Joseph
Surface, Tartufe[obs3], Janus; serpent, snake in the grass, cockatrice,
Judas, wolf in sheep's clothing; jilt; shuffler|!, stool pigeon.
liar &c (lie &c 544); story-teller, perjurer, false witness, menteur a
triple etage[Fr], Scapin[obs3]; bunko steerer* [U.S.], carpetbagger*
[U.S.], capper* [U.S.], faker, fraud, four flusher*, horse coper[obs3],
ringer*, spieler[obs3], straw bidder [U.S.].
imposter, pretender, soi-disant[Fr], humbug; adventurer; Cagliostro,
Fernam Mendez Pinto; ass in lion's skin &c (bungler) 701; actor &c (stage
player) 599.
quack, charlatan, mountebank, saltimbanco[obs3], saltimbanque[obs3],
empiric, quacksalver, medicaster[obs3], Rosicrucian, gypsy; man of straw.
conjuror, juggler, trickster, prestidigitator, jockey; crimp, decoy,
decoy duck; rogue, knave, cheat; swindler &c (thief) 792; jobber.
Phr. "saint abroad and a devil at home" [Bunyan].

#549. Exaggeration.-- N. exaggeration; expansion &c 194; hyperbole,
stretch, strain, coloring; high coloring, caricature, caricatura[obs3];
extravagance &c. (nonsense) 497; Baron Munchausen; men in buckram, yarn,
fringe, embroidery, traveler's tale; fish story, gooseberry*
storm in a teacup; much ado about nothing &c (overestimation) 482;
puff, puffery &c (boasting) 884; rant &c (turgescence) 577[obs3].
figure of speech, facon de parler[Fr]; stretch of fancy, stretch of
the imagination; flight of fancy &c (imagination) 515.
false coloring &c (falsehood) 544; aggravation &c. 835.
V. exaggerate, magnify, pile up, aggravate; amplify &c (expand) 194;
overestimate &c 482; hyperbolize; overcharge, overstate, overdraw, overlay,
overshoot the mark, overpraise; make over much, over the most of; strain,
strain over a point; stretch, stretch a point; go great lengths; spin a
long yarn; draw with a longbow, shoot with a longbow; deal in the
out-Herod Herod, run riot, talk at random.
heighten, overcolor[obs3]; color highly, color too highly;
broder[obs3]; flourish; color &c. (misrepresent) 544; puff &c (boast) 884.
Adj. exaggerated &c. v.; overwrought; bombastic &c. (grandiloquent)
577; hyperbolical[obs3], on stilts; fabulous, extravagant, preposterous,
egregious, outre[Fr], highflying[obs3].
Adv. hyperbolically &c adj.
Phr. excitabat enim fluctus in simpulo [Lat][Cicero].

<-- p. 169 -->

1. Natural Means
<-- recognition of something by its features must be broken out into a
separate entry. Include the terms recognition, identification,
dereplication, classification; note memory 505, identification (comparison,
464, discovery 480a)
distinguish recognition and recall in technical sense -->

#550. Indication -- N. indication; symbolism, symbolization;
semiology, semiotics, semeiology[obs3], semeiotics[obs3]; Zeitgeist.
[means of recognition: property] characteristic, diagnostic;
lineament, feature, trait; fingerprint, voiceprint, footprint, noseprint
[for animals]; cloven hoof; footfall; recognition (memory) 505.
[means of recognition: tool] diagnostic, divining rod; detector.
sign, symbol; index, indice|, indicator; point, pointer; exponent,
note, token, symptom; dollar sign, dollar mark.
type, figure, emblem, cipher, device; representation &c. 554;
epigraph, motto, posy.
gesture, gesticulation; pantomime; wink, glance, leer; nod, shrug,
beck; touch, nudge; dactylology[obs3], dactylonomy[obs3]; freemasonry,
telegraphy, chirology[Med], byplay, dumb show; cue; hint &c. 527; clue,
clew, key, scent.
signal, signal post; rocket, blue light; watch fire, watch tower;
telegraph, semaphore, flagstaff; cresset[obs3], fiery cross; calumet;
heliograph; guidon; headlight.
[sign (evidence) on physobj of contact with another physobj] mark,
scratch, line, stroke, dash, score, stripe, streak, tick, dot, point,
notch, nick.
print; imprint, impress, impression.
[symbols accompanying written text to signify modified interpretation]
keyboard symbols, printing symbols; red letter[for emphasis], italics,
sublineation[obs3], underlining, bold font; jotting; note, annotation,
reference; blaze, cedilla, guillemets[obs3], hachure[Topography];
quotation marks, double quotes,"", parentheses, brackets, braces, curly
brackets, arrows, slashes; left parenthesis[list], "("; right parenthesis,
")"; opening bracket, "["; closing bracket, "]"; left curly brace, "{";
right curly brace, "}"; left arrow, "<"; right arrow, ">"; forward slash,
"/"; backward slash, "\"; exclamation point, "!"; commercial at, "@"; pound
sign, "#"; percent sign, "%"; carat, "^"; ampersand, "&"; asterisk, "*";
hyphen, "-"; dash, "-", "_"; em dash, "--"; plus sign, "+", equals sign,
"="; question mark, "?"; period, "."; semicolon, ";", colon, ":"; comma,
","; apostrophe, "'"; single quote, "'"; tilde, "~".
[For identification: general] badge, criterion; countercheck[obs3],
countermark[obs3], countersign, counterfoil; duplicate, tally; label,
ticket, billet, letter, counter, check, chip, chop; dib[obs3]; totem;
tessera[obs3], card, bill; witness, voucher; stamp; cacher[Fr]; trade mark,
Hall mark.
[For identification of people, on a document] signature, mark,
autograph, autography; attestation; hand, hand writing, sign manual;
cipher; seal, sigil[Lat], signet, hand and seal [Law]; paraph[obs3],
brand; superscription; indorsement[obs3], endorsement.
[For identification of people, to gain access to restricted (locations
or information)] password, watchword, catchword; security card, pass,
passkey; credentials &c. (evidence) 467; open sesame; timbrology[obs3];
mot de passe[Fr], mot du guet[Fr]; pass-parole; shibboleth.
title, heading, docket.
address card, visiting card; carte de visite[Fr].
insignia; banner, banneret[obs3], bannerol[obs3]; bandrol[obs3]; flag,
colors, streamer, standard, eagle, labarum[obs3], oriflamb[obs3],
oriflamme; figurehead; ensign; pennon, pennant, pendant; burgee[obs3], blue
Peter, jack, ancient, gonfalon, union jack; banderole, "old glory"
[U.S.], quarantine flag; vexillum[obs3]; yellow-flag, yellow jack;
tricolor, stars and stripes; bunting.
heraldry, crest; coat of arms, arms; armorial bearings,
hatchment[obs3]; escutcheon, scutcheon; shield, supporters; livery,
uniform; cockade, epaulet, chevron; garland, love knot, favor.
[Of locality] beacon, cairn, post, staff, flagstaff, hand, pointer,
vane, cock, weathercock; guidepost, handpost[obs3], fingerpost[obs3],
directing post, signpost; pillars of Hercules, pharos; bale-fire, beacon-
fire; l'etoile du Nord[Fr]; landmark, seamark; lighthouse, balize[obs3];
polestar, loadstar[obs3], lodestar; cynosure, guide; address, direction,
name; sign, signboard.
[Of the future] warning &c. 668; omen &c. 512; prefigurement &c. 511.
trace[Of the past], record &c. 551. warning &c. 668[Of danger]; alarm &c.
669. scepter &c. 747[Of authority]. trophy &c. 733[Of triumph]. gauge
&c. 466[Of quantity]. milestone[Of distance], milepost. brand[Of
disgrace], fool's cap. check[For detection], telltale; test &c.
(experiment) 463; mileage ticket; milliary[obs3].
notification &c. (information) 527; advertisement &c. (publication)
word of command, call; bugle call, trumpet call; bell, alarum, cry;
battle cry, rallying cry; angelus[obs3]; reveille; sacring bell[obs3],
sanctus bell[Lat].
exposition &c. (explanation) 522, proof &c. (evidence) 463; pattern
&c. (prototype) 22.
V. indicate; be the sign &c. n. of; denote, betoken; argue, testify
&c. (evidence) 467; bear the impress &c. n. of; connote, connotate[obs3].
represent, stand for; typify &c. (prefigure) 511; symbolize.
put an indication, put a mark &c. n.; note, mark, stamp, earmark;
blaze; label, ticket, docket; dot, spot, score, dash, trace, chalk; print;
imprint, impress; engrave, stereotype.
make a sign &c. n. signalize; underscore; give a signal, hang out a
signal; beckon; nod; wink, glance, leer, nudge, shrug, tip the wink;
gesticulate; raise the finger, hold up the finger, raise the hand, hold up
the hand; saw the air, "suit the action to the word" [Hamlet].
wave a banner, unfurl a banner, hoist a banner, hang out a banner &c.
n.; wave the hand, wave a kerchief; give the cue &c. (inform) 527; show
one's colors; give an alarm, sound an alarm; beat the drum, sound the
trumpets, raise a cry.
sign, seal, attest &c. (evidence) 467; underline &c. (give importance
to) 642; call attention to &c. (attention) 457; give notice &c. (inform)
Adj. indicating &c. v., indicative, indicatory; denotative,
connotative; diacritical, representative, typical, symbolic, pantomimic,
pathognomonic[obs3], symptomatic, characteristic, demonstrative,
diagnostic, exponential, emblematic, armorial; individual &c. (special) 79.
known by, recognizable by; indicated &c. v.; pointed, marked.
[Capable of being denoted] denotable[obs3]; indelible.
Adv. in token of; symbolically &c. adj.; in dumb show.
Phr. ecce signum[Lat]; ex ungue leonem[Lat], ex pede Herculem[Lat];
vide ut supra; vultus ariete fortior[Lat][obs3].

<-- p. 170 -->

#551. Record. -- N. trace, vestige, relic, remains; scar, cicatrix;
footstep, footmark[obs3], footprint; pug; track mark, wake, trail, scent,
monument, hatchment[obs3], slab, tablet, trophy, achievement; obelisk,
pillar, column, monolith; memorial; memento &c. (memory) 505; testimonial,
medal; commemoration &c. (celebration) 883.
record, note, minute; register, registry; roll &c. (list) 86;
cartulary, diptych, Domesday book; catalogue raisonne[Fr]; entry,
memorandum, indorsement[obs3], inscription, copy, duplicate, docket; notch
&c. (mark) 550; muniment[obs3], deed &c. (security) 771; document;
deposition, proces verbal[Fr]; affidavit; certificate &c. (evidence) 467.
notebook, memorandum book, memo book, pocketbook, commonplace book;
portfolio; pigeonholes, excerpta[obs3], adversaria[Lat], jottings,
gazette, gazetteer; newspaper, daily, magazine; almanac,
almanack[obs3]; calendar, ephemeris, diary, log, journal, daybook, ledger;
cashbook[obs3], petty cashbook[obs3]; professional journal, scientific
literature, the literature, primary literature, secondary literature,
article, review article.
archive, scroll, state paper, return, blue book; statistics &c. 86;
compte rendu[Fr]; Acts of, Transactions of, Proceedings of; Hansard's
Debates; chronicle,annals, legend; history, biography &c. 594;
Congressional Records.
registration; registry; enrollment, inrollment[obs3]; tabulation;
entry, booking; signature &c (identification) 550; recorder &c. 553;
[analog recording media] recording, tape recording, videotape.
[digital recording media] compact disk; floppy disk, diskette; hard
disk, Winchester disk; read-only memory, ROM; write once read mostly
memory, WORM.
V. record; put on record, place on record; chronicle, calendar, hand
down to posterity; keep up the memory &c. (remember) 505; commemorate &c.
(celebrate) 883; report &c. (inform) 527; write, commit to writing, reduce
to writing; put in writing, set down in writing, writing in black and
white; put down, jot down, take down, write down, note down, set down;
note, minute, put on paper; take note, make a note, take minute, take
memorandum; make a return.
mark &c. (indicate) 550; sign &c. (attest) 467.
enter, book; post, post up, insert, make an entry of; mark off, tick
off; register, enroll, inscroll[obs3]; file &c. (store) 636.
burn into memory; carve in stone.
Adv. on record.
Phr. exegi monumentum aere perennium [Lat][obs3][Horace]; "read their
history in a nation's eyes" [Gray]; "records that defy the tooth of time"

#552. [Suppression of sign.] Obliteration. -- N. obliteration;
erasure, rasure[obs3]; cancel, cancellation; circumduction[obs3]; deletion,
blot; tabula rasa[Lat]; effacement, extinction.
V. efface, obliterate, erase, raze|!, rase[obs3], expunge, cancel;
blot out, take out, rub out, scratch out, strike out, wipe out, wash out,
sponge out; wipe off, rub off; wipe away; deface, render illegible; draw
the pen through, apply the sponge.
be effaced &c.; leave no trace &c. 550; "leave not a rack behind."
Adj. obliterated &c. v.; out of print; printless[obs3]; leaving no
trace; intestate; unrecorded, unregistered, unwritten.
Int. dele; out with it!
Phr. delenda est Carthago [Lat][Cato].

#553. Recorder. -- N. recorder, notary, clerk; registrar,
registrary[obs3], register; prothonotary[Law]; amanuensis, secretary,
scribe, babu[obs3], remembrancer[obs3], bookkeeper, custos rotulorum[Lat],
Master of the Rolls.
annalist; historian, historiographer; chronicler, journalist;
biographer &c. (narrator) 594; antiquary &c. (antiquity) 122;
memorialist[obs3]; interviewer.

#554. Representation. -- N. representation, representment[obs3];
imitation &c. 19; illustration, delineation, depictment[obs3]; imagery,
portraiture, iconography; design, designing; art, fine arts; painting &c.
556; sculpture &c. 557; engraving &c. 558; photography, cinematography;
radiography, autoradiography[Bioch], fluorography[Chem], sciagraphy[obs3].
personation, personification; impersonation; drama &c. 599.
picture, photo, photograph, daguerreotype, snapshot; X-ray photo;
movie film, movie; tracing, scan, TV image, video image, image file,
graphics, computer graphics, televideo, closed-circuit TV.
copy &c. 21; drawing, sketch, drought, draft; plot, chart, figure,
image, likeness, icon, portrait, striking likeness, speaking
likeness; very image; effigy, facsimile.
figure, figure head; puppet, doll, figurine, aglet[obs3], manikin,
lay-figure, model, mammet[obs3], marionette, fantoccini[obs3], waxwork,
bust; statue, statuette.
ideograph, hieroglyphic, anaglyph [obs3],kanji[Jap]; diagram,
map, plan, chart, ground plan, projection, elevation (plan) 626.
ichnography[obs3], cartography; atlas; outline, scheme; view &c.
(painting) 556; radiograph, scotograph[obs3], sciagraph[obs3]; spectrogram,
V. represent, delineate; depict, depicture[obs3]; portray; take a
likeness, catch a likeness &c. n.; hit off, photograph, daguerreotype;
snapshot; figure, shadow forth, shadow out; adumbrate; body forth; describe
&c. 594; trace, copy; mold.
dress up; illustrate, symbolize.
paint &c. 556; carve &c. 557; engrave &c. 558.
personate, personify; impersonate; assume a character; pose as; act;
play &c. (drama) 599; mimic &c. (imitate) 19; hold the mirror up to nature.
Adj. represent, representing &c. v., representative; *illustrative;
represented &c. v.; imitative, figurative; iconic.
like &c. 17; graphic &c. (descriptive) 594; cinquecento
quattrocento[Fr][obs3], trecento[obs3].

<-- p. 171 -->

#555. Misrepresentation. -- N. misrepresentation, distortion,
caricatura|, exaggeration; daubing &c. v.; bad likeness, daub, sign
painting; scratch, caricature; anamorphosis[obs3]; burlesque,
falsification, misstatement; parody, lampoon, take-off, travesty.
V. misrepresent, distort, overdraw, exaggerate, caricature, daub;
burlesque, parody, travesty.
Adj. misrepresented &c. v.

<-- photography should be separated from painting -->

#556. Painting. -- N. painting; depicting; drawing &c. v.; design;
perspective, sciagraphy[obs3], skiagraphy[obs3]; chiaroscuro &c. (light)
420 composition; treatment.
historical painting, portrait painting, miniature painting; landscape
painting, marine painting; still life, flower painting, scene painting;
school, style; the grand style, high art, genre, portraiture;
ornamental art &c. 847.
monochrome, polychrome; grisaille[Fr].
pallet, palette; easel; brush, pencil, stump; black lead, charcoal,
crayons, chalk, pastel; paint &c. (coloring matter) 428; watercolor, body
color, oil color; oils, oil paint; varnish &c. 356a, priming; gouache,
tempera, distemper, fresco, water glass; enamel; encaustic painting;
mosaic; tapestry.
photography, heliography, color photography; sun painting; graphics,
computer graphics.
picture, painting, piece[Fr], tableau, canvas; oil painting &c.;
fresco, cartoon; easel picture, cabinet picture, draught, draft; pencil &c.
drawing, water color drawing, etching, charcoal, pen-and-ink; sketch,
outline, study.
photograph, color photograph, black-and-white photograph, holograph,
heliograph; daguerreotype, talbotype[obs3], calotype[obs3],
heliotype[obs3]; negative, positive; print, glossy print, matte print;
enlargement, reduction, life-size print; instant photo, Polaroid photo.
technicolor, Kodachrome, Ektachrome; Polaroid.
portrait &c. (representation) 554; whole length, full length, half
length; kitcat, head; miniature; shade, silhouette; profile.
landscape, seapiece[obs3]; view, scene, prospect; panorama, diorama;
still life.
picture gallery, exhibit; studio, atelier; pinacotheca[obs3].
V. paint, design, limn draw, sketch, pencil, scratch, shade, stipple,
hatch, dash off, chalk out, square up; color, dead color, wash, varnish;
draw in pencil &c. n.; paint in oils &c. n.; stencil; depict &c.
(represent) 554.
Adj. painted &c. v.; pictorial, graphic, picturesque.
pencil, oil &c. n.
Adv. in pencil &c. n.
Phr. fecit[Lat], delineavit[Lat]; mutum est pictura poema[Lat].

#557. Sculpture. -- N. sculpture, insculpture| [obs3]; carving &c. v.;
high relief, low relief, bas relief[Fr]; relief; relieve;
bassorilievo[obs3], altorilievo[obs3], mezzorilievo[obs3]; intaglio,
anaglyph[obs3]; medal, medallion; cameo.
marble, bronze, terra cotta[Sp], papier-mache; ceramic ware, pottery,
porcelain, china, earthenware; cloisonne, enamel, faience, Laocoon,
statue.&c. (image) 554; cast &c (copy) 21; glyptotheca[obs3].
V. sculpture, carve, cut, chisel, model, mold; *cast.
Adj. sculptured &c, v. in relief, anaglyptic[obs3], ceroplastic[obs3],
ceramic; parian[obs3]; marble &c. n.; xanthian[obs3].

<-- p. 172 -->

#558. Engraving. -- N. engraving, chalcography[obs3]; line engraving,
mezzotint engraving, stipple engraving, chalk engraving; dry point, bur;
etching, aquatinta[obs3]; chiseling; plate engraving, copperplate
engraving, steel engraving, wood engraving; xylography, lignography[obs3],
glyptography[obs3], cerography[obs3], lithography, chromolithography[obs3],
photolithography, zincography[obs3], glyphography, xylograph,
lignograph[obs3], glyptograph[obs3], cerograph[obs3], lithograph,
chromolithograph, photolithograph, zincograph[obs3], glyphograph[obs3],
impression, print, engraving, plate; steelplate, copperplate; etching;
mezzotint, aquatint, lithotint[obs3]; cut, woodcut; stereotype,
graphotype[obs3], autotype[obs3], heliotype[obs3].
graver, burin[obs3], etching point, style; plate, stone, wood block,
negative; die, punch, stamp.
printing; plate printing, copperplate printing, anastatic
printing[obs3], color printing, lithographic printing; type printing &c.
591; three-color process.
illustration, illumination; half tone; photogravure; vignette, initial
letter, cul de lampe[Fr], tailpiece.
[person who inscribes on stone] lapidary, lapidarian.
V. engrave, grave, stipple, scrape, etch; bite, bite in; lithograph
&c., n.; print.
Adj. insculptured[obs3]; engraved &c. v..
[of inscriptions on stone] lapidary.
Phr. sculpsit[Lat], imprimit[Lat].

#559. Artist. -- N. artist; painter, limner, drawer, sketcher,
designer, engraver; master, old master; draftsman, draughtsman; copyist,
dauber, hack; enamel, enameler, enamelist; caricaturist.
historical painter, landscape painter, marine painter, flower painter,
portrait painter, miniature painter, miniaturist, scene painter, sign
painter, coach painter; engraver; Apelles[obs3]; sculptor, carver, chaser,
modeler, figuriste[obs3], statuary; Phidias, Praxiteles; Royal Academician.
photographer, cinematographer, lensman, cameraman, camera technician,
camera buff; wildlife photographer.
Phr. photo safari; "with gun and camera"

2. Conventional Means
Language generally

#560. Language. -- N. language; phraseology &c. 569; speech &c. 582;
tongue, lingo, vernacular; mother tongue, vulgar tongue, native tongue;
household words; King's English, Queen's English; dialect &c. 563.
confusion of tongues, Babel, pasigraphie[obs3]; pantomime &c. (signs)
550; onomatopoeia; betacism[obs3], mimmation, myatism[obs3],
nunnation[obs3]; pasigraphy[obs3].
lexicology, philology, glossology[obs3], glottology[obs3];
linguistics, chrestomathy[obs3]; paleology[obs3], paleography; comparative
literature, letters, polite literature, belles lettres[Fr], muses,
humanities, literae humaniores[Lat], republic of letters, dead languages,
classics; genius of language; scholarship &c. (scholar) 492.
V. express by words &c. 566.
Adj. lingual, linguistic; dialectic; vernacular, current; bilingual;
diglot[obs3], hexaglot[obs3], polyglot; literary.
Phr. "syllables govern the world" [Selden].

#561. Letter. -- N. letter; character; hieroglyphic &c. (writing) 590;
type &c. (printing) 591; capitals; digraph, trigraph; ideogram, ideograph;
majuscule, minuscule; majuscule, minuscule; alphabet, ABC[obs3],
abecedary[obs3], christcross-row.
consonant, vowel; diphthong, triphthong[Gram]; mute, liquid, labial,
dental, guttural. syllable; monosyllable, dissyllable[obs3], polysyllable;
affix, suffix.
spelling, orthograph[obs3]; phonography[obs3], phonetic spelling;
anagrammatism[obs3], metagrammatism[obs3]. cipher, monogram, anagram;
V. spell.
Adj. literal; alphabetical, abecedarian; syllabic; majuscular[obs3],
minuscular[obs3]; uncial &c. (writing) 590.

#562. Word. -- N. word, term, vocable; name &c. 564; phrase &c. 566;
root, etymon; derivative; part of speech &c. (grammar) 567;
dictionary, vocabulary, lexicon, glossary; index, concordance;
thesaurus; gradus[Lat], delectus[Lat].
etymology, derivation; glossology[obs3], terminology orismology[obs3];
paleology &c. (philology) 560[obs3].
lexicography; glossographer &c. (scholar) 492; lexicologist,
Adj. verbal, literal; titular, nominal. conjugate[Similarly derived],
paronymous[obs3]; derivative.
Adv. verbally &c. adj.; verbatim &c. (exactly) 494.
Phr. "the artillery of words" [Swift].

<-- p. 173 -->

#563. Neologism. -- N. neology, neologism; newfangled expression,
nonce expression; back-formation; caconym[obs3]; barbarism.
archaism, black letter, monkish Latin.
corruption, missaying[obs3], malapropism, antiphrasis[obs3].
pun, paranomasia[obs3], play upon words; word play &c. (wit) 842;
double-entendre &c. (ambiguity) 520[Fr]; palindrome, paragram[obs3],
anagram, clinch; abuse of language, abuse of terms.
dialect, brogue, idiom, accent, patois; provincialism, regionalism,
localism; broken English, lingua franca; Anglicism, Briticism, Gallicism,
Scotticism, Hibernicism; Americanism[obs3]; Gypsy lingo, Romany; pidgin,
pidgin English, pigeon English; Volapuk, Chinook, Esperanto, Hindustani,
kitchen Kaffir.
dog Latin, macaronics[obs3], gibberish; confusion of tongues, Babel;
babu English[obs3], chi-chi.
figure of speech &c. (metaphor) 521; byword.
colloquialism, informal speech, informal language.
substandard language, vernacular.
vulgar language, obscene language, obscenity, vulgarity.
jargon, technical terms, technicality, lingo, slang, cant, argot; St.
Gile's Greek, thieves' Latin, peddler's French, flash tongue, Billingsgate,
Wall Street slang.
pseudonym &c. (misnomer) 565; Mr. So-and-so; wha d'ye call 'em[obs3],
whatchacallim, what's his name; thingummy[obs3], thingumbob; je ne sais
neologist[obs3], coiner of words.
V. coin words, coin a term; backform; Americanize, Anglicize.
Adj. neologic[obs3], neological[obs3]; archaic; obsolete &c. (old)
124; colloquial; Anglice[obs3].

#564. Nomenclature. -- N. nomenclature; naming &c. v.; nuncupation|,
nomination, baptism; orismology[obs3]; onomatopoeia; antonomasia[obs3].
name; appelation[obs3], appelative[obs3]; designation, title; heading,
rubric; caption; denomination; by-name, epithet.
style, proper name; praenomen[Lat], agnomen[obs3], cognomen;
patronymic, surname; cognomination[obs3]; eponym; compellation[obs3],
description, antonym; empty title, empty name; handle to one's name;
term, expression, noun; byword; convertible terms &c. 522; technical
term; cant &c. 563.
V. name, call, term, denominate designate, style, entitle,
clepe[obs3], dub, christen, baptize, characterize, specify, define,
distinguish by the name of; label &c. (mark) 550.
be -called &c v.; take the name of, bean the name of, go by the name of,
be known by the name of, go under the name of, pass under the name of,
rejoice in the name of.
Adj. named &c. v.; hight[obs3], ycleped, known as; what one may well,
call fairly, call properly, call fitly.
nuncupatory[obs3], nuncupative; cognominal[obs3], titular, nominal,
Phr. "beggar'd all description" [Antony and Cleopatra].

#565. Misnomer. -- N. misnomer; lucus a non lucendo[Lat]; Mrs.
Malaprop; what d'ye call 'em &c. (neologism) 563[obs3]; Hoosier.
nickname, sobriquet, by-name; assumed name, assumed title; alias; nom
de course, nom de theatre, nom de guerre[Fr], nom de plume; pseudonym,
V. misname, miscall, misterm[obs3]; nickname; assume a name.
Adj. misnamed &c. v.; pseudonymous; soi-disant[Fr]; self called, self
styled, self christened; so-called.
nameless, anonymous; without a having no name; innominate, unnamed;
Adv. in no sense.

#566. Phrase. -- N. phrase, expression, set phrase; sentence,
paragraph; figure of speech &c. 521; idiom, idiotism[obs3]; turn of
expression; style.
paraphrase &c. (synonym) 522; periphrase &c. (circumlocution) 573
motto &c. (proverb) 496[obs3].
phraseology &c. 569.
V. express, phrase; word, word it; give words to, give expression to;
voice; arrange in words, clothe in words, put into words, express by words;
couch in terms; find words to express; speak by the card; call, denominate,
designate, dub.
Adj. expressed &c. v.; idiomatic.
Adv. in round terms, in set terms, in good set terms, set terms; in
set phrases.

<-- p. 174 -->

#567. Grammar. -- N. grammar, accidence, syntax, praxis, punctuation;
parts of speech; jussive[obs3]; syllabication; inflection, case,
declension, conjugation; us et norma loquendi[Lat]; Lindley Murray &c.
(schoolbook) 542; correct style, philology &c. (language) 560.
V. parse, punctuate, syllabicate[obs3].

#568. Solecism. -- N. solecism; bad grammar, false grammar, faulty
grammar; slip of the pen, slip of the tongue; lapsus linguae[Lat];
slipslop[obs3]; bull; barbarism, impropriety.
V. use bad grammar, faulty grammar; solecize[obs3], commit a
solecism; murder the King's English, murder the Queen's English, break
Priscian's head.
Adj. ungrammatical; incorrect, inaccurate; faulty; improper,
incongruous; solecistic, solecistical[obs3].

#569. Style. -- N. style, diction, phraseology, wording; manner,
strain; composition; mode of expression, choice of words; mode of speech,
literary power, ready pen, pen of a ready writer; command of language &c.
(eloquence) 582; authorship; la morgue litteraire[Fr]..
V. express by words &c. 566; write.
Phr. le style c'est de l'homme [Fr][Buffon]; "style is the dress of
thoughts" [Chesterfield].

Various Qualities of Style

#570. Perspicuity. -- N. perspicuity, perspicuousness &c.
(intelligibility) 518; plain speaking &c. (manifestation) 525;
definiteness, definition; exactness &c. 494; explicitness, lucidness.
Adj. lucid &c. (intelligible) 518; explicit &c. (manifest) 525; exact
&c. 494.

#571. Obscurity. -- N. obscurity &c. (unintelligibility) 519;
involution; hard words; ambiguity &c. 520; unintelligibleness; vagueness
&c. 475, inexactness &c. 495; what d'ye call 'em &c. (neologism) 563[obs3];
darkness of meaning.
Adj. obscure &c. n.; crabbed, involved, confused.

#572. Conciseness. -- N. conciseness &c. adj.; brevity, "the soul of
wit", laconism[obs3]; Tacitus; ellipsis; syncope; abridgment &c.
(shortening) 201; compression &c. 195; epitome &c. 596; monostich[obs3];
brunch word, portmanteau word.
V. be concise &c. adj.; condense &c. 195; abridge &c. 201; abstract
&c. 596; come to the point.
Adj. concise, brief, short, terse,close; to the point, exact; neat,
compact; compressed, condensed, pointed; laconic, curt, pithy, trenchant,
summary; pregnant; compendious &c. (compendium) 596; succinct; elliptical,
epigrammatic, quaint, crisp; sententious.
Adv. concisely &c. adj.; briefly, summarily; in brief, in short, in a
word, in a few words; for shortness sake; to come to the point, to make a
long story short, to cut the matter short, to be brief; it comes to this,
the long and the short of it is.
Phr. brevis esse laboro obscurus fio [Lat][Horace].

#573. Diffuseness. -- N. diffuseness &c. adj.; amplification &c. v.;
dilating &c. v.; verbosity, verbiage, cloud of words, copia verborum[Lat];
flow of words &c. (loquacity) 584; looseness.
Polylogy[obs3], tautology, battology[obs3], perissology|; pleonasm,
exuberance, redundancy; thrice-told tale; prolixity; circumlocution,
ambages [obs3]; periphrase[obs3], periphrasis; roundabout phrases; episode;
expletive; pennya-lining; richness &c. 577.
V. be diffuse &c. adj.; run out on, descant, expatiate, enlarge,
dilate, amplify, expand, inflate; launch out, branch out; rant.
maunder, prose; harp upon &c. (repeat) 104; dwell on, insist upon.
digress, ramble, battre la campagne[Fr][obs3], beat about the bush,
perorate, spin a long yarn, protract; spin out, swell out, draw out;
Adj. diffuse, profuse; wordy, verbose, largiloquent|, copious,
exuberant, pleonastic, lengthy; longsome[obs3], long-winded,
longspun[obs3], long drawn out; spun out, protracted, prolix, prosing,
maundering; circumlocutory, periphrastic, ambagious[obs3], roundabout;
digressive; discursive, excursive; loose; rambling episodic; flatulent,
Adv. diffusely &c. adj.; at large, in extenso[Lat]; about it and about

<-- p. 175 -->

#574. Vigor. -- N. vigor, power, force; boldness, raciness &c. adj.;
intellectual, force; spirit, point, antithesis, piquance, piquancy; verve,
glow, fire, warmth; strong language; gravity, sententiousness; elevation,
loftiness, sublimity.
eloquence; command of words, command of language.
Adj. vigorous, nervous, powerful, forcible, trenchant, incisive,
impressive; sensational.
spirited, lively, glowing, sparkling, racy, bold, slashing; pungent,
piquant, full of point, pointed, pithy, antithetical; sententious.
lofty, elevated, sublime; eloquent; vehement, petulant, impassioned;
Adv. in glowing terms, in good set terms, in no measured terms.
Phr. "thoughts that breath and words that burn" [Gray].

#575. Feebleness. -- N. feebleness &c. adj.
Adj. feeble, bald, tame, meager, jejune, vapid, bland, trashy,
lukewarm, cold, frigid, poor, dull, dry, languid; colorless, enervated;
proposing, prosy, prosaic; unvaried, monotonous, weak, washy, wishy-washy;
sketchy, slight.
careless, slovenly, loose, lax (negligent) 460; slipshod,
slipslop[obs3]; inexact; puerile, childish; flatulent; rambling &c.
(diffuse) 573.

#576. Plainness. -- N. plainness &c. adj.; simplicity, severity; plain
terms, plain English; Saxon English; household words
V. call a spade "a spade"; plunge in medias res; come to the point.
Adj. plain, simple; unornamented, unadorned, unvarnished; homely,
homespun; neat; severe, chaste, pure, Saxon; commonplace, matter-of-fact,
natural, prosaic.
dry, unvaried,monotonous &c. 575.
Adv. in plain terms, in plain words, in plain English, in plain common
parlance; point-blank.

#577. Ornament. -- N. ornament; floridness c[obs3]. adj. turgidity,
turgescence[obs3]; altiloquence &c. adj[obs3].; declamation, teratology|!;
well-rounded periods; elegance &c. 578; orotundity.
inversion, antithesis, alliteration, paronomasia; figurativeness &c.
(metaphor) 521.
flourish; flowers of speech, flowers of rhetoric; frills of style,
euphuism[obs3], euphemism.
big-sounding words, high-sounding words; macrology[obs3],
sesquipedalia verba[Lat], Alexandrine; inflation, pretension; rant,
bombast, fustian, prose run mad; fine writing; sesquipedality[obs3];
Minerva press.
phrasemonger; euphuist[obs3], euphemist.
V. ornament, overlay with ornament, overcharge; smell of the lamp.
Adj. ornament &c. v.; beautified &c. 847; ornate, florid, rich,
flowery; euphuistic[obs3], euphemistic; sonorous; high-sounding, big-
sounding; inflated, swelling, tumid; turgid, turgescent; pedantic, pompous,
stilted; orotund; high flown, high flowing; sententious, rhetorical,
declamatory; grandiose; grandiloquent, magniloquent, altiloquent[obs3];
sesquipedal[obs3], sesquipedalian; Johnsonian, mouthy; bombastic; fustian;
frothy, flashy, flaming.
antithetical, alliterative; figurative &c. 521; artificial &c.
(inelegant) 579.
Adv. ore rutundo[Lat].

#578. Elegance. -- N. elegance, purity, grace, ease; gracefulness,
readiness &c. adj.; concinnity[obs3], euphony, numerosity[obs3];
Atticism[obs3], classicalism[obs3], classicism.
well rounded periods, well turned periods, flowing periods; the right
word in the right place; antithesis &c. 577.
V. point an antithesis, round a period.
Adj. elegant, polished, classical, Attic, correct, Ciceronian,
artistic; chaste, pure, Saxon, academical[obs3].
graceful, easy, readable, fluent, flowing, tripping; unaffected,
natural, unlabored[obs3]; mellifluous; euphonious, euphemism, euphemistic;
numerose|, rhythmical.
felicitous, happy, neat; well put, neatly put, well expressed, neatly

<-- p. 176 -->

#579. Inelegance. -- N. inelegance; stiffness &c. adj.; "unlettered
Muse" [Gray]; barbarism; slang &c. 563; solecism &c. 568; mannerism &c.
(affectation) 855; euphuism[obs3]; fustian &c. 577; cacophony; words that
break the teeth, words that dislocate the jaw; marinism[obs3].
V. be inelegant &c. adj.
Adj. inelegant, graceless, ungraceful; harsh, abrupt; dry, stiff,
cramped, formal, guinde[Fr]; forced, labored; artificial, mannered,
ponderous; awkward, uncourtly[obs3], unpolished; turgid &c. 577; affected,
euphuistic[obs3]; barbarous, uncouth, grotesque, rude, crude, halting;
offensive to ears polite.

Spoken Language

#580. Voice. -- N. voice; vocality[obs3]; organ, lungs, bellows; good
voice, fine voice, powerful voice &c. (loud) 404; musical voice &c. 413;
intonation; tone of voice &c. (sound) 402.
vocalization; cry &c. 411; strain, utterance, prolation[obs3];
exclamation, ejaculation, vociferation, ecphonesis[obs3]; enunciation,
articulation; articulate sound, distinctness; clearness, of articulation;
stage whisper; delivery.
accent, accentuation; emphasis, stress; broad accent, strong accent,
pure accent, native accent, foreign accent; pronunciation.
[Word similarly pronounced] homonym.
orthoepy[obs3]; cacoepy[obs3]; euphony &c. (melody) 413.
gastriloquism[obs3], ventriloquism; ventriloquist; polyphonism[obs3],
[Science of voice] phonology &c. (sound) 402.
V. utter, breathe; give utterance, give tongue; cry &c. (shout) 411;
ejaculate, rap out; vocalize, prolate|, articulate, enunciate, pronounce,
accentuate, aspirate, deliver, mouth; whisper in the ear.
Adj. vocal, phonetic, oral; ejaculatory, articulate, distinct,
stertorous; euphonious &c. (melodious) 413.
Phr. "how sweetly sounds the voice of a good woman" [Massinger]; "the
organ of the soul" [Longfellow]; "thy voice is a celestial melody"

#581. Aphony. -- N. aphony[obs3], aphonia[obs3]; dumbness &c. adj.;
obmutescence[obs3]; absence of voice, want of voice; dysphony[obs3];
cacoepy[obs3]; silence &c. (taciturnity) 585; raucity[obs3]; harsh voice
&c. 410, unmusical voice &c. 414; falsetto, "childish treble mute";
V. keep silence &c. 585; speak low, speak softly; whisper &c.
(faintness) 405.
silence; render mute, render silent; muzzle, muffle, suppress,
smother, gag, strike dumb, dumfounder; drown the voice, put to silence,
stop one's mouth, cut one short.
stick in the throat.
Adj. aphonous[obs3], dumb, mute; deafmute, deaf and dumb; mum; tongue-
tied; breathless, tongueless, voiceless, speechless, wordless; mute as a
fish, mute as a stockfish[obs3], mute as a mackerel; silent &c. (taciturn)
585; muzzled; inarticulate, inaudible.
croaking, raucous, hoarse, husky, dry, hollow, sepulchral, hoarse as a
raven; rough.
Adv. with bated breath, with the finger on the lips; sotto voce[Lat];
in a low tone, in a cracked voice, in a broken voice.
Phr. vox faucibus haesit [Lat][Vergil].

#582. Speech. -- N. speech, faculty of speech; locution, talk,
parlance, verbal intercourse, prolation[obs3], oral communication, word of
mouth, parole, palaver, prattle; effusion.
oration, recitation, delivery, say, speech, lecture, harangue, sermon,
tirade, formal speech, peroration; speechifying; soliloquy &c. 589;
allocution &c. 586; conversation &c. 588; salutatory; screed; valedictory
oratory; elocution, eloquence; rhetoric, declamation; grandiloquence,
multiloquence[obs3]; burst of eloquence; facundity[obs3]; flow of words,
command of words, command of language; copia verborum[Lat]; power of
speech, gift of the gab; usus loquendi[Lat].
speaker &c. v.; spokesman; prolocutor, interlocutor; mouthpiece,
Hermes; orator, oratrix[obs3], oratress[obs3]; Demosthenes, Cicero;
rhetorician; stump orator, platform orator; speechmaker, patterer[obs3],
V. speak of; say, utter, pronounce, deliver, give utterance to; utter
forth, pour forth; breathe, let fall, come out with; rap out, blurt out
have on one's lips; have at the end of one's tongue, have at the tip of
one's tongue.
break silence; open one's lips, open one's mouth; lift one's voice,
raise one's voice; give the tongue, wag the tongue; talk, outspeak[obs3];
put in a word or two.
hold forth; make a speech,.deliver a speech &c. n.; speechify,
harangue, declaim, stump, flourish, recite, lecture, sermonize, discourse,
be on one's legs; have one's say, say one's say; spout, rant, rave, vent
one's fury, vent one's rage; expatiate &c. (speak at length) 573; speak
one's mind, go on the stump, take the stump [U. S.].
soliloquize &c. 589; tell &c. (inform) 527; speak to &c. 586; talk
together &c. 588.
be eloquent &c. adj; have a tongue in one's head, have the gift of the
gab &c. n.
pass one's lips, escape one's lips; fall from the lips, fall from the
Adj. speaking &c., spoken &c. v.; oral, lingual, phonetic, not
written, unwritten, outspoken; eloquent, elocutionary; oratorical,
rhetorical; declamatory; grandiloquent &c. 577; talkative &c. 584;
Ciceronian, nuncupative, Tullian.
Adv. orally &c. adj.; by word of mouth, viva voce, from the lips of.
Phr. quoth he, said he &c.; "action is eloquence" [Coriolanus]; "pour
the full tide of eloquence along" [Pope]; "she speaks poignards and every
word stabs" [Much Ado About Nothing]; "speech is but broken light upon the
depth of the unspoken [G. Eliot]; "to try thy eloquence now 'tis time
[Antony and Cleopatra].

<-- p. 177 -->

#583. [Imperfect Speech.] Stammering. -- N. inarticulateness;
stammering &c. v.; hesitation &c. v.; impediment in one's speech;
titubancy[obs3], traulism|; whisper &c. (faint sound) 405; lisp, drawl,
tardiloquence[obs3]; nasal tone, nasal accent; twang; falsetto &c. (want of
voice) 581; broken voice, broken accents, broken sentences.
brogue &c. 563; slip of the tongue, lapsus linouae [Lat].
V. stammer, stutter, hesitate, falter, hammer; balbutiate|,
balbucinate|, haw, hum and haw, be unable to put two words together.
mumble, mutter; maud|, mauder[obs3]; whisper &c. 405; mince, lisp;
jabber, gibber; sputter, splutter; muffle, mump[obs3]; drawl, mouth; croak;
speak thick, speak through the nose; snuffle, clip one's words; murder the
language, murder the King's English, murder the Queen's English;
mispronounce, missay[obs3].
Adj. stammering &c. v.; inarticulate, guttural, nasal; tremulous;
Adv. sotto voce &c. (faintly) 405[Lat].

#584. Loquacity. -- N. loquacity, loquaciousness; talkativeness &c.
adj.; garrulity; multiloquence[obs3], much speaking.
jaw; gabble; jabber, chatter; prate, prattle, cackle, clack; twaddle,
twattle, rattle; caquet[obs3], caquetterie[Fr]; blabber, bavardage[obs3],
bibble-babble[obs3], gibble-gabble[obs3]; small talk &c. (converse) 588.
fluency, flippancy, volubility, flowing, tongue; flow of words; flux
de bouche[Fr], flux de mots[Fr]; copia verborum[Lat], cacoethes
loquendi[Lat]; furor loquendi[Lat]; verbosity &c. (diffuseness) 573; gift
of the gab &c. (eloquence) 582.
talker; chatterer, chatterbox; babbler &c. v.; rattle; ranter;
sermonizer, proser[obs3], driveler; blatherskite [U. S.]; gossip &c.
(converse) 588; magpie, jay, parrot, poll, Babel; moulin a paroles[Fr]..
V. be loquacious &c. adj.; talk glibly, pour forth, patter; prate,
palaver, prose, chatter, prattle, clack, jabber, jaw; blather,
blatter[obs3], blether[obs3]; rattle, rattle on; twaddle, twattle; babble,
gabble; outtalk; talk oneself out of breath, talk oneself hoarse; expatiate
&c. (speak at length) 573; gossip &c. (converse) 588; din in the ears &c.
(repeat) 104; talk at random, talk nonsense &c. 497; be hoarse with
Adj. loquacious, talkative, garrulous, linguacious|,
multiloquous[obs3]; largiloquent|; chattering &c. v.; chatty &c. (sociable)
892; declamatory &c. 582; open-mouthed.
fluent, voluble, glib, flippant; long tongued, long winded &c.
(diffuse) 573.
Adv. trippingly on the tongue; glibly &c. adj.; off the reel.
Phr. the tongue running fast, the tongue running loose, the tongue
running on wheels; all talk and no cider; "foul whisperings are abroad"
[Macbeth]; "what a spendthrift is he of his tongue!" [Tempest].

<-- p. 178 -->

#585. Taciturnity. -- N. silence, muteness, obmutescence[obs3];
taciturnity, pauciloquy[obs3], costiveness|, curtness; reserve, reticence
&c. (concealment) 528.
man of few words.
V. be silent &c. adj.; keep silence, keep mum; hold one's tongue,
hold one's peace, hold one's jaw; not speak. &c. 582; say nothing, keep
one's counsel; seal the lips, close the lips, button the lips, zipper the
lips, put a padlock on the lips, put a padlock on the mouth; put a bridle
on one's tongue; bite one's tongue, keep one's tongue between one's teeth;
make no sign, not let a word escape one; keep a secret &c. 528; not have a
word to say; hush up, hush, lay the finger on the lips, place the finger on
the lips; render mute &c. 581.
stick in one's throat.
Adj. silent, mute, mum; silent as a post, silent as a stone, silent as
the grave &c. (still) 403; dumb &c. 581; unconversable[obs3].
taciturn, sparing of words; closetongued; costive|, inconversable|,
curt; reserved; reticent &c. (concealing) 528.
Int. shush! tush! silence! mum! hush! chut[obs3]! hist! tut!
chup[obs3]! mum's the word; keep your mouth shut![vulgar].
Phr. cave quid dicis quando et cui[Lat]; volto sciolto i pensieri

#586. Allocution. -- N. allocution, alloquy|, address; speech &c. 582;
apostrophe, interpellation, appeal, invocation, salutation; word in the
[Feigned dialogue] dialogism[obs3].
platform &c. 542; plank; audience &c. (interview) 588.
V. speak to, address, accost, make up to, apostrophize, appeal to,
invoke; ball, salute; call to, halloo.
take aside, take by the button; talk to in private.
lecture &c. (make a speech) 582.
Int. soho[obs3]! halloo! hey! hist!

#587. Response -- N. &c., see Answer 462.

#588. Conversation. -- N. conversation, interlocution;
collocution[obs3], colloquy, converse, confabulation, talk, discourse,
verbal intercourse; oral communication, commerce; dialogue, duologue,
causerie, chat, chitchat; small talk, table talk, teatable talk[obs3],
town talk, village talk, idle talk; tattle, gossip, tittle-tattle; babble,
babblement[obs3]; tripotage[obs3], cackle, prittle-prattle[obs3], cancan,
on dit[Fr]; talk of the town, talk of the village.
conference, parley, interview, audience, pourparler; tete-a-tete;
reception, conversazione[It]; congress &c. (council) 696; powwow [U. S.].
hall of audience, durbar[obs3].
palaver, debate, logomachy[obs3], war of words.
gossip, tattler; Paul Pry; tabby; chatterer &c. (loquacity) 584;
interlocutor &c. (spokesman) 582; conversationist[obs3], dialogist[obs3].
"the feast of reason and the flow of soul" [Pope]; mollia tempora
V. talk together, converse, confabulate; hold on a conversation, carry
on a conversation, join in a conversation, engage in a conversation; put in
a word; shine in conversation; bandy words; parley; palaver; chat, gossip,
tattle; prate &c. (loquacity) 584; powwow [U.S.]..
discourse with, confer with, commune with, commerce with; hold
converse, hold conference, hold intercourse; talk it over; be closeted
with; talk with one in private, tete-a-tete.
Adj. conversing &c. v.; interlocutory; conversational,
conversable[obs3]; discursive, discoursive[obs3]; chatty &c. (sociable)
892; colloquial.
Phr. "with thee conversing I forget all time" [Paradise Lost].

#589. Soliloquy. -- N. soliloquy, monologue, apostrophe;
V. Soliloquize; say to oneself, talk to oneself; say aside, think
aloud, apostrophize.
Adj. soliloquizing &c. v.
Adv. aside.

<-- p. 179 -->
Written Language

#590. Writing. -- N. writing &c. v.; chirography, stelography[obs3],
cerography[obs3]; penmanship, craftmanship[obs3]; quill driving;
writing, manuscript, MS., literae scriptae[Lat]; these presents.
stroke of the pen, dash of the pen; coupe de plume; line; headline;
pen and ink.
letter &c. 561; uncial writing, cuneiform character, arrowhead, Ogham,
Runes, hieroglyphic; contraction; Brahmi[obs3], Devanagari, Nagari; script.
shorthand; stenography, brachygraphy[obs3], tachygraphy[obs3]; secret
writing, writing in cipher; cryptography, stenography; phonography[obs3],
pasigraphy[obs3], Polygraphy[obs3], logography[obs3].
copy; transcript, rescript; rough copy, fair copy; handwriting;
signature, sign manual; autograph, monograph, holograph; hand, fist.
calligraphy; good hand, running hand, flowing hand, cursive hand,
legible hand, bold hand.
cacography[obs3], griffonage[obs3], barbouillage[obs3]; bad hand,
cramped hand, crabbed hand, illegible hand; scribble &c. v.; pattes de
mouche[Fr]; ill-formed letters; pothooks and hangers.
stationery; pen, quill, goose quill; pencil, style; paper, foolscap,
parchment, vellum, papyrus, tablet, slate, marble, pillar, table;
blackboard; ink bottle, ink horn, ink pot, ink stand, ink well; typewriter.
transcription &c. (copy) 21; inscription &c. (record) 551;
superscription &c. (indication) 550; graphology.
composition, authorship; cacoethes scribendi[Lat]; graphoidea[obs3],
graphomania[obs3]; phrenoia[obs3].
writer, scribe, amanuensis, scrivener, secretary, clerk, penman,
copyist, transcriber, quill driver; stenographer, typewriter, typist;
writer for the press &c. (author) 593.
V. write, pen; copy, engross; write out, write out fair; transcribe;
scribble, scrawl, scrabble, scratch; interline; stain paper; write down &c.
(record) 551; sign &c. (attest) 467; enface[obs3].
compose, indite, draw up, draft, formulate; dictate; inscribe, throw
on paper, dash off; manifold.
take up the pen, take pen in hand; shed ink, spill ink, dip one's pen in
Adj. writing &c. v.; written &c. v.; in writing, in black and white;
under one's hand.
uncial, Runic, cuneiform, hieroglyphical[obs3].
Adv. currente calamo[Sp]; pen in hand.
Phr. audacter et sincere[Lat]; le style est l'homme meme [Fr];
"nature's noblest gift - my gray goose quill" [Byron]; scribendi recte
sapere et principium et fons [Lat][Horace]; "that mighty instrument of
little men" [Byron]; "the pen became a clarion" [Longfellow].

#591. Printing. -- N. printing; block printing, type- printing; plate
printing &c. 558[engraving]; the press &c. (publication) 531; composition.
print, letterpress, text; context, note, page, column.
typography; stereotype, electrotype, aprotype[obs3]; type, black
letter, font, fount; pi, pie; capitals &c. (letters) 561; brevier[obs3],
bourgeois, pica &c.
boldface, capitals, caps., catchword; composing-frame, composing room,
composing rule, composing stand, composing stick; italics, justification,
linotype, live matter, logotype; lower case, upper case; make-up, matrix,
matter, monotype[obs3], point system: 4-1/2, 5, 5-1/2, 6, 7, 8 point, etc.;
press room, press work; reglet[obs3], roman; running head, running title;
scale, serif, shank, sheet work, shoulder, signature, slug, underlay.
folio &c. (book) 593; copy, impression, pull, proof, revise; author's
proof, galley proof, press proof; press revise.
printer, compositor, reader; printer's devil copyholder.
V. print; compose; put to press, go to press; pass through the press,
see through the press; publish &c. 531; bring out; appear in print, rush
into print; distribute, makeup, mortise, offset, overrun, rout.
Adj. printed &c. v.; in type; typographical &c. n.; solid in galleys.

<-- p. 180 -->

#592. Correspondence. -- N. correspondence, letter, epistle, note,
billet, post card, missive, circular, favor, billet-doux; chit,
chitty[obs3], letter card, picture post card; postal [U.S.], card;
despatch; dispatch; bulletin, these presents; rescript, rescription[obs3];
post &c. (messenger) 534.
V. correspond with; write to, send a letter to; keep up a
Adj. epistolary.
Phr. furor scribendi[Lat].

<-- Book, periodical should be separated -->

#593. Book. -- N. booklet; writing, work, volume, tome,
opuscule[obs3]; tract, tractate[obs3]; livret[obs3]; brochure, libretto,
handbook, codex, manual, pamphlet, enchiridion[obs3], circular,
publication; chap book.
part, issue, number livraison[Fr]; album, portfolio; periodical,
serial, magazine, ephemeris, annual, journal.
paper, bill, sheet, broadsheet[obs3]; leaf, leaflet; fly leaf, page;
quire, ream
[subdivisions of a book] chapter, section, head, article, paragraph,
passage, clause; endpapers, frontispiece; cover, binding.
folio, quarto, octavo; duodecimo[obs3], sextodecimo[obs3],
encyclopedia; encompilation[obs3].
[collection of books] library, bibliotheca[obs3].
press &c. (publication) 531.
[complete description] definitive work, treatise, comprehensive
treatise (dissertation) 595.
[person who writes a book] writer, author, litterateur[Fr], essayist,
journalism; pen, scribbler, the scribbling race; literary hack, Grub-street
writer; writer for the press, gentleman of the press, representative of the
press; adjective jerker[obs3], diaskeaust[obs3], ghost, hack writer, ink
slinger; publicist; reporter, penny a liner; editor, subeditor[obs3];
playwright &c. 599; poet &c. 597.
bookseller, publisher; bibliopole[obs3], bibliopolist[obs3];
librarian; bookstore, bookshop, bookseller's shop.
knowledge of books, bibliography; book learning &c. (knowledge) 490.
Phr. "among the giant fossils of my past" [E. B. Browning]; craignez
tout d'un auteur en courroux[Fr]; "for authors nobler palms remain" [Pope];
"I lived to write and wrote to live" [Rogers]; "look in thy heart and
write" [Sidney]; "there is no Past so long as Books shall live" [Bulwer
Lytton]; "the public mind is the creation of the Master-Writers"
[Disraeli]; "volumes that I prize above my dukedom" [Tempest].

#594. Description. -- N. description, account, statement, report;
expose &c. (disclosure) 529 specification, particulars; state of facts,
summary of facts; brief &c. (abstract) 596; return &c. (record) 551;
catalogue raisonne &c. (list) 86[Fr]; guidebook &c. (information) 527.
delineation &c (representation) 554; sketch; monograph; minute
account, detailed particular account, circumstantial account, graphic
account; narration, recital, rehearsal, relation.
historiography[obs3], chronography[obs3]; historic Muse, Clio;
history; biography, autobiography; necrology, obituary.
narrative, history; memoir, memorials; annals &c. (chronicle) 551;
saga; tradition, legend, story, tale, historiette[obs3]; personal
narrative, journal, life, adventures, fortunes, experiences, confessions;
anecdote, ana[obs3], trait.
work of fiction, novel, romance, Minerva press; fairy tale, nursery
tale; fable, parable, apologue[obs3]; dime novel, penny dreadful, shilling
relator &c. v.; raconteur, historian &c. (recorder) 553; biographer,
fabulist[obs3], novelist.
V. describe; set forth &c. (state) 535; draw a picture, picture;
portray &c. (represent) 554; characterize, particularize; narrate, relate,
recite, recount, sum up, run over, recapitulate, rehearse, fight one's
battles over again.
unfold a tale &c. (disclose) 529; tell; give an account of, render an
account of; report, make a report, draw up a statement.
detail; enter into particulars, enter into details, descend to
particulars, descend to details; itemize.
Adj. descriptive, graphic, narrative, epic, suggestive, well-drawn;
historic; traditional, traditionary; legendary; anecdotic[obs3], storied;
described &c. v.
Phr. furor scribendi[Lat].

#595. Dissertation. -- N. dissertation, treatise, essay; thesis,
theme; monograph, tract, tractate[obs3], tractation[obs3]; discourse,
memoir, disquisition, lecture, sermon, homily, pandect[obs3]; excursus.
commentary, review, critique, criticism, article; leader, leading
article; editorial; running commentary.
investigation &c. (inquiry) 461; study &c. (consideration) 451;
discussion &c. (reasoning) 476; exposition &c. (explanation) 522.
commentator, critic, essayist, pamphleteer.
V. expound upon a subject, dissert upon a subject[obs3], descant upon
a subject, write upon a subject, touch upon a subject; treat a subject,
treat a subject thoroughly, treat of a subject, take up a subject,
ventilate a subject, discuss a subject, deal with a subject, go into a
subject, go into a subject at length, canvass a subject, handle a subject,
do justice to a subject.
hold forth[oral dissertation], discourse, delve into.
Adj. discursive, discoursive[obs3]; disquisitionary[obs3]; expository.

<-- p. 181 -->

#596. Compendium. -- N. compend, compendium; abstract, precis,
epitome, multum in parvo[Lat], analysis, pandect[obs3], digest, sum and
substance, brief, abridgment, summary, apercu, draft, minute, note;
excerpt; synopsis, textbook, conspectus, outlines, syllabus, contents,
heads, prospectus.
album; scrap book, note book, memorandum book, commonplace book;
extracts, excerpta[obs3], cuttings; fugitive pieces, fugitive writing;
spicilegium[obs3], flowers, anthology, collectanea[obs3], analecta[obs3];
recapitulation, resume, review.
abbreviation, abbreviature[obs3]; contraction; shortening &c. 201;
compression &c. 195.
V. abridge, abstract, epitomize, summarize; make an abstract, prepare
an abstract, draw an abstract, compile an abstract &c. n.
recapitulate, review, skim, run over, sum up.
abbreviate &c. (shorten) 201; condense &c. (compress) 195; compile &c.
(collect) 72.
Adj. compendious, synoptic, analectic[obs3]; abrege[Fr], abridged &c.
v.; variorum[obs3].
Adv. in short, in epitome, in substance, in few words.
Phr. it lies in a nutshell.

#597. Poetry. -- N. poetry, poetics, poesy, Muse, Calliope, tuneful
Nine, Parnassus, Helicon[obs3], Pierides, Pierian spring.
versification, rhyming, making verses; prosody, orthometry[obs3].
poem; epic, epic poem; epopee[obs3], epopoea, ode, epode[obs3], idyl,
lyric, eclogue, pastoral, bucolic, dithyramb, anacreontic[obs3], sonnet,
roundelay, rondeau[Fr], rondo, madrigal, canzonet[obs3], cento[obs3],
*monody, elegy; amoebaeum, ghazal[obs3], palinode.
dramatic poetry, lyric poetry; opera; posy, anthology; disjecta membra
song[Lat], ballad, lay; love song, drinking song, war song, sea song;
lullaby; music &c. 415; nursery rhymes.
[Bad poetry] doggerel, Hudibrastic verse[obs3], prose run mad;
macaronics[obs3]; macaronic verse[obs3], leonine verse; runes.
canto, stanza, distich, verse, line, couplet, triplet, quatrain;
strophe, antistrophe[obs3].
verse, rhyme, assonance, crambo[obs3], meter, measure, foot, numbers,
strain, rhythm; accentuation &c. (voice) 580; dactyl, spondee, trochee,
anapest &c.; hexameter, pentameter; Alexandrine; anacrusis[obs3],
antispast[obs3], blank verse, ictus.
elegiacs &c. adj.; elegiac verse, elegaic meter, elegaic poetry.
poet, poet laureate; laureate; bard, lyrist[obs3], scald, skald[obs3],
troubadour, trouvere[Fr]; minstrel; minnesinger, meistersinger[Ger];
improvisatore[obs3]; versifier, sonneteer; rhymer, rhymist[obs3],
rhymester; ballad monger, runer[obs3]; poetaster; genus irritabile vatum
V. poetize, sing, versify, make verses, rhyme, scan.
Adj. poetic, poetical; lyric, lyrical, tuneful, epic, dithyrambic &c.
n.; metrical; a catalectin[obs3]; elegiac, iambic, trochaic,
anapestic[obs3]; amoebaeic, Melibean, skaldic[obs3]; Ionic, Sapphic,
Alcaic[obs3], Pindaric.
Phr. "a poem round and perfect as a star" [Alex. Smith]; Dichtung und
Wahrheit [Ger]; furor poeticus[Lat]; "his virtues formed the magic of his
song" [Hayley]; "I do but sing because I must" [Tennyson]; "I learnt life
from the poets" [de Stael]; licentia vatum[Lat]; mutum est pictura
poema[Lat]; "O for a muse of fire!" [Henry V]; "sweet food of sweetly
uttered knowledge" [Sidney]; "the true poem is the poet's mind" [Emerson];
Volk der Dichter und Denker[Ger]; "wisdom married to immortal verse"

#598. Prose. -- N. prose, prose writer. prosaicism[obs3],
prosaism[obs3], prosaist[obs3], proser[obs3].
V. prose.
write prose, write in prose.
Adj. prosal[obs3],prosy, prosaic; unpoetic, unpoetical[obs3].
rhymeless[obs3], unrhymed, in prose, not in verse.

<-- p. 182 -->

#599. The Drama. -- N. the drama, the stage, the theater, the play;
film the film, movies, motion pictures, cinema, cinematography;
theatricals, dramaturgy, histrionic art, buskin, sock, cothurnus[obs3],
Melpomene and Thalia, Thespis.
play, drama, stage play, piece[Fr], five-act play, tragedy, comedy,
opera, vaudeville, comedietta[obs3], lever de rideau[Fr], interlude,
afterpiece[obs3], exode[obs3], farce, divertissement, extravaganza,
burletta[obs3], harlequinade[obs3], pantomime, burlesque, opera bouffe[Fr],
ballet, spectacle, masque, drame comedie drame[Fr]; melodrama,
melodrame[obs3]; comidie larmoyante[Fr], sensation drama; tragicomedy,
farcical-comedy; monodrame monologue[obs3];duologue trilogy; charade,
proverbs; mystery, miracle play; musical, musical comedy.
[movies] western, horse opera; flick [coll.]; spy film, love story,
adventure film, documentary, nature film; pornographic film, smoker, skin
flick, X-rated film.
act, scene, tableau; induction, introduction; prologue, epilogue;
performance, representation, mise en scene[French], stagery[obs3], jeu
de theatre[French]; acting; gesture &c. 550; impersonation &c. 554; stage
business, gag, buffoonery.
light comedy, genteel comedy, low comedy.
theater; playhouse, opera house; house; music hall; amphitheater,
circus, hippodrome, theater in the round; puppet show, fantoccini[obs3];
marionettes, Punch and Judy.
auditory, auditorium, front of the house, stalls, boxes, pit, gallery,
parquet; greenroom, coulisses[Fr].
flat; drop, drop scene; wing, screen, side scene; transformation
scene, curtain, act drop; proscenium.
stage, scene, scenery, the boards; trap, mezzanine floor; flies;
floats, footlights; offstage; orchestra.
theatrical costume, theatrical properties.
movie studio, back lot, on location.
part, role, character, dramatis personae[Lat]; repertoire.
actor, thespian, player; method actor; stage player, strolling player;
stager, performer; mime, mimer[obs3]; artists; comedian, tragedian;
tragedienne, Roscius; star, movie star, star of stage and screen,
superstar, idol, sex symbol; supporting actor, supporting cast; ham,
hamfatter *[obs3]; masker[obs3]. pantomimist, clown harlequin, buffo[obs3],
buffoon, farceur, grimacer, pantaloon, columbine; punchinello[obs3];
pulcinello[obs3], pulcinella[obs3]; extra, bit-player, walk-on role, cameo
appearance; mute, figurante[obs3], general utility; super, supernumerary.
company; first tragedian, prima donna[Sp], protagonist; jeune
premier[French]; debutant, debutante[French]; light comedian, genteel
comedian, low comedian; walking gentleman, amoroso[obs3], heavy father,
ingenue[French], jeune veuve[French].
mummer, guiser[obs3], guisard[obs3], gysart |, masque.
mountebank, Jack Pudding; tumbler, posture master, acrobat;
contortionist; ballet dancer, ballet girl; chorus singer; coryphee
property man, costumier, machinist; prompter, call boy; manager;
director, stage manager, acting manager.
producer, entrepreneur, impresario; backer, investor, angel[fig].
dramatic author, dramatic writer; play writer, playwright; dramatist,
V. act, play, perform; put on the stage; personate &c. 554; mimic &c.
(imitate) 19; enact; play a part, act a part, go through a part, perform a
part; rehearse, spout, gag, rant; "strut and fret one's hour upon a stage";
tread the boards, tread the stage; come out; star it.
Adj. dramatic; theatric, theatrical; scenic, histrionic, comic,
tragic, buskined[obs3], farcical, tragicomic, melodramatic, operatic;
Adv. on the stage, on the boards; on film; before the floats, before
an audience; behind the scenes.
Phr. fere totus mundus exercet histrionem [Lat][Petronius Arbiter];
"suit the action to the word, the word to the action" [Hamlet]; "the play's
the thing" [Hamlet]; "to wake the soul by tender strokes of art" [Pope].

<-- p. 183 -->



1. Acts of Volition

#600. Will. -- N. will, volition, conation[obs3], velleity; liberum
arbitrium[Lat]; will and pleasure, free will; freedom &c. 748; discretion;
option &c. (choice) 609; voluntariness[obs3]; spontaneity, spontaneousness;
pleasure, wish, mind; desire; frame of mind &c. (inclination) 602;
intention &c. 620; predetermination &c. 611; selfcontrol &c. determination
&c. (resolution) 604; force of will.
V. will, list; see fit, think fit; determine &c. (resolve) 604;
enjoin; settle &c. (choose) 609; volunteer.
have a will of one's own; do what one chooses &c. (freedom) 748; have
it all one's own way; have one's will, have one's own way.
use one's discretion, exercise one's discretion; take upon oneself, take
one's own course, take the law into one's own hands; do of one's own
accord, do upon one's own authority; originate &c. (cause) 153.
Adj. voluntary, volitional, willful; free &c. 748; optional;
discretional, discretionary; volitient[obs3], volitive[obs3].
minded &c. (willing) 602; prepense &c. (predetermined) 611[obs3];
intended &c. 620; autocratic; unbidden &c. (bid &c. 741); spontaneous;
original &c. (casual) 153; unconstrained.
Adv. voluntarily &c. adj.; at will, at pleasure; a volonte[Fr], a
discretion; al piacere[It]; ad libitum, ad arbitrium[Lat]; as one thinks
proper, as it seems good to; a beneplacito[It].
of one's won accord, of one's own free will; proprio motu[Lat], suo
motu[Lat], ex meromotu[Lat]; out of one's won head; by choice &c. 609;
purposely &c. (intentionally) 620; deliberately &c. 611.
Phr. stet pro ratione voluntas[Lat]; sic volo sic jubeo[Lat]; a vostro
beneplacito[It]; beneficium accipere libertatem est vendere[Lat]; Deus
vult[Lat]; was man nicht kann meiden muss man willig leiden[Ger].

#601. Necessity. -- N. involuntariness; instinct, blind impulse;
inborn proclivity, innate proclivity; native tendency, natural tendency;
natural impulse, predetermination.
necessity, necessitation; obligation; compulsion &c. 744; subjection
&c. 749; stern necessity, hard necessity, dire necessity, imperious
necessity, inexorable necessity, iron necessity, adverse necessity; fate;
what must be.
destiny, destination; fatality, fate, kismet, doom, foredoom,
election, predestination; preordination, foreordination; lot fortune;
fatalism; inevitableness &c. adj.; spell &c. 993.
star, stars; planet, planets; astral influence; sky, Fates, Parcae,
Sisters three, book of fate; God's will, will of Heaven; wheel of Fortune,
Ides of March, Hobson's choice.
last shift, last resort; dernier ressort[Fr]; pis aller &c.
(substitute) 147[Fr]; necessaries &c. (requirement) 630.
necessarian[obs3], necessitarian[obs3]; fatalist; automaton.
V. lie under a necessity; befated[obs3], be doomed, be destined &c. in
for, under the necessity of; have no choice, have no alternative; be one's
fate &c. n. to be pushed to the wall to be driven into a corner, to be
unable to help.
destine, doom, foredoom, devote; predestine, preordain; cast a spell
&c. 992; necessitate; compel &c. 744.
Adj. necessary, needful &c (requisite) 630.
fated; destined &c. v.; elect; spellbound, compulsory
&c. (compel) 744; uncontrollable, inevitable, unavoidable,
irresistible, irrevocable, inexorable; avoidless[obs3], resistless.
involuntary, instinctive, automatic, blind, mechanical; unconscious,
unwitting, unthinking; unintentional &c. (undesigned) 621; impulsive &c.
Adv. necessarily &c. adv.; of necessity, of course; ex necessitate
rei[Lat]; needs must; perforce &c. 744; nolens volens[Lat]; will he nil he,
willy nilly, bon gre mal gre[Fr], willing or unwilling, coute que
faute de mieux[Fr]; by stress of; if need be.
Phr. it cannot be helped; there is no help for, there is no helping
it; it will be, it must be, it needs to be, it must be so, it will have its
way; the die is cast; jacta est alea[obs3][Lat]; che sara sara[French]; "it
is written"; one's days are numbered, one's fate is sealed; Fata
obstant[Latin]; diis aliter visum[obs3][Latin]; actum me invito
factus[Latin], non est meus actus[Latin]; aujord'hui roi demain
rien[French]; quisque suos patimur manes [Latin][Vergil];"The moving
finger writes and having writ moves on. Nor all your piety and wit can
bring it back to cancel half a line, nor all your tears wash out a word of
it."[Rubayyat of Omar Khayyam].

<-- p. 184 -->

#602. Willingness. -- N. willingness, voluntariness &c. adj[obs3].;
willing mind, heart.
disposition, inclination, leaning, animus; frame of mind, humor, mood,
vein; bent &c. (turn of mind) 820; penchant &c. (desire) 865; aptitude &c.
docility, docibleness[obs3]; persuasibleness[obs3],
persuasibility[obs3]; pliability &c. (softness) 324.
geniality, cordiality; goodwill; alacrity, readiness, earnestness,
forwardness; eagerness &c. (desire) 865.
asset &c. 488; compliance &c. 762; pleasure &c. (will) 600; gratuitous
labor of love; volunteer, volunteering.
V. be willing &c. adj.; incline, lean to, mind, propend; had as lief;
lend a willing ear, give a willing ear, turn a willing ear; have a half a
mind to, have a great mind to; hold to, cling to; desire &c. 865.
see fit, think good, think proper; acquiesce &c (assent) 488; comply
with &c. 762.
swallow the bait, nibble at the bait; gorge the hook; have no scruple
of, make no scruple of; make no bones of; jump at, catch at; meet halfway;
Adj. willing, minded, fain, disposed, inclined, favorable; favorably-
minded, favorably inclined, favorably disposed; nothing loth; in the vein,
in the mood, in the humor, in the mind.
ready, forward, earnest, eager; bent upon &c. (desirous) 865;
predisposed, propense[obs3].
docile; persuadable, persuasible; suasible[obs3], easily persuaded,
facile, easy-going; tractable &c. (pliant) 324; genial, gracious, cordial,
cheering, hearty; content &c. (assenting) 488.
voluntary, gratuitous, spontaneous; unasked &c. (ask &c. 765);
unforced &c. (free) 748.
Adv. willingly &c. adj.; fain, freely, as lief, heart and soul; with
pleasure, with all one's heart, with open arms; with good will, with right
will; de bonne volonte[Fr], ex animo[Lat]; con amore[It], heart in hand,
nothing loth, without reluctance, of one's own accord, graciously, with a
good grace.
a la bonne heure[Fr]; by all means, by all manner of means; to one's
heart's content; yes &c. (assent) 488.

#603. Unwillingness. -- N. unwillingness &c. adj.; indisposition,
indisposedness[obs3]; disinclination, aversation[obs3]; nolleity[obs3],
nolition[obs3]; renitence[obs3], renitency; reluctance; indifference &c.
866; backwardness &c. adj.; slowness &c. 275; want of alacrity, want of
readiness; indocility &c. (obstinacy) 606[obs3].
scrupulousness, scrupulosity; qualms of conscience, twinge of
conscience; delicacy, demur, scruple, qualm, shrinking, recoil; hesitation
&c. (irresolution) 605; fastidiousness &c. 868.
averseness &c. (dislike) 867[obs3]; dissent &c. 489; refusal &c. 764.
V. be unwilling &c. adj.; nill; dislike &c. 867; grudge, begrudge; not
be able to find it in one's heart to, not have the stomach to.
demur, stick at, scruple, stickle; hang fire, run rusty; recoil,
shrink, swerve; hesitate &c. 605; avoid &c. 623.
oppose &c. 708; dissent &c. 489; refuse &c. 764.
Adj. unwilling; not in the vein, loth, loath, shy of, disinclined,
indisposed, averse, reluctant, not content; adverse &c. (opposed) 708;
laggard, backward, remiss, slack, slow to; indifferent &c. 866; scrupulous;
squeamish &c. (fastidious) 868; repugnant &c. (dislike) 867; restiff|,
restive; demurring &c. v.; unconsenting &c. (refusing) 764; involuntary &c.
Adv. unwillingly &c. adj.; grudgingly, with a heavy heart; with a bad,
with an ill grace; against one's wishes, against one's will, against the
grain, sore against one's wishes, sore against one's will, sore against
one's grain; invita Minerva[Lat]; a contre caeur[Fr]; malgre soi[Fr]; in
spite of one's teeth, in spite of oneself; nolens volens &c. (necessity)
601[Lat]; perforce &c. 744; under protest; no &c. 536; not for the world,
far be it from me.

<-- p. 185 -->

#604. Resolution. -- N. determination, will; iron will, unconquerable
will; will of one's own, decision, resolution; backbone; clear grit, true
grit, grit [U. S. &can.]; sand, strength of mind, strength of will; resolve
&c. (intent) 620; firmness &c. (stability) 150; energy, manliness, vigor;
game, pluck; resoluteness &c. (courage) 861; zeal &c. 682; aplomb;
desperation; devotion, devotedness.
mastery over self; self control, self command, self possession, self
reliance, self government, self restraint, self conquest, self denial;
moral courage, moral strength; perseverance &c. 604a; tenacity; obstinacy
&c. 606; bulldog; British lion.
V. have determination &c. n.; know one's own mind; be resolved &c.
adj.; make up one's mind, will, resolve, determine; decide &c. (judgment)
480; form a determination, come to a determination, come to a resolution,
come to a resolve; conclude, fix, seal, determine once for all, bring to a
crisis, drive matters to an extremity; take a decisive step &c. (choice)
609; take upon oneself &c. (undertake) 676.
devote oneself to, give oneself up to; throw away the scabbard, kick
down the ladder, nail one's colors to the mast, set one's back against the
wall, set one's teeth, put one's foot down, take one's stand; stand firm
&c. (stability) 150; steel oneself; stand no nonsense, not listen to the
voice of the charmer.
buckle to; buckle oneself put one's shoulder to the wheel, lay one's
shoulder to the wheel, set one's shoulder to the wheel; put one's heart
into; run the gauntlet, make a dash at, take the bull by the horns; rush in
medias res, plunge in medias res; go in for; insist upon, make a point of;
set one's heart upon, set one's mind upon.
stick at nothing, stop at nothing; make short work of &c. (activity)
682; not stick at trifles; go all lengths, go the limit *, go the whole
hog; persist &c. (persevere) 604a; go through fire and water, ride the
tiger, ride in the whirlwind and direct the storm.
Adj. resolved &c. v.; determined; strong-willed, strong-minded;
resolute &c. (brave) 861; self-possessed; decided, definitive, peremptory,
tranchant[obs3]; unhesitating, unflinching, unshrinking[obs3]; firm, iron,
gritty [U.S.], indomitable, game to the backbone; inexorable, relentless,
not to be shaken, not to be put down; tenax propositi[Lat]; inflexible &c.
(hard) 323; obstinate &c. 606; steady &c. (persevering) 604a.
earnest, serious; set upon, bent upon, intent upon.
steel against, proof against; in utrumque paratus[Lat].
Adv. resolutely &c. adj.; in earnest, in good earnest; seriously,
joking apart, earnestly, heart and soul; on one's mettle; manfully, like a
man, with a high hand; with a strong hand &c. (exertion) 686.
at any rate, at any risk, at any hazard at any price, at any cost, at
any sacrifice; at all hazards, at all risks, at all events; a bis ou a
blanc[Fr][obs3]; cost what it may; coute[Fr]; a tort et a travers[obs3];
once for all; neck or nothing; rain or shine.
Phr. spes sibi quisque[Lat]; celui qui veut celui-la peut[Fr]; chi non
s'arrischia non guadagna[Fr][obs3]; frangas non flectes[Lat]; manu
forti[Lat]; tentanda via est[Lat].

#604a. Perseverance. -- N. perseverance; continuance &c. (inaction)
143; permanence &c. (absence of change) 141; firmness &c. (stability) 150.
constancy, steadiness; singleness of purpose, tenacity of purpose;
persistence, plodding, patience; sedulity &c. (industry) 682; pertinacy|,
pertinacity, pertinaciousness; iteration &c. 104
bottom, game, pluck, stamina, backbone, grit; indefatigability,
indefatigableness; bulldog courage.
V. persevere, persist; hold on, hold out; die in the last ditch, be in
at the death; stick to, cling to, adhere to; stick to one's text, keep on;
keep to one's course, keep to one's ground, maintain one's course, maintain
one's ground; go all lengths, go through fire and water; bear up, keep up,
hold up; plod; stick to work &c. (work) 686; continue &c. 143; follow up;
die in harness, die at one's post.
Adj. persevering, constant; steady, steadfast; undeviating,
unwavering, unfaltering, unswerving, unflinching, unsleeping[obs3],
unflagging, undrooping[obs3]; steady as time; unrelenting,
unintermitting[obs3], unremitting; plodding; industrious &c. 682; strenuous
&c. 686; pertinacious; persisting, persistent.
solid, sturdy, staunch, stanch, true to oneself; unchangeable &c. 150;
unconquerable &c. (strong) 159; indomitable, game to the last,
indefatigable, untiring, unwearied, never tiring.
Adv. through evil report and good report, through thick and thin,
through fire and water; per fas et nefas[Lat]; without fail, sink or swim,
at any price, vogue la galere[Fr]..
Phr. never say die; give it the old college try; vestigia nulla
retrorsum[Lat]; aut vincer aut mori[Lat]; la garde meurt et ne se rend
pas[Fr]; tout vient a temps pour qui sait attendre[Fr].

<-- p. 186 -->

#605. Irresolution. -- N. irresolution, infirmity of purpose,
indecision; indetermination, undetermination|!; unsettlement; uncertainty
&c. 475; demur, suspense; hesitating &c. v., hesitation, hesitancy;
vacillation; changeableness &c. 149; fluctuation; alternation &c.
(oscillation) 314; caprice &c. 608.
fickleness, levity, legerete[Fr]; pliancy &c. (softness) 324;
weakness; timidity &c. 860; cowardice &c. 862; half measures.
waverer, ass between two bundles of hay; shuttlecock, butterfly; wimp;
doughface [obs3][U. S.].
V. be irresolute &c. adj.; hang in suspense, keep in suspense; leave
"ad referendum"; think twice about, pause; dawdle &c. (inactivity) 683;
remain neuter; dillydally, hesitate, boggle, hover, dacker[obs3], hum and
haw, demur, not know one's own mind; debate, balance; dally with, coquet
with; will and will not, chaser-balancer[obs3]; go halfway, compromise,
make a compromise; be thrown off one's balance, stagger like a drunken man;
be afraid &c. 860; "let 'I dare not' wait upon 'I would'" [Macbeth]; falter,
vacillate &c. 149; change &c. 140; retract &c. 607; fluctuate;
pendulate[obs3]; alternate &c. (oscillate) 314; keep off and on, play fast
and loose; blow hot and cold &c. (caprice) 608.
shuffle, palter, blink; trim.
Adj. irresolute, infirm of purpose, double-minded, half-hearted;
undecided, unresolved, undetermined; shilly-shally; fidgety, tremulous;
hesitating &c. v.; off one's balance; at a loss &c. (uncertain) 475.
vacillating &c. v.; unsteady &c. (changeable) 149; unsteadfast[obs3],
fickle, without ballast; capricious &c. 608; volatile, frothy; light,
lightsome, light-minded; giddy; fast and loose.
weak, feeble-minded, frail; timid, wimpish, wimpy &c. 860; cowardly
&c. 862; dough-faced [U.S.]; facile; pliant &c. (soft) 324; unable to say
"no", easy-going,
revocable, reversible.
Adv. irresolutely &c. adj.; irresolved[obs3], irresolvedly[obs3]; in
faltering accents; off and on; from pillar to post; seesaw &c. 314.
Int. "how happy could I be with either!" [Gay].

#606. Obstinacy. -- N. obstinateness &c. adj.; obstinacy, tenacity;
cussedness [U. S.]; perseverance &c. 604a; immovability; old school;
inflexibility &c. (hardness) 323; obduracy, obduration[obs3]; dogged
resolution; resolution &c. 604; ruling passion; blind side.
self-will, contumacy, perversity; pervicacy|, pervicacity[obs3];
bigotry, intolerance, dogmatism; opiniatry|, opiniativeness; fixed
idea &c. (prejudgment) 481; fanaticism, zealotry, infatuation, monomania;
opinionatedness opinionativeness[obs3].
mule; opinionist|, opinionatist[obs3], opiniator|, opinator|;
stickler, dogmatist; bigot; zealot, enthusiast, fanatic.
V. be obstinate &c. adj.; stickle, take no denial, fly in the face of
facts; opinionate, be wedded to an opinion, hug a belief; have one's own
way &c. (will) 600; persist &c. (persevere) 604a; have the last word,
insist on having the last word.
die hard, fight against destiny, not yield an inch, stand out.
Adj. obstinate, tenacious, stubborn, obdurate, casehardened;
inflexible &c. (hard) 323; balky; immovable, unshakable, not to be moved;
inert &c. 172; unchangeable &c. 150; inexorable &c. (determined) 604;
mulish, obstinate as a mule, pig-headed.
dogged; sullen, sulky; unmoved, uninfluenced, unaffected.
willful, self-willed, perverse; resty[obs3], restive, restiff|;
pervicacious[obs3], wayward, refractory, unruly; heady, headstrong;
entete[Fr]; contumacious; crossgrained[obs3].
arbitrary, dogmatic, positive, bigoted; prejudiced &c. 481; creed-
bound; prepossessed, infatuated; stiff-backed, stiff necked, stiff hearted;
hard-mouthed, hidebound; unyielding; impervious, impracticable,
inpersuasible[obs3]; unpersuadable; intractable, untractable[obs3];
incorrigible, deaf to advice, impervious to reason; crotchety &c. 608.
Adv. obstinately &c. adj.
Phr. non possumus[Lat]; no surrender; ils n'ont rien appris ne rien

<-- p. 187 -->

#607. Tergiversation. -- N. change of mind, change of intention,
change of purpose; afterthought.
tergiversation, recantation; palinode, palinody[obs3]; renunciation;
abjuration,abjurement[obs3]; defection &c. (relinquishment) 624; going over
&c. v.; apostasy; retraction, retractation[obs3]; withdrawal; disavowal &c.
(negation) 536; revocation, revokement[obs3]; reversal; repentance &c. 950-
redintegratio amoris[Lat].
coquetry; vacillation &c. 605; backsliding; volte-face[Fr].
turn coat, turn tippet|; rat, apostate, renegade; convert, pervert;
proselyte, deserter; backslider; blackleg, crawfish [U. S.], scab*, mugwump
[U. S.], recidivist.
time server, time pleaser[obs3]; timist|, Vicar of Bray, trimmer,
ambidexter[obs3]; weathercock &c. (changeable) 149; Janus.
V. change one's mind, change one's intention, change one's purpose,
change one's note; abjure, renounce; withdraw from &c. (relinquish) 624;
waver, vacillate; wheel round, turn round, veer round; turn a pirouette; go
over from one side to another, pass from one side to another, change from
one side to another, skip from one side to another; go to the rightabout;
box the compass, shift one's ground, go upon another tack.
apostatize, change sides, go over, rat; recant, retract; revoke;
rescind &c. (abrogate) 756; recall; forswear, unsay; come over, come round
to an opinion; crawfish *[U. S.], crawl* [U. S.].
draw in one's horns, eat one's words; eat the leek, swallow the leek;
swerve, flinch, back out of, retrace one's steps, think better of it; come
back return to one's first love; turn over a new leaf &c. (repent) 950.
trim, shuffle, play fast and loose, blow hot and cold, coquet, be on
the fence, straddle, bold with the hare but run with the hounds; nager
entre deux eaux[Fr]; wait to see how the cat jumps, wait to see how the
wind blows.
Adj. changeful &c. 149; irresolute &c. 605; ductile, slippery as an
eel, trimming, ambidextrous, timeserving[obs3]; coquetting &c. v.
revocatory[obs3], reactionary.
Phr. "a change came o'er the spirit of my dream" [Byron].

#608. Caprice. -- N. caprice, fancy, humor; whim, whimsy,
whimsey[obs3], whimwham[obs3]; crotchet, capriccio, quirk, freak, maggot,
fad, vagary, prank, fit, flimflam, escapade, boutade[Fr], wild-goose chase;
capriciousness &c. adj.; kink.
V. be capricious &c. adj.; have a maggot in the brain; take it into
one's head, strain at a gnat and swallow a camel; blow hot and cold; play
fast and loose, play fantastic tricks; tourner casaque[Fr].
Adj. capricious; erratic, eccentric, fitful, hysterical; full of whims
&c. n.; maggoty; inconsistent, fanciful, fantastic, whimsical, crotchety,
kinky [U. S.], particular, humorsome[obs3], freakish, skittish, wanton,
wayward; contrary; captious; arbitrary; unconformable &c. 83; penny wise
and pound foolish; fickle &c. (irresolute) 605; frivolous, sleeveless,
giddy, volatile.
Adv. by fits and starts, without rhyme or reason.
Phr. nil fuit unquain sic inipar sibi[Lat]; the deuce is in him.

<-- p. 188 -->

#609. Choice. -- N. choice, option; discretion &c. (volition) 600;
preoption[obs3]; alternative; dilemma, embarras de choix[Fr]; adoption,
cooptation[obs3]; novation[obs3]; decision &c. (judgment) 480.
election; political election (politics) 737a.
selection, excerption, gleaning, eclecticism; excerpta[obs3],
gleanings, cuttings, scissors and paste; pick &c. (best) 650.
preference, prelation[obs3], opinion poll, survey; predilection &c.
(desire) 865.
V. offers one's choice, set before; hold out the alternative, present
the alternative, offer the alternative; put to the vote.
use option, use discretion, exercise option, exercise discretion,
one's option; adopt, take up, embrace, espouse; choose, elect, opt for;
take one's choice, make one's choice; make choice of, fix upon.
vote, poll, hold up one's hand; divide.
settle; decide &c. (adjudge) 480; list &c. (will) 600; make up one's
mind &c. (resolve) 604.
select; pick and choose; pick out, single out; cull, glean, winnow;
sift the chaff from the wheat, separate the chaff from the wheat, winnow
the chaff from the wheat; pick up, pitch upon; pick one's way; indulge
one's fancy.
set apart, mark out for; mark &c. 550.
prefer; have rather, have as lief; fancy &c. (desire) 865; be
persuaded &c. 615.
take a decided step, take a decisive step; commit oneself to a course;
pass the Rubicon, cross the Rubicon; cast in one's lot with; take for
better or for worse.
Adj. optional; discretional &c. (voluntary) 600.
eclectic; choosing &c. v.; preferential; chosen &c. v.; choice &c.
(good) 648.
Adv. optionally &c. adj.; at pleasure &c. (will) 600; either the one
or the other; or at the option of; whether or not; once and for all; for
one's money.
by choice, by preference; in preference; rather, before.

#609a. Absence of Choice. -- N. no choice, Hobson's choice; first come
first served, random selection; necessity &c. 601; not a pin to choose &c.
(equality) 27; any, the first that comes; that or nothing.
neutrality, indifference; indecision &c. (irresolution) 605;
coercion (compulsion) 744.
V. be neutral &c. adj.; have no choice, have no election; waive, not
vote; abstain from voting, refrain from voting; leave undecided; "make a
virtue of necessity" [Two Gentlemen].
Adj. neutral, neuter; indifferent, uninterested; undecided &c.
(irresolute) 605.
Adv. either &c. (choice) 609.
Phr. who cares? what difference does it make? "There's not a dime's
worth of difference between them." [George Wallace].

#610. Rejection. -- N. rejection, repudiation, exclusion; refusal &c.
764; declination
V. reject; set aside, lay aside; give up; decline &c. (refuse) 764;
exclude, except; pluck, spin; cast.
repudiate, scout, set at naught; fling to the winds, fling to the
dogs, fling overboard, fling away, cast to the winds, cast to the dogs,
cast overboard, cast away, throw to the winds, throw to the dogs, throw
overboard, throw away, toss to the winds, toss to the dogs, toss overboard,
toss away; send to the right about; disclaim &c. (deny) 536; discard &c.
(eject) 297, (have done with) 678.
Adj. rejected &c. v.; reject, rejectaneous|, rejectious|; not chosen
&c. 609, to be thought of, out of the question
Adv. neither, neither the one nor the other; no &c 536.
Phr. non haec in faedera[Lat].

#611. Predetermination. -- N. predestination, preordination,
premeditation, predeliberation[obs3], predetermination; foregone
conclusion, fait accompli[Fr]; parti pris[Fr]; resolve, propendency|;
intention &c. 620; project &c. 626; fate, foredoom, necessity.
V. predestine, preordain, predetermine, premeditate, resolve, concert;
resolve beforehand, predesignate.
Adj. prepense[obs3], premeditated &c. v., predesignated,
predesigned[obs3]; advised, studied, designed, calculated; aforethought;
intended &c. 620; foregone.
well-laid, well-devised, well-weighed; maturely considered; cunning.
Adv. advisedly &c. adj.; with premeditation, deliberately, all things
considered, with eyes open, in cold blood; intentionally &c. 620.

#612. Impulse. -- N. impulse, sudden thought; impromptu,
improvisation; inspiration, flash, spurt.
improvisatore[obs3]; creature of impulse.
V. flash on the mind.
say what comes uppermost; improvise, extemporize.
Adj. extemporaneous, impulsive, indeliberate[obs3]; snap; improvised,
improvisate[obs3], improvisatory[obs3]; unpremeditated, unmeditated;
improvise; unprompted, unguided; natural, unguarded; spontaneous &c.
(voluntary) 600; instinctive &c. 601.
Adv. extempore, extemporaneously; offhand, impromptu, a
limproviste[Fr]; improviso[obs3]; on the spur of the moment, on the spur of
the occasion.

<-- p. 189 -->

#613. Habit. [includes commonness due to frequency of occurrence] --
N. habit, habitude; assuetude|, assuefaction|, wont; run, way.
common state of things, general state of things, natural state of
things, ordinary state of things, ordinary course of things, ordinary run
of things; matter of course; beaten path, beaten track, beaten ground.
prescription, custom, use, usage, immemorial usage, practice;
prevalence, observance; conventionalism, conventionality; mode, fashion,
vogue; etiquette &c. (gentility) 852; order of the day, cry; conformity &c.
82; consuetude,.dustoor[obs3].
one's old way, old school, veteris vestigia flammae[Lat]; laudator
temporis acti[Lat].
rule, standing order, precedent, routine; red-tape, red-tapism[obs3];
pipe clay; rut, groove.
cacoethes[Lat]; bad habit, confirmed habit, inveterate habit,
intrinsic habit &c.; addiction, trick.
training &c. (education) 537; seasoning, second nature,
acclimatization; knack &c.
V. be wont &c. adj.
fall into a rut, fall into a custom &c. (conform to) 82; tread the
beaten track, follow the beaten track, tread the beaten path, follow the
beaten; stare super antiquas vias[Lat][obs3]; move in a rut, run on in a
groove, go round like a horse in a mill, go on in the old jog trot way.
habituate, inure, harden, season, caseharden; accustom, familiarize;
naturalize, acclimatize; keep one's hand in; train &c. (educate) 537.
get into the way, get into the knack of; learn &c. 539; cling to,
adhere to; repeat &c. 104; acquire a habit, contract a habit, fall into a
habit, acquire a trick, contract a trick, fall into a trick; addict oneself
to, take to, get into.
be habitual &c. adj.; prevail; come into use, become a habit, take
root; gain upon one, grow upon one.
Adj. habitual; accustomary[obs3]; prescriptive, accustomed &c. v.; of
daily occurrence, of everyday occurrence; consuetudinary[obs3]; wonted,
usual, general, ordinary, common, frequent, everyday, household, garden
variety, jog, trot; well-trodden, well-known; familiar, vernacular, trite,
commonplace, conventional, regular, set, stock, established, stereotyped;
prevailing, prevalent; current, received, acknowledged, recognized,
accredited; of course, admitted, understood.
conformable. &c. 82; according to use, according to custom, according
to routine; in vogue, in fashion, in, with it; fashionable &c. (genteel)
wont; used to, given to, addicted to, attuned to, habituated &c. v.;
in the habit of; habitue; at home in &c. (skillful) 698; seasoned; imbued
with; devoted to, wedded to.
hackneyed, fixed, rooted, deep-rooted, ingrafted[obs3], permanent,
inveterate, besetting; naturalized; ingrained &c. (intrinsic) 5.
Adv. habitually &c. adj.; always &c. (uniformly) 16.
as usual, as is one's wont, as things go, as the world goes, as the
sparks fly upwards; more suo, more solito[Lat]; ex more.
as a rule, for the most part; usually, generally, typically &c. adj.;
most often, most frequently.
Phr. cela s'entend[Fr]; abeunt studia in mores[Lat]; adeo in teneris
consuescere multum est[Lat]; consuetudo quasi altera natura [Lat][Cicero];
hoc erat in more majorum[Lat]; "How use doth breed a habit in a man!" [Two
Gentlemen]; magna est vis consuetudinis[Lat]; morent fecerat usus

#614. Desuetude. -- N. desuetude, disusage[obs3]; obsolescence, disuse
&c. 678; want of habit, want of practice; inusitation[obs3]; newness to;
new brooms.
infraction of usage &c. (unconformity) 83; nonprevalence[obs3]; "a
custom more honored in the breach than the observance" [Hamlet].
V. be -unaccustomed &c. adj.; leave off a habit, cast off a habit,
break off a habit, wean oneself of a habit, violate a habit, break through
a habit, infringe a habit, leave off a custom, cast off a custom, break off
a custom, wean oneself of a custom, violate a custom, break through a
custom, infringe a custom, leave off a usage, cast off a usage, break off a
usage, wean oneself of a usage, violate a usage, break through a usage,
infringe a usage; disuse &c. 678; wear off.
Adj. unaccustomed, unused, unwonted, unseasoned, uninured[obs3],
unhabituated[obs3], untrained; new; green &c. (unskilled) 699; unhackneyed.
unusual &c. (unconformable) 83; nonobservant[obs3]; disused &c. 678.

<-- p. 190 -->
2. Causes of Volition

#615. Motive. -- N. motive, springs of action, wellsprings of action.
reason, ground, call, principle; by end, by purpose; mainspring,
primum mobile[Lat], keystone; the why and the wherefore; pro and con,
reason why; secret motive, arriere pensee[Fr]; intention &c. 620.
inducement, consideration; attraction; loadstone; magnet, magnetism,
magnetic force; allectation|, allective|; temptation, enticement,
agacerie[obs3], allurement, witchery; bewitchment, bewitchery; charm; spell
&c. 993; fascination, blandishment, cajolery; seduction, seducement;
honeyed words, voice of the tempter, song of the Sirens forbidden fruit,
golden apple.
persuasibility[obs3], persuasibleness[obs3]; attractability[obs3];
impressibility, susceptibility; softness; persuasiveness, attractiveness;
tantalization[obs3]. influence, prompting, dictate, instance; impulse,
impulsion; incitement, incitation; press, instigation; provocation &c.
(excitation of feeling) 824; inspiration; persuasion, suasion;
encouragement, advocacy; exhortation; advice &c. 695; solicitation &c.
(request) 765; lobbyism; pull*.
incentive, stimulus, spur, fillip, whip, goad, ankus[obs3], rowel,
provocative, whet, dram.
bribe, lure; decoy, decoy duck; bait, trail of a red herring; bribery
and corruption; sop, sop for Cerberus.
prompter, tempter; seducer, seductor[obs3]; instigator, firebrand,
incendiary; Siren, Circe; agent provocateur; lobbyist.
V. induce, move; draw, draw on; bring in its train, give an impulse
&c. n.; to; inspire; put up to, prompt, call up; attract, beckon.
stimulate &c. (excite) 824; spirit up, inspirit; rouse, arouse;
animate, incite, foment, provoke, instigate, set on, actuate; act upon,
work upon, operate upon; encourage; pat on the back, pat on the shoulder,
clap on the back, clap on the shoulder.
influence, weigh with, bias, sway, incline, dispose, predispose, turn
the scale, inoculate; lead by the nose; have influence with, have influence
over, have influence upon, exercise influence with, exercise influence
over, exercise influence upon; go round, come round one; turn the head,
magnetize; lobby.
persuade; prevail with, prevail upon; overcome, carry; bring round to
one's senses, bring to one's senses; draw over, win over, gain over, come
over, talk over; procure, enlist, engage; invite, court.
tempt, seduce, overpersuade[obs3], entice, allure, captivate,
fascinate, bewitch, carry away, charm, conciliate, wheedle, coax, lure;
inveigle; tantalize; cajole &c. (deceive) 545.
tamper with, bribe, suborn, grease the palm, bait with a silver hook,
gild the pill, make things pleasant, put a sop into the pan, throw a sop
to, bait the hook.
enforce, force; impel &c. (push) 276; propel &c. 284; whip, lash,
goad, spur, prick, urge; egg on, hound, hurry on; drag &c. 285; exhort;
advise &c. 695; call upon &c. press &c. (request) 765; advocate.
set an example, set the fashion; keep in countenance.
be persuaded &c.; yield to temptation, come round; concede &c.
(consent) 762; obey a call; follow advice, follow the bent,.follow the
dictates of; act on principle.
Adj. impulsive, motive; suasive, suasory[obs3], persuasive,
persuasory[obs3], hortative, hortatory; protreptical|; inviting, tempting,
&c. v.; suasive, suasory[obs3]; seductive, attractive; fascinating &c.
(pleasing) 829; provocative &c. (exciting) 824.
induced &c. v.; disposed; persuadable &c. (docile) 602; spellbound;
instinct with, smitten with, infatuated; inspired &c. v.; by.
Adv. because, therefore &c. (cause) 155; from this motive, from that
motive; for this reason, for that reason; for; by reason of, for the sake
of, count of; out of, from, as, forasmuch as.
for all the world; on principle.
Phr. fax mentis incendium gloriae[Lat]; "temptation hath a music for
all ears" "to beguile many and be beguiled by one" [Willis][Othello].

#615a. Absence of Motive. -- N. absence of motive, aimlessness;
caprice &c. 608; chance &c. (absence of design) 621.
V. have no motive; scruple &c. (be unwilling) 603.
Adj. without rhyme or reason; aimless, capricious, whimsical &c.
(chance) 621.
Adv. out of mere caprice.

<-- p. 191 -->

#616. Dissuasion. -- N. dissuasion, dehortation[obs3], expostulation,
remonstrance; deprecation &c. 766.
discouragement, damper, wet blanket; disillusionment, disenchantment.
cohibition &c. (restraint) 751[obs3]; curb &c. (means of restraint)
752; check &c. (hindrance) 706.
reluctance &c. (unwillingness) 603; contraindication.
V. dissuade, dehort[obs3], cry out against, remonstrate, expostulate,
warn, contraindicate.
disincline, indispose, shake, stagger; dispirit; discourage,
dishearten; deter; repress, hold back, keep back &c. (restrain) 751; render
averse &c. 603; repel; turn aside &c. (deviation) 279; wean from; act as a
drag &c. (hinder) 706; throw cold water on, damp, cool, chill, blunt, calm,
quiet, quench; deprecate &c. 766.
disenchant, disillusion, deflate, take down a peg, pop one's balloon,
prick one's balloon, burst one's bubble; disabuse (correction) 527a.
Adj. dissuading &c. v.; dissuasive; dehortatory[obs3],
expostulatory[obs3]; monitive|, monitory.
dissuaded &c. v.; admonitory; uninduced &c. (induce &c. 615);
unpersuadable &c. (obstinate) 606; averse &c. (unwilling) 603; repugnant
&c. (dislike) 867.

#617. [Ostensible motive, ground, or reason assigned.] Pretext. -- N.
pretext, pretense, pretension, plea|; allegation, advocation; ostensible
motive, ostensible ground, ostensible reason, phony reason; excuse &c.
(vindication) 937; subterfuge; color; gloss, guise, cover.
loop hole, starting hole; how to creep out of, salvo, come off; way of
handle, peg to hang on, room locus standi[Lat]; stalking-horse, cheval
de bataille[Fr], cue.
pretense &c. (untruth) 546; put off, dust thrown in the eyes; blind;
moonshine; mere pretext, shallow pretext; lame excuse, lame apology; tub to
a whale; false plea, sour grapes; makeshift, shift, white lie; special
pleading &c. (sophistry) 477; soft sawder &c. (flattery) 933[obs3].
V. pretend, plead, allege; shelter oneself under the plea of; excuse
&c. (vindicate) 937; lend a color to; furnish a handle &c. n.; make a
pretext of, make a handle of; use as a plea &c. n.; take one's stand upon,
make capital out of, pretend &c. (lie) 544.
Adj. ostensibly &c. (manifest) 525; alleged, apologetic; pretended &c.
Adv. ostensibly; under color; under the plea, under the pretense of,
under the guise of.

3. Objects of Volition

#618. Good. -- N. good, benefit, advantage; improvement &c. 658;
greatest good, supreme good; interest, service, behoof, behalf; weal; main
chance, summum bonum[Lat], common weal; "consummation devoutly to be
wished"; gain, boot; profit, harvest.
boon &c. (gift) 784; good turn; blessing; world of good; piece of good
luck[Fr], piece of good fortune[Fr]; nuts, prize, windfall, godsend, waif,
good fortune &c. (prosperity) 734; happiness &c. 827.
[Source of good] goodness &c. 648; utility &c. 644; remedy &c. 662;
pleasure giving &c. 829.
Adj. commendable &c. 931; useful &c. 644; good &c., beneficial &c.
Adv. well, aright, satisfactorily, favorably, not amis[Fr]; all for
the best; to one's advantage &c. n.; in one's favor, in one's interest &c.
Phr. so far so good; magnum bonum[Lat].

#619. Evil. -- N. evil, ill, harm, hurt., mischief, nuisance;
machinations of the devil, Pandora's box, ills that flesh is heir to.
blow, buffet, stroke, scratch, bruise, wound, gash, mutilation; mortal
blow, wound; immedicabile vulnus[Lat]; damage, loss &c. (deterioration)
disadvantage, prejudice, drawback.
disaster, accident, casualty; mishap &c. (misfortune) 735; bad job,
devil to pay; calamity, bale, catastrophe, tragedy; ruin &c. (destruction)
162; adversity &c. 735.
mental suffering &c. 828. * demon &v[Evil spirit]. 980. bane &c.
663[Cause of evil]. badness &c. 649[Production of evil]; painfulness &c.
830; evil doer &c. 913.
outrage, wrong, injury, foul play; bad turn, ill turn; disservice,
spoliation &c. 791; grievance, crying evil.
V. be in trouble &c. (adversity) 735.
Adj. disastrous, bad &c. 649; awry, out of joint; disadvantageous.
Adv. amis[Fr], wrong, ill, to one's cost
Phr. "moving accidents by flood and field" [Othello].

<-- p. 192 -->
Section II. Prospective Volition
1. Conceptional Volition

#620. Intention. -- N. intent, intention, intentionality; purpose; quo
animo[Lat]; project &c. 626; undertaking &c. 676; predetermination &c. 611;
design, ambition.
contemplation, mind, animus, view, purview, proposal; study; look out.
final cause; raison d'etre[Fr]; cui bono[Lat]; object, aim, end; "the
be all and the end all"; drift &c. (meaning) 516; tendency &c. 176;
destination, mark, point, butt, goal, target, bull's-eye,
quintain[obs3][medeival]; prey, quarry, game.
decision, determination, resolve; fixed set purpose, settled purpose;
ultimatum; resolution &c. 604; wish &c. 865; arriere pensee[Fr]; motive &c.
[Study of final causes] teleology.
V. intend, purpose, design, mean; have to; propose to oneself; harbor
a design; have in view, have in contemplation, have in one's eye, have in-
petto; have an eye to.
bid for, labor for; be after, aspire after, endeavor after; be at, aim

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