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Roget's Thesaurus by Peter Mark Roget

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shade; glimmer, gliming[obs3]; nebulosity; cloud &c. 353; eclipse.
aurora, dusk, twilight, shades of evening, crepuscule, cockshut time|;
break of day, daybreak, dawn.
moonlight, moonbeam, moonglade[obs3], moonshine; starlight, owl's
light, candlelight, rushlight, firelight; farthing candle.
V. be dim, grow dim &c. adj.; flicker, twinkle, glimmer; loom, lower;
fade; pale, pale its ineffectual fire [Hamlet].
render dim &c. adj.; dim, bedim[obs3], obscure; darken, tone down.
Adj. dim, dull, lackluster, dingy, darkish, shorn of its beams, dark
faint, shadowed forth; glassy; cloudy; misty &c. (opaque) 426; blear;
muggy|, fuliginous[obs3]; nebulous, nebular; obnubilated[obs3], overcast,
crepuscular, muddy, lurid, leaden, dun, dirty; looming &c. v.
pale &c. (colorless) 429; confused &c. (invisible) 447.

#423. [Source of light, self-luminous body.] Luminary. -- N. luminary;
light &c. 420; flame &c. (fire) 382.
spark, scintilla; phosphorescence, fluorescence.
sun, orb of day, Phoebus, Apollo[obs3], Aurora; star, orb; meteor,
falling star, shooting star; blazing star, dog star, Sirius; canicula,
Aldebaran[obs3]; constellation, galaxy; zodiacal light; anthelion[obs3];
day star, morning star; Lucifer; mock sun, parhelion; phosphor, phosphorus;
sun dog|!; Venus.
aurora, polar lights; northern lights, aurora borealis; southern
lights, aurora australis.
lightning; chain lightning, fork lightning, sheet lightning, summer
lightning; ball lightning, kugelblitz [German];
[chemical substances giving off light without burning] phosphorus,
yellow phosphorus; scintillator, phosphor; firefly luminescence.
ignis fatuus[Lat]; Jack o'lantern, Friar's lantern; will-o'-the-wisp,
firedrake[obs3], Fata Morgana[Lat]; Saint Elmo's fire.
[luminous insects] glowworm, firefly, June bug, lightning bug.
[luminous fish] anglerfish.
[Artificial light] gas; gas light, lime light, lantern,
lanthorn[obs3]; dark lantern, bull's-eye; candle, bougie[Fr], taper,
rushlight; oil &c. (grease) 356; wick, burner; Argand[obs3], moderator,
duplex; torch, flambeau, link, brand; gaselier[obs3], chandelier,
electrolier[obs3], candelabrum, candelabra, girandole[obs3], sconce,
luster, candlestick.
[non-combustion based light sources] lamp, light; incandescent lamp,
tungsten bulb, light bulb; flashlight, torch[Brit]; arc light; laser; maser
[microwave radiation]; neon bulb, neon sign; fluorescent lamp.
[parts of a light bulb] filament; socket; contacts; filler gas.
firework, fizgig[obs3]; pyrotechnics; rocket, lighthouse &c. (signal)
V. illuminate &c. (light) 420.
Adj. self-luminous, glowing; phosphoric|!, phosphorescent,
fluorescent; incandescent; luminescent, chemiluminescent; radiant &c.
(light) 420.
Phr. "blossomed the lovely stars, the forget-me-nots of the angels"
[Longfellow]; "the sentinel stars set their watch in the sky" [Campbell];
"the planets in their station list'ning stood" [Paradise Lost]; "the
Scriptures of the skies" [Bailey]; "that orbed continent, the fire that
severs day from night" [Twelfth Night].

#424. Shade. -- N. shade; awning &c. (cover) 223; parasol, sunshade,
umbrella; chick; portiere; screen, curtain, shutter, blind, gauze, veil,
chador, mantle, mask; cloud, mist, gathering. of clouds.
umbrage, glade; shadow &c. 421.
beach umbrella, folding umbrella.
V. draw a curtain; put up a shutter, close a shutter; veil &c. v.;
cast a shadow &c. (darken) 421.
Adj. shady, umbrageous.
Phr. "welcome ye shades! ye bowery thickets hail" [Thomson].

#425. Transparency. -- N. transparence, transparency; clarity;
translucence, translucency; diaphaneity[obs3]; lucidity, pellucidity[obs3],
limpidity; fluorescence; transillumination, translumination[obs3].
transparent medium, glass, crystal, lymph, vitrite[obs3], water.
V. be transparent &c. adj.; transmit light.
Adj. transparent, pellucid, lucid, diaphanous, translucent,
tralucent|, relucent[obs3]; limpid, clear, serene, crystalline, clear as
crystal, vitreous, transpicuous[obs3], glassy, hyaline; hyaloid[Med],

#426. Opacity.-- N. opacity; opaqueness &c. adj.
film; cloud &c. 353.
V. be opaque &c. adj.; obstruct the passage of light; obfuscate,
Adj. opaque, impervious to light; adiaphanous[obs3]; dim &c. 422;
turbid, thick, muddy, opacous|, obfuscated, fuliginous[obs3], cloud, hazy,
misty, foggy, vaporous, nubiferous[obs3], muggy|| (turbidity) 426a.
smoky, fumid[obs3], murky, dirty.

#426a. Turbidity -- N. turbidity, cloudiness, fog, haze, muddiness,
haziness, obscurity.
nephelometer[instrument to measure turbidity].
Adj. turbid, thick, muddy, obfuscated, fuliginous[obs3], hazy, misty,
foggy, vaporous, nubiferous[obs3]; cloudy (cloud) 353.
smoky, fumid[obs3], murky, dirty.

<-- p. 120 -->

#427. Semitransparency. -- N. semitransparency, translucency,
semiopacity; opalescence, milkiness, pearliness[obs3]; gauze, muslin; film;
mica, mother-of-pearl, nacre; mist &c. (cloud) 353.
[opalescent jewel] opal.
turbidity &c. 426a.
Adj. semitransparent, translucent, semipellucid[obs3],
semidiaphanous[obs3], semiopacous[obs3], semiopaque; opalescent,
opaline[obs3]; pearly, milky; frosted, nacreous.
V. opalesce.


#428. Color. -- N. color, hue, tint, tinge, dye, complexion, shade,
tincture, cast, livery, coloration, glow, flush; tone, key.
pure color, positive color, primary color, primitive complementary
color; three primaries; spectrum, chromatic dispersion; broken color,
secondary color, tertiary color. local color, coloring, keeping, tone,
value, aerial perspective.
[Science of color] chromatics, spectrum analysis, spectroscopy;
chromatism[obs3], chromatography||, chromatology[obs3].
[instruments to measure color] prism, spectroscope, spectrograph,
spectrometer, colorimeter (optical instruments) 445.
pigment, coloring matter, paint, dye, wash, distemper, stain; medium;
mordant; oil paint &c. painting 556.
V. color, dye, tinge, stain, tint, tinct[obs3], paint, wash, ingrain,
grain, illuminate, emblazon, bedizen, imbue; paint &c. (fine art) 556.
Adj. colored &c. v.; colorific[obs3], tingent[obs3], tinctorial[obs3];
chromatic, prismatic; full-colored, high-colored, deep-colored; doubly-
dyed; polychromatic; chromatogenous[obs3]; tingible[obs3].
bright, vivid, intense, deep; fresh, unfaded[obs3]; rich, gorgeous;
gaudy, florid; gay, garish; rainbow-colored, multihued; showy,
flaunting, flashy; raw, crude; glaring, flaring; discordant, inharmonious.
mellow, pastel, harmonious, pearly, sweet, delicate, tender, refined.

#429. [Absence of color.] Achromatism. -- N. achromatism[obs3];
decoloration[obs3], discoloration; pallor, pallidness, pallidity[obs3];
paleness &c. adj.; etiolation; neutral tint, monochrome, black and white.
V. lose color &c. 428; fade, fly, go; become colorless &c. adj.; turn
pale, pale.
deprive of color, decolorize, bleach, tarnish, achromatize, blanch,
etiolate, wash out, tone down.
Adj. uncolored &c. (see color &c. 428); colorless, achromatic,
aplanatic[obs3]; etiolate, etiolated; hueless[obs3], pale, pallid;
palefaced[obs3], tallow-faced; faint, dull, cold, muddy, leaden, dun, wan,
sallow, dead, dingy, ashy, ashen, ghastly, cadaverous, glassy, lackluster;
discolored &c. v.
light-colored, fair, blond; white &c. 430.
pale as death, pale as ashes, pale as a witch, pale as a ghost, pale
as a corpse, white as a corpse.

#430. Whiteness. -- N. whiteness &c. adj.; argent.
albification[obs3], etiolation; lactescence[obs3].
snow, paper, chalk, milk, lily, ivory, alabaster; albata[obs3],
eburin[obs3], German silver, white metal, barium sulphate[Chem], titanium
oxide, blanc fixe[Fr], ceruse[obs3], pearl white; white lead, carbonate of
V. be white &c. adj.
render white &c. adj.; whiten, bleach, blanch, etiolate, whitewash,
Adj. white; milk-white, snow-white; snowy; niveous[obs3], candid,
chalky; hoar, hoary; silvery; argent, argentine; canescent[obs3],
cretaceous, lactescent[obs3].
whitish, creamy, pearly, fair, blond; blanched &c. v.; high in tone,
white as a sheet, white as driven snow, white as a lily, white as
silver; like ivory &c. n.

<-- p. 121 -->

#431. Blackness. -- N. blackness &c. adj.; darkness &c. (want of
light). 421; swartliness[obs3], lividity, dark color, tone, color;
chiaroscuro &c. 420.
nigrification[obs3], infuscation[obs3].
jet, ink, ebony, coal pitch, soot, charcoal, sloe, smut, raven, crow.
[derogatory terms for black-skinned people] Negro, blackamoor, man of
color, nigger, darkie, Ethiop, black; buck, nigger [U. S.]; coon [U. S.],
[Pigments] lampblack, ivory black, blueblack; writing ink, printing
ink, printer's ink, Indian ink, India ink.
V. be black &c. adj.; render -black &c. adj.
blacken, infuscate[obs3], denigrate; blot, blotch; smutch[obs3];
smirch; darken &c. 421.
black, sable, swarthy, somber, dark, inky, ebony, ebon,
atramentous[obs3], jetty; coal-black, jet-black; fuliginous[obs3], pitchy,
sooty, swart, dusky, dingy, murky, Ethiopic; low-toned, low in tone; of the
deepest dye.
black as jet &c. n., black as my hat, black as a shoe, black as a
tinker's pot, black as November, black as thunder, black as midnight;
nocturnal &c. (dark) 421; nigrescent[obs3]; gray &c. 432; obscure &c. 421.
Adv. in mourning.

#432. Gray. -- N. gray &c. adj.; neutral tint, silver, pepper and
salt, chiaroscuro, grisaille[Fr].
[Pigments] Payne's gray; black &c. 431.
Adj. gray, grey; iron-gray, dun, drab, dingy, leaden, livid, somber,
sad, pearly, russet, roan; calcareous, limy, favillous[obs3]; silver,
silvery, silvered; ashen, ashy; cinereous[obs3], cineritious[obs3];
grizzly, grizzled; slate-colored, stone-colored, mouse-colored, ash-
colored; cool.

#433. Brown. -- N. brown &c. adj. bister[obs3][Pigments], ocher,
sepia, Vandyke brown.
V. render brown &c. adj.; tan, embrown[obs3], bronze.
Adj. brown, bay, dapple, auburn, castaneous[obs3], chestnut, nut-
brown, cinnamon, russet, tawny, fuscous[obs3], chocolate, maroon, foxy,
tan, brunette, whitey brown[obs3]; fawn-colored, snuff-colored, liver-
colored; brown as a berry, brown as mahogany, brown as the oak leaves;
sun-burnt; tanned &c. v.

- Primitive Colors

#434. Redness. -- N. red, scarlet, vermilion, carmine, crimson, pink,
lake, maroon, carnation, couleur de rose[Fr], rose du Barry[obs3]; magenta,
damask, purple; flesh color, flesh tint; color; fresh color, high color;
warmth; gules[Heraldry].
ruby, carbuncle; rose; rust, iron mold.
[Dyes and pigments] cinnabar, cochineal; fuchsine[obs3]; ruddle[obs3],
madder; Indian red, light red, Venetian red; red ink, annotto[obs3];
annatto[obs3], realgar[ISA:mineral], minium[obs3], red lead.
redness &c. adj.; rubescence[obs3], rubicundity, rubification[obs3];
erubescence[obs3], blush.
V. be red, become red &c.adj.; blush, flush, color up, mantle, redden.
render red &c. adj.; redden, rouge; rubify[obs3], rubricate;
incarnadine.; ruddle[obs3].
Adj. red &c. n., reddish; rufous, ruddy, florid, incarnadine,
sanguine; rosy, roseate; blowzy, blowed[obs3]; burnt; rubicund,
rubiform[obs3]; lurid, stammell blood red[obs3]; russet buff,
murrey[obs3], carroty[obs3], sorrel, lateritious[obs3]; rubineous[obs3],
rubricate, rubricose[obs3], rufulous[obs3].
rose-colored, ruby-colored, cherry-colored, claret-colored, flame-
colored, flesh-colored, peach-colored, salmon-colored, brick-colored,
brick-colored, dust-colored.
blushing &c. v.; erubescent[obs3]; reddened &c. v.
red as fire, red as blood, red as scarlet, red as a turkey cock, red
as a lobster; warm, hot; foxy.

- Complementary Colors

#435. Greenness. -- N. green &c. adj.; blue and yellow; vert
emerald, verd antique[Fr], verdigris, malachite, beryl, aquamarine;
absinthe, creme de menthe[Fr].
[Pigments] terre verte[Fr], verditer[obs3], verdine[obs3], copperas.
greenness, verdure; viridity[obs3], viridescence[obs3];
[disease of eyes with green tint] glaucoma, [Jap: rokunaisho].
Adj. green, verdant; glaucous, olive, olive green; green as grass;
emerald green, pea green, grass green, apple green, sea green, olive
green, bottle green, coke bottle green.
greenish; virent[obs3], virescent[obs3].
green (learner) 541[new, inexperienced, novice], (unskillful) 699.
green [ill, sick].
Phr. green with envy; the green grass of Ireland; the wearing of the

<-- Footnote 1 p. 122
The author's classification of colors has been retained, though it
does not entirely accord with the theories of modern science.

<-- p. 122 -->

#436. Yellowness. -- N. yellow &c. adj.; or.
[Pigments] gamboge; cadmium-yellow, chrome-yellow, Indian-yellow
king's-yellow, lemonyellow; orpiment[obs3], yellow ocher, Claude tint,
aureolin[obs3]; xanthein[Chemsub], xanthin[obs3]; zaofulvin[obs3]. crocu
s, saffron, topaz; xanthite[obs3]; yolk.
jaundice; London fog|!; yellowness &c. adj.; icterus[obs3]; xantho-
cyanopia|!, xanthopsia[Med].
Adj. yellow, aureate, golden, flavous|, citrine, fallow;
fulvous[obs3], fulvid[obs3]; sallow, luteous[obs3], tawny, creamy, sandy;
xanthic[obs3], xanthous[obs3]; jaundiced- auricomous[obs3].
gold-colored, citron-colored, saffron-colored, lemon-colored, lemon
yellow, sulphur-colored, amber-colored, straw-colored, primrose-colored,
creamcolored; xanthocarpous[obs3], xanthochroid[obs3], xanthopous[obs3].
yellow as a quince, yellow as a guinea, yellow as a crow's foot.
warm, advancing.

#437. Purple. -- N. purple &c. adj.; blue and red, bishop's purple;
aniline dyes, gridelin[obs3], amethyst; purpure[Heraldry]; heliotrope.
lividness, lividity.
V. empurple[obs3].
Adj. purple, violet, ultraviolet; plum-colored, lavender, lilac, puce,
mauve; livid.

#438. Blueness. -- N. blue &c. adj.; garter-blue; watchet|.
[Pigments] ultramarine, smalt, cobalt, cyanogen[Chemsub]; Prussian
blue, syenite blue[obs3]; bice[obs3], indigo; zaffer[obs3].
lapis lazuli, sapphire, turquoise; indicolite[obs3].
blueness, bluishness; bloom.
Adj. blue, azure, cerulean; sky-blue, sky-colored, sky-dyed;
cerulescent[obs3]; powder blue, bluish; atmospheric, retiring; cold.

#439. Orange. -- N. orange, red and yellow; gold; or; flame &c. color,
[Pigments] ocher, Mars'orange[obs3], cadmium.
cardinal bird, cardinal flower, cardinal grosbeak, cardinal lobelia[a
flowering plant].
V. gild, warm.
Adj. orange; ochreous[obs3]; orange-colored, gold-colored,
flame-colored, copper-colored, brass-colored, apricot-colored; warm, hot,

#440. Variegation. -- N. variegation; colors, dichroism, trichroism;
iridescence, play of colors, polychrome, maculation, spottiness, striae.
spectrum, rainbow, iris, tulip, peacock, chameleon, butterfly,
tortoise shell; mackerel, mackerel sky; zebra, leopard, cheetah, nacre,
ocelot, ophite[obs3], mother-of-pearl, opal, marble.
check, plaid, tartan, patchwork; marquetry-, parquetry; mosaic,
tesserae[obs3], strigae[obs3]; chessboard, checkers, chequers; harlequin;
Joseph's coat; tricolor.
V. be variegated &c. adj.; variegate, stripe, streak, checker,
chequer; bespeckle[obs3], speckle; besprinkle, sprinkle; stipple, maculate,
dot, bespot[obs3]; tattoo, inlay, damascene; embroider, braid, quilt.
Adj. variegated &c. v.; many-colored, many-hued; divers-colored,
party-colored; dichromatic, polychromatic; bicolor[obs3], tricolor,
versicolor[obs3]; of all the colors of the rainbow, of all manner of
colors; kaleidoscopic.
iridescent; opaline[obs3], opalescent; prismatic, nacreous, pearly,
shot, gorge de pigeon, chatoyant[obs3]; irisated[obs3], pavonine[obs3].
pied, piebald; motley; mottled, marbled; pepper and salt, paned,
dappled, clouded, cymophanous[obs3].
mosaic, tesselated, plaid; tortoise shell &c. n.
spotted, spotty; punctated[obs3], powdered; speckled &c. v.; freckled,
flea-bitten, studded; flecked, fleckered[obs3]; striated, barred, veined;
brinded[obs3], brindled; tabby; watered; grizzled; listed; embroidered &c.
v.; daedal[obs3]; naevose[obs3], stipiform[obs3]; strigose[obs3],

<-- p. 123 -->


#441. Vision. -- N. vision, sight, optics, eyesight.
view, look, espial[obs3], glance, ken, coup d'oeil[Fr]; glimpse,
glint, peep; gaze, stare, leer; perlustration[obs3], contemplation;
conspection|, conspectuity|; regard, survey; introspection; reconnaissance,
speculation, watch, espionage, espionnage[Fr], autopsy; ocular inspection,
ocular demonstration; sight-seeing.
point of view; gazebo, loophole, belvedere, watchtower.
field of view; theater, amphitheater, arena, vista, horizon;
commanding view, bird's eye view; periscope.
visual organ, organ of vision; eye; naked eye, unassisted eye; retina,
pupil, iris, cornea, white; optics, orbs; saucer eyes, goggle eyes,
gooseberry eyes.
short sight &c. 443; clear sight, sharp sight, quick sight, eagle
sight, piercing sight, penetrating sight, clear glance, sharp glance,
quick glance, eagle glance, piercing glance, penetrating glance, clear eye,
sharp eye, quick eye, eagle eye, piercing eye, penetrating eye;
perspicacity, discernment; catopsis[obs3].
eagle, hawk; cat, lynx; Argus[obs3].
evil eye; basilisk, cockatrice [Mythical].
V. see, behold, discern, perceive, have in sight, descry, sight, make
out, discover, distinguish, recognize, spy, espy, ken; get a sight of, have
a sight of, catch a sight of, get a glimpse of, have a glimpse of, catch a
glimpse of; command a view of; witness, contemplate, speculate; cast the
eyes on, set the eyes on; be a spectator &c. 444 of; look on &c. (be
present) 186; see sights &c. (curiosity) 455; see at a glance &c.
(intelligence) 498.
look, view, eye; lift up the eyes, open one's eye; look at, look on,
look upon, look over, look about one, look round; survey, scan, inspect;
run the eye over, run the eye through; reconnoiter, glance round, glance
on, glance over turn one's looks upon, bend one's looks upon; direct the
eyes to, turn the eyes on, cast a glance.
observe &c. (attend to) 457; watch &c. (care) 459; see with one's own
eyes; watch for &c. (expect) 507; peep, peer, pry, take a peep; play at
look full in the face, look hard at, look intently; strain one's
eyes; fix the eyes upon, rivet the eyes upon; stare, gaze; pore over, gloat
on; leer, ogle, glare; goggle; cock the eye, squint, gloat, look askance.
Adj. seeing &c. v.; visual, ocular; optic, optical; ophthalmic.
clear-eyesighted &c. n.; eagle-eyed, hawk-eyed, lynx-eyed, keen-eyed,
visible &c. 446.
Adv. visibly &c. 446; in sight of, with one's eyes open at sight,
at first sight, at a glance, at the first blush; prima facie[Lat].
Int. look! &c. (attention) 457.
Phr. the scales falling from one's eyes; "an eye like Mars to
threaten or command" [Hamlet]; "her eyes are homes of silent prayer"
[Tennyson]; "looking before and after" [Hamlet]; "thy rapt soul sitting
in thine eyes" [Milton].

#442. Blindness. -- N. blindness, cecity[obs3], excecation|,
amaurosis[obs3], cataract, ablepsy|, ablepsia[obs3], prestriction|; dim-
sightedness &c. 443; Braille, Braille-type; guttaserena ("drop serene"),
noctograph[obs3], teichopsia[obs3].
V. be blind &c. adj.; not see; lose sight of; have the eyes bandaged;
grope in the dark.
not look; close the eyes, shut the eyes-, turn away the eyes, avert
the eyes; look another way; wink &c. (limited vision) 443; shut the eyes
to, be blind to, wink at, blink at.
render blind &c. adj.; blind, blindfold; hoodwink, dazzle, put one's
eyes out; throw dust into one's eyes, pull the wool over one's eyes; jeter
de la poudre aux yeux[Fr]; screen from sight &c. (hide) 528.
Adj. blind; eyeless, sightless, visionless; dark; stone-blind, sand-
blind, stark-blind; undiscerning[obs3]; dimsighted &c. 443.
blind as a bat, blind as a buzzard, blind as a beetle, blind as a
mole, blind as an owl; wall-eyed.
blinded &c. v.
Adv. blindly, blindfold, blindfolded; darkly.
Phr. "O dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon" [Milton].

<-- p. 124 -->

#443. [Imperfect vision.] Dimsightedness. [Fallacies of vision.] -- N.
dim sight, dull sight half sight, short sight, near sight, long sight,
double sight, astigmatic sight, failing sight; dimsightedness &c.;
purblindness, lippitude[obs3]; myopia, presbyopia[obs3]; confusion of
vision; astigmatism; color blindness, chromato-pseudo-blepsis[obs3],
Daltonism; nyctalopia[obs3]; strabismus, strabism[obs3], squint;
blearedness[obs3], day blindness, hemeralopia[obs3], nystagmus;
xanthocyanopia[obs3], xanthopsia[Med]; cast in the eye, swivel eye, goggle-
eyes; obliquity of vision.
winking &c. v.; nictitation; blinkard[obs3], albino.
dizziness, swimming, scotomy[obs3]; cataract; ophthalmia.
[Limitation of vision] blinker; screen &c. (hider) 530.
[Fallacies of vision] deceptio visus[Lat]; refraction, distortion,
illusion, false light, anamorphosis[obs3], virtual image, spectrum, mirage,
looming, phasma|; phantasm, phantasma[obs3], phantom; vision; specter,
apparition, ghost; ignis fatuus &c. (luminary) 423 specter of the Brocken
magic mirror[Lat]; magic lantern &c. (show) 448; mirror lens &c.
(instrument) 445.
V. be dimsighted &c. n.; see double; have a mote in the eye, have a
mist before the eyes, have a film over the eyes; see through a prism, see
through a glass darkly; wink, blink, nictitate; squint; look askant[obs3],
askant askance[obs3]; screw up the eyes, glare, glower; nictate[obs3].
dazzle, loom.
Adj. dim-sighted &c. n.; myopic, presbyopic[obs3]; astigmatic moon-
eyed, mope-eyed, blear-eyed, goggle-eyed, gooseberry-eyed, one-eyed; blind
of one eye, monoculous[obs3]; half-blind, purblind; cock-eyed, dim-eyed,
mole-eyed; dichroic.
blind as a bat &c. (blind) 442; winking &c. v.

#444. Spectator. -- N. spectator, beholder, observer, looker-on,
onlooker, witness, eyewitness, bystander, passer by; sightseer; rubberneck
, rubbernecker * [U. S.].
spy; sentinel &c. (warning) 668.
V. witness, behold &c. (see) 441; look on &c. (be present) 186; gawk,
rubber *, rubberneck *[U.S.].

#445. Optical Instruments. -- N. optical instruments; lens, meniscus,
magnifier, sunglass, magnifying glass, hand lens; microscope,
megascope[obs3], tienoscope[obs3].
spectacles, specs [coll.],glasses, barnacles, goggles, eyeglass,
pince-nez, monocle, reading glasses, bifocals; contact lenses, soft lenses,
hard lenses; sunglasses, shades[coll.].
periscopic lens[obs3]; telescope, glass, lorgnette; spyglass, opera
glass, binocular, binoculars, field glass; burning glass, convex lens,
concave lens, convexo-concave lens[obs3], coated lens, multiple lens,
compound lens, lens system, telephoto lens, wide-angle lens, fish-eye lens,
zoom lens; optical bench.
astronomical telescope, reflecting telescope, reflector, refracting
telescope, refractor, Newtonian telescope, folded-path telescope, finder
telescope, chromatoscope; X-ray telescope; radiotelescope, phased-array
telescope, Very Large Array radiotelescope; ultraviolet telescope; infrared
telescope; star spectroscope; space telescope.
[telescope mounts] altazimuth mount, equatorial mount.
refractometer, circular dichroism spectrometer.
phase-contrast microscope, fluorescence microscope, dissecting
microscope; electron microscope, transmission electron microscope; scanning
electron microscope, SEM; scanning tunneling electron microscope.
[microscope components] objective lens, eyepiece, barrel, platform,
focusing knob; slide, slide glass, cover glass, counting chamber;
illuminator, light source, polarizer,
[component parts of telescopes] reticle, cross-hairs.
light pipe, fiber optics
mirror, reflector, speculum; looking-glass, pier-glass, cheval-glass,
rear-view mirror, hand mirror, one-way mirror, magnifying mirror.
[room with distorting mirrors] fun house.
prism, diffraction grating; beam splitter, half-wave plate, quarter-
wave plate.
camera lucida[Lat], camera obscura[Lat]; magic lantern &c. (show) 448;
stereopticon; chromatrope[obs3], thaumatrope[obs3]; stereoscope,
pseudoscope[obs3], polyscope[obs3], kaleidoscope.
photometer, eriometer[obs3], actinometer[obs3], lucimeter[obs3],
radiometer; ligth detector, photodiode, photomultiplier, photodiode array,
X-ray diffractometer, goniometer.
spectrometer, monochrometer, UV spectrometer, visible spectrometer,
Infrared spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, recording
spectrometer; densitometer, scanning densitometer, two-dimensional
abdominoscope[obs3], gastroscope[Med], helioscope[obs3],
polariscope[obs3], polemoscope[obs3], spectroscope.
abdominoscopy[obs3]; gastroscopy[Med]; microscopy, microscopist.

#446. Visibility. -- N. visibility, perceptibility; conspicuousness,
distinctness &c. adj.; conspicuity[obs3], conspicuousness; appearance &c.
448; bassetting[obs3]; exposure; manifestation &c. 525; ocular proof,
ocular evidence, ocular demonstration; field of view &c. (vision) 441;
V. be become visible &c. adj.; appear, open to the view; meet the eye,
catch the eye; basset; present itself, show manifest itself, produce
itself, discover itself, reveal itself, expose itself, betray itself;
stand forth, stand out; materialize; show; arise; peep out, peer out, crop
out; start up, spring up, show up, turn up, crop up; glimmer, loom; glare;
burst forth; burst upon the view, burst upon the sight; heave in sight;
come in sight, come into view, come out, come forth, come forward; see the
light of day; break through the clouds; make its appearance, show its face,
appear to one's eyes, come upon the stage, float before the eyes, speak for
itself &c. (manifest) 525; attract the attention &c. 457; reappear; live in
a glass house.
expose to view &c. 525.
Adj. visible, perceptible, perceivable, discernible, apparent; in
view, in full view, in sight; exposed to view, en evidence; unclouded,
unobscured[obs3], in the foreground.
obvious &c. (manifest) 525; plain, clear, distinct, definite; well
defined, well marked; in focus; recognizable, palpable, autoptical[obs3];
glaring, staring, conspicuous; stereoscopic; in bold, in strong relief.
periscopic[obs3], panoramic.
before one's eyes, under one's eyes; before one, vue d'oeil[Fr], in
one's eye, oculis subjecta fidelibus[Lat].
Adv. visibly &c. adj.; in sight of; before one's eyes &c. adj.; veluti
in speculum[Lat].

#447. Invisibility. -- N. invisibility, invisibleness, nonappearance,
imperceptibility; indistinctness &c. adj.; mystery, delitescence[obs3].
concealment &c. 528; latency &c. 526.
V. be invisible &c. adj.; be hidden &c. (hide) 528; lurk &c. (lie
hidden) 526; escape notice.
render invisible &c. adj.; conceal &c. 528; put out of sight.
not see &c. (be blind) 442; lose sight of.
Adj. invisible, imperceptible; undiscernible[obs3], indiscernible;
unapparent, non-apparent; out of sight, not in sight; a perte de
vue[French]; behind the scenes, behind the curtain; viewless, sightless;
inconspicuous, unconspicuous[obs3]; unseen &c. (see see &c. 441); covert
&c. (latent) 526; eclipsed, under an eclipse.
dim &c. (faint) 422; mysterious, dark, obscure, confused; indistinct,
indistinguishable; shadowy, indefinite, undefined; ill-defined, ill-marked;
blurred, fuzzy, out of focus; misty &c. (opaque) 426; delitescent[obs3].
hidden, obscured, covered, veiled (concealed) 528.
Phr. "full many a flower is born to blush unseen" [Gray].

<-- p. 125 -->

#448. Appearance. -- N. appearance, phenomenon, sight, spectacle,
show, premonstration|, scene, species, view, coup d'oeil[Fr]; lookout,
outlook, prospect, vista, perspective, bird's-eye view, scenery, landscape,
picture, tableau; display, exposure, mise en scene[Fr]; rising of the
phantasm, phantom &c. (fallacy of vision) 443.
pageant, spectacle; peep-show, raree-show, gallanty-show; ombres
chinoises[Sp]; magic lantern, phantasmagoria, dissolving views;
biograph[obs3], cinematograph, moving pictures; panorama, diorama,
cosmorama[obs3], georama[obs3]; coup de theatre, jeu de theatre[Fr];
pageantry &c. (ostentation) 882; insignia &c. (indication) 550. aspect,
angle, phase, phasis[obs3], seeming; shape &c. (form) 240; guise, look,
complexion, color, image, mien, air, cast, carriage, port, demeanor;
presence, expression, first blush, face of the thing; point of view, light.
lineament feature trait lines; outline, outside; contour, face,
countenance, physiognomy, visage, phiz[obs3],. cast of countenance,
profile, tournure[obs3], cut of one's jib, metoposcopy[obs3]; outside &c.
V. appear; be visible, become visible &c. 446; seem, look, show;
present the appearance of, wear the appearance of, carry the appearance of,
have the appearance of, bear the appearance of, exhibit the appearance of,
take the appearance of, take on the appearance of, assume the appearance,
present the semblance of, wear the semblance of, carry the semblance of,
have the semblance of, bear the semblance of, exhibit the semblance of,
take the semblance of, take on the semblance of, assume the semblance of;
look like; cut a figure, figure; present to the view; show &c. (make
manifest) 525.
Adj. apparent, seeming, ostensible; on view.
Adv. apparently; to all seeming, to all appearance; ostensibly,
seemingly, as it seems, on the face of it, prima facie [Lat]; at the first
blush, at first sight; in the eyes of; to the eye.
Phr. editio princeps [Lat].

#449. Disappearance. -- N. disappearance, evanescence, eclipse,
departure &c. 293; exit; vanishing point; dissolving views.
V. disappear, vanish, dissolve, fade, melt away, pass, go,
avaunt[obs3], evaporate, vaporize; be gone &c. adj.; leave no trace, leave
"not a rack behind" [Tempest]; go off the stage &c. (depart) 293; suffer
an eclipse, undergo an eclipse; retire from sight; be lost to view, pass
out of sight.
lose sight of.
efface &c. 552.
Adj. disappearing &c. v.; evanescent; missing, lost; lost to sight,
lost to view; gone.
Int. vanish! disappear! avaunt[obs3]! get lost! get out of here &c.
(ejection) 297.

<-- p. 126 -->


#450. Intellect. -- N. intellect, mind, understanding, reason,
thinking principle; rationality; cogitative faculties, cognitive faculties,
discursive faculties, reasoning faculties, intellectual faculties;
faculties, senses, consciousness, observation, percipience, intelligence,
intellection, intuition, association of ideas, instinct, conception,
judgment, wits, parts, capacity, intellectuality, genius; brains, cognitive
powers, intellectual powers; wit &c. 498; ability &c. (skill) 698; wisdom
&c. 498; Vernunft[Ger], Verstand[Ger].
soul, spirit, ghost, inner man, heart, breast, bosom, penetralia
mentis[Lat], divina particula aurae[Lat], heart's core; the Absolute,
psyche, subliminal consciousness, supreme principle.
brain, organ of thought, seat of thought; sensorium[obs3], sensory;
head, headpiece; pate, noddle[obs3], noggin, skull, scull,
pericranium[Med], cerebrum, cranium, brainpan[obs3], sconce, upper story.
[in computers] central processing unit, CPU; arithmetic and logical
unit, ALU.
[Science of mind] metaphysics; psychics, psychology; ideology; mental
philosophy, moral philosophy; philosophy of the mind; pneumatology[obs3],
phrenology; craniology[Med], cranioscopy[Med].
ideality, idealism; transcendentalism, spiritualism; immateriality &c.
317; universal concept, universal conception.
metaphysician, psychologist &c.
V. note, notice, mark; take notice of, take cognizance of be aware of,
be conscious of; realize; appreciate; ruminate &c. (think) 451; fancy &c.
(imagine) 515.
Adj. intellectual[Relating to intellect], mental, rational,
subjective, metaphysical, nooscopic[obs3], spiritual; ghostly;
psychical[obs3], psychological; cerebral; animastic[obs3]; brainy;
hyperphysical[obs3], superphysical[obs3]; subconscious, subliminal.
immaterial &c. 317; endowed with reason.
Adv. in petto.
Phr. ens rationis [Lat]; frons est animi janua [Lat][Cicero]; locos y
ninos dicen la verdad [Sp]; mens sola loco non exulat [Lat][Ovid]; "my
mind is my kingdom" [Campbell]; "stern men with empires in their brains"
[Lowell]; "the mind, the music breathing from her face" [Byron]; "thou
living ray of intellectual Fire" [Falconer].

<-- differentiate between instinct and intuition. Intuition is reserved
for people. -->
#450a. Absence or want of Intellect.-- N. absence of intellect, want
of intellect &c. 450; imbecility &c. 499.: brutality, brute force.
instinct, brute instinct, stimulus-response loop, conditioned
response, instinctive reaction, Pavlovian response.
mimicry, aping (imitation) 19.
moron, imbecile, idiot; fool &c. 501; dumb animal; vegetable, brain-
Adj. unendowed with reason, void of reason; thoughtless; vegetative;
moronic, idiotic, brainless [all pejorative].
Adv. instinctively, like Pavlov's dog; vegetatively.
V. mimic, ape (imitate) 19; respond instinctively.

#451. Thought. -- N. thought; exercitation of the intellect[obs3],
exercise of the intellect; intellection; reflection, cogitation,
consideration, meditation, study, lucubration, speculation, deliberation,
pondering; head work, brain work; cerebration; deep reflection; close
study, application &c. (attention) 457.
abstract thought, abstraction contemplation, musing; brown study &c.
(inattention) 458; reverie, Platonism; depth of thought, workings of the
mind, thoughts, inmost thoughts; self-counsel self-communing, self-
consultation; philosophy of the Absolute, philosophy of the Academy,
philosophy of the Garden, philosophy of the lyceum, philosophy of the
association of thought, succession of thought, flow of thought, train
of thought, current of thought, association of ideas, succession of ideas,
flow of ideas, train of ideas, current of ideas.
after thought, mature thought; reconsideration, second thoughts;
retrospection &c. (memory) 505; excogitation[obs3]; examination &c.
(inquiry) 461 invention &c. (imagination) 515.
thoughtfulness &c. adj.
V. think, reflect, cogitate, excogitate[obs3], consider, deliberate;
bestow thought upon, bestow consideration upon; speculate, contemplate,
meditate, ponder, muse, dream, ruminate; brood over, con over; animadvert,
study; bend -, apply mind &c. (attend) 457; digest, discuss, hammer at,
weigh, perpend; realize, appreciate; fancy &c. (imagine) 515; trow[obs3].
take into consideration; take counsel &c. (be advised) 695; commune
with oneself, bethink oneself; collect one's thoughts; revolve in the mind,
turn over in the mind, run over in the mind; chew the cud upon, sleep upon;
take counsel of one's pillow, advise with one's pillow.
rack one's brains, ransack one's brains, crack one's brains, beat
one's brains, cudgel one's brains; set one's brain to work, set one's wits
to work.
harbor an idea, entertain an idea, cherish an idea, nurture an idea
&c. 453; take into one's head; bear in mind; reconsider.
occur; present itself, suggest itself; come into one's head, get into
one's head; strike one, flit across the view, come uppermost, run in one's
head; enter the mind, pass in the mind, cross the mind, flash on the mind,
flash across the mind, float in the mind, fasten itself on the mind, be
uppermost in the mind, occupy the mind; have in one's mind.
make an impression; sink into the mind, penetrate into the mind;
engross the thoughts.
Adj. thinking &c. v.; thoughtful, pensive, meditative, reflective,
museful[obs3], wistful, contemplative, speculative, deliberative, studious,
sedate, introspective, Platonic, philosophical.
lost in thought &c. (inattentive) 458; deep musing &c. (intent) 457.
in the mind, under consideration.
Adv. all things considered.
Phr. the mind being on the stretch; the mind turning upon, the head
turning upon, the mind running upon; "divinely, bent to meditation"
[Richard III]; en toute chose il faut considerer la fin[Fr][obs3]; "fresh-
pluckt from bowers of never-failing thought" [O. Meredith]; "go speed the
stars of Thought"[Emerson]; "in maiden meditation fancy-free" [M. N.
D.]; "so sweet is zealous contemplation" [Richard III]; "the power of
thought is the magic of the Mind" [Byron]; "those that think must govern
those that toil" [Goldsmith]; "thought is parent of the deed" [Carlyle];
"thoughts in attitudes imperious" [Longfellow]; "thoughts that breathe
and words that burn" [Gray]; vivere est cogitare [Lat][Cicero]; Volk der
Dichter und Denker [Ger].

<-- p. 127 -->

#452. [Absence or want of thought.] Incogitancy. -- N.
incogitancy[obs3], vacancy, inunderstanding[obs3]; fatuity &c. 499;
thoughtlessness &c. (inattention) 458; vacuity.
couch potato, vegetable.
V. not think &c. 451; not think of; dismiss from the mind, dismiss
from the thoughts &c. 451.
indulge in reverie &c. (be inattentive) 458.
put away thought; unbend the mind, relax the mind, divert the mind,
veg out.
Adj. vacant, unintellectual, unideal[obs3], unoccupied, unthinking,
inconsiderate, thoughtless, mindless, no-brain, vacuous; absent &c.
(inattentive) 458; diverted; irrational &c. 499; narrow-minded &c. 481.
unthought of, undreamt 'of, unconsidered; off one's mind;
incogitable[obs3], not to be thought of.
Phr. absence d'esprit; pabulum pictura pascit inani[Lat][obs3].

#453. [Object of thought.] Idea. -- N. idea, notion, conception,
thought, apprehension, impression, perception, image, [Grk],
sentiment, reflection, observation, consideration; abstract idea;
archetype, formative notion; guiding conception, organizing conception;
image in the mind, regulative principle.
view &c. (opinion) 484; theory &c. 514; conceit, fancy; phantasy &c.
(imagination) 515.point of view &c. (aspect) 448; field of view.

<-- p. 128 -->

<-- recall distinction between objective reality and perception thereof:
noumenon and phenomenon -->

#454. [Subject of thought, ] Topic. -- N. subject of
thought, material for thought; food for the mind, mental pabulum.
subject, subject matter; matter, theme, [Grk], topic,
what it is about, thesis, text, business, affair, matter in hand, argument;
motion, resolution; head, chapter; case, point; proposition, theorem; field
of inquiry; moot point, problem &c. (question) 461.
V. float in the mind, pass in the mind &c. 451.
Adj. thought of; uppermost in the mind; in petto.
Adv. under consideration; in question, in the mind; on foot, on the
carpet, on the docket, on the tapis[obs3]; relative to &c. 9.


#455. [The desire of knowledge.] Curiosity. -- N. interest, thirst for
knowledge, thirst for truth; curiosity, curiousness; inquiring mind;
omnivorous intellect, devouring mind.
[person who desires knowledge] inquirer; sightseer; quidnunc[Lat],
newsmonger, Paul Pry, eavesdropper; gossip &c. (news) 532; rubberneck;
intellectual; seeker[inquirer after religious knowledge], seeker after
V. be curious &c. adj.; take an interest in, stare, gape; prick up the
ears, see sights, lionize; pry; nose; rubberneck*[U. S.].
Adj. curious, inquisitive, burning with curiosity, overcurious;
inquiring &c. 461; prying, snoopy, nosy, peering; prurient; inquisitorial,
inquisitory[obs3]; curious as a cat; agape &c. (expectant) 507.
Phr. what's the matter? what next? consumed with curiosity; curiosity
killed the cat, satisfaction brought it back. "curiouser and curiouser"
[Alice in Wonderland].

#456. [Absence of curiosity.] Incuriosity. -- N. incuriosity,
incuriousness &c. adj.; insouciance &c. 866; indifference, lack of
interest, disinterest.
boredom, ennui (weariness) 841; satiety &c. 639; foreknowledge
(foresight) 510.
V. be incurious &c. adj.; have no curiosity &c. 455; take no interest
in &c. 823; mind one's own business.
Adj. incurious, uninquisitive, indifferent; impassive &c. 823;
uninterested, detached, aloof.

#457. Attention. -- N. attention; mindfulness, presence of mind &c.
adj.; intentness, intentiveness[obs3]; alertness; thought &c. 451;
advertence, advertency[obs3]; observance, observation; consideration,
reflection, perpension|; heed; heedfulness; particularity; notice, regard
&c. v.; circumspection, diligence &c. (care) 459; study, scrutiny
inspection, introspection; revision, revisal.
active application, diligent application, exclusive application,
minute application, close application, intense application, deep
application, profound application, abstract application, labored
application, deliberate application, active attention, diligent attention,
exclusive attention, minute attention, close attention, intense attention,
deep attention, profound attention, abstract attention, labored attention,
deliberate attention, active thought, diligent thought, exclusive thought,
minute thought, close thought, intense thought, deep thought, profound
thought, abstract thought, labored thought, deliberate thought, active
study, diligent study, exclusive study, minute study, close study, intense
study, deep study, profound study, abstract study, labored study,
deliberate study.
minuteness, attention to detail.
absorption of mind &c. (abstraction) 458.
indication, calling attention to &c. v.
V. be attentive &c. adj.; attend, advert to, observe, look, see, view,
remark, notice, regard, take notice, mark; give attention to, pay attention
to, pay heed to, give heed to; incline an ear to, lend an ear to; trouble
one's head about; give a thought to, animadvert to; occupy oneself with;
contemplate &c. (think of) 451; look at, look to, look after, look into,
look over; see to; turn the mind to, bend the mind to, apply the mind to,
direct the mind to, give the mind to, turn the eye to, bend the eye to,
apply the eye to, direct the eye to, give the eye to, turn the attention
to, bend the attention to, apply the attention to, direct the attention to,
give the attention to; have an eye to, have in one's eye; bear in mind;
take into account, take into consideration; keep in sight, keep in view;
have regard to, heed, mind, take cognizance of entertain, recognize; make
note of, take note of; note.
examine cursorily; glance at, glance upon, glance over; cast the eyes
over, pass the eyes over; run over, turn over the leaves, dip into,
perstringe|; skim &c. (neglect) 460; take a cursory view of.
examine, examine closely, examine intently; scan, scrutinize,
consider; give one's mind to, bend one's mind to; overhaul, revise, pore
over; inspect, review, pass under review; take stock of; fix the eye on,
rivet attention on, fix attention on, devote the eye to, fix the mind on,
devote the thoughts to; hear out, think out; mind one's business.
revert to; watch &c. (expect) 507, (take care of) 459; hearken to,
listen to; prick up the ears; have the eyes open, keep the eyes open; come
to the point.
meet with attention; fall under one's notice, fall under one's
observation; be under consideration &c. (topic) 454.
catch the eye, strike the eye; attract notice; catch the attention,
awaken the attention, wake the attention, invite the attention, solicit the
attention, attract the attention, claim the attention, excite the attention,
engage the attention, occupy the attention, strike the attention, arrest
the attention, fix the attention, engross the attention, absorb the
attention, rivet the attention, catch the mind, awaken the mind, wake the
mind, invite the mind, solicit the mind, attract the mind, claim the mind
excite the mind, engage the mind, occupy the mind, strike the mind, arrest
the mind, fix the mind, engross the mind, absorb the mind, rivet the mind,
catch the thoughts, awaken the thoughts, wake the thoughts, invite the
thoughts, solicit the thoughts, attract the thoughts, claim the thoughts
excite the thoughts, engage the thoughts, occupy the thoughts, strike the
thoughts, arrest the thoughts, fix the thoughts, engross the thoughts,
absorb the thoughts, rivet the thoughts; be present to the mind, be
uppermost in the mind.
bring under one's notice; point out, point to, point at, point the
finger at; lay the finger on, indigitate|, indicate; direct attention to,
call attention to; show; put a mark &c. (sign) 550 upon; call soldiers to
"attention"; bring forward &c. (make manifest) 525.
Adj. attentive, mindful, observant, regardful; alive to, awake to;
observing &c. v.; alert, open-eyed; intent on, taken up with, occupied
with, engaged in; engrossed in, wrapped in, absorbed, rapt, transfixed,
riveted, mesmerized, hypnotized; glued to (the TV); breathless; preoccupied
&c. (inattentive) 458; watchful &c. (careful) 459; breathless,
undistracted, upon the stretch; on the watch &c. (expectant) 507.
[compelling attention] interesting, engrossing, mesmerizing, riveting.
Int. see! look, look here, look you, look to it! mark! lo! behold!
soho[obs3]! hark, hark ye! mind! halloo! observe! lo and behold! attention!
nota bene [Latin], "N.B.", note well; I'd have you to know; notice! O yes!
Oyez! dekko[obs3]! ecco[obs3]! yoho!
Phr. this is to give notice, these are to give notice; dictum sapienti
sat est [Latin: a word to the wise is sufficient]; finem respice[Lat].
Attention! Now hear this! Oyez!; Achtung[German];
vnimanie[Russ][Russian]; chui[Japanese].

<-- p. 129 -->

#458. Inattention. -- N. inattention, inconsideration;
inconsiderateness &c. adj.; oversight; inadvertence, inadvertency,
nonobservance, disregard.
supineness &c. (inactivity) 683; etourderie[French], want of thought;
heedlessness &c. (neglect) 460; insouciance &c. (indifference) 866.
abstraction; absence of mind, absorption of mind; preoccupation,
distraction, reverie, brown study, deep musing, fit of abstraction.
V. be inattentive &c. adj.; overlook, disregard; pass by &c. (neglect)
460 not observe &c. 457; think little of.
close one's eyes to, shut one's eyes to; pay no attention to; dismiss
from one's thoughts, discard from one's thoughts, discharge from one's
thoughts, dismiss from one's mind, discard from one's mind, discharge from
one's mind; drop the subject, think no more of; set aside, turn aside, put
aside; turn away from, turn one's attention from, turn a deaf ear to, turn
one's back upon.
abstract oneself, dream, indulge in reverie.
escape notice, escape attention; come in at one ear and go out at the
other; forget &c. (have no remembrance) 506.
call off the attention, draw off the attention, call away the
attention, divert the attention, distract the mind; put out of one's head;
disconcert, discompose; put out, confuse, perplex, bewilder, moider[obs3],
fluster, muddle, dazzle; throw a sop to Cerberus.
Adj. inattentive; unobservant, unmindful, heedless, unthinking,
unheeding, undiscerning[obs3]; inadvertent; mindless, regardless,
respectless[obs3], listless &c. (indifferent) 866; blind, deaf; bird-
witted; hand over head; cursory, percursory[obs3]; giddy-brained, scatter-
brained, hare-brained; unreflective, unreflecting[obs3], ecervele [French];
offhand; dizzy, muzzy[obs3], brainsick[obs3]; giddy, giddy as a goose;
wild, harum-scarum, rantipole[obs3], highflying; heedless, careless &c.
(neglectful) 460.
inconsiderate, thoughtless.
absent, abstracted, distrait; absentminded, lost; lost in thought,
wrapped in thought; rapt, in the clouds, bemused; dreaming on other things,
musing on other things; preoccupied, engrossed &c. (attentive) 457;
daydreaming, in a reverie &c. n.; off one's guard &c. (inexpectant)
508[obs3]; napping; dreamy; caught napping.
disconcerted, distracted, put out &c. v.
Adv. inattentively, inadvertently, absent-mindedly &c. adj[obs3].; per
incuriam[Lat], sub silentio[Lat].
Int. stand at ease, stand easy!
Phr. the attention wanders; one's wits gone a woolgathering, one's
wits gone a bird's nesting; it never entered into one's head; the mind
running on other things; one's thoughts being elsewhere; had it been a bear
it would have bitten you.

<-- p. 130 -->

#459. Care. [Vigilance.] -- N. care, solicitude, heed; heedfulness
&c. adj.; scruple &c. (conscientiousness) 939.
watchfulness &c. adj.; vigilance, surveillance, eyes of Argus[obs3],
watch, vigil, look out, watch and ward, loeil du maitre[Fr].
alertness &c. (activity) 682; attention &c. 457; prudence &c.,
circumspection &c. (caution) 864; anxiety; forethought &c. 510; precaution
&c. (preparation) 673; tidiness &c. (order) 58, (cleanliness) 652; accuracy
&c. (exactness) 494; minuteness, attention to detail.
V. be careful &c. adj.; reck[obs3]; take care &c. (be cautious) 864;
pay attention to &c. 457; take care of; look to, look after, see to, see
after; keep an eye on, keep a sharp eye on; chaperon, matronize[obs3], play
gooseberry; keep watch, keep watch and ward; mount guard, set watch, watch;
keep in sight, keep in view; mind, mind one's business.
look sharp, look about one; look with one's own eyes; keep a good
lookout, keep a sharp lookout; have all one's wits about one, have all
one's eyes about one; watch for &c. (expect) 507; keep one's eyes open,
have the eyes open, sleep with one's eye open.
Adj. careful regardful, heedful; taking care &c. v.; particular;
prudent &c. (cautious) 864; considerate; thoughtful &c. (deliberative) 451;
provident &c. (prepared) 673; alert &c. (active) 682; sure-footed.
guarded, on one's guard; on the qui vivre[Fr], on the alert, on watch,
on the lookout; awake, broad awake, vigilant; watchful, wakeful, wistful;
Argus-eyed; wide awake &c. (intelligent) 498; on the watch for (expectant)
tidy &c. (orderly) 58, (clean) 652; accurate &c. (exact) 494;
scrupulous &c. (conscientious) 939; cavendo tutus &c. (safe) 664[Lat].
Adv. carefully &c. adj.; with care, gingerly.
Phr. quis custodiet istos custodes? [Latin: who will watch the
watchers?]; "care will kill a cat" [Wither]; ni bebas agua que no veas
[Sp]; "O polished perturbation! Golden care!" [Henry IV]; "the incessant
care and labor of his mind" [Henry IV].

#460. Neglect. -- N. neglect; carelessness &c. adj.; trifling &c. v.;
negligence; omission, oversight, laches[Law], default; supineness &c.
(inactivity) 683; inattention &c. 458; nonchalance &c. (insensibility) 823;
imprudence, recklessness &c. 863; slovenliness &c. (disorder) 59, (dirt)
653; improvidence &c. 674; noncompletion &c. 730; inexactness &c. (error)
paralipsis, paralepsis, paraleipsis [in rhetoric].
trifler, waiter on Providence; Micawber.
V. be negligent &c. adj.; take no care of &c. (take care of &c. 459);
neglect; let slip, let go; lay aside, set aside, cast aside, put aside; keep
out of sight, put out of sight; lose sight of.
overlook, disregard; pass over, pas by; let pass; blink; wink at,
connive at; gloss over; take no note of, take no thought of, take no account
of, take no notice of; pay no regard to; laisser aller[Fr].
scamp; trifle, fribble[obs3]; do by halves; cut; slight &c. (despise)
930; play with, trifle with; slur, skim, skim the surface; effleurer [Fr];
take a cursory view of &c. 457.
slur over, skip over, jump over, slip over; pretermit[obs3], miss,
skip, jump, omit, give the go-by to, push aside, pigeonhole, shelve, sink;
table [parliamentary]; ignore, shut one's eyes to, refuse to hear, turn a
deaf ear to; leave out of one's calculation; not attend to &c. 457, not
mind; not trouble oneself about, not trouble one's head about, not trouble
oneself with; forget &c. 506; be caught napping &c. (not expect) 508; leave
a loose thread; let the grass grow under one's feet.
render neglectful &c. adj.; put off one's guard, throw off one's
guard; distract, divert.
Adj. neglecting &c. v.; unmindful, negligent, neglectful; heedless,
careless, thoughtless; perfunctory, remiss; feebleness &c. 575.
inconsiderate; uncircumspect[obs3], incircumspect[obs3]; off one's
guard; unwary, unwatchful[obs3], unguarded; offhand.
supine &c. (inactive) 683; inattentive &c. 458; insouciant &c.
(indifferent) 823; imprudent, reckless &c. 863; slovenly &c. (disorderly)
59, (dirty) 653; inexact &c. (erroneous) 495; improvident &c. 674.
neglected &c. v.; unheeded, uncared-for, unperceived, unseen,
unobserved, unnoticed, unnoted[obs3], unmarked, unattended to, unthought
of, unregarded[obs3], unremarked, unmissed[obs3]; shunted, shelved.
unexamined, unstudied, unsearched[obs3], unscanned[obs3],
unweighed[obs3], unsifted, unexplored.
abandoned; buried in a napkin, hid under a bushel.
Adv. negligently &c. adj.; hand over head, anyhow; in an unguarded
moment &c. (unexpectedly) 508; per incuriam[Lat].
Int. never mind, no matter, let it pass.
Phr. out of sight, out of mind.

<-- p. 131 -->

#461. Inquiry [Subject of Inquiry. Question] -- N. inquiry; request
&c. 765; search, research, quest, pursuit &c. 622.
examination, review, scrutiny, investigation, indagation|;
perquisition[obs3], perscrutation[obs3], pervestigation|; inquest,
inquisition; exploration; exploitation, ventilation.
sifting; calculation, analysis, dissection, resolution, induction;
Baconian method[obs3].
strict inquiry, close inquiry, searching inquiry, exhaustive inquiry;
narrow search, strict search; study &c. (consideration) 451.
scire facias[Lat], ad referendum; trial.
questioning &c. v.; interrogation,
interrogatory; interpellation; challenge, examination, cross-examination,
catechism; feeler, Socratic method, zetetic philosophy[obs3]; leading
question; discussion &c. (reasoning) 476.
reconnoitering, reconnaissance; prying &c. v.; espionage,
espionnage[Fr]; domiciliary visit, peep behind the curtain; lantern of
question, query, problem, desideratum, point to be solved,
porism[obs3]; subject of inquiry, field of inquiry, subject of controversy;
point in dispute, matter in dispute; moot point; issue, question at issue;
bone of contention &c. (discord) 713; plain question, fair question, open
question; enigma &c. (secret) 533; knotty point &c. (difficulty) 704;
quodlibet; threshold of an inquiry.
[person who questions] inquirer, investigator, inquisitor, inspector,
querist[obs3], examiner, catechist; scrutator scrutineer scrutinizer[obs3];
analyst; quidnunc &c. (curiosity) 455[Lat].
V. make inquiry &c. n.; inquire, ask, seek, search.
look for, look about for, look out for; scan, reconnoiter, explore,
sound, rummage, ransack, pry, peer, look round; look over, go over, look
through, go through; spy, overhaul.
[transitive: object is a topic] ask about, inquire about.
scratch the head, slap the forehead.
look into every hole and corner, peer into every hole and corner, pry
into every hole and corner; nose; trace up; search out, hunt down, hunt
out, fish out, ferret out; unearth; leave no stone unturned.
seek a clue, seek a clew; hunt, track, trail, mouse, dodge, trace;
follow the trail, follow the scent; pursue &c. 662; beat up one's quarters;
fish for; feel for &c. (experiment) 463.
investigate; take up an inquiry, institute an inquiry, pursue an
inquiry, follow up an inquiry, conduct an inquiry, carry on an inquiry,
carry out an inquiry, prosecute an inquiry &c. n.; look at, look into;
preexamine; discuss, canvass, agitate.
[inquire into a topic] examine, study, consider, calculate; dip into,
dive into, delve into, go deep into; make sure of, probe, sound, fathom;
probe to the bottom, probe to the quick; scrutinize, analyze, anatomize,
dissect, parse, resolve, sift, winnow; view in all its phases, try in all
its phases; thresh out.
bring in question, bring into question, subject to examination; put to
the proof &c. (experiment) 463; audit, tax, pass in review; take into
consideration &c. (think over) 451; take counsel &c. 695.
[intransitive] question, demand; put the question, pop the question,
propose the question, propound the question, moot the question, start the
question, raise the question, stir the question, suggest the question, put
forth the question, ventilate the question, grapple with the question, go
into a question.
question[transitive: human object], put to the question, interrogate,
pump; subject to interrogation, subject to examination; cross-question,
cross-examine; press for an answer; give the third degree; put to the
inquisition; dodge|!.
require an answer; pick the brains of, suck the brains of; feel the
get the lay of the land; see how the wind is blowing; put one's ear to
the ground.
[intransitive] be in question &c. adj.; undergo examination.
Adj. inquiry &c. v.; inquisitive &c. (curious) 455; requisitive|,
requisitory[obs3]; catechetical[obs3], inquisitorial, analytic; in search
of, in quest of; on the lookout for, interrogative, zetetic[obs3]; all
undetermined, untried, undecided; in question, in dispute, in issue,
in course of inquiry; under discussion, under consideration, under
investigation &c. n.; sub judice[Lat], moot, proposed; doubtful &c.
(uncertain) 475.
Adv. what? why? wherefore? whence? whither? where? quaere? how comes
it[Lat], how happens it, how is it? what is the reason? what's the matter,
what's in the wind? what on earth? when? who? nicht wahr?[Ger].

#462. Answer. -- N. answer, response, reply, replication, riposte,
rejoinder, surrejoinder[obs3], rebutter, surrebutter[obs3], retort,
repartee; rescript, rescription[obs3]; antiphon[obs3], antiphony;
acknowledgment; password; echo; counter statement.
discovery &c. 480a; solution &c. (explanation) 522; rationale &c.
(cause) 153; clue &c. (indication) 550.
Oedipus; oracle &c. 513; return &c. (record) 551.
V. answer, respond, reply, rebut, retort, rejoin; give for answer,
return for answer; acknowledge, echo.
explain &c. (interpret) 522; solve &c. (unriddle) 522; discover &c.
480a; fathom, hunt out &c. (inquire) 461; satisfy, set at rest, determine.
Adj. answering &c. v.; responsive, respondent; conclusive.
Adv. because &c. (cause) 153; on the scent, on the right scent.
Int. eureka!

<-- p. 132 -->

#463. Experiment. -- N. experiment; essay &c. (attempt) 675; analysis
&c. (investigation) 461; screen; trial, tentative method, ttonnement.
verification, probation, experimentum crucis[Lat], proof,
(demonstration) 478; criterion, diagnostic, test, probe, crucial test, acid
test, litmus test.
crucible, reagent, check, touchstone, pix[obs3]; assay, ordeal; ring;
litmus paper, curcuma paper[obs3], turmeric paper; test tube; analytical
instruments &c. 633.
empiricism, rule of thumb.
feeler; trial balloon, pilot balloon, messenger balloon; pilot engine;
scout; straw to show the wind.
speculation, random shot, leap in the dark.
analyzer, analyst, assayist[obs3]; adventurer; experimenter,
experimentist[obs3], experimentalist; scientist, engineer, technician.
subject, experimentee[obs3], guinea pig, experimental animal.
[experimental method] protocol, experimental method, blind experiment,
double-blind experiment, controlled experiment.
poll, survey, opinion poll.
epidemiological survey[Med], retrospective analysis, retrospective
survey, prospective survey, prospective analysis; statistical analysis.
literature search, library research.
tryout, audition.
[results of experiment] discovery &c 480; measurement &c. 466;
evidence &c. 467.
[reasoning about an experiment] deduction, induction, abduction.
V. experiment; essay &c. (endeavor) 675; try, try out, assay; make an
experiment, make a trial of; give a trial to; put on trial, subject to
trial; experiment upon; rehearse; put to the test, bring to the test,
submit to the test, submit to the proof; prove, verify, test, touch,
practice upon, try one's strength; road-test, test drive, take for a spin;
test fly.
grope; feel one's way, grope for one's way; fumble, ttonner, aller 
ttons[Fr], put out a feeler, throw out a feeler; send up a trial balloon,
send up a pilot balloon; see how the land lies, get the lay of the land,
test the waters, feel out, sound out, take the pulse, see, check, check
out[coll.], see how the wind blows; consult the barometer; feel the pulse;
fish for, bob for; cast for, beat about for; angle, trawl, cast one's net,
beat the bushes.
try one's fortune &c. (adventure) 675; explore &c. (inquire) 461.
Adj. experimental, empirical.
probative, probatory[obs3], probationary, provisional; analytic,
docimastic[obs3]; tentative;unverified, unproven, speculative, untested.
Adv. on trial, under examination, on probation, under probation, on
one's trial, on approval.
Phr. check it out, give it a try, see how it goes; "Run it up the
flagpole and see who salutes."

#464. Comparison. -- N. comparison, collation, contrast;
identification; comparative estimate, relative estimate, relativity.
simile, similitude, analogy (similarity) 17; allegory &c. (metaphor)
matching, pattern-matching.
[quantitative comparison] ratio, proportion (number) 84.
[results of comparison] discrimination 465; indiscrimination
465a[obs3]; identification 465b.
V. compare to, compare with; collate, confront; place side by side,
juxtapose &c. (near) 197; set against one another, pit against one another;
contrast, balance.
identify, draw a parallel, parallel.
compare notes; institute a comparison; parva componere magnis[Lat]..
Adj. comparative; metaphorical &c. 521.
compared with &c. v.; comparable; judged by comparison.
Adv. relatively &c. (relation) 9; as compared with &c. v.
Phr. comparisons are odious; "comparisons are odorous" [Much Ado
about Nothing].

#464a. Incomparability [Lack of comparison] -- N. incomparability;
incommensurability; indistinguishablility &c. 465a.
Adj. incommensurable, incommensurate; incomparable; different &c.15.
Phr. like apples and oranges; no basis for comparison; no standard for

#465. [results of comparison. 1] Discrimination. -- N. discrimination,
distinction, differentiation, diagnosis, diorism[obs3]; nice perception;
perception of difference, appreciation of difference; estimation &c. 466;
nicety, refinement; taste &c. 850; critique, judgment; tact; discernment
&c. (intelligence) 498; acuteness, penetration; nuances.
dope*, past performances.
V. discriminate, distinguish, severalize[obs3]; recognize, match,
identify; separate; draw the line, sift; separate the chaff from the wheat,
winnow the chaff from the wheat; separate the men from the boys; split
hairs, draw a fine line, nitpick, quibble.
estimate &c. (measure) 466; know which is which, know what is what,
know "a hawk from a handsaw" [Hamlet].
take into account, take into consideration; give due weight to, allow
due weight to; weigh carefully.
Adj. discriminating &c. v.; dioristic[obs3], discriminative,
distinctive; nice.
Phr. il y a fagots et fagots; rem acu tetigisti[Lat][obs3]; la
critique est aisee et l'art est difficile [Fr]; miles apart; a distinction
without a difference.

#465a. [results of comparison. 2] Indiscrimination. -- N.
indiscrimination[obs3], indistinguishability; indistinctness,
indistinction[obs3]; uncertainty &c. (doubt) 475; incomparability &c. 464a.
V. not discriminate &c. 465; overlook &c. (neglect) 460 a distinction:
confound, confuse.
Adj. indiscriminate; undistinguished|!, indistinguishable,
undistinguishable[obs3]; unmeasured; promiscuous, undiscriminating.
Phr. valeat quantum valere potest[Lat.].

<-- p. 133 -->

#465b. [results of comparison. 3] Identification.-- N. identification,
recognition, diagnosis, match; apperception, assimilation; dereplication;
classification; memory &c. 505; interpretation &c. 522; cognizance
(knowledge) 490.
V. identify, recognize, match, match up; classify; recall, remember
&c. (memory) 505; find similarity (similarity) 17; put in its proper place,
put in its proper niche, place in order (arrangement) 60.

#466. Measurement. -- N. measurement, admeasurement[obs3],
mensuration, survey, valuation, appraisement, assessment, assize; estimate,
estimation; dead reckoning, reckoning &c. (numeration) 85; gauging &c. v.;
horse power.
metrology, weights and measures, compound arithmetic.
measure, yard measure, standard, rule, foot rule, compass, calipers;
gage, gauge; meter, line, rod, check; dividers; velo[obs3].
flood mark, high water mark; Plimsoll line; index &c. 550.
scale; graduation, graduated scale; nonius[obs3]; vernier &c.
(minuteness) 193.
[instruments for measuring] bathometer, galvanometer, heliometer,
interferometer, odometer, ombrometer[obs3], pantometer[obs3],
pluviometer[obs3], pneumatometer[obs3], pneumometer[obs3], radiometer,
refractometer, respirometer, rheometer, spirometer[obs3], telemeter,
udometer[obs3], vacuometer[obs3], variometer[obs3], viameter[obs3],
thermometer, thermistor (heat &c. 382), barometer (air &c. 338), anemometer
(wind 349), dynamometer, goniometer (angle 244) meter; landmark &c. (limit)
233; balance, scale &c. (weight) 319; marigraph[obs3], pneumatograph[obs3],
stethograph[obs3]; rain gauge, rain gage; voltmeter(volts), ammeter(amps);
spectrophotometer (light absorbance); mass spectrophotometer(molecular
mass); geiger counter, scintillation counter(radioactivity); pycnometer
(liquid density); graduated cylinder, volumetric flask (volume); radar gun
(velocity); radar (distance); side-looking radar (shape, topography); sonar
(depth in water); light meter (light intensity); clock, watch, stopwatch,
chronometer (time); anemometer (wind velocity); densitometer (color
measurability, computability, determinability[obs3].
coordinates, ordinate and abscissa, polar coordinates, latitude and
longitude, declination and right ascension, altitude and azimuth.
geometry, stereometry[obs3], hypsometry[obs3]; metage[obs3];
surveying, land surveying; geodesy, geodetics[obs3], geodesia[obs3];
orthometry[obs3], altimetry[obs3]; cadastre[Fr].
astrolabe, armillary sphere[obs3].
land surveyor; geometer.
V. measure, mete; determine, assay; evaluate, value, assess, rate,
appraise, estimate, form an estimate, set a value on; appreciate;
span, pace step; apply the compass &c. n.; gauge, plumb, probe, sound,
fathom; heave the log, heave the lead; survey.
take an average &c. 29; graduate.
Adj. measuring &c. v.; metric, metrical;
measurable, perceptible, noticeable, detectable, appreciable,
ponderable, determinable, fathomable;
geodetical, topographic, topographical, cartographic, cartographical.


#467. Evidence [On one side.] -- N. evidence; facts, premises, data,
praecognita[Lat], grounds.
indication &c. 550; criterion &c. (test) 463.
testimony, testification[obs3], expert testimony; attestation;
deposition &c. (affirmation) 535; examination.
admission &c. (assent) 488; authority, warrant, credential, diploma,
voucher, certificate, doquet[obs3], docket; testamur[obs3]; record &c. 551;
document; pi
ce justificative[obs3]; deed, warranty &c. (security) 771;
signature, seal &c. (identification) 550; exhibit, material evidence,
objective evidence.
witness, indicator, hostile witness; eyewitness, earwitness, material
witness, state's evidence; deponent; sponsor; cojuror[obs3].
oral evidence, documentary evidence, hearsay evidence, external
evidence, extrinsic evidence, internal evidence, intrinsic evidence,
circumstantial evidence, cumulative evidence, ex parte evidence[Lat],
presumptive evidence, collateral evidence, constructive evidence; proof &c.
(demonstration) 478; evidence in chief.
secondary evidence; confirmation, corroboration, support; ratification
&c. (assent) 488; authentication; compurgation[obs3], wager of law,
citation, reference; legal research, literature search (experiment)

V. be evidence &c. n.; evince, show, betoken, tell of; indicate &c.
(denote) 550; imply, involve, argue, bespeak, breathe.
have weight, carry weight; tell, speak volumes; speak for itself &c.
(manifest) 525.
rest upon, depend upon; repose on.
bear witness &c. n.; give evidence &c. n.; testify, depose, witness,
vouch for; sign, seal, undersign[obs3], set one's hand and seal, sign and
seal, deliver as one's act and deed, certify, attest; acknowledge &c.
(assent) 488.
[provide conclusive evidence] make absolute, confirm, prove
(demonstrate) 478.
[add further evidence] indorse, countersign, corroborate, support,
ratify, bear out, uphold, warrant.
adduce, attest, cite, quote; refer to, appeal to; call, call to
witness; bring forward, bring into court; allege, plead; produce witnesses,
confront witnesses.
place into evidence, mark into evidence.
[obtain evidence] collect evidence, bring together evidence, rake up
evidence; experiment &c. 463.
have a case, make out a case; establish, authenticate, substantiate,
verify, make good, quote chapter and verse; bring home to, bring to book.
Adj. showing &c. v.; indicative, indicatory; deducible &c. 478;
grounded on, founded on, based on; corroborative, confirmatory.
Adv. by inference; according to, witness, a fortiori; still more,
still less; raison de plus[Fr]; in corroboration &c. n. of; valeat
quantum[Lat]; under seal, under one's hand and seal.
Phr. dictum de dicto[Lat]; mise en evidence[Fr.].

<-- p. 134 -->

#468. [Evidence on the other side, on the other hand.] Counter
Evidence. -- N. counter evidence; evidence on the other side, evidence on
the other hand; conflicting evidence, contradictory evidence, opposing
evidence; disproof, refutation &c. 479; negation &c. 536.
plea &c. 617; vindication &c. 937 counter protest; "tu quoque"
argument; other side of the shield, other side of the coin, reverse of the
V. countervail, oppose; mitigate against; rebut &c. (refute) 479;
subvert &c. (destroy) 162; cheek, weaken; contravene; contradict &c. (deny)
536; tell the other side of the story, tell another story, turn the scale,
alter the case; turn the tables; cut both ways; prove a negative.
audire alteram partem[Lat].
Adj. countervailing &c. v.; contradictory.
unattested, unauthenticated, unsupported by evidence; supposititious.
Adv. on the contrary, per contra.

#469. Qualification. -- N. qualification, limitation, modification,
allowance, grains of allowance, consideration, extenuating
circumstances; mitigation.
condition, proviso, prerequisite, contingency, stipulation, provision,
specification, sine qua non[Lat]; catch, string, strings attached;
exemption; exception, escape clause, salvo, saving clause; discount &c.
813; restriction; fine print.
V. qualify, limit, modify, leaven, give a color to, introduce new
conditions, narrow, temper.
waffle, quibble, hem and haw (be uncertain) 475; equivocate
(sophistry) 477.
depend, depend on, be contingent on (effect) 154.
allow for, make allowance for; admit exceptions, take into account;
moderate, temper, season, leaven.
take exception.
Adj. qualifying &c. v.; qualified, conditioned, restricted, hedged;
conditional; exceptional &c. (unconformable) 83.
hypothetical &c. (supposed) 514; contingent &c. (uncertain) 475.
Adv. provided, provided that, provided always; if, unless, but, yet;
according as; conditionally, admitting, supposing; on the supposition of
&c. (theoretically) 514; with the understanding, even, although, though,
for all that, after all, at all events.
approximately &c. 197, 17; in a limited degree (smallness) 32;
somewhat, sort of, something like that, to a certain extent, to a degree,
in a sense, so to speak.
with grains of allowance, cum grano salis[Latin: with a grain of
salt]; exceptis excipiendis[Lat]; wind and weather permitting; if possible
&c. 470.
subject to, conditioned upon; with this proviso &c. n.
Phr. "if the good lord is willing and the creeks don't rise"; catch-22.

Degrees of Evidence

#470. Possibility. -- N. possibility, potentiality; what may be, what
is possible &c. adj.; compatibility &c. (agreement) 23.
practicability, feasibility; practicableness &c. adj.
contingency, chance &c. 156.
V. be possible &c. adj.; stand a chance; admit of, bear.
render possible &c. adj.; put in the way of.
Adj. possible; in the cards, on the dice; in posse, within the bounds
of possibility, conceivable, credible; compatible &c. 23; likely.
practicable, feasible, performable, achievable; within reach, within
measurable distance; accessible, superable[obs3], surmountable; attainable,
obtainable; contingent &c. (doubtful) 475, (effect) 154.
barely possible, marginally possible, just possible; possible but
improbably, (improbable) 473; theoretically possible.
Adv. possibly, by possibility; perhaps, perchance, peradventure;
maybe, may be, haply, mayhap.
if possible, wind and weather permitting, God willing, Deo
volente[Lat], D. V.; as luck may have it.
Phr. misericordia Domini inter pontem et fontent[Lat]; "the glories
of the Possible are ours" [B. Taylor]; anything is possible; in theory
possible, but in practise unlikely.

<-- p. 135 -->

#471. Impossibility. -- N. impossibility &c. adj.; what cannot, what
can never be; sour grapes; hopelessness &c. 859.
V. be impossible &c. adj.; have no chance whatever.
attempt impossibilities; square the circle, wash a blackamoor white;
skin a flint; make a silk purse out of a sow's ear, make bricks without
straw; have nothing to go upon; weave a rope of sand, build castles in the
air, prendre la lune avec les dents[Fr], extract sunbeams from cucumbers,
set the Thames on fire, milk a he-goat into a sieve, catch a weasel asleep,
rompre l'anguille au genou[Fr], be in two places at once.
Adj. impossible; not possible &c. 470; absurd, contrary to reason;
unlikely; unreasonable &c. 477; incredible &c. 485; beyond the bounds of
reason, beyond the bounds of possibility, beyond the realm of possibility;
from which reason recoils; visionary; inconceivable &c. (improbable) 473;
prodigious &c. (wonderful) 870; unimaginable, inimaginable[obs3];
impracticable unachievable; unfeasible, infeasible; insuperable;
unsurmountable[obs3], insurmountable; unattainable, unobtainable; out of
reach, out of the question; not to be had, not to be thought of; beyond
control; desperate &c. (hopeless) 859; incompatible &c. 24; inaccessible,
uncomeatable[obs3], impassable, impervious, innavigable[obs3],
inextricable; self-contradictory.
out of one's power, beyond one's power, beyond one's depth, beyond
one's reach, beyond one's grasp; too much for; ultra crepidam[Lat].
Phr. the grapes are sour; non possumus[Lat]; non nostrum tantas
componere lites [Lat][Vergil]; look for a needle in a haystack, chercher
une aiguille dans une botte de foin [obs3][Fr.]; il a le mer boire[obs3].

#472. Probability. -- N. probability, likelihood; credibleness[obs3];
likeliness &c. adj.;
vraisemblance[Fr], verisimilitude, plausibility; color, semblance,
show of; presumption; presumptive evidence, circumstantial evidence;
reasonable chance, fair chance, good chance, favorable chance,
reasonable prospect, fair prospect, good prospect, favorable prospect;
prospect, wellgrounded hope; chance &c. 156.
V. be probable &c. adj.; give color to, lend color to; point to; imply
&c. (evidence) 467; bid fair &c. (promise) 511; stand fair for; stand a
good chance, run a good chance.
think likely, dare say, flatter oneself; expect &c. 507; count upon
&c. (believe) 484.
Adj. probable, likely, hopeful, to be expected, in a fair way.
plausible, specious, ostensible, colorable, ben trovato[It], well-
founded, reasonable, credible, easy of belief, presumable, presumptive,
Adv. probably &c. adj.; belike[obs3]; in all probability, in all
likelihood; very likely, most likely; like enough; odds on, odds in favor,
ten &c. to one; apparently, seemingly, according to every reasonable
expectation; prim facie[Lat]; to all appearance &c. (to the eye) 448.
Phr. the chances, the odds are; appearances are in favor of, chances
are in favor of; there is reason to believe, there is reason to think,
there is reason to expect; I dare say; all Lombard Street to a China

#473. Improbability. -- N. improbability, unlikelihood; unfavorable
chance, bad chance, ghost of a chance, little chance, small chance, poor
chance, scarcely any chance, no chance; bare possibility; long odds;
incredibility &c. 485.
V. be improbable &c. adj.; have a small chance &c. n.
Adj. improbable, unlikely, contrary to all reasonable expectation;
wild, far out, out of sight, outtasight, heavy [all coll.].
rare &c. (infrequent) 137; unheard of, inconceivable; unimaginable,
inimaginable[obs3]; incredible &c. 485; more than doubtful; strange,
bizarre (uncomformable) 83.
Phr. the chances are against; aquila non capit muscas[Lat]; pedir
peras pal olmo[Lat].

#474. Certainty. -- N. certainty; necessity &c. 601; certitude,
surety, assurance; dead certainty, moral certainty; infallibleness &c.
adj.; infallibility, reliability; indubitableness, inevitableness,
gospel, scripture, church, pope, court of final appeal; res
judicata[Lat], ultimatum positiveness; dogmatism, dogmatist, dogmatizer;
doctrinaire, bigot, opinionist[obs3], Sir Oracle; ipse dixit[Lat].
fact; positive fact, matter of fact; fait accompli[Fr].
V. be certain &c. adj.; stand to reason.
render certain &c. adj.; insure, ensure, assure; clinch, make sure;
determine, decide, set at rest, "make assurance double sure" [Macbeth];
know &c. (believe) 484.
dogmatize, lay down the law.
Adj. certain, sure, assured &c. v.; solid, well-founded.
unqualified, absolute, positive, determinate, definite, clear,
unequivocal, categorical, unmistakable, decisive, decided, ascertained.
inevitable, unavoidable, avoidless[obs3]; ineluctable.
unerring, infallible; unchangeable &c. 150; to be depended on,
trustworthy, reliable, bound.
unimpeachable, undeniable, unquestionable; indisputable,
incontestable, incontrovertible, indubitable; irrefutable &c. (proven) 478;
conclusive, without power of appeal.
indubious[obs3]; without doubt, beyond a doubt, without a shade or
shadow of doubt, without question, beyond question; past dispute; clear as
day; beyond all question, beyond all dispute; undoubted, uncontested,
unquestioned, undisputed; questionless[obs3], doubtless.
authoritative, authentic, official.
sure as fate, sure as death and taxes, sure as a gun.
evident, self-evident, axiomatic; clear, clear as day, clear as the
sun at noonday.
Adv. certainly &c. adj.; for certain, certes[Lat], sure, no doubt,
doubtless, and no mistake, flagrante delicto[Lat], sure enough, to be sure,
of course, as a matter of course, a coup sur, to a certainty; in truth &c.
(truly) 494; at any rate, at all events; without fail; coute que coute[Fr],
coute qu'il coute[Fr]; whatever may happen, if the worst come to the worst;
come what may, happen what may, come what will; sink or swim; rain or
Phr. cela va sans dire[Fr]; there is -no question, - not a shadow of
doubt; the die is cast &c. (necessity) 601; "facts are stubborn things"

<-- p. 136 -->

#475. Uncertainty. -- N. uncertainty, incertitude, doubt; doubtfulness
&c. adj.; dubiety, dubitation[obs3], dubitancy|, dubitousness[obs3].
hesitation, suspense; perplexity, embarrassment, dilemma,
bewilderment; timidity &c. (fear) 860; vacillation &c. 605;
diaporesis[obs3], indetermination.
vagueness &c. adj.; haze, fog; obscurity &c. (darkness) 421; ambiguity
&c. (double meaning) 520; contingency, dependence, dependency, double
contingency, possibility upon a possibility; open question &c. (question)
461; onus probandi[Lat]; blind bargain, pig in a poke, leap in the dark,
something or other; needle in a haystack, needle in a bottle of hay; roving
precariousness &c. adj.; fallibility.
V. be uncertain &c. adj.; wonder whether.
lose the clue, lose the clew, scent; miss one's way.
not know what to make of &c. (unintelligibility) 519, not know which
way to turn, not know whether one stands on one's head or one's heels;
float in a sea of doubt,hesitate, flounder; lose oneself, lose one's head;
muddle one's brains.
render uncertain &c. adj.; put out, pose, puzzle, perplex, embarrass;
confuse, confound; bewilder, bother, molder, addle the wits, throw off the
scent, ambiguas in vulgus spargere voces[Lat]; keep in suspense.
doubt &c. (disbelieve) 485; hang in the balance, tremble in the
balance; depend.
Adj. uncertain; casual; random &c. (aimless) 621; changeable &c. 149.
doubtful, dubious; indecisive; unsettled, undecided, undetermined; in
suspense, open to discussion; controvertible; in question &c. (inquiry)
vague; indeterminate, indefinite; ambiguous, equivocal; undefined,
undefinable; confused &c. (indistinct) 447; mystic, oracular; dazed.
perplexing &c. v.; enigmatic, paradoxical, apocryphal, problematical,
hypothetical; experimental &c. 463.
unpredictable, unforeseeable (unknowable) 519.
fallible, questionable, precarious, slippery, ticklish, debatable,
disputable; unreliable, untrustworthy.
contingent, contingent on, dependent on; subject to; dependent on
circumstances; occasional; provisional.
unauthentic, unauthenticated, unauthoritative; unascertained,
unconfirmed; undemonstrated; untold, uncounted.
in a state of uncertainty, in a cloud, in a maze; bushed, off the
track; ignorant.&c. 491; afraid to say; out of one's reckoning, astray,
adrift; at sea, at fault, at a loss, at one's wit's end, at a nonplus;
puzzled &c. v.; lost, abroad, dsorient; distracted, distraught.
Adv. pendente lite[Lat]; sub spe rati[Lat].
Phr. Heaven knows; who can tell? who shall decide when doctors
disagree? ambiguas in vulgum spargere voces[Lat].

<-- p. 137 -->


#476. Reasoning, -- N. {ant. 477} reasoning, ratiocination, rationalism;
dialectics, induction, generalization.
discussion, comment; ventilation; inquiry &c. 461.
argumentation, controversy, debate; polemics, wrangling; contention
&c. 720 logomachy[obs3]; disputation, disceptation[obs3]; paper war.
art of reasoning, logic.
process of reasoning, train of reasoning, chain of reasoning;
deduction, induction, abduction; synthesis, analysis.
argument; case, plaidoyer[obs3], opening; lemma, proposition, terms,
premises, postulate, data, starting point, principle; inference &c.
(judgment) 480.
prosyllogism[obs3], syllogism; enthymeme[obs3], sorites[obs3],
dilemma, perilepsis[obs3], a priori reasoning, reductio ad absurdum, horns
of a dilemma, argumentum ad hominem [Lat.], comprehensive argument;
empirema[obs3], epagoge[obs3].
[person who reasons] reasoner, logician, dialectician; disputant;
controversialist, controvertist[obs3]; wrangler, arguer, debater polemic,
casuist, rationalist; scientist; eristic[obs3].
logical sequence; good case; correct just reasoning, sound reasoning,
valid reasoning, cogent reasoning, logical reasoning, forcible reasoning,
persuasive reasoning, persuasory reasoning[obs3], consectary reasoning|,
conclusive &c. 478; subtle reasoning; force of argument, strong point,
strong argument, persuasive argument.
arguments, reasons, pros and cons.
V. reason, argue, discuss, debate, dispute, wrangle- argufy[obs3],
bandy words, bandy arguments; chop logic; hold an argument, carry on an
argument; controvert &c. (deny) 536; canvass; comment upon, moralize upon;
spiritualize; consider &c. (examine) 461.
open a discussion, open a case; try conclusions; join issue, be at
issue; moot; come to the point; stir a question, agitate a question,
ventilate a question, torture a question; take up a side, take up a case.
contend, take one's stand upon, insist, lay stress on; infer &c. 480.
follow from &c. (demonstration) 478.
Adj. reasoning &c. v.; rationalistic; argumentative, controversial,
dialectic, polemical; discursory[obs3], discursive; disputatious;
Aristotelian[obs3], eristic[obs3], eristical[obs3].
debatable, controvertible.
logical; relevant &c. 23.
Adv. for, because, hence, whence, seeing that, since, sith[obs3], then
thence so; for that reason, for this reason, for which reason; for as,
inasmuch as; whereas, ex concesso[Lat], considering, in consideration of;
therefore, wherefore; consequently, ergo, thus, accordingly; a fortiori.
in conclusion, in fine; finally, after all, au bout du compt[Fr], on
the whole, taking one thing with another.
Phr. ab actu ad posse valet consecutio [Lat]; per troppo dibatter la
verita si perde [It]; troppo disputare la verita fa errare [It].

#477. [The absence of reasoning.] Intuition. [False or vicious
reasoning; show of reason.] Sophistry. -- N. intuition, instinct,
association, hunch, gut feeling; presentiment, premonition; rule of thumb;
superstition; astrology[obs3]; faith (supposition) 514.
sophistry, paralogy[obs3], perversion, casuistry, jesuitry,
equivocation, evasion; chicane, chicanery; quiddet[obs3], quiddity;
mystification; special pleading; speciousness &c. adj.; nonsense &c. 497;
word sense, tongue sense.
false reasoning, vicious reasoning, circular reasoning; petitio
principii[Lat], ignoratio elenchi[Lat]; post hoc ergo propter hoc[Lat]; non
sequitur, ignotum per ignotius[Lat].
misjudgment &c. 481; false teaching &c. 538.
sophism, solecism, paralogism[obs3]; quibble, quirk, elenchus[obs3],
elench[obs3], fallacy, quodlibet, subterfuge, subtlety, quillet[obs3];
inconsistency, antilogy[obs3]; "a delusion, a mockery, and a snare"
[Denman]; claptrap, cant, mere words; "lame and impotent conclusion"
meshes of sophistry, cobwebs of sophistry; flaw in an argument; weak
point, bad case.
overrefinement[obs3]; hairsplitting &c. v.
V. judge intuitively, judge by intuition; hazard a proposition, hazard
a guess, talk at random.
reason ill, falsely &c. adj.; misjudge &c. 481; paralogize[obs3].
take on faith, take as a given; assume (supposition) 514.
pervert, quibble; equivocate, mystify, evade, elude; gloss over,
varnish; misteach &c. 538[obs3]; mislead &c. (error) 495; cavil, refine,
subtilize[obs3], split hairs; misrepresent &c. (lie) 544.
beg the question, reason in a circle, reason in circles, assume the
cut blocks with a razor, beat about the bush, play fast and loose,
play fast and loose with the facts, blow hot and cold, prove that black is
white and white black, travel out of the record, parler a tort et a
travers[Fr][obs3], put oneself out of court, not have a leg to stand on.
judge hastily, shoot from the hip, jump to conclusions (misjudgment)
Adj. intuitive, instinctive, impulsive; independent of reason,
anterior to reason; gratuitous, hazarded; unconnected.
unreasonable, illogical, false, unsound, invalid; unwarranted, not
following; inconsequent, inconsequential; inconsistent; absonous|,
absonant[obs3]; unscientific; untenable, inconclusive, incorrect;
fallacious, fallible; groundless, unproved; non sequitur[Latin: it does not
deceptive, sophistical, jesuitical; illusive, illusory; specious,
hollow, plausible, ad captandum[Lat], evasive; irrelevant &c. 10.
weak, feeble, poor, flimsy, loose, vague.
irrational; nonsensical &c. (absurd) 497.
foolish &c. (imbecile) 499; frivolous, pettifogging, quibbling;
finespun[obs3], overrefined[obs3].
at the end of one's tether, au bout de son latin.
Adv. intuitively &c. adj.; by intuition; illogically &c. adj.
Phr. non constat[Lat]; that goes for nothing.

<-- p. 138 -->

#478. Demonstration. -- N. {ant. 479} demonstration, proof, rigorous
proof; conclusiveness &c. adj.; apodeixis[obs3], apodixis[obs3], probation,
logic of facts &c. (evidence) 467; experimentum crucis &c. (test)
463[Lat]; argument &c. 476; rigorous establishment, absolute establishment.
conviction, cogency, (persuasion) 484.
V. demonstrate, prove, establish; make good; show, evince, manifest
&c. (be evidence of) 467; confirm, corroborate, substantiate, verify &c.
467 settle the question, reduce to demonstration, set the question at rest.
make out, make out a case; prove one's point, have the best of the
argument; draw a conclusion &c. (judge) 480.
follow, follow of course, follow as a matter of course, follow
necessarily; stand to reason; hold good, hold water.
convince, persuade (belief) 484.
Adj. demonstrating &c. v., demonstrative, demonstrable; probative,
unanswerable, conclusive; apodictic[obs3], apodeictic[obs3],
apodeictical[obs3]; irresistible, irrefutable, irrefragable; necessary.
categorical, decisive, crucial.
demonstrated &c. v.; proven; unconfuted[obs3], unanswered,
unrefuted[obs3]; evident &c. 474.
deducible, consequential, consectary[obs3], inferential, following.
[demonstrated to one's satisfaction] convincing, cogent, persuasive
(believable) 484.
Adv. of course, in consequence, consequently, as a matter of course;
necessarily, of necessity.
Phr. probatum est[Lat]; there is nothing more to be said; quod est
demonstrandum[Lat], Q.E.D.; it must follow; exitus acta probat[Lat].

#479. Confutation. -- N. {ant 478} confutation, refutation; answer,
complete answer; disproof, conviction, redargution[obs3], invalidation;
exposure, exposition; clincher; retort; reductio ad absurdum; knock down
argument, tu quoque argument[Lat]; sockdolager * [obs3][U. S.].
correction &c. 527a; dissuasion &c. 616.
V. confute, refute, disprove; parry, negative, controvert, rebut,
confound, disconfirm, redargue[obs3], expose, show the fallacy of, defeat;
demolish, break &c. (destroy) 162; overthrow, overturn scatter to the
winds, explode, invalidate; silence; put to silence, reduce to silence;
clinch an argument, clinch a question; give one a setdown[obs3], stop the
mouth, shut up; have, have on the hip.
not leave a leg to stand on, cut the ground from under one's feet.
be confuted &c.; fail; expose one's weak point, show one's weak point.
counter evidence &c. 468.
Adj. confuting, confuted, &c. v.; capable of refutation; refutable,
confutable[obs3], defeasible.
contravene (counter evidence) 468.
condemned on one's own showing,condemned out of one's own mouth.
Phr. the argument falls to the ground, cadit quaestio[Lat], it does
not hold water, "suo sibi gladio hunc jugulo" [Terence]; his argument was
demolished by new evidence.

<-- p. 139 -->


#480. Judgment. [Conclusion.] -- N. result, conclusion, upshot;
deduction, inference, ergotism[Med]; illation; corollary, porism[obs3];
estimation, valuation, appreciation, judication[obs3];
dijudication[obs3], adjudication; arbitrament, arbitrement[obs3],
arbitration; assessment, ponderation[obs3]; valorization.
award, estimate; review, criticism, critique, notice, report.
decision, determination, judgment, finding, verdict, sentence, decree;
findings of fact; findings of law; res judicata[Lat].
plebiscite, voice, casting vote; vote &c. (choice) 609; opinion &c.
(belief) 484; good judgment &c. (wisdom) 498.
judge, umpire; arbiter, arbitrator; asessor, referee.
censor, reviewer, critic; connoisseur; commentator &c. 524; inspector,
inspecting officer.
twenty-twenty hindsight[judgment after the fact]; armchair general,
monday morning quarterback.
V. judge, conclude; come to a conclusion, draw a conclusion, arrive at
a conclusion; ascertain, determine, make up one's mind.
deduce, derive, gather, collect, draw an inference, make a deduction,
weet|, ween[obs3].
form an estimate, estimate, appreciate, value, count, assess, rate,
rank, account; regard, consider, think of; look upon &c. (believe) 484;
review; size up *.
settle; pass an opinion, give an opinion; decide, try, pronounce,
rule; pass judgment, pass sentence; sentence, doom; find; give judgment,
deliver judgment; adjudge, adjudicate; arbitrate, award, report; bring in a
verdict; make absolute, set a question at rest; confirm &c. (assent) 488.
comment, criticize, kibitz; pass under review &c. (examine) 457;
investigate &c. (inquire) 461.
hold the scales, sit in judgment; try judgment, hear a cause.
Adj. judging &c. v.; judicious &c. (wise) 498; determinate,
Adv. on the whole, all things considered.
Phr. "a Daniel come to judgment" [Merchant of Venice]; "and stand a
critic, hated yet caress'd" [Byron]; "it is much easier to be critical than
to be correct" [Disraeli]; la critique est aisee et l'art est
difficile[Fr]; "nothing if not critical" [Othello]; "O most lame and
impotent conclusion" [Othello].

#480a. [Result of search or inquiry.] Discovery. -- N. discovery,
detection, disenchantment; ascertainment[obs3], disclosure, find,
trover &c.(recovery) 775[Law].
V. discover, find, determine, evolve, learn &c. 539; fix upon; pick
up; find out, trace out, make out, hunt out, fish out, worm out, ferret
out, root out; fathom; bring out, draw out; educe, elicit, bring to light;
dig out, grub up, fish up; unearth, disinter.
solve, resolve, elucidate; unriddle, unravel, unlock, crack, crack
open; pick up, open the lock; find a clue, find clew a to, find the key to
the riddle; interpret &c. 522; disclose &c. 529.
trace, get at; hit it, have it; lay one's finger, lay one's hands
upon; spot; get at the truth, arrive at the truth &c. 494; put the saddle
on the right horse, hit the right nail on the head.
be near the truth, be warm, get warmer, burn; smoke, scent, sniff,
catch a whiff of, smell a rat.
open the eyes to; see through, see daylight, see in its true colors,
see the cloven foot; detect; catch, catch tripping.
pitch upon, fall upon, light upon, hit upon, stumble upon, pop upon;
come across, come onto; meet with, meet up with, fall in with.
recognize, realize; verify, make certain of, identify.
Int. eureka! aha[obs3]! I've got it!

#481. Misjudgment. -- N. misjudgment, obliquity of judgment;
miscalculation, miscomputation, misconception &c. (error) 495; hasty
[causes of misjudgment. 1] prejudgment, prejudication[obs3],
prejudice; foregone conclusion; prenotion[obs3], prevention, preconception,
predilection, prepossession, preapprehension[obs3], presumption,
assumption, presentiment; fixed idea, preconceived idea; ide fixe; mentis
gratissimus error[Lat]; fool's paradise.
[causes of misjudgment.2] esprit de corps, party spirit, partisanship,
clannishness, prestige.
[causes of misjudgment. 3] bias, bigotry, warp, twist; hobby, fad,
quirk, crotchet, partiality, infatuation, blind side, mote in the eye.
[causes of misjudgment. 4] one-sided views, one-track mind, partial
views, narrow views, confined views, superficial views, one-sided ideas,
partial ideas, narrow ideas, confined ideas, superficial ideas, one-sided
conceptions, partial conceptions, narrow conceptions, confined conceptions,
superficial conceptions, one-sided notions, partial notions, narrow
notions, confined notions, superficial notions; narrow mind; bigotry &c.
(obstinacy) 606; odium theologicum[Lat]; pedantry; hypercriticism.
doctrinaire &c. (positive) 474.
[causes of misjudgment. 5] overestimation &c. 482; underestimation &c.
[causes of misjudgment. 6] ignorance &c. 491. erroneous
assumptions, erroneous data, mistaken assumptions, incorrect assumptions
(error) 495.
V. misjudge, misestimate, misthink[obs3], misconjecture[obs3],
misconceive &c. (error) 495; fly in the face of facts; miscalculate,
misreckon, miscompute.
overestimate &c. 482; underestimate &c. 483.
prejudge, forejudge; presuppose, presume, prejudicate[obs3];
dogmatize; have a bias &c. n.; have only one idea; jurare in verba
magistri[Lat], run away with the notion; jump to a conclusion, rush to a
conclusion, leap to a conclusion, judge hastily, shoot from the hip, jump
to conclusions; look only at one side of the shield; view with jaundiced
eye, view through distorting spectacles; not see beyond one's nose; dare
pondus fumo[Lat]; get the wrong sow by the ear &c. (blunder) 699.
give a bias, give a twist; bias, warp, twist; prejudice, prepossess.
Adj. misjudging &c. v.; ill-judging, wrong-headed; prejudiced &c. v.;
jaundiced; shortsighted, purblind; partial, one-sided, superficial.
narrow-minded, narrow-souled[obs3]; mean-spirited; confined,
illiberal, intolerant, besotted, infatuated, fanatical, entete[Fr],
positive, dogmatic, conceited; opinative, opiniative[obs3]; opinioned,
opinionate, opinionative, opinionated; self-opinioned, wedded to an
opinion, opinitre; bigoted &c. (obstinate) 606; crotchety, fussy,
impracticable; unreasonable, stupid &c. 499; credulous &c 486; warped.
misjudged &c. v.
Adv. ex parte[Lat].
Phr. nothing like leather; the wish the father to the thought; wishful
thinking; unshakable conviction; "my mind is made up - don't bother me with
the facts".

<-- p. 140 -->

#482. Overestimation. -- N. overestimation &c. v.; exaggeration &c.
549; vanity &c. 880; optimism, pessimism, pessimist. much cry and little
wool, much ado about nothing; storm in a teacup, tempest in a teacup; fine
V. overestimate, overrate, overvalue, overprize, overweigh,
overreckon[obs3], overstrain, overpraise; eulogize; estimate too highly,
attach too much importance to, make mountains of molehills, catch at
straws; strain, magnify; exaggerate &c. 549; set too high a value upon;
think much of, make much of, think too much of, make too much of;
outreckon[obs3]; panegyrize[obs3].
extol, extol to the skies; make the most of, make the best of, make
the worst of; make two bites of a cherry.
have too high an opinion of oneself &c. (vanity) 880.
Adj. overestimated &c. v.; oversensitive &c. (sensibility) 822.
Phr. all his geese are swans; parturiunt montes[Lat].

#483. Underestimation. -- N. underestimation; depreciation &c.
(detraction) 934; pessimism, pessimist; undervaluing &c. v.; modesty &c.
V. underrate, underestimate, undervalue, underreckon[obs3];
depreciate; disparage &c. (detract) 934; not do justice to; misprize,
disprize; ridicule &c. 856; slight &c. (despise) 930; neglect &c. 460; slur
make light of, make little of, make nothing of, make no account of;
belittle; minimize, think nothing of; set no store by, set at naught; shake
off as dewdrops from the lion's mane.
Adj. depreciating, depreciated &c. v.; unvalued, unprized[obs3].

#484. Belief. -- N. belief; credence; credit; assurance; faith, trust,
troth, confidence, presumption, sanguine expectation &c. (hope) 858;
dependence on, reliance on.
persuasion, conviction, convincement[obs3], plerophory[obs3], self-
conviction; certainty &c. 474; opinion, mind, view; conception, thinking;
impression &c. (idea) 453; surmise &c. 514; conclusion &c. (judgment) 480.
tenet, dogma, principle, way of thinking; popular belief &c. (assent)
firm belief, implicit belief, settled belief, fixed rooted deep-rooted
belief, staunch belief, unshaken belief, steadfast belief, inveterate
belief, calm belief, sober belief, dispassionate belief, impartial belief,
well-founded belief, firm opinion, implicit opinion, settled opinion, fixed
rooted deep-rooted opinion, staunch opinion, unshaken opinion, steadfast
opinion, inveterate opinion, calm opinion, sober opinion, dispassionate
opinion, impartial opinion, well-founded opinion &c.; uberrima
system of opinions, school, doctrine, articles, canons; article of
faith, declaration of faith, profession of faith; tenets, credenda[obs3],
creed; thirty-nine articles &c. (orthodoxy) 983a; catechism; assent &c.
488; propaganda &c. (teaching) 537.
credibility &c. (probability) 472.
V. believe, credit; give faith to, give credit to, credence to; see,
realize; assume, receive; set down for, take for; have it, take it;
consider, esteem, presume.
count upon, depend upon, calculate upon, pin one's faith upon, reckon
upon, lean upon, build upon, rely upon, rest upon; lay one's account for;
make sure of.
make oneself easy about, on that score; take on trust, take on credit;
take for granted, take for gospel; allow some weight to, attach some weight
know, know for certain; have know, make no doubt; doubt not; be, rest
assured &c. adj.; persuade oneself, assure oneself, satisfy oneself; make
up one's mind.
give one credit for; confide in, believe in, put one's trust in; place
in, repose in, implicit confidence in; take one's word for, at one's word;
place reliance on, rely upon, swear by, regard to.
think, hold; take, take it; opine, be of opinion, conceive,
trow[obs3], ween[obs3], fancy, apprehend; have it, hold a belief, possess,
entertain a belief, adopt a belief, imbibe a belief, embrace a belief, get
hold of a belief, hazard, foster, nurture a belief, cherish a belief, have
an opinion, hold an opinion, possess, entertain an opinion, adopt an
opinion, imbibe an opinion, embrace an opinion, get hold of an opinion,
hazard an opinion, foster an opinion, nurture an opinion, cherish an
opinion &c. n.
view as, consider as, take as, hold as, conceive as, regard as, esteem
as, deem as, look upon as, account as, set down as; surmise &c. 514.
get it into one's head, take it into one's head; come round to an
opinion; swallow &c. (credulity) 486.
cause to be believed &c. v.; satisfy, persuade, have the ear of, gain
the confidence of, assure; convince, convict|!, convert; wean, bring round;
bring over, win over; indoctrinate &c. (teach) 537; cram down the throat;
produce conviction, carry conviction; bring home to, drive home to.
go down, find credence, pass current; be received &c. v., be current
&c. adj.; possess, take hold of, take possession of the mind.
Adj. believing &c. v.; certain, sure, assured, positive, cocksure,
satisfied, confident, unhesitating, convinced, secure.
under the impression; impressed with, imbued with, penetrated with.
confiding, suspectless[obs3]; unsuspecting, unsuspicious; void of
suspicion; credulous &c. 486; wedded to.
believed &c. v.; accredited, putative; unsuspected.
worthy of, deserving of, commanding belief; credible, reliable,
trustworthy, to be depended on; satisfactory; probably &c. 472;
fiducial[obs3], fiduciary; persuasive, impressive.
relating to belief, doctrinal.
Adv. in the opinion of, in the eyes of; me judice[Lat];
meseems[obs3], methinks; to the best of one's belief; I dare say, I doubt
not, I have no doubt, I am sure; sure enough &c. (certainty) 474; depend
upon, rely upon it; be assured, rest assured; I'll warrant you &c.
(affirmation) 535.
Phr. experto crede [Lat][Vergil]; fata viam invenient [Lat]; Justitiae
soror incorrupta Fides[Lat]; "live to explain thy doctrine by thy life"
[Prior]; "stands not within the prospect of belief" [Macbeth]; tarde quae
credita laedunt credimus [Lat][Ovid]; vide et crede [Lat].

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#485. Unbelief. Doubt.-- N. unbelief, disbelief, misbelief; discredit,
miscreance[obs3]; infidelity &c. (irreligion) 989[obs3]; dissent &c. 489;
change of opinion &c. 484; retraction &c. 607.
doubt &c. (uncertainty) 475; skepticism, scepticism, misgiving,
demure; distrust, mistrust, cynicism; misdoubt[obs3], suspicion, jealousy,
scruple, qualm; onus probandi[Lat].
incredibility, incredibleness; incredulity.
[person who doubts] doubter, skeptic, cynic.; unbeliever &c. 487.
V. disbelieve, discredit; not believe &c. 484; misbelieve[obs3];
refuse to admit &c. (dissent) 489; refuse to believe &c. (incredulity) 487.
doubt; be doubtful &c. (uncertain) 475; doubt the truth of; be
skeptical as to &c. adj.; diffide|; distrust, mistrust; suspect, smoke,
scent, smell a rat; have doubts, harbor doubts, entertain doubts,
suspicions; have one's doubts.
demure, stick at, pause, hesitate, scruple; stop to consider, waver.
hang in suspense, hang in doubt.
throw doubt upon, raise a question; bring in, call in question;
question, challenge, dispute; deny &c. 536; cavil; cause a doubt, raise a
doubt, start a doubt, suggest a doubt, awake a doubt, make suspicion;
startle, stagger; shake one's faith, shake one's belief, stagger one's
faith, stagger one's belief.
Adj. unbelieving; skeptical, sceptical.
[transitive] incredulous as to, skeptical as to; distrustful as to,
shy as to, suspicious of; doubting &c. v.
doubtful &c. (uncertain) 475; disputable; unworthy of, undeserving of
belief &c. 484; questionable; suspect, suspicious; open to suspicion, open
to doubt; staggering, hard to believe, incredible, unbelievable, not to be
believed, inconceivable; impossible &c. 471.
fallible &c. (uncertain) 475; undemonstrable; controvertible &c.
(untrue) 495.
Adv. cum grano salis[Latin: with a grain of salt]; with grains of
Phr. fronti nulla fides[Lat]; nimium ne crede colori [Lat][Vergil];
"timeo Danaos et dona ferentes" [Latin: I fear the Greeks even when
bearing gifts][Vergil], beware of Greeks bearing gifts; credat Judaeus
Apella [Lat][Horace]; let those believe who may; ad tristem partem stenua
est suspicio [Lat][Syrus].

#486. Credulity. -- N. credulity, credulousness &c. adj.;
cullibility|, gullibility; gross credulity, infatuation; self delusion,
self deception; superstition; one's blind side; bigotry &c. (obstinacy)
606; hyperorthodoxy &c. 984[obs3]; misjudgment &c. 481.
credulous person &c (dupe) 547.
V. be credulous &c. adj.; jurare in verba magistri[Lat]; follow
implicitly; swallow, gulp down; take on trust; take for granted, take for
gospel; run away with a notion, run away with an idea; jump to a
conclusion, rush to a conclusion; think the moon is made of green cheese;
take for granted, grasp the shadow for the substance; catch at straws,
grasp at straws.
impose upon &c. (deceive) 545.
Adj. credulous, gullible; easily deceived &c. 545; simple, green,
soft, childish, silly, stupid; easily convinced; over-credulous, over
confident, over trustful; infatuated, superstitious; confiding &c.
(believing) 484.
Phr. the wish the father to the thought; credo quia impossibile
[Lat][Tertullian]; all is not gold that glitters; no es oro todo lo que
reluce[Sp]; omne ignotum pro magnifico[Lat].

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#487. Incredulity.-- N. incredulousness[obs3], incredulity;
skepticism, pyrrhonism|!; want of faith &c. (irreligion) 989[obs3].
suspiciousness &c. adj.; scrupulosity; suspicion &c. (unbelief) 485.

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