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Roget's Thesaurus by Peter Mark Roget

Part 5 out of 15

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rolling friction, sliding friction, starting friction.
V. rub, scratch, scrape, scrub, slide, fray, rasp, graze, curry,
scour, polish, rub out, wear down, gnaw; file, grind &c. (reduce to powder)
set one's teeth on edge; rosin.
Adj. anatriptic[obs3]; attrite[obs3].

#332. [Absence of friction. Prevention of friction.] Lubrication. --
N. smoothness &c. 255; unctuousness &c. 355.
lubrication, lubrification[obs3]; anointment; oiling &c. v.
synovia[Anat]; glycerine, oil, lubricating oil, grease &c. 356;
saliva; lather.
V. lubricate, lubricitate|; oil, grease, lather, soap; wax.
Adj. lubricated &c. v.; lubricous.

Fluids in General

#333. Fluidity. -- N. fluidity, liquidity; liquidness &c. adj[obs3].;
gaseity &c. 334[obs3].
fluid, inelastic fluid; liquid, liquor; lymph, humor, juice, sap,
serum, blood, serosity[obs3], gravy, rheum, ichor[obs3], sanies[obs3];
solubility, solubleness[obs3].
[Science of liquids at rest] hydrology, hydrostatics, hydrodynamics.
V. be fluid &c. adj.; flow &c. (water in motion) 348; liquefy, melt,
condense &c. 335.
Adj. liquid, fluid, serous, juicy, succulent, sappy; ichorous[obs3];
fluent &c. (flowing) 348.
liquefied &c. 335; uncongealed; soluble.

#334. Gaseity. -- N. gaseity[obs3]; vaporousness &c. adj.; flatulence,
flatulency; volatility; aeration, aerification.
elastic fluid, gas, air, vapor, ether, steam, essence, fume, reek,
effluvium, flatus; cloud &c. 353; ammonia, ammoniacal gas[obs3]; volatile
alkali; vacuum, partial vacuum.
[Science of elastic fluids] pneumatics, pneumatostatics[obs3];
aerostatics[obs3], aerodynamics.
gasmeter[obs3], gasometer[obs3]; air bladder, swimming bladder, sound
(of a fish).
V. vaporize, evaporate, evanesce, gasify, emit vapor &c. 336; diffuse.
Adj. gaseous, aeriform[obs3], ethereal, aerial, airy, vaporous,
volatile, evaporable[obs3], flatulent.

<-- p. 98 -->

#335. Liquefaction. -- N. liquefaction; liquescence[obs3],
liquescency[obs3]; melting &c. (heat) 384; colliquation|, colliquefaction|;
thaw; liquation|, deliquation|, deliquescence; lixiviation[obs3],
solution, apozem[obs3], lixivium[obs3], infusion, flux.
solvent, menstruum, alkahest[obs3].
V. render liquid &c. 333; liquefy, run; deliquesce; melt &c. (heat)
384; solve; dissolve, resolve; liquate|; hold in solution; condense,
precipitate, rain.
Adj. liquefied &c. v., liquescent, liquefiable; deliquescent, soluble,

#336. Vaporization. -- N. vaporization, volatilization; gasification,
evaporation, vaporation[obs3]; distillation, cupellation[Chem], cohobation,
sublimination[obs3], exhalation; volatility.
vaporizer, still, retort; fumigation, steaming; bay salt, chloride of
mister, spray.
bubble, effervescence.
V. render -gaseous &c. 334; vaporize, volatilize; distill, sublime;
evaporate, exhale, smoke, transpire, emit vapor, fume, reek, steam,
fumigate; cohobate[obs3]; finestill[obs3].
bubble, sparge, effervesce, boil.
Adj. volatilized &c. v.; reeking &c. v.; volatile; evaporable[obs3],
bubbly, effervescent, boiling.

Specific Fluids

#337. Water. -- N. water; serum, serosity[obs3]; lymph; rheum;
diluent; agua[Sp], aqua, pani[obs3].
dilution, maceration, lotion; washing &c. v.; immersion|,
humectation[obs3], infiltration, spargefaction|, affusion[obs3],
irrigation, douche, balneation[obs3], bath.
deluge &c. (water in motion) 348; high water, flood tide.
V. be watery &c. adj.; reek.
add water, water, wet; moisten &c. 339; dilute, dip, immerse; merge;
immerge, submerge; plunge, souse, duck, drown; soak, steep, macerate,
pickle, wash, sprinkle, lave, bathe, affuse[obs3], splash, swash, douse,
drench; dabble, slop, slobber, irrigate, inundate, deluge; syringe, inject,
Adj. watery, aqueous, aquatic, hydrous, lymphatic; balneal[obs3],
diluent; drenching &c. v.; diluted &c. v.; weak; wet &c. (moist) 339.
Phr. the waters are out.

#338. Air. -- N. air &c. (gas) 334; common air, atmospheric air;
atmosphere; aerosphere[obs3].
open air; sky, welkin; blue sky; cloud &c. 353.
weather, climate, rise and fall of the barometer, isobar.
[Science of air] aerology, aerometry[obs3], aeroscopy[obs3],
aeroscopy[obs3], aerography[obs3]; meteorology, climatology; pneumatics;
eudioscope[obs3], baroscope[obs3], aeroscope[obs3], eudiometer[obs3],
barometer, aerometer[obs3]; aneroid, baroscope[obs3]; weather gauge,
weather glass, weather cock.
exposure to the air, exposure to the weather; ventilation;
aerostation[obs3], aeronautics, aeronaut.
V. air, ventilate, fan &c. (wind) 349.
Adj. containing air, flatulent, effervescent; windy &c. 349.
atmospheric, airy; aerial, aeriform[obs3]; meteorological;
Adv. in the open air, a la belle etoile[Fr], al fresco; sub jove

#339. Moisture. -- N. moisture; moistness &c. adj.; humidity,
humectation[obs3]; madefaction|, dew; serein[obs3]; marsh &c. 345;
hygrometry, hygrometer.
V. moisten, wet; humect[obs3], humectate[obs3]; sponge, damp, bedew;
imbue, imbrue, infiltrate, saturate; soak, drench &c. (water) 337.
be moist &c. adj.; not have a dry thread; perspire &c. (exude) 295.
Adj. moist, damp; watery &c. 337; madid[obs3], roric[obs3];
undried[obs3], humid, sultry, wet, dank, luggy[obs3], dewy; roral|, rorid|;
roscid[obs3]; juicy.
wringing wet, soaking wet; wet through to the skin; saturated &c. v.
swashy[obs3], soggy, dabbled; reeking, dripping, soaking, soft, sodden,
sloppy, muddy; swampy &c. (marshy) 345; irriguous[obs3].

#340. Dryness. -- N. dryness &c. adj.; siccity[obs3], aridity,
drought, ebb tide, low water.
exsiccation|, desiccation; arefaction|, dephlegmation|, drainage;
[CHEMSUB which renders dry] desiccative, dessicator.
[device to render dry] dessicator; hair drier, clothes drier, gas
drier, electric drier; vacuum oven, drying oven, kiln; lyophilizer.
V. be dry &c. adj..
[transitive] render dry &c. adj.; dry; dry up, soak up; sponge, swab,
wipe; drain.
desiccate, dehydrate, exsiccate[obs3]; parch.
kiln dry; vacuum dry, blow dry, oven dry; hang out to dry.
be fine, hold up.
Adj. dry, anhydrous, arid; adust[obs3], arescent|; dried &c. v.;
undamped; juiceless[obs3], sapless; sear; husky; rainless, without rain,
fine; dry as a bone, dry as dust, dry as a stick, dry as a mummy, dry as a
water proof, water tight.
dehydrated, dessicated.

<-- p. 99 -->

#341. Ocean -- N. sea, ocean, main, deep, brine, salt water, waves,
billows, high seas, offing, great waters, watery waste, "vasty deep"; wave,
tide, &c. (water in motion) 348.
hydrography, hydrographer; Neptune, Poseidon, Thetis, Triton, Naiad,
Nereid; sea nymph, Siren; trident, dolphin.
Adj. oceanic; marine, maritime; pelagic, pelagian; seagoing;
hydrographic; bathybic[obs3], cotidal[obs3].
Adv. at sea, on sea; afloat.

#342. Land. -- N. land, earth, ground, dry land, terra firma.
continent, mainland, peninsula, chersonese[Fr], delta; tongue of land,
neck of land; isthmus, oasis; promontory &c. (projection) 250; highland &c.
(height) 206.
coast, shore, scar, strand, beach; playa; bank, lea; seaboard,
seaside, seabank[obs3], seacoast, seabeach[obs3]; ironbound coast; loom of
the land; derelict; innings; alluvium, alluvion[obs3]; ancon.
riverbank, river bank, levee.
soil, glebe, clay, loam, marl, cledge[obs3], chalk, gravel, mold,
subsoil, clod, clot; rock, crag.
acres; real estate &c. (property) 780; landsman[obs3].
V. land, come to land, set foot on the soil, set foot on dry land;
come ashore, go ashore, debark.
Adj. earthy, continental, midland, coastal, littoral, riparian;
alluvial; terrene &c. (world) 318; landed, predial[obs3], territorial;
geophilous[obs3]; ripicolous.
Adv. ashore; on shore, on land.

#343. Gulf. Lake -- N. land covered with water, gulf, gulph[obs3],
bay, inlet, bight, estuary, arm of the sea, bayou [U.S.], fiord, armlet;
frith[obs3], firth, ostiary|, mouth; lagune[obs3], lagoon; indraught[obs3];
cove, creek; natural harbor; roads; strait; narrows; Euripus; sound, belt,
gut, kyles[obs3]; continental slope, continental shelf.
lake, loch, lough[obs3], mere, tarn, plash, broad, pond, pool,
lin[obs3], puddle, slab, well, artesian well; standing water, dead water,
sheet of water; fish pond, mill pond; ditch, dike, dyke, dam; reservoir &c.
(store) 636; alberca[obs3], barachois[obs3], hog wallow [U.S.].
Adj. lacustrine[obs3].

#344. Plain. -- N. plain, table-land, face of the country; open
country, champaign country[obs3]; basin, downs, waste, weary waste, desert,
wild, steppe, pampas, savanna, prairie, heath, common, wold[obs3], veldt;
moor, moorland; bush; plateau &c. (level) 213; campagna[obs3]; alkali flat,
llano; mesa, mesilla [obs3][U.S.], playa; shaking prairie, trembling
prairie; vega[Sp].
meadow, mead, haugh[obs3], pasturage, park, field, lawn, green, plat,
plot, grassplat[obs3], greensward, sward, turf, sod, heather; lea, ley,
lay; grounds; maidan[obs3], agostadero[obs3].
Adj. champaign[obs3], alluvial; campestral[obs3], campestrial[obs3],
campestrian[obs3], campestrine[obs3].

#345. Marsh. -- N. marsh, swamp, morass, marish[obs3], moss, fen, bog,
quagmire, slough, sump, wash; mud, squash, slush; baygall [obs3][U.S.],
cienaga[obs3], jhil[obs3], vlei[obs3].
Adj. marsh, marshy; swampy, boggy, plashy[obs3], poachy[obs3],
quaggy[obs3], soft; muddy, sloppy, squashy; paludal[obs3]; moorish, moory;

#346. Island. -- N. island, isle, islet, eyot[obs3], ait[obs3],
holf[obs3], reef, atoll, breaker; archipelago; islander.
Adj. insular, seagirt; archipelagic[obs3].

<-- p. 100 -->
Fluids in Motion

#347. [Fluid in motion.] Stream. -- N. stream &c. (of water) 348, (of
air) 349.
V. flow &c. 348; blow &c. 349.

#348. [Water in motion.] River. -- N. running water.
jet, spirt[obs3], spurt, squirt, spout, spray, splash, rush, gush, jet
d'eau[Fr]; sluice.
water spout, water fall; cascade, force, foss[obs3]; lin[obs3],
linn[obs3]; ghyll[obs3], Niagara; cataract, rapids, white water, catadupe|,
cataclysm; debacle, inundation, deluge; chute, washout.
rain, rainfall; serein[obs3]; shower, scud; downpour; driving rain,
drenching rain, cloudburst; hyetology[obs3], hyetography[obs3];
predominance of Aquarius[obs3], reign of St. Swithin; mizzle[obs3],
drizzle, stillicidum[obs3], plash; dropping &c. v.; falling weather;
northeaster, hurricane, typhoon.
stream, course, flux, flow, profluence[obs3]; effluence &c. (egress)
295; defluxion[obs3]; flowing &c. v.; current, tide, race, coulee.
spring, artesian well, fount, fountain; rill, rivulet, gill, gullet,
rillet[obs3]; streamlet, brooklet; branch [U.S.]; runnel, sike[obs3], burn,
beck, creek, brook, bayou, stream, river; reach, tributary.
geyser, spout, waterspout.
body of water, torrent, rapids, flush, flood, swash; spring tide, high
tide, full tide; bore, tidal bore, eagre[obs3], hygre[obs3]; fresh,
freshet; indraught[obs3], reflux, undercurrent, eddy, vortex, gurge[obs3],
whirlpool, Maelstrom, regurgitation, overflow; confluence, corrivation|.
wave, billow, surge, swell, ripple; gelasma/gr>[obs3][Grk]; beach comber, riffle [U.S.], rollers, ground swell,
surf, breakers, white horses, whitecaps; rough sea, heavy sea, high seas,
cross sea, long sea, short sea, chopping sea.
[Science of fluids in motion] hydrodynamics; hydraulics,
hydraulicostatics[obs3]; rain gauge, flowmeter; pegology[obs3].
irrigation &c. (water) 337; pump; watering pot, watering cart;
hydrant, syringe; garden hose, lawn spray; bhisti[obs3], mussuk[obs3].
V. flow, run; meander; gush, pour, spout, roll, jet, well, issue;
drop, drip, dribble, plash, spirtle[obs3], trill, trickle, distill,
percolate; stream, overflow, inundate, deluge, flow over, splash, swash;
guggle[obs3], murmur, babble, bubble, purl, gurgle, sputter, spurt, spray,
regurgitate; ooze, flow out &c. (egress) 295.
rain hard, rain in torrents, rain cats and dogs, rain pitchforks; pour
with rain, drizzle, spit, set in; mizzle[obs3].
flow into, fall into, open into, drain into; discharge itself,
[Cause a flow] pour; pour out &c. (discharge) 297; shower down,
irrigate, drench &c. (wet) 337; spill, splash.
[Stop a flow] stanch; dam, up &c. (close) 261; obstruct &c. 706.
Adj. fluent; diffluent[obs3], profluent[obs3], affluent; tidal;
flowing &c. v.; meandering, meandry[obs3], meandrous[obs3]; fluvial,
fluviatile; streamy[obs3], showery, rainy, pluvial, stillicidous|;
Phr. "for men may come and men may go but I go on forever" [Tennyson];
"that old man river, he just keeps rolling along" [Showboat].

#349. [Air in motion] Wind. -- N.. wind, draught, flatus, afflatus,
efflation[obs3], eluvium[obs3]; air; breath, breath of air; puff, whiff,
zephyr; blow, breeze, drift; aura; stream, current, jet stream;
gust, blast, squall, gale, half a gale, storm, tempest, hurricane,
whirlwind, tornado, samiel, cyclone, anticyclone, typhoon; simoon[obs3],
simoom; harmattan[obs3], monsoon, trade wind, sirocco, mistral, bise[obs3],
tramontane, levanter; capful of wind; fresh breeze, stiff breeze; keen
blast; blizzard, barber [Can.], candelia[obs3], chinook, foehn,
khamsin[obs3], norther, vendaval[obs3], wuther[obs3].
windiness &c. adj.; ventosity|; rough weather, dirty weather, ugly
weather, stress of weather; dirty sky, mare's tail; thick squall, black
squall, white squall.
anemography[obs3], aerodynamics; wind gauge, weathercock, vane,
weather-vane, wind sock; anemometer, anemoscope[obs3].
sufflation[obs3], insufflation[obs3], perflation[obs3], inflation,
afflation[obs3]; blowing, fanning &c. v.; ventilation.
sneezing &c.v.: errhine[obs3]; sternutative[obs3], sternutatory[obs3];
sternutation; hiccup, hiccough; catching of the breath.
Eolus, Boreas, Zephyr, cave of Eolus.
air pump, air blower, lungs, bellows, blowpipe, fan, ventilator,
punkah[obs3]; branchiae[obs3], gills, flabellum[obs3], vertilabrum[obs3].
whiffle ball.
V. blow, waft; blow hard, blow great guns, blow a hurricane &c. n.;
wuther[obs3]; stream, issue.
respire, breathe, puff; whiff, whiffle; gasp, wheeze; snuff, snuffle;
sniff, sniffle; sneeze, cough.
fan, ventilate; inflate, perflate|; blow up.
Adj. blowing &c. v.; windy, flatulent; breezy, gusty, squally; stormy,
tempestuous, blustering; boisterous &c. (violent) 173.
pulmonic[Med], pulmonary.
Phr. "lull'd by soft zephyrs" [Pope]; "the storm is up and all is on
the hazard" [Julius Caesar]; "the winds were wither'd in the stagnant air"
[Byron]; "while mocking winds are piping loud" [Milton]; "winged with red
lightning and tempestuous rage" [Paradise Lost].

<-- p. 101 -->

#350. [Channel for the passage of water.] Conduit. -- N. conduit,
channel, duct, watercourse, race; head race, tail race; abito[obs3],
aboideau[obs3], aboiteau[Fr], bito[obs3]; acequia[obs3], acequiador[obs3],
acequiamadre[obs3]; arroyo; adit[obs3], aqueduct, canal, trough, gutter,
pantile; flume, ingate[obs3], runner; lock-weir, tedge[obs3]; vena[obs3];
dike, main, gully, moat, ditch, drain, sewer, culvert, cloaca, sough,
kennel, siphon; piscina[obs3]; pipe &c. (tube) 260; funnel; tunnel &c.
(passage) 627; water pipe, waste pipe; emunctory[obs3], gully hole, artery,
aorta, pore, spout, scupper; adjutage[obs3], ajutage[obs3]; hose; gargoyle;
gurgoyle[obs3]; penstock, weir; flood gate, water gate; sluice, lock,
valve; rose; waterworks.
Adj. vascular &c. (with holes) 260.

#351. [Channel for the passage of air.] Airpipe. -- N. air pipe, air
tube; airhole[obs3], blowhole, breathinghole[obs3], venthole; shaft, flue,
chimney, funnel, vent, nostril, nozzle, throat, weasand[obs3], trachea;
bronchus, bronchia[Med]; larynx, tonsils, windpipe, spiracle;
ventiduct[obs3], ventilator; louvre, jalousie, Venetian blinds; blowpipe
&c. (wind) 349; pipe &c. (tube) 260; jhilmil[obs3]; smokestack.
screen, window screen.
artificial lung, iron lung, heart and lung machine.


#352. Semiliquidity. -- N. semiliquidity; stickiness &c. adj.;
viscidity, viscosity; gummosity[obs3], glutinosity[obs3], mucosity[obs3];
spissitude[obs3], crassitude[obs3]; lentor[obs3]; adhesiveness &c.
(cohesion) 46.
inspissation[obs3], incrassation[obs3]; thickening.
jelly, mucilage, gelatin, gluten; carlock[obs3], fish glue;
ichthyocol[obs3], ichthycolla[obs3]; isinglass; mucus, phlegm, goo;
pituite[obs3], lava; glair[obs3], starch, gluten, albumen, milk, cream,
protein|!; treacle; gum, size, glue (tenacity) 327; wax, beeswax.
emulsion, soup; squash, mud, slush, slime, ooze; moisture &c. 339;
marsh &c. 345.
V. inspissate[obs3], incrassate[obs3]; thicken, mash, squash, churn,
beat up.
Adj. semifluid, semiliquid; tremellose[obs3]; half melted, half
frozen; milky, muddy &c. n.; lacteal, lactean[obs3], lacteous[obs3],
lactescent[obs3], lactiferous[obs3]; emulsive, curdled, thick, succulent,
gelatinous, albuminous, mucilaginous, glutinous; glutenous, gelatin,
mastic, amylaceous[obs3], ropy, clammy, clotted; viscid, viscous; sticky,
tacky, gooey; slab, slabby[obs3]; lentous|, pituitous[obs3]; mucid[obs3],
muculent[obs3], mucous; gummy.

#353. [Mixture of air and water.] Bubble. [Cloud.] -- N. bubble, foam,
froth, head, spume, lather, suds, spray, surf, yeast, barm[obs3],
cloud, vapor, fog, mist, haze, steam, geyser; scud, messenger, rack,
nimbus; cumulus, woolpack[obs3], cirrus, stratus; cirrostratus,
cumulostratus; cirrocumulus; mackerel sky, mare's tale, dirty sky; curl
cloud; frost smoke; thunderhead.
[Science of clouds] nephelognosy[obs3]; nephograph[obs3],
effervescence, fermentation; bubbling &c. v.
nebula; cloudliness &c. (opacity) 426[obs3]; nebulosity &c. (dimness)
V. bubble, boil, foam, froth, mantle, sparkle, guggle[obs3], gurgle;
effervesce, ferment, fizzle.
Adj. bubbling &c. v.; frothy, nappy[obs3], effervescent, sparkling,
mousseux[French: frothy], up.
cloudy &c. n.; thunderheaded[obs3]; vaporous, nebulous, overcast.
Phr. "the lowring element scowls o'er the darkened landscip" [Paradise

#354. Pulpiness. -- N. pulpiness &c. adj.; pulp, taste, dough, curd,
pap, rob, jam, pudding, poultice, grume[obs3].
mush, oatmeal, baby food.
Adj. pulpy &c. n.; pultaceous[obs3], grumous[obs3]; baccate[obs3].

#355. Unctuousness. -- N. unctuousness &c. adj.; unctuosity[obs3],
lubricity; ointment &c. (oil) 356; anointment; lubrication &c. 332.
V. oil &c. (lubricate) 332.
Adj. unctuous, oily, oleaginous, adipose, sebaceous; unguinous[obs3];
fat, fatty, greasy; waxy, butyraceous, soapy, saponaceous[obs3], pinguid,
lardaceous[obs3]; slippery.

#356. Oil. -- N. oil, fat, butter, cream, grease, tallow, suet, lard,
dripping exunge|, blubber; glycerin, stearin, elaine[Chem], oleagine[obs3];
soap; soft soap, wax, cerement; paraffin, spermaceti, adipocere[obs3];
petroleum, mineral, mineral rock, mineral crystal, mineral oil; vegetable
oil, colza oil[obs3], olive oil, salad oil, linseed oil, cottonseed oil,
soybean oil, nut oil; animal oil, neat's foot oil, train oil; ointment,
unguent, liniment; aceite[obs3], amole[obs3], Barbados tar[obs3]; fusel
oil, grain oil, rape oil, seneca oil; hydrate of amyl, ghee[obs3]; heating
oil, "#2 oil", No. 2 oil, distillate, residual oils, kerosene, jet fuel,
gasoline, naphtha; stearin.

<-- p. 102 -->

#356a. Resin. -- N. resin, rosin; gum; lac, sealing wax; amber,
ambergris; bitumen, pitch, tar; asphalt, asphaltum; camphor; varnish,
copal[obs3], mastic, magilp[obs3], lacquer, japan.
artificial resin, polymer; ion-exchange resin, cation-exchange resin,
anion exchange resin, water softener, Amberlite[obs3], Dowex[Chem], Diaion.
V. varnish &c. (overlay) 223.
Adj. resiny[obs3], resinous; bituminous, pitchy, tarry; asphaltic,



Vitality in general

#357. Organization. -- N. organized world, organized nature; living
nature, animated nature; living beings; organic remains, fossils.
protoplasm, cytoplasm, protein; albumen; structure &c. 329;
organization, organism.
[Science of living beings] biology; natural history, organic
chemistry, anatomy, physiology; zoology &c. 368; botany; microbiology,
virology, bacteriology, mycology &c. 369; naturalist.
archegenesis &c. (production) 161[obs3]; antherozoid[obs3],
bioplasm[obs3], biotaxy[obs3], chromosome, dysmeromorph[obs3]; ecology,
oecology; erythroblast[Physiol], gametangium[obs3], gamete, germinal
matter, invagination[Biol]; isogamy[obs3], oogamy[obs3]; karyaster[obs3];
macrogamete[obs3], microgamete[obs3]; metabolism, anabolism, catabolism;
metaplasm[obs3], ontogeny, ovary, ovum, oxidation, phylogeny, polymorphism,
protozoa, spermary[obs3], spermatozoon, trophoplasm[obs3], vacuole,
vertebration[obs3], zoogloea[obs3], zygote.
Darwinism, neo-Darwinism, Lamarkism, neoLamarkism, Weismannism.
morphology, taxonomy.
Adj. organic, organized; karyoplasmic[obs3], unsegmentic[obs3],
vacuolar, zoogloeic[obs3], zoogloeoid[obs3].

#358. Inorganization. -- N. mineral world, mineral kingdom;
unorganized matter, inorganic matter, brute matter, inanimate matter.
[Science of the mineral kingdom] mineralogy, geology, geognosy[obs3],
geoscopy[obs3]; metallurgy, metallography[obs3]; lithology; oryctology|,
V. turn to dust; mineralize, fossilize.
Adj. inorganic, inanimate, inorganized[obs3]; lithoidal[obs3]; azoic;

#359. Life. -- N. life, vitality, viability; animation; vital spark,
vital flame, soul, spirit.
respiration, wind; breath of life, breath of one's nostrils; oxygen,
[devices to sustain respiration] respirator, artificial respirator,
heart and lung machine, iron lung; medical devices &c. 662.
lifeblood; Archeus[obs3]; existence &c. 1.
vivification; vital force; vitalization; revivification &c. 163;
Prometheus; life to come &c. (destiny) 152.
[Science of life] physiology, biology; animal ecology.
nourishment, staff of life &c. (food) 298.
genetics, heredity, inheritance, evolution, natural selection,
reproduction (production) 161.
microbe, aerobe, anaerobe, facultative anaerobe, obligate aerobe,
obligate anaerobe, halophile[Microbiol], methanogen[Microbiol],
archaebacteria[Microb], microaerophile[Microbiol].
animal &c. 366; vegetable &c. 367.
artificial life, robot, robotics, artificial intelligence.
[vital signs] breathing, breathing rate, heartbeat, pulse,
preservation of life, healing (medicine) 662.
V. be alive &c. adj.; live, breathe, respire; subsist &c. (exist) 1;
walk the earth "strut and fret one's hour upon the stage" [Macbeth]; be
see the light, be born, come into the world, fetch breath, draw
breath, fetch the breath of life, draw the breath of life; quicken; revive;
come to life.
give birth to &c. (produce) 161; bring to life, put into life,
vitalize; vivify, vivificate[obs3]; reanimate &c. (restore) 660; keep
alive, keep body and soul together, keep the wolf from the door; support
hive nine lives like a cat.
Adj. living, alive; in life, in the flesh, in the land of the living;
on this side of the grave, above ground, breathing, quick, animated;
animative[obs3]; lively &c. (active) 682; all alive and kicking; tenacious
of life; full of life, yeasty.
vital, vitalic[obs3]; vivifying, vivified, &c. v.; viable,
zoetic[obs3]; Promethean.
Adv. vivendi causa[Lat].
Phr. atqui vivere militare est [Lat][Seneca]; non est vivere sed
valere vita [Lat][Marial].

<-- p. 103 -->

#360. Death. -- N. death; decease, demise; dissolution, departure,
obit, release, rest, quietus, fall; loss, bereavement; mortality,
end of life &c. 67, cessation of life &c. 142, loss of life,
extinction of life, ebb of life &c. 359.
death warrant, death watch, death rattle, death bed; stroke of death,
agonies of death, shades of death, valley of death, jaws of death, hand of
death; last breath, last gasp, last agonies; dying day, dying breath, dying
agonies; chant du cygne[Fr]; rigor mortis[Lat]; Stygian shore.
King of terrors, King Death; Death; doom &c. (necessity) 601; "Hell's
grim Tyrant" [Pope].
euthanasia; break up of the system; natural death, natural decay;
sudden death, violent death; untimely end, watery grave; debt of nature;
suffocation, asphyxia; fatal disease &c. (disease) 655; death blow &c.
(killing) 361.
necrology, bills of mortality, obituary; death song &c. (lamentation)
V. die, expire, perish; meet one's death, meet one's end; pass away,
be taken; yield one's breath, resign one's breath; resign one's being,
resign one's life; end one's days, end one's life, end one's earthly
career; breathe one's last; cease to live, cease to breathe; depart this
life; be no more &c. adj.; go off, drop off, pop off; lose one's life, lay
down one's life, relinquish one's life, surrender one's life; drop into the
grave, sink into the grave; close one's eyes; fall dead, drop dead, fall
down dead, drop down dead; break one's neck; give up the ghost, yield up
the ghost; be all over with one.
pay the debt to nature, shuffle off this mortal coil, take one's last
sleep; go the way of all flesh; hand in one's checks, pass in one's checks,
hand in one's chips, pass in one's chips [U.S.]; join the greater number,
join the majority; come to dust, turn to dust; cross the Stygian ferry,
cross the bar; go to one's long account, go to one's last home, go to Davy
Jones's locker, go to the wall; receive one's death warrant, make one's
will, step out, die a natural death, go out like the snuff of a candle;
come to an untimely end; catch one's death; go off the hooks, kick the
bucket, buy the farm, hop the twig, turn up one's toes; die a violent death
&c. (be killed) 361.
Adj. dead, lifeless; deceased, demised, departed, defunct, extinct;
late, gone, no more; exanimate[obs3], inanimate; out of the world, taken
off, released; departed this life &c. v.; dead and gone; dead as a
doornail, dead as a doorpost[obs3], dead as a mutton, dead as a herring,
dead as nits; launched into eternity, gone to one's eternal reward, gone to
meet one's maker, pushing up daisies, gathered to one's fathers, numbered
with the dead.
dying &c. v.; moribund, morient|; hippocratic; in articulo, in
extremis; in the jaws of death, in the agony of death; going off; aux
abois[Fr]; one one's last legs, on one's death bed; at the point of death,
at death's door,, at the last gasp; near one's end, given over, booked;
with one foot in the grave, tottering on the brink of the grave.
stillborn; mortuary; deadly &c. (killing) 361.
Adv. post obit, post mortem[Lat].
Phr. life ebbs, life fails, life hangs by a thread; one's days are
numbered, one's hour is come, one's race is run, one's doom is sealed;
Death knocks at the door, Death stares one in the face; the breath is out
of the body; the grave closes over one; sic itur ad astra [Lat][Vergil]; de
mortuis nil nisi bonum[Lat]; dulce et decorum est pro patria mori
[Lat][Horace]; honesta mors turpi vita potior [Lat][Tacitus]; "in
adamantine chains shall death be bound" [Pope]; mors ultima linea rerum est
[Lat][Girace]; ominia mors aequat [Lat][Claudianus]; "Spake the grisly
Terror" [Paradise Lost]; "the lone couch of this everlasting sleep"
[Shelley]; nothing is certain but death and taxes.

<-- p. 104 -->

#361. [Destruction of live; violent death.] Killing. -- N. killing &c.
v.; homicide, manslaughter, murder, assassination, trucidation|, iccusion|;
effusion of blood; blood, blood shed; gore, slaughter, carnage, butchery;
massacre; fusillade, noyade[obs3]; thuggery, Thuggism[obs3].
deathblow, finishing stroke, coup de grace, quietus; execution &c.
(capital punishment) 972; judicial murder; martyrdom.
butcher, slayer, murderer, Cain, assassin, terrorist, cutthroat,
garroter, bravo, Thug, Moloch, matador, sabreur[obs3]; guet-a-pens;
gallows, executioner &c. (punishment) 975; man-eater, apache[obs3], hatchet
man [U.S.], highbinder [obs3][U.S.].
regicide, parricide, matricide, fratricide, infanticide, feticide,
foeticide[obs3], uxoricide[obs3], vaticide[obs3].
suicide, felo de se[obs3], hara-kiri, suttee, Juggernath[obs3];
immolation, auto da fe, holocaust.
suffocation, strangulation, garrote; hanging &c. v.; lapidation[obs3].
deadly weapon &c. (arms) 727; Aceldama[obs3].
[Destruction of animals] slaughtering; phthisozoics[obs3]; sport,
sporting; the chase, venery; hunting, coursing, shooting, fishing; pig-
sticking; sportsman, huntsman, fisherman; hunter, Nimrod; slaughterhouse,
meat packing plant, shambles, abattoir.
fatal accident, violent death, casualty.
V. kill, put to death, slay, shed blood; murder, assassinate, butcher,
slaughter, victimize, immolate; massacre; take away life, deprive of life;
make away with, put an end to; despatch, dispatch; burke, settle, do for.
strangle, garrote, hang, throttle, choke, stifle, suffocate, stop the
breath, smother, asphyxiate, drown.
saber; cut down, cut to pieces, cut the throat; jugulate[obs3]; stab,
run through the body, bayonet, eviscerate; put to the sword, put to the
edge of the sword.
shoot dead; blow one's brains out; brain, knock on the head; stone,
lapidate[obs3]; give a deathblow; deal a deathblow; give a quietus, give a
coupe de grace.
behead, bowstring, electrocute, gas &c. (execute) 972.
hunt, shoot &c. n.
cut off, nip in the bud, launch into eternity, send to one's last
account, sign one's death warrant, strike the death knell of.
give no quarter, pour out blood like water; decimate; run amuck; wade
knee deep in blood, imbrue one's hands in blood.
die a violent death, welter in one's blood; dash out one's brains,
blow out one's brains; commit suicide; kill oneself, make away with
oneself, put an end to oneself, put an end to it all.
Adj. killing &c. v.; murderous, slaughterous; sanguinary,
sanguinolent[obs3]; blood stained, blood thirsty; homicidal, red handed;
bloody, bloody minded; ensanguined[obs3], gory; thuggish.
mortal, fatal, lethal; dead, deadly; mortiferous|, lethiferous[obs3];
unhealthy &c. 657; internecine; suicidal.
sporting; piscatorial, piscatory[obs3].
Adv. in at the death.
Phr. "assassination has never changed the history of the world"

#362. Corpse. -- N. corpse, corse[obs3], carcass, cadaver, bones,
skeleton, dry bones; defunct, relics, reliquiae[Lat], remains, mortal
remains, dust, ashes, earth, clay; mummy; carrion; food for worms, food for
fishes; tenement of clay this mortal coil.
shade, ghost, manes.
organic remains, fossils.
Adj. cadaverous, corpse-like; unburied &c. 363;

#363. Interment. -- N. interment, burial, sepulture[obs3];
inhumation|; obsequies, exequies[obs3]; funeral, wake, pyre, funeral pile;
funeral, funeral rite, funeral solemnity; kneel, passing bell,
tolling; dirge &c. (lamentation) 839; cypress; orbit, dead march, muffled
drum; mortuary, undertaker, mute; elegy; funeral, funeral oration, funeral
sermon; epitaph.
graveclothes[obs3], shroud, winding sheet, cerecloth; cerement.
coffin, shell, sarcophagus, urn, pall, bier, hearse, catafalque,
cinerary urn[obs3].
grave, pit, sepulcher, tomb, vault, crypt, catacomb, mausoleum,
Golgotha, house of death, narrow house; cemetery, necropolis; burial place,
burial ground; grave yard, church yard; God's acre; tope, cromlech, barrow,
tumulus, cairn; ossuary; bone house, charnel house, dead house; morgue;
lich gate[obs3]; burning ghat[obs3]; crematorium, crematory; dokhma[obs3],
mastaba[obs3], potter's field, stupa[obs3], Tower of Silence.
sexton, gravedigger.
monument, cenotaph, shrine; grave stone, head stone, tomb stone;
memento mori[Lat]; hatchment[obs3], stone; obelisk, pyramid.
exhumation, disinterment; necropsy, autopsy, post mortem
examination[Lat]; zoothapsis[obs3].
V. inter, bury; lay in the grave, consign to the grave, lay in the
tomb, entomb, in tomb; inhume; lay out, perform a funeral, embalm, mummify;
toll the knell; put to bed with a shovel; inurn[obs3].
exhume, disinter, unearth.
Adj. burried &c. v.; burial, funereal, funebrial[obs3]; mortuary,
sepulchral, cinerary[obs3]; elegiac; necroscopic[obs3].
Adv. in memoriam; post obit, post mortem[Lat]; beneath the sod.
Phr. hic jacet[Lat][obs3], ci-git[Fr]; RIP; requiescat in pace[Lat];
"the lone couch of his everlasting sleep" [Shelley]; "without a grave-
unknell'd, uncoffin'd, and unknown" [Byron]; "in the dark union of
insensate dust" [Byron]; "the deep cold shadow of the tomb" [Moore].

<-- p. 105 -->
Special Vitality

#364. Animality. -- N. animal life; animation, animality[obs3],
animalization[obs3]; animalness, corporeal nature, human system; breath.
flesh, flesh and blood; physique; strength &c. 159.
Adj. fleshly, human, corporeal.

#365. Vegetability|. -- N. vegetable life; vegetation, vegetability|;
V. vegetate, grow roots, put down roots.
Adj. rank, lush; vegetable, vegetal, vegetive[obs3].

#366. Animal. -- N. animal, animal kingdom; fauna; brute creation.
beast, brute, creature, critter [US dialect], wight, created being;
creeping thing, living thing; dumb animal, dumb creature; zoophyte.
[major divisions of animals] mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish,
crustacean, shellfish, mollusk, worm, insect, arthropod, microbe.
[microscopic animals] microbe, animalcule &c. 193.
[reptiles] alligator, crocodile; saurian; dinosaur [extinct]; snake,
serpent, viper, eft; asp, aspick[obs3].
[amphibians] frog, toad.
[fishes] trout, bass, tuna, muskelunge, sailfish, sardine, mackerel.
[insects] ant, mosquito, bee, honeybee.
[arthropods] tardigrade, spider.
[classification by number of feet] biped, quadruped.
flocks and herds, live stock; domestic animals, wild animals; game,
ferae naturae[Lat]; beasts of the field, fowls of the air, denizens of the
sea; black game, black grouse; blackcock[obs3], duck, grouse, plover, rail,
[domesticated mammals] horse &c. (beast of burden) 271; cattle,
kine[obs3], ox; bull, bullock; cow, milch cow, calf, heifer, shorthorn;
sheep; lamb, lambkin[obs3]; ewe, ram, tup; pig, swine, boar, hog, sow;
steer, stot[obs3]; tag, teg[obs3]; bison, buffalo, yak, zebu, dog, cat.
[dogs] dog, hound; pup, puppy; whelp, cur, mongrel; house dog, watch
dog, sheep dog, shepherd's dog, sporting dog, fancy dog, lap dog, toy dog,
bull dog, badger dog; mastiff; blood hound, grey hound, stag hound, deer
hound, fox hound, otter hound; harrier, beagle, spaniel, pointer, setter,
retriever; Newfoundland; water dog, water spaniel; pug, poodle; turnspit;
terrier; fox terrier, Skye terrier; Dandie Dinmont; collie.
[cats][generally] feline, puss, pussy; grimalkin[obs3]; gib cat, tom
[wild mammals] fox, Reynard, vixen, stag, deer, hart, buck, doe, roe;
caribou, coyote, elk, moose, musk ox, sambar[obs3].
bird; poultry, fowl, cock, hen, chicken, chanticleer, partlet[obs3],
rooster, dunghill cock, barn door fowl; feathered tribes, feathered
songster; singing bird, dicky bird; canary, warbler; finch;
aberdevine[obs3], cushat[obs3], cygnet, ringdove[obs3], siskin, swan, wood
[undesirable animals] vermin, varmint[Western US], pest.
Adj. animal, zoological
equine, bovine, vaccine, canine, feline, fishy; piscatory[obs3],
piscatorial; molluscous[obs3], vermicular; gallinaceous, rasorial[obs3],
solidungulate[obs3], soliped[obs3].

#367. Vegetable. -- N. vegetable, vegetable kingdom; flora, verdure.
plant; tree, shrub, bush; creeper; herb, herbage; grass.
annual; perennial, biennial, triennial; exotic.
timber, forest; wood, woodlands; timberland; hurst[obs3], frith[obs3],
holt, weald[obs3], park, chase, greenwood, brake, grove, copse, coppice,
bocage[obs3], tope, clump of trees, thicket, spinet, spinney; underwood,
brushwood; scrub; boscage, bosk[obs3], ceja[Sp], chaparral, motte
[obs3][U.S.].; arboretum &c. 371.
bush, jungle, prairie; heath, heather; fern, bracken; furze, gorse,
whin; grass, turf; pasture, pasturage; turbary[obs3]; sedge, rush, weed;
fungus, mushroom, toadstool; lichen, moss, conferva[obs3], mold; growth;
alfalfa, alfilaria[obs3], banyan; blow, blowth[obs3]; floret[obs3],
petiole; pin grass, timothy, yam, yew, zinnia.
foliage, branch, bough, ramage[obs3], stem, tigella[obs3]; spray &c.
51; leaf.
flower, blossom, bine[obs3]; flowering plant; timber tree, fruit tree;
pulse, legume.
Adj. vegetable, vegetal, vegetive[obs3], vegitous|; herbaceous,
herbal; botanic[obs3]; sylvan, silvan[obs3]; arborary[obs3],
arboreous[obs3], arborescent[obs3], arborical|; woody, grassy; verdant,
verdurous; floral, mossy; lignous[obs3], ligneous; wooden, leguminous;
vosky[obs3], cespitose[obs3], turf-like, turfy; endogenous, exogenous.
Phr. "green-robed senators of mighty woods" [Keats]; "this is the
forest primeval" [Longfellow].

<-- p. 106 -->

#368. [The science of animals.] Zoology. -- N. zoology, zoonomy[obs3],
zoography[obs3], zootomy[obs3]; anatomy; comparative anatomy; animal
physiology, comparative physiology; morphology; mammalogy.
anthropology, ornithology, ichthyology, herpetology, ophiology[obs3],
malacology[obs3], helminthology[Med], entomology, oryctology[obs3],
paleontology, mastology[obs3], vermeology[obs3]; ichthy &c.
ichthyotomy[obs3]; taxidermy.
zoologist &c.
Adj. zoological &c. n.

#369. [The science of plants.] Botany. -- N. botany; physiological
botany, structural botany, systematic botany; phytography[obs3],
phytology[obs3], phytotomy[obs3]; vegetable physiology,
herborization[obs3], dendrology, mycology, fungology[obs3], algology[obs3];
flora, romona; botanic garden &c. (garden) 371[obs3]; hortus siccus[Lat],
herbarium, herbal.
botanist &c.; herbist[obs3], herbarist[obs3], herbalist,
herborist[obs3], herbarian[obs3].
V. botanize, herborize[obs3].
Adj. botanical &c. n.; botanic[obs3].

#370. [The economy or management of animals.] Husbandry. -- N.
husbandry, taming &c. v.; circuration[obs3], zoohygiantics[obs3];
domestication, domesticity; manege[Fr], veterinary art; farriery[obs3];
breeding, pisciculture.
menagerie, vivarium, zoological garden; bear pit; aviary, apiary,
alveary[obs3], beehive; hive; aquarium, fishery; duck pond, fish pond.
phthisozoics &c. (killing) 361[obs3][Destruction of animals];
euthanasia, sacrifice, humane destruction.
neatherd[obs3], cowherd, shepherd; grazier, drover, cowkeeper[obs3];
trainer, breeder; apiarian[obs3], apiarist; bull whacker [U.S.], cowboy,
cow puncher [U.S.], farrier; horse leech, horse doctor; vaquero,
veterinarian, vet, veterinary surgeon.
cage &c. (prison) 752; hencoop[obs3], bird cage, cauf[obs3]; range,
sheepfold, &c. (inclosure) 232.
V. tame, domesticate, acclimatize, breed, tend, break in, train; cage,
bridle, &c. (restrain) 751.
Adj. pastoral, bucolic; tame, domestic.

#371. [The economy or management of plants.] Agriculture. -- N.
agriculture, cultivation, husbandry, farming; georgics, geoponics[obs3];
tillage, agronomy, gardening, spade husbandry, vintage; horticulture,
arboriculture[obs3], floriculture; landscape gardening; viticulture.
husbandman, horticulturist, gardener, florist; agricultor[obs3],
agriculturist; yeoman, farmer, cultivator, tiller of the soil, woodcutter,
backwoodsman; granger, habitat, vigneron[obs3], viticulturist; Triptolemus.
field, meadow, garden; botanic garden[obs3], winter garden, ornamental
garden, flower garden, kitchen garden, market garden, hop garden; nursery;
green house, hot house; conservatory, bed, border, seed plot;
grassplot[obs3], grassplat[obs3], lawn; park &c. (pleasure ground) 840;
parterre, shrubbery, plantation, avenue, arboretum, pinery[obs3],
pinetum[obs3], orchard; vineyard, vinery; orangery[obs3]; farm &c. (abode)
V. cultivate; till the soil; farm, garden; sow, plant; reap, mow, cut;
manure, dress the ground, dig, delve, dibble, hoe, plough, plow, harrow,
rake, weed, lop and top; backset [obs3][U.S.].
Adj. agricultural, agrarian, agrestic[obs3].
arable, predial[obs3], rural, rustic, country; horticultural.

#372. Mankind. -- N. man, mankind; human race, human species, human
kind, human nature; humanity, mortality, flesh, generation.
[Science of man] anthropology, anthropogeny[obs3],
anthropography[obs3], anthroposophy[obs3]; ethnology, ethnography;
human being; person, personage; individual, creature, fellow creature,
mortal, body, somebody; one; such a one, some one; soul, living soul;
earthling; party, head, hand; dramatis personae[Lat]; quidam[Lat].
people, persons, folk, public, society, world; community, community at
large; general public; nation, nationality; state, realm; commonweal,
commonwealth; republic, body politic; million &c. (commonalty) 876;
population &c. (inhabitant) 188.
tribe, clan (paternity) 166; family (consanguinity) 11.
cosmopolite; lords of the creation; ourselves.
Adj. human, mortal, personal, individual, national, civic, public,
social; cosmopolitan; anthropoid.
Phr. "am I not a man and a brother?" [Wedgwood].

<-- p. 107 -->

#373. Man. -- N. man, male, he, him; manhood &c. (adolescence) 131;
gentleman, sir, master; sahib; yeoman, wight|!, swain, fellow, blade, beau,
elf, chap, gaffer, good man; husband &c. (married man) 903; Mr., mister;
boy &c. (youth) 129.
[Male animal] cock, drake, gander, dog, boar, stag, hart, buck, horse,
entire horse, stallion; gibcat[obs3], tomcat; he goat, Billy goat; ram,
tup; bull, bullock; capon, ox, gelding, steer, stot[obs3].
homosexual, gay, queen[slang].
V. masculinize
Adj. male, he-, masculine; manly, virile; unwomanly, unfeminine.
Pron. he, him, his.
Phr. hominem pagina nostra sapit [Lat][Mar.]; homo homini aut deus
aut lupus [Lat][Erasmus]; homo vitae commodatus non donatus est

#374. Woman. -- N. woman, she, her, female, petticoat.
feminality[obs3], muliebrity[obs3]; womanhood &c. (adolescence) 131.
womankind; the sex, the fair; fair sex, softer sex; weaker vessel.
dame, madam, madame, mistress, Mrs. lady, donna belle[Sp], matron,
dowager, goody, gammer[obs3]; Frau[Ger], frow[obs3], Vrouw[Dutch], rani;
good woman, good wife; squaw; wife &c. (marriage) 903; matronage,
bachelor girl, new woman, feminist, suffragette, suffragist.
nymph, wench, grisette[obs3]; girl &c. (youth) 129.
[Effeminacy] sissy, betty, cot betty [U.S.], cotquean[obs3],
henhussy[obs3], mollycoddle, muff, old woman.
[Female animal] hen, bitch, sow, doe, roe, mare; she goat, Nanny goat,
tabita; ewe, cow; lioness, tigress; vixen.
estrogen, oestrogen.
consanguinity &c. 166[female relatives], paternity &c. 11.
lesbian, dyke[slang].
V. feminize.
Adj. female, she-; feminine, womanly, ladylike, matronly, maidenly,
wifely; womanish, effeminate, unmanly; gynecic[obs3], gynaecic[obs3].
Pron. she, her, hers.
Phr. "a perfect woman nobly planned" [Wordsworth]; "a lovely lady
garmented in white" [Shelley]; das Ewig-Weibliche zieht uns hinan
[Ger][Goethe]; "earth's noblest thing, a woman perfected" [Lowell]; es de
vidrio la mujer[Sp]; "she moves a goddess and she looks a queen" [Pope];
"the beauty of a lovely woman is like music" [G. Eliot]; varium et mutabile
semper femina [Lat][Vergil]; "woman is the lesser man" [Tennyson].

#374a. Sexuality [human] -- N. sex, sexuality, gender; male,
masculinity, maleness &c. 373; female, femininity &c. 374.
sexual intercourse, copulation, mating, coitus, sex; lovemaking,
marital relations, sexual union; sleeping together, carnal knowledge.
sex instinct, sex drive, libido, lust, concupiscence; hots, horns
[coll]; arousal, heat, rut, estrus, oestrus; tumescence; erection, hard-on,
masturbation, self-gratification, autoeroticism, onanism, self-abuse.
orgasm, climax, ejaculation.
sexiness, attractiveness; sensuality, voluptuousness.
[sexual intercourse outside of marriage] fornication, adultery.
[person who is sexy] sex symbol, sex goddess; stud, hunk.
one-night stand.
pornography, porn, porno; hardcore pornography, softcore pornography;
pin-up, cheesecake; beefcake; Playboy[magazines with sexual photos],
Esquire, Hustler.
[unorthodox sexual activity] perversion, deviation, sexual
abnormality; fetish, fetishism; homosexuality, lesbianism, bisexuality;
sodomy, buggery; pederasty; sadism, masochism, sado-masochism; incest.
V. mate, copulate; make love, have intercourse, fornicate, have sex,
do it, sleep together, fuck[vulg.]; sleep around, play the field..
masturbate, jerk off[coll.], jack off[coll.], play with oneself.
have the hots[coll]; become aroused, get hot; have an erection, get it
come, climax, ejaculate.
Adj. sexy, erotic, sexual, carnal, sensual.
hot, horny, randy, rutting; passionate, lusty, hot-blooded,
libidinous; up, in the mood.
homosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual.

Sensation in general

#375. Physical Sensibility. -- N. sensibility; sensitiveness &c. adj.;
physical sensibility, feeling, impressibility, perceptivity, aesthetics;
moral sensibility &c. 822.
sensation, impression; consciousness &c. (knowledge) 490.
external senses.
V. be sensible of &c. adj.; feel, perceive.
render sensible &c. adj.; sharpen, cultivate, tutor.
cause sensation, impress; excite an impression, produce an impression.
Adj. sensible, sensitive, sensuous; aesthetic, perceptive, sentient;
conscious &c. (aware) 490.
acute, sharp, keen, vivid, lively, impressive, thin-skinned.
Adv. to the quick.
Phr. "the touch'd needle trembles to the pole" [Pope].

#376. Physical Insensibility. -- N. insensibility, physical
insensibility; obtuseness &c. adj.; palsy, paralysis, paraesthesia[Med],
anaesthesia; sleep &c. 823; hemiplegia[obs3], motor paralysis; vegetable
state; coma.
anaesthetic agent, opium, ether, chloroform, chloral; nitrous oxide,
laughing gas; exhilarating gas, protoxide of nitrogen[ISA:chemsubcfs];
V. be insensible &c. adj.; have a thick skin, have a rhinoceros hide.
render insensible &c. adj.; anaesthetize[obs3], blunt, pall,
obtund[obs3], benumb, paralyze; put under the influence of chloroform &c.
n.; stupefy, stun.
Adj. insensible, unfeeling, senseless, impercipient[obs3], callous,
thick-skinned, pachydermatous; hard, hardened; case hardened; proof,
obtuse, dull; anaesthetic; comatose, paralytic, palsied, numb, dead.

<-- p. 108 -->

#377. Physical Pleasure. -- N. pleasure; physical pleasure, sensual
pleasure, sensuous pleasure; bodily enjoyment, animal gratification,
hedonism, sensuality; luxuriousness &c. adj.; dissipation, round of
pleasure, titillation, gusto, creature comforts, comfort, ease; pillow &c.
(support) 215; luxury, lap of luxury; purple and fine linen; bed of downs,
bed of roses; velvet, clover; cup of Circe &c. (intemperance) 954.
treat; refreshment, regale; feast; delice[Fr]; dainty &c. 394; bonne
source of pleasure &c. 829; happiness &c. (mental enjoyment) 827.
V. feel pleasure, experience pleasure, receive pleasure; enjoy,
relish; luxuriate in, revel in, riot in, bask in, swim in, drink up, eat
up, wallow in; feast on; gloat over, float on; smack the lips.
live on the fat of the land, live in comfort &c. adv.; bask in the
sunshine, faire ses choux gras[Fr]..
give pleasure &c. 829.
Adj. enjoying &c. v.; luxurious, voluptuous, sensual, comfortable,
cosy, snug, in comfort, at ease.
pleasant, agreeable &c. 829.
Adv. in comfort &c. n.; on a bed of roses &c. n.; at one's ease.
Phr. ride si sapis [Lat][Martial]; voluptales commendat rarior usus

#378. Physical Pain. -- N. pain; suffering, sufferance,
suffrance[obs3]; bodily pain, physical pain, bodily suffering, physical
suffering, body pain; mental suffering &c. 828; dolour, ache; aching &c.
v.; smart; shoot, shooting; twinge, twitch, gripe, headache, stomach ache,
heartburn, angina, angina pectoris[Lat]; hurt, cut; sore, soreness;
discomfort, malaise; cephalalgia[Med], earache, gout, ischiagra[obs3],
lumbago, neuralgia, odontalgia[obs3], otalgia[obs3], podagra[obs3],
rheumatism, sciatica; tic douloureux[Fr], toothache, tormina[obs3],
spasm, cramp; nightmare, ephialtes[obs3]; crick, stitch; thrill,
convulsion, throe; throb &c. (agitation) 315; pang; colic; kink.
sharp pain, piercing pain, throbbing pain, shooting pain, sting,
gnawing pain, burning pain; excruciating pain.
anguish, agony; torment, torture; rack; cruciation[obs3], crucifixion;
martyrdom, toad under a harrow, vivisection.
V. feel pain, experience pain, suffer pain, undergo pain &c. n.;
suffer, ache, smart, bleed; tingle, shoot; twinge, twitch, lancinate[obs3];
writhe, wince, make a wry face; sit on thorns, sit on pins and needles.
give pain, inflict pain; lacerate; pain, hurt, chafe, sting, bite,
gnaw, gripe; pinch, tweak; grate, gall, fret, prick, pierce, wring,
convulse; torment, torture; rack, agonize; crucify; cruciate[obs3],
excruciate|; break on the wheel, put to the rack; flog &c. (punish) 972;
grate on the ear &c. (harsh sound) 410.
Adj. in pain &c. n., in a state of pain; pained &c. v.; gouty,
podagric[obs3], torminous[obs3].
painful; aching &c. v.; sore, raw.

Special Sensation
(1) Touch

#379. [Sensation of pressure] Touch. -- N. touch; tact, taction[obs3],
tactility; feeling; palpation, palpability; contrectation[obs3];
manipulation; massage.
[Organ of touch] hand, finger, forefinger, thumb, paw, feeler,
antenna; palpus[obs3].
V. touch, feel, handle, finger, thumb, paw, fumble, grope, grabble;
twiddle, tweedle; pass the fingers over, run the fingers over; manipulate,
wield; throw out a feeler.
Adj. tactual, tactile; tangible, palpable; lambent.

<-- p. 109 -->

#380. Sensations of Touch. -- N. itching, pruritis &c. v[Med].;
titillation, formication[obs3], aura; stereognosis[obs3].
V. itch, tingle, creep, thrill, sting; prick, prickle; tickle,
Adj. itching &c. v.; stereognostic[obs3], titillative.

#381. [insensibility to touch.] Numbness. -- N. numbness &c. (physical
insensibility) 376; anaesthesia; pins and needles.
V. benumb &c. 376.
Adj. numb; benumbed &c. v.; deadened; intangible, impalpable.

(2) Heat

#382. Heat. -- N. heat, caloric; temperature, warmth, fervor,
calidity[obs3]; incalescence[obs3], incandescence; glow, flush; fever,
phlogiston; fire, spark, scintillation, flash, flame, blaze; bonfire;
firework, pyrotechnics, pyrotechny[obs3]; wildfire; sheet of fire, lambent
flame; devouring element; adiathermancy[obs3]; recalescence[Phys].
summer, dog days; canicular days[obs3]; baking &c. 384 heat, white
heat, tropical heat, Afric heat[obs3], Bengal heat[obs3], summer heat,
blood heat; sirocco, simoom; broiling sun; insolation; warming &c. 384.
sun &c. (luminary) 423.
[Science of heat] pyrology[obs3]; thermology[obs3], thermotics[obs3],
thermodynamics; thermometer &c. 389.
[thermal units] calorie, gram-calorie, small calorie; kilocalorie,
kilogram calorie, large calorie; British Thermal Unit, B.T.U.; therm,
[units of temperature] degrees Kelvin, kelvins, degrees centigrade,
degrees Celsius; degrees Fahrenheit.
V. be hot &c. adj.; glow, flush, sweat, swelter, bask, smoke, reek,
stew, simmer, seethe, boil, burn, blister, broil, blaze, flame; smolder;
parch, fume, pant.
heat &c. (make hot) 384; recalesce[obs3]; thaw, give.
Adj. hot, warm, mild, genial, tepid, lukewarm, unfrozen; thermal,
thermic; calorific; fervent, fervid; ardent; aglow.
sunny, torrid, tropical, estival|!, canicular[obs3], steamy; close,
sultry, stifling, stuffy, suffocating, oppressive; reeking &c. v.; baking
&c. 384.
red hot, white hot, smoking hot, burning &c. v. hot, piping hot; like
a furnace, like an oven; burning, hot as fire, hot as pepper; hot enough to
roast an ox, hot enough to boil an egg.
fiery; incandescent, incalescent[obs3]; candent[obs3], ebullient,
glowing, smoking; live; on fire; dazzling &c. v.; in flames, blazing, in a
blaze; alight, afire, ablaze; unquenched, unextinguished[obs3]; smoldering;
in a heat, in a glow, in a fever, in a perspiration, in a sweat;
sudorific[obs3]; sweltering, sweltered; blood hot, blood warm; warm as a
toast, warm as wool.
volcanic, plutonic, igneous; isothermal|!, isothermic|!, isotheral|!.
Phr. not a breath of air; "whirlwinds of tempestuous fire" [Paradise

#383. Cold. -- N. cold, coldness &c. adj.; frigidity, inclemency,
winter; depth of winter, hard winter; Siberia, Nova Zembla; wind-chill
[forms of frozen water] ice; snow, snowflake, snow crystal, snow
drift; sleet; hail, hailstone; rime, frost; hoar frost, white frost, hard
frost, sharp frost; barf; glaze [U. S.], lolly [obs3][N. Am.]; icicle,
thick-ribbed ice; fall of snow, heavy fall; iceberg, icefloe; floe berg;
glacier; neve, serac[obs3]; pruina[obs3].
[cold substances] freezing mixture, dry ice, liquid nitrogen, liquid
[Sensation of cold] chilliness &c. adj.; chill; shivering &c. v.;
goose skin, horripilation[obs3]; rigor; chattering of teeth; numbness,
V. be cold &c. adj[intrans.].; shiver, starve, quake, shake, tremble,
shudder, didder[obs3], quiver; freeze, freeze to death, perish with cold.
[transitive] chill, freeze &c. (render cold) 385; horripilate[obs3],
make the skin crawl, give one goose flesh.
Adj. cold, cool; chill, chilly; icy; gelid, frigid, algid[obs3];
fresh, keen, bleak, raw, inclement, bitter, biting, niveous[obs3], cutting,
nipping, piercing, pinching; clay-cold; starved &c. (made cold) 385;
chilled to the bone, shivering &c. v.; aguish, transi de froid[Fr];
frostbitten, frost-bound, frost-nipped.
cold as a stone, cold as marble, cold as lead, cold as iron, cold as a
frog, cold as charity, cold as Christmas; cool as a cucumber, cool as
icy, glacial, frosty, freezing, pruinose[obs3], wintry, brumal[obs3],
hibernal[obs3], boreal, arctic, Siberian, hyemal[obs3]; hyperborean,
hyperboreal[obs3]; icebound; frozen out.
unwarmed[obs3], unthawed[obs3]; lukewarm, tepid; isocheimal[obs3],
isocheimenal[obs3], isocheimic[obs3].
frozen, numb, frost-bitten.
Adv. coldly, bitterly &c. adj.; pierre fendre[Fr];

<-- p. 110 -->

#384. Calefaction. -- N. increase of temperature; heating &c. v.;
calefaction[obs3], tepefaction[obs3], torrefaction[obs3]; melting, fusion;
liquefaction &c. 335; burning &c. v.; ambustion[obs3], combustion;
incension|, accension[obs3]; concremation[obs3], cremation;
scorification[obs3]; cautery, cauterization; ustulation[obs3], calcination;
cracking, refining; incineration, cineration[obs3]; carbonization;
ignition, inflammation, adustion[obs3], flagration| [obs3];
deflagration, conflagration; empyrosis[obs3], incendiarism; arson; auto
boiling &c. v.; coction[obs3], ebullition, estuation[obs3],
elixation|, decoction; ebullioscope[obs3]; geyser; distillation
(vaporization) 336.
furnace &c. 386; blanket, flannel, fur; wadding &c. (lining) 224;
clothing &c. 225.
still; refinery; fractionating column, fractionating tower, cracking
match &c. (fuel) 388; incendiary; petroleuse[Fr];
[biological effects resembling the effects of heat][substances causing
a burning sensation and damage on skin or tissue] cauterizer[obs3];
caustic, lunar caustic, alkali, apozem[obs3], moxa[obs3]; acid, aqua
fortis[Lat], aqua regia; catheretic[obs3], nitric acid, nitrochloro-hydric
acid[ISA:CHEMSUB], nitromuriatic acid[ISA:CHEMSUBPREFIX]; radioactivity,
gamma rays, alpha particles, beta rays, X-rays, radiation, cosmic
radiation, background radiation, radioactive isotopes, tritium, uranium,
plutonium, radon, radium.
sunstroke, coup de soleil[Fr]; insolation.
[artifacts requiring heat in their manufacture] pottery, ceramics,
crockery, porcelain, china; earthenware, stoneware; pot, mug, terra
cotta[Sp], brick, clinker.
[products of combustion] cinder, ash, scoriae, embers, soot; slag.
[products of heating organic materials] coke, carbon, charcoal; wood
alcohol, turpentine, tea tree oil; gasoline, kerosene, naptha[ISA:CHEMSUB],
fuel oil (fuel) 388; wax, paraffin; residue, tar.
inflammability, combustibility.
[Transmission of heat] diathermancy[obs3], transcalency[obs3],
conduction; convection; radiation, radiant heat; heat conductivity,
[effects of heat 2.] thermal expansion; coefficient of expansion.
V. heat, warm, chafe, stive[obs3], foment; make hot &c. 382; sun
oneself, sunbathe.
go up in flames, burn to the ground (flame) 382.
fire; set fire to, set on fire; kindle, enkindle, light, ignite,
strike a light; apply the match to, apply the torch to; rekindle,
relume[obs3]; fan the flame, add fuel to the flame; poke the fire, stir the
fire, blow the fire; make a bonfire of.
melt, thaw, fuse; liquefy &c. 335.
burn, inflame, roast, toast, fry, grill, singe, parch, bake,
torrefy[obs3], scorch; brand, cauterize, sear, burn in; corrode, char,
calcine, incinerate; smelt, scorify[obs3]; reduce to ashes; burn to a
cinder; commit to the flames, consign to the flames.
boil, digest, stew, cook, seethe, scald, parboil, simmer; do to rags.
take fire, catch fire; blaze &c. (flame) 382.
Adj. heated &c. v.; molten, sodden; rchauff; heating &c. v.;
inflammable, combustible; diathermal[obs3], diathermanous[obs3]; burnt
&c. v.; volcanic, radioactive.

#385. Refrigeration. -- N. refrigeration, infrigidation[obs3],
reduction of temperature; cooling &c. v.; congelation[obs3], conglaciation|
[obs3]; ice &c. 383; solidification &c. (density) 321; ice box
(refrigerator) 385..
extincteur[Fr]; fire annihilator; amianth[obs3], amianthus[obs3];
earth-flax, mountain-flax; flexible asbestos; fireman, fire brigade
(incombustibility) 388a.
incombustibility, incombustibleness &c. adj[obs3]. (insulation) 388a.
air conditioning[residential cooling], central air conditioning; air
conditioner; fan, attic fan; dehumidifier.
V. cool, fan, refrigerate, refresh, ice; congeal, freeze, glaciate;
benumb, starve, pinch, chill, petrify, chill to the marrow, regelate[obs3],
nip, cut, pierce, bite, make one's teeth chatter,
damp, slack quench; put out, stamp out; extinguish; go out, burn out
(incombustibility) 388a..
Adj. cooled &c. v.; frozen out; cooling &c. v.; frigorific[obs3].

#386. Furnace. -- N. furnace, stove, kiln, oven; cracker; hearth,
focus, combustion chamber; athanor[obs3], hypocaust[obs3], reverberatory;
volcano; forge, fiery furnace; limekiln; Dutch oven; tuyere, brasier[obs3],
salamander, heater, warming pan; boiler, caldron, seething caldron, pot;
urn, kettle; chafing-dish; retort, crucible, alembic, still; waffle irons;
muffle furnace, induction furnace; electric heater, electric furnace,
electric resistance heat.
[steel-making furnace] open-hearth furnace.
fireplace, gas fireplace; coal fire, wood fire; fire-dog, fire-irons;
grate, range, kitchener; caboose, camboose[obs3]; poker, tongs, shovel,
ashpan, hob, trivet; andiron, gridiron; ashdrop; frying-pan, stew-pan,
[area near a fireplace] hearth, inglenook.
[residential heating methods] oil burner, gas burner, Franklin stove,
pot-bellied stove; wood-burning stove; central heating, steam heat, hot
water heat, gas heat, forced hot air, electric heat, heat pump; solar heat,
convective heat.
hothouse, bakehouse[obs3], washhouse[obs3]; laundry; conservatory;
sudatory[obs3]; Turkish bath, Russian bath, vapor bath, steam bath,
sauna, warm bath; vaporarium[obs3].

#387. Refrigerator. -- N. refrigerator, refrigeratory[obs3];
frigidarium[obs3]; cold storage, cold room, cold laboratory; icehouse,
icepail, icebag, icebox; cooler, damper, polyurethane cooler; wine cooler.
freezer, deep freeze, dry ice freezer, liquid nitrogen freezer,
freezing mixture[refrigerating substances], ice, ice cubes, blocks of
ice, chipped ice; liquid nitrogen, dry ice, dry ice-acetone, liquid

#388. Fuel. -- N. fuel, firing, combustible.
[solid fuels] coal, wallsend[obs3], anthracite, culm[obs3], coke,
carbon, charcoal, bituminous coal, tar shale; turf, peat, firewood,
bobbing, faggot, log; cinder &c. (products of combustion) 384; ingle,
tinder, touchwood; sulphur, brimstone; incense; port-fire; fire-barrel,
fireball, brand; amadou[obs3], bavin[obs3]; blind coal, glance coal; German
tinder, pyrotechnic sponge, punk, smudge [U. S.]; solid fueled rocket.
[fuels for candles and lamps] wax, paraffin wax, paraffin oil; lamp
oil, whale oil.
[liquid fuels] oil, petroleum, gasoline, high octane gasoline,
nitromethane[ISA:CHEMSUB@fuel], petrol, gas, juice [coll.], gasohol,
alcohol, ethanol, methanol, fuel oil, kerosene, jet fuel, heating oil,
number 2 oil, number 4 oil, naphtha; rocket fuel, high specific impulse
fuel, liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, lox.
[gaseous fuels] natural gas, synthetic gas, synthesis gas, propane,
butane, hydrogen.
brand, torch, fuse; wick; spill, match, light, lucifer,
congreve[obs3], vesuvian, vesta[obs3], fusee, locofoco[obs3];
candle &c. (luminary) 423; oil &c. (grease) 356.
Adj. carbonaceous; combustible, inflammable; high octane, high
specific impulse; heat of combustion,.

#388a. Insulation, Fire extinction. {ant. of 388} -- insulation,
incombustible material, noncombustible material; fire retardant, flame
retardant; fire wall, fire door.
incombustibility, incombustibleness &c. adj.
extincteur[Fr]; fire annihilator; amianth[obs3], amianthus[obs3];
earth-flax, mountain-flax; asbestos; fireman, fire fighter, fire eater,
fire department, fire brigade, engine company; pumper, fire truck, hook and
ladder, aerial ladder, bucket; fire hose, fire hydrant.
[forest fires] backfire, firebreak, trench; aerial water bombardment.
wet blanket; fire extinguisher, soda and acid extinguisher, dry
chemical extinguisher, CO-two extinguisher, carbon tetrachloride, foam;
sprinklers, automatic sprinkler system; fire bucket, sand bucket.
[warning of fire] fire alarm, evacuation alarm,
[laws to prevent fire] fire code, fire regulations, fire; fire
inspector; code violation, citation.
V. go out, die out, burn out; fizzle.
extinguish; damp, slack, quench, smother; put out, stamp out; douse,
snuff, snuff out, blow out.
fireproof, flameproof.
Adj. incombustible; nonflammable, uninflammable,
unflammable[obs3]; fireproof.
Phr. fight fire with fire

<-- p. 111 -->

#389. Thermometer. -- N. thermometer, thermometrograph[obs3], mercury
thermometer, alcohol thermometer, clinical thermometer, dry-bulb
thermometer, wet-bulb thermometer, Anschutz thermometer[Ger], gas
thermometer, telethermometer; color-changing temperature indicator;
thermopile, thermoscope[obs3]; pyrometer, calorimeter, bomb calorimeter;
thermistor, thermocouple.
[temperature-control devices] thermostat, thermoregulator.

(3) Taste

#390. Taste. -- N. taste, flavor, gust, gusto, savor; gout, relish;
sapor|, sapidity[obs3]; twang, smack, smatch| [obs3]; aftertaste, tang.
tasting; degustation, gustation.
palate, tongue, tooth, stomach.
V. taste, savor, smatch[obs3], smack, flavor, twang; tickle the palate
&c. (savory) 394; smack the lips.
Adj. sapid, saporific[obs3]; gustable|, gustatory; gustful[obs3];
strong, gamy; palatable &c. 394.

#391. Insipidity. -- N. insipidity, blandness; tastelessness &c. adj.
V. be tasteless &c. adj.
Adj. bland, void of taste &c. 390; insipid; tasteless, gustless|,
savorless; ingustible|, mawkish, milk and water, weak, stale, flat, vapid,
fade, wishy-washy, mild; untasted[obs3].

#392. Pungency. -- N. pungency, piquance, piquancy, poignancy haut-
gout, strong taste, twang, race.
sharpness &c. adj.; acrimony; roughness &c. (sour) 392; unsavoriness
&c. 395.
mustard, cayenne, caviare; seasoning &c. (condiment) 393; niter,
saltpeter, brine (saltiness) 392a; carbonate of ammonia; sal
ammoniac[obs3], sal volatile, smelling salts; hartshorn (acridity) 401a.
dram, cordial, nip.
nicotine, tobacco, snuff, quid, smoke; segar[obs3]; cigar, cigarette;
weed; fragrant weed, Indian weed; Cavendish, fid[obs3], negro head, old
soldier, rappee[obs3], stogy[obs3].
V. be pungent &c. adj.; bite the tongue.
render -pungent &c. adj.; season, spice, salt, pepper, pickle, brine,
devil. smoke, chew, take snuff.
Adj. pungent, strong; high-, full-flavored; high-tasted, high-
seasoned; gamy, sharp, stinging, rough, piquant, racy; biting, mordant;
spicy; seasoned &c. v.; hot, hot as pepper; peppery, vellicating[obs3],
escharotic[obs3], meracious|; acrid, acrimonious, bitter; rough &c. (sour)
397; unsavory &c. 395.

#392a. Saltiness. -- N. saltiness.
niter, saltpeter, brine.
Adj. salty, salt, saline, brackish, briny; salty as brine, salty as a
herring, salty as Lot's wife.
salty, racy (indecent) 961.
Phr. take it with a grain of salt.

#392b. Bitterness -- N. bitterness, acridness[obs3], acridity,
acrimony; caustic, alkali; acerbity; gall, wormwood; bitters, astringent
[additive for alcoholic beverages]Angostura aromatic bitters.
sourness &c. 397; pungency &c. 392.
[bitter substances] alkaloids; turmeric.
Adj. bitter, bitterish, acrid, acerb, acerbic.
Phr. bitter as gall; bitter pill to take; sugar coating on a bitter

#393. Condiment. -- N. condiment, seasoning, sauce, spice, relish,
[exlist] salt; mustard, grey poupon mustard; pepper, black pepper,
white pepper, peppercorn, curry, sauce piquante[Fr]; caviare, onion,
garlic, pickle; achar[obs3], allspice; bell pepper, Jamaica pepper, green
pepper; chutney; cubeb[obs3], pimento.
[capsicum peppers] capsicum, red pepper, chili peppers, cayenne.
nutmeg, mace, cinnamon, oregano, cloves, fennel.
[herbs] pot herbs, parsley, sage, rosemary, thyme, bay leaves,
[fragrant woods and gums] frankincense, balm, myrrh.
[from pods] paprika.
[from flower stigmas] saffron.
[from roots] ginger, turmeric.
V. season, spice, flavor, spice up &c. (render pungent) 392.

#394. Savoriness. -- N. savoriness &c. adj.; good taste,
deliciousness, delectability.
relish, zest; appetizer.
tidbit, titbit[obs3], dainty, delicacy, tasty morsel; appetizer, hors
d'ouvres[Fr.]; ambrosia, nectar, bonne-bouche[Fr]; game, turtle, venison;
V. be savory &c. adj.; tickle the palate, tickle the appetite; flatter
the palate.
render palatable &c. adj.
relish, like, smack the lips.
Adj. savory, delicious, tasty, well-tasted, to one's taste, good,
palatable, nice, dainty, delectable; toothful[obs3], toothsome;
gustful[obs3], appetizing, lickerish[obs3], delicate, exquisite, rich,
luscious, ambrosial, scrumptious, delightful.
Adv. per amusare la bocca
Phr[It]. cela se laisse manger[Fr].

<-- p. 112 -->

#395. Unsavoriness. -- N. unsavoriness &c. adj.; amaritude[obs3];
acrimony, acridity (bitterness) 392b; roughness &c. (sour) 397; acerbity,
austerity; gall and wormwood, rue, quassia[obs3], aloes; marah[obs3];
V. be unpalatable &c. adj.; sicken, disgust, nauseate, pall, turn the
Adj. unsavory, unpalatable, unsweetened, unsweet[obs3]; ill-flavored;
bitter, bitter as gall; acrid, acrimonious; rough.
offensive, repulsive, nasty; sickening &c. v.; nauseous; loathsome,
fulsome; unpleasant &c. 830.

#396. Sweetness. -- N. sweetness, dulcitude[obs3].
sugar, syrup, treacle, molasses, honey, manna; confection,
confectionary; sweets, grocery, conserve, preserve, confiture[obs3], jam,
julep; sugar-candy, sugar-plum; licorice, marmalade, plum, lollipop,
bonbon, jujube, comfit, sweetmeat; apple butter, caramel, damson, glucose;
maple sirup[obs3], maple syrup, maple sugar; mithai[obs3], sorghum, taffy.
nectar; hydromel[obs3], mead, meade[obs3], metheglin[obs3],
honeysuckle, liqueur, sweet wine, aperitif.
[sources of sugar] sugar cane, sugar beets.
[sweet foods] desert, pastry, pie, cake, candy, ice cream, tart, puff,
pudding (food) 298.
dulcification|, dulcoration|.
sweetener, corn syrup, cane sugar, refined sugar, beet sugar,
dextrose; artificial sweetener, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, Sweet'N
V. be sweet &c. adj.
render sweet &c. adj.; sweeten; edulcorate[obs3]; dulcorate|,
dulcify|; candy; mull. Adj. sweet; saccharine, sacchariferous[obs3];
dulcet, candied, honied[obs3], luscious, lush, nectarious[obs3],
melliferous[obs3]; sweetened &c. v.
sweet as a nut, sweet as sugar, sweet as honey.
sickly sweet.
Phr. eau sucre[Fr]; "sweets to the sweet" [Hamlet].

#397. Sourness. -- N. sourness &c. adj.; acid, acidity, low pH;
acetous fermentation, lactic fermentation.
vinegar, verjuice[obs3], crab, alum; acetic acid, lactic acid.
V. be sour; sour, turn sour &c. adj.; set the teeth on edge.
render sour &c. adj.; acidify, acidulate.
Adj. sour; acid, acidulous, acidulated; tart, crabbed; acetous,
acetose[obs3]; acerb, acetic; sour as vinegar, sourish, acescent[obs3],
subacid[Chem]; styptic, hard, rough.
Phr. sour as a lemon.

(4) Odor

#398. Odor. -- N. odor, smell, odorament|, scent, effluvium;
emanation, exhalation; fume, essence, trail, nidor|, redolence.
sense of smell; scent; act of smelling &c. v.; olfaction,
[pleasant odor] fragrance &c. 400.
[animal with acute sense of smell] bloodhound, hound.
[smell detected by a hound] spoor.
V. have an odor &c. n.; smell, smell of, smell strong of; exhale; give
out a smell &c. n.; reek, reek of; scent.
smell, scent; snuff, snuff up; sniff, nose, inhale.
Adj. odorous, odoriferous; smelling, reeking, foul-smelling, strong-
scented; redolent, graveolent[obs3], nidorous[obs3], pungent; putrid,
[Relating to the sense of smell] olfactory, quick-scented.

#399. Inodorousness.-- N. inodorousness[obs3]; absence of smell, want
of smell.
deodorant, deodorization, deodorizer.
V. be inodorous &c. adj[obs3].; not smell.
Adj. inodorous[obs3], onodorate; scentless; without smell, wanting
smell &c. 398.
deodorized, deodorizing.

#400. Fragrance. -- N. fragrance, aroma, redolence, perfume, bouquet,
essence, scent; sweet smell, aromatic perfume.
agalloch[obs3], agallochium[obs3]; aloes wood; bay rum;
calambac[obs3], calambour[obs3]; champak[obs3], horehound[ISA:plant@mint],
lign-aloes[obs3], marrubium[obs3], mint, muskrat, napha water[obs3],
olibanum[obs3], spirit of myrcia[obs3].
essential oil.
incense; musk, frankincense; pastil[obs3], pastille; myrrh, perfumes
of Arabia[obs3]; otto[obs3], ottar[obs3], attar; bergamot, balm, civet,
potpourri, pulvil|; nosegay; scentbag[obs3]; sachet, smelling bottle,
vinaigrette; eau de Cologne[Fr], toilet water, lotion, after-shave lotion;
[fragrant wood oils] eucalyptus oil, pinene.
V. be fragrant &c. adj.; have a perfume &c. n.; smell sweet.
scent[render fragrant], perfume, embalm.
Adj. fragrant, aromatic, redolent, spicy, savory, balmy, scented,
sweet-smelling, sweet-scented; perfumed, perfumatory[obs3]; thuriferous;
fragrant as a rose, muscadine[obs3], ambrosial.

#401. Fetor. -- N. fetor[obs3]; bad &c. adj. smell, bad odor; stench,
stink; foul odor, malodor; empyreuma[obs3]; mustiness &c. adj.; rancidity;
foulness &c. (uncleanness) 653.
stoat, polecat, skunk; assafoetida[obs3]; fungus, garlic; stinkpot;
fitchet[obs3], fitchew[obs3], fourmart[obs3], peccary.
acridity &c. 401a.
V. have a bad smell &c. n.; smell; stink, stink in the nostrils, stink
like a polecat; smell strong &c. adj., smell offensively.
Adj. fetid; strong-smelling; high, bad, strong, fulsome, offensive,
noisome, rank, rancid, reasty[obs3], tainted, musty, fusty, frouzy[obs3];
olid[obs3], olidous|; nidorous[obs3]; smelling, stinking; putrid &c. 653;
suffocating, mephitic; empyreumatic[obs3].

#401a. Acridity -- N. acridity, astringency, bite.
[acrid substances] tear gas; smoke, acrid fumes.
Adj. acrid, biting, astringent, sharp, harsh; bitter &c. 392b.

<-- p. 113 -->
(5) Sound


#402. Sound. -- N. sound, noise, strain; accent, twang, intonation,
tone; cadence; sonorousness &c. adj.; audibility; resonance &c. 408; voice
&c. 580; aspirate; ideophone[obs3]; rough breathing.
[Science, of sound] acoustics; phonics, phonetics, phonology,
phonography[obs3]; diacoustics[obs3], diaphonics[obs3]; phonetism[obs3].
V. produce sound; sound, make a noise; give out sound, emit sound;
resound &c. 408.
Adj. sounding; soniferous[obs3]; sonorous, sonorific[obs3]; resonant,
audible, distinct; stertorous; phonetic; phonic, phonocamptic[obs3].
Phr. "a thousand trills and quivering sounds" [Addison]; forensis

#403. Silence. -- N. silence; stillness &c. (quiet) 265; peace, hush,
lull; muteness &c. 581; solemn silence, awful silence, dead silence,
deathlike silence.
V. be silent &c. adj.; hold one's tongue &c. (not speak) 585.
render silent &c. adj.; silence, still, hush; stifle, muffle, stop;
muzzle, put to silence &c. (render mute) 581.
Adj. silent; still, stilly; noiseless, soundless; hushed &c. v.; mute
&c. 581.
soft, solemn, awful, deathlike, silent as the grave; inaudible &c.
(faint) 405.
Adv. silently &c. adj.; sub silentio[Lat].
Int. hush! silence! soft! whist! tush! chut[obs3]! tut! pax[Lat]! be
quiet! be silent! be still! shut up![rude]; chup[obs3]! chup rao[obs3]!
Phr. one might hear a feather drop, one might hear a pin drop, so
quiet you could hear a pin drop; grosse Seelen dulden still [German]; le
silence est la vertu de ceux qui ne sont pas sages [French]; le silence est
le parti le plus sar de celui se dfie de soi-meme[French]; "silence more
musical than any song" [C. G. Rossetti]; tacent satis laudant[Latin];
better to be silent and thought a fool than to speak up and remove all

#404. Loudness.-- N. loudness, power; loud noise, din; blare; clang,
clangor; clatter, noise, bombilation[obs3], roar, uproar, racket, hubbub,
bobbery[obs3], fracas, charivari[obs3], trumpet blast, flourish of
trumpets, fanfare, tintamarre[obs3], peal, swell, blast, larum[obs3], boom;
bang (explosion) 406; resonance &c. 408.
vociferation, hullabaloo, &c. 411; lungs; Stentor.
artillery, cannon; thunder.
V. be loud &c. adj.; peal, swell, clang, boom, thunder, blare,
fulminate, roar; resound &c. 408. speak up, shout &c. (vociferate) 411;
bellow &c. (cry as an animal) 412.
rend the air, rend the skies; fill the air; din in the ear, ring in
the ear, thunder in the ear; pierce the ears, split the ears, rend the
ears, split the head; deafen, stun; faire le diable a quatre[Fr]; make
one's windows shake, rattle the windows; awaken the echoes, startle the
echoes; wake the dead.
Adj. loud, sonorous; high-sounding, big-sounding; deep, full,
powerful, noisy, blatant, clangorous, multisonous[obs3]; thundering,
deafening &c. v; trumpet-tongued; ear-splitting, ear-rending, ear-
deafening; piercing; obstreperous, rackety, uproarious; enough to wake the
dead, enough to wake seven sleepers.
shrill &c. 410 clamorous &c. (vociferous) 411 stentorian,
Adv. loudly &c. adj. aloud; at the top of one's voice, at the top of
one's lungs, lustily, in full cry.
Phr. the air rings with; "the deep dread-bolted thunder" [Lear].

#405. Faintness. -- N. faintness &c. adj.; faint sound, whisper,
breath; undertone, underbreath[obs3]; murmur, hum, susurration; tinkle;
"still small voice."
hoarseness &c. adj.; raucity[obs3].
V. whisper, breathe, murmur, purl, hum, gurgle, ripple, babble, flow;
tinkle; mutter &c. (speak imperfectly) 583; susurrate[obs3].
steal on the ear; melt in the air, float on the air.
Adj. inaudible; scarcely audible, just audible; low, dull; stifled,
muffled; hoarse, husky; gentle, soft, faint; floating; purling, flowing &c.
v.; whispered &c. v.; liquid; soothing; dulcet &c. (melodious) 413;
susurrant[obs3], susurrous[obs3].
Adv. in a whisper, with bated breath, sotto voce[Lat], between the
teeth, aside; piano, pianissimo; d la sourdine[obs3]; out of earshot
inaudibly &c. adj.

<-- p. 114 -->

#406. [Sudden and violent sounds.] Snap. -- N. snap &c. v.; rapping
&c. v.; decrepitation, crepitation; report, thud; burst, explosion, blast,
boom, discharge, detonation, firing, salvo, volley.
squib, cracker, firecracker, cherry bomb, M80, gun, cap, cap gun,
bomb burst, atomic explosion, nuclear explosion (arms) 727.
[explosive substances] gunpowder, dynamite, gun cotton,
nitroglycerine, nitrocellulose, plastic explosive, plastique, TNT, cordite,
trinitrotoluene, picric acid, picrates, mercury fulminate (arms) 727.
whack, wham, pow.
V. rap, snap, tap, knock, ping; click; clash; crack, crackle; crash;
pop; slam, bang, blast, boom, clap, clang, clack, whack, wham;
brustle[obs3]; burst on the ear; crepitate, rump.
blow up, blow; detonate.
Adj. rapping &c. v.
Int. kaboom! whamo! Heewhack! pow!

#407. [Repeated and protracted sounds.] Roll. -- N. roll &c. v.;
drumming &c. v.; berloque[obs3], bombination[obs3], rumbling; tattoo,
drumroll; dingdong; tantara[obs3]; rataplan[obs3]; whirr; ratatat, ratatat-
tat; rubadub; pitapat; quaver, clutter, charivari[obs3], racket; cuckoo;
repetition &c. 104; peal of bells, devil's tattoo; reverberation &c. 408.
[sound of railroad train rolling on rails] clickety-clack.
hum, purr.
[animals that hum] hummingbird.
[animals that purr] cat, kitten (animal sounds) 412.
V. roll, drum, rumble, rattle, clatter, patter, clack;
hum, trill, shake; chime, peal, toll; tick, beat.
drum in the ear, din in the ear.
Adj. rolling &c. v.; monotonous &c. (repeated) 104; like a bee in a

<-- resonance here covers 3 sound qualities; echo, low note, and ringing.
They should be separated. The physical science meanings must also be
listed separately -->

#408. Resonance. -- N. resonance; ring &c. v.; ringing,
tintinabulation &c. v.; reflexion[Brit], reflection, reverberation; echo,
reecho; zap, zot[coll.]; buzz (hiss) 409.
low note, base note, bass note, flat note, grave note, deep note;
bass; basso, basso profondo[It]; baritone, barytone[obs3]; contralto.
[device to cause resonance] echo chamber, resonator.
[ringing in the ears] tinnitus[Med].
[devices which make a resonating sound] bell, doorbell, buzzer; gong,
cymbals (musical instruments) 417.
[physical resonance] sympathetic vibrations; natural frequency,
coupled vibration frequency; overtone; resonating cavity; sounding board,
tuning fork.
[electrical resonance] tuning, squelch, frequency selection;
resonator, resonator circuit; radio &c. @
[chemical resonance] resonant structure, aromaticity, alternating
double bonds, non-bonded resonance; pi clouds, unsaturation, double bond
(valence) @
V. resound, reverberate, reecho, resonate; ring, jingle, gingle[obs3],
chink, clink; tink[obs3], tinkle; chime; gurgle &c. 405 plash, goggle,
echo, ring in the ear.
Adj. resounding &c. v.; resonant, reverberant, tinnient|,
tintinnabulary; sonorous, booming, deep-toned, deep-sounding, deep-mouthed,
vibrant; hollow, sepulchral; gruff &c. (harsh) 410.
Phr. "sweet bells jangled, out of time and harsh" [Hamlet]; echoing
down the mountain and through the dell.

#408a. Nonresonance[obs3]. -- N. thud, thump, dead sound;
nonresonance[obs3]; muffled drums, cracked bell; damper; silencer.
V. sound dead; stop the sound, damp the sound, deaden the sound,
deaden the reverberations, dampen the reverberations.
Adj. nonresonant[obs3], dead; dampened, muffled.

<-- "sibilation" includes hissing and buzzing -->
#409. [Hissing sounds.] Sibilation. -- N. sibilance, sibilation; zip;
hiss &c. v.; sternutation; high note &c. 410.
[animals that hiss] goose, serpent, snake (animal sounds) 412.
[animals that buzz] insect, bug; bee, mosquito, wasp, fly.
[inanimate things that hiss] tea kettle, pressure cooker; air valve,
pressure release valve, safety valve, tires, air escaping from tires,
punctured tire; escaping steam, steam, steam radiator, steam release valve.
V. hiss, buzz, whiz, rustle; fizz, fizzle; wheeze, whistle, snuffle;
squash; sneeze; sizzle, swish.
Adj. sibilant; hissing &c. v.; wheezy; sternutative[obs3].

#410. [Harsh sounds.] Stridor. -- N. creak &c. v.; creaking &c. v.;
discord, &c. 414; stridor; roughness, sharpness, &c. adj.; cacophony;
acute note, high note; soprano, treble, tenor, alto, falsetto, penny
trumpet, voce di testa[It].
V. creak, grate, jar, burr, pipe, twang, jangle, clank, clink; scream
&c. (cry) 411; yelp &c. (animal sound) 412; buzz &c. (hiss) 409.
set the teeth on edge, corcher les oreilles[Fr]; pierce the ears,
split the ears, split the head; offend the ear, grate upon the ear, jar
upon the ear.
Adj. creaking &c. v.; stridulous[obs3], harsh, coarse, hoarse,
horrisonous|, rough, gruff, grum[obs3], sepulchral, hollow.
sharp, high, acute, shrill; trumpet-toned; piercing, ear-piercing,
high-pitched, high-toned; cracked; discordant &c. 414; cacophonous.

<-- p. 115 -->

#411. Cry. -- N. cry &c. v.; voice &c. (human) 580; hubbub; bark &c.
(animal) 412.
vociferation, outcry, hullabaloo, chorus, clamor, hue and cry, plaint;
lungs; stentor.
V. cry, roar, shout, bawl, brawl, halloo, halloa, hoop, whoop, yell,
bellow, howl, scream, screech, screak[obs3], shriek, shrill, squeak,
squeal, squall, whine, pule, pipe, yaup[obs3].
cheer; hoot; grumble, moan, groan.
snore, snort; grunt &c. (animal sounds) 412.
vociferate; raise up the voice, lift up the voice; call out, sing out,
cry out; exclaim; rend the air; thunder at the top of one's voice, shout at
the top of one's voice, shout at the pitch of one's breath, thunder at the
pitch of one's breath; s'gosiller; strain the throat, strain the voice,
strain the lungs; give a cry &c.
Adj. crying &c. v.; clamant[obs3], clamorous; vociferous; stentorian
&c. (loud) 404; open-mouthed.

#412. [Animal sounds.] Ululation. -- N. cry &c. v.; crying &c. v.;
bowwow, ululation, latration[obs3], belling; reboation[obs3]; wood-note;
insect cry, fritiniancy|, drone; screech owl; cuckoo.
wailing (lamentation) 839.
V. cry, roar, bellow, blare, rebellow[obs3]; growl, snarl.
[specific animal sounds] bark [dog, seal]; bow-wow, yelp [dog]; bay,
bay at the moon [dog, wolf]; yap, yip, yipe, growl, yarr|, yawl, snarl,
howl [dog, wolf]; grunt, gruntle[obs3]; snort [pig, hog, swine, horse];
squeak [swine, mouse]; neigh, whinny [horse]; bray [donkey, mule, hinny,
ass]; mew, mewl [kitten]; meow [cat]; purr [cat]; caterwaul, pule [cats];
baa[obs3], bleat [lamb]; low, moo [cow, cattle]; troat[obs3], croak, peep
[frog]; coo [dove, pigeon]; gobble [turkeys]; quack [duck]; honk, gaggle,
guggle [obs3][goose]; crow, caw, squawk, screech, [crow]; cackle, cluck,
clack [hen, rooster, poultry]; chuck, chuckle; hoot, hoo [owl]; chirp,
cheep, chirrup, twitter, cuckoo, warble, trill, tweet, pipe, whistle [small
birds]; hum [insects, hummingbird]; buzz [flying insects, bugs]; hiss
[snakes, geese]; blatter[obs3]; ratatat [woodpecker].
Adj. crying &c. v.; blatant, latrant[obs3], remugient[obs3],
mugient[obs3]; deep-mouthed, full-mouthed; rebellowing[obs3],
Adv. in full cry.


#413. Melody. Concord. -- N. melody, rhythm, measure; rhyme
&c.(poetry) 597.
pitch, timbre, intonation, tone.
scale, gamut; diapason; diatonic chromatic scale[obs3], enharmonic
scale[obs3]; key, clef, chords.
modulation, temperament, syncope, syncopation, preparation,
suspension, resolution.
staff, stave, line, space, brace; bar, rest; appoggiato[obs3],
appoggiatura[obs3]; acciaccatura[obs3].
note, musical note, notes of a scale; sharp, flat, natural; high note
&c.(shrillness) 410; low note &c. 408; interval; semitone; second, third,
fourth &c.; diatessaron[obs3].
breve, semibreve[Mus], minim, crotchet, quaver; semiquaver,
demisemiquaver, hemidemisemiquaver; sustained note, drone, burden.
tonic; key note, leading note, fundamental note; supertonic[obs3],
mediant[obs3], dominant; submediant[obs3], subdominant[obs3]; octave,
tetrachord[obs3]; major key, minor key, major scale, minor scale, major
mode, minor mode; passage, phrase.
concord, harmony; emmeleia[obs3]; unison, unisonance[obs3]; chime,
homophony; euphony, euphonism[obs3]; tonality; consonance; consent; part.
[Science of harmony] harmony, harmonics; thorough-bass, fundamental-
bass; counterpoint; faburden[obs3].
piece of music &c. 415[Fr]; composer, harmonist[obs3], contrapuntist
(musician) 416.
V. be harmonious &c. adj.; harmonize, chime, symphonize[obs3],
transpose; put in tune, tune, accord, string.
Adj. harmonious, harmonical[obs3]; in concord &c. n., in tune, in
concert; unisonant[obs3], concentual[obs3], symphonizing[obs3], isotonic,
homophonous[obs3], assonant; ariose[obs3], consonant.
measured, rhythmical, diatonic[obs3], chromatic, enharmonic[obs3].
melodious, musical; melic[obs3]; tuneful, tunable; sweet, dulcet,
canorous[obs3]; mellow, mellifluous; soft, clear, clear as a bell; silvery;
euphonious, euphonic, euphonical[obs3]; symphonious; enchanting &c.
(pleasure-giving) 829; fine-toned, full-toned, silver-toned.
Adv. harmoniously, in harmony; as one &c. adj.
Phr. "the hidden soul of harmony" [Milton].

#414. Discord. -- N. discord, discordance; dissonance, cacophony,
want of harmony, caterwauling; harshness &c. 410. Babel[Confused
sounds]; Dutch concert, cat's concert; marrowbones and cleavers.
V. be discordant &c. adj.; jar &c. (sound harshly) 410.
Adj. discordant; dissonant, absonant[obs3]; out of tune, tuneless;
unmusical, untunable[obs3]; unmelodious, immelodious[obs3];
unharmonious[obs3], inharmonious; singsong; cacophonous; harsh &c. 410;

<-- p. 116 -->

#415. Music. -- N. music; concert; strain, tune, air; melody &c. 413;
aria, arietta[obs3]; piece of music[Fr], work, number, opus; sonata; rondo,
rondeau[Fr]; pastorale, cavatina[obs3], roulade[obs3], fantasia, concerto,
overture, symphony, variations, cadenza; cadence; fugue, canon, quodlibet,
serenade, notturno [Italian], dithyramb; opera, operetta; oratorio;
composition, movement; stave; passamezzo [obs3][Italian], toccata, Vorspiel
instrumental music; full score; minstrelsy, tweedledum and tweedledee,
band, orchestra; concerted piece[Fr], potpourri, capriccio.
vocal music, vocalism[obs3]; chaunt, chant; psalm, psalmody; hymn;
song &c. (poem) 597; canticle, canzonet[obs3], cantata, bravura, lay,
ballad, ditty, carol, pastoral, recitative, recitativo[obs3],
Lydian measures; slow music, slow movement; adagio &c. adv.; minuet;
siren strains, soft music, lullaby; dump; dirge &c. (lament) 839;
pibroch[obs3]; martial music, march; dance music; waltz &c. (dance) 840.
solo, duet, duo, trio; quartet, quartett[obs3]; septett[obs3]; part
song, descant, glee, madrigal, catch, round, chorus, chorale;
antiphon[obs3], antiphony; accompaniment, second, bass; score;
bourdon[obs3], drone, morceau[obs3], terzetto[obs3].
composer &c. 413; musician &c. 416.
V. compose, perform &c. 416; attune.
Adj. musical; instrumental, vocal, choral, lyric, operatic; harmonious
&c. 413; Wagnerian.
Adv. adagio; largo, larghetto, andante, andantino[obs3]; alla
capella[It][obs3]; maestoso[obs3], moderato; allegro, allegretto;
spiritoso[obs3], vivace[obs3], veloce[obs3]; presto, prestissimo[obs3]; con
brio; capriccioso[obs3]; scherzo, scherzando[obs3]; legato, staccato,
crescendo, diminuendo, rallentando[obs3], affettuoso[obs3]; obbligato;
pizzicato; desto[obs3].
Phr. "in notes by distance made more sweet" [Collins]; "like the
faint exquisite music of a dream" [Moore]; "music arose with its
voluptuous swell" [Byron]; "music is the universal language of mankind"
[Longfellow]; "music's golden tongue" [Keats]; "the speech of angels"
[Carlyle]; "will sing the savageness out of a bear" [Othello]; music hath
charms to soothe the savage beast.

#416. Musician. [Performance of Music.] -- N. musician, artiste,
performer, player, minstrel; bard &c. (poet) 597;
[specific types of musicians] accompanist, accordionist,
instrumentalist, organist, pianist, violinist, flautist; harper, fiddler,
fifer[obs3], trumpeter, piper, drummer; catgut scraper.
band, orchestral waits.
vocalist, melodist; singer, warbler; songster, chaunter[obs3],
chauntress[obs3], songstress; cantatrice[obs3].
choir, quire, chorister; chorus, chorus singer; liedertafel[Ger].
nightingale, philomel[obs3], thrush; siren; bulbul, mavis; Pierides;
sacred nine; Orpheus, Apollo[obs3], the Muses Erato, Euterpe, Terpsichore;
tuneful nine, tuneful quire.
composer &c. 413.
performance, execution, touch, expression, solmization[obs3].
V. play, pipe, strike up, sweep the chords, tweedle, fiddle; strike
the lyre, beat the drum; blow the horn, sound the horn, wind the horn;
doodle; grind the organ; touch the guitar &c. (instruments) 417; thrum,
strum, beat time.
execute, perform; accompany; sing a second, play a second; compose,
set to music, arrange.
sing, chaunt, chant, hum, warble, carol, chirp, chirrup, lilt, purl,
quaver, trill, shake, twitter, whistle; sol-fa[obs3]; intone.
have an ear for music, have a musical ear, have a correct ear.
Adj. playing &c. v.; musical.
Adv. adagio, andante &c. (music) 415.

<-- p. 117 -->

#417. Musical Instruments. -- N. musical instruments; band; string-
band, brass-band; orchestra; orchestrina[obs3].
monochord[obs3][Stringed instruments], polychord[obs3]; harp, lyre,
lute, archlute[obs3]; mandola[obs3], mandolin, mandoline[obs3]; guitar;
zither; cither[obs3], cithern[obs3]; gittern[obs3], rebeck[obs3],
bandurria[obs3], bandura, banjo; bina[obs3], vina[obs3]; xanorphica[obs3].
viol, violin; fiddle, kit; viola, viola d'amore[Fr], viola di
gamba[It]; tenor, cremona, violoncello, bass; bass viol, base viol;
theorbo[obs3], double base, contrabasso[obs3], violone[obs3], *psaltery;
bow, fiddlestick[obs3].
piano, pianoforte; harpsichord, clavichord, clarichord[obs3],
manichord[obs3]; clavier, spinet, virginals, dulcimer, hurdy-gurdy,
vielle[obs3], pianino[obs3], Eolian harp.
organ[Wind instruments]; harmonium, harmoniphon[obs3]; American
organ[obs3], barrel organ, hand organ; accordion, seraphina[obs3],
concertina; humming top.
flute, fife, piccolo, flageolet; clarinet, claronet[obs3]; basset
horn, corno di bassetto[obs3], oboe, hautboy, cor Anglais[Fr], corno
Inglese[obs3], bassoon, double bassoon, contrafagotto[obs3], serpent, bass
clarinet; bagpipes, union pipes; musette, ocarina, Pandean pipes; reed
instrument; sirene[obs3], pipe, pitch-pipe; sourdet[obs3]; whistle,
catcall; doodlesack[obs3], harmoniphone[obs3].
horn, bugle, cornet, cornet-a-pistons, cornopean|, clarion, trumpet,
trombone, ophicleide[obs3]; French horn, saxophone, sax [informal],
buglehorn[obs3], saxhorn, flugelhorn[obs3], althorn[obs3],
helicanhorn[obs3], posthorn[obs3]; sackbut, euphonium, bombardon
[Vibrating surfaces] cymbal, bell, gong; tambour|!, tambourine,
tamborine[obs3]; drum, tom-tom; tabor, tabret[obs3], tabourine[obs3],
taborin[obs3]; side drum, kettle drum; timpani, tympani[obs3];
tymbal[obs3], timbrel[obs3], castanet, bones; musical glasses, musical
stones; harmonica, sounding-board, rattle; tam-tam, zambomba[obs3].
[Vibrating bars] reed, tuning fork, triangle, Jew's harp, musical box,
harmonicon[obs3], xylophone.
sordine[obs3], sordet[obs3]; sourdine[obs3], sourdet[obs3]; mute.


#418. [Sense of sound.] Hearing. -- N. hearing &c. v.; audition,
auscultation; eavesdropping; audibility.
acute ear, nice ear, delicate ear, quick ear, sharp ear, correct ear,
musical ear; ear for music.
ear, auricle, lug, acoustic organs, auditory apparatus; eardrum,
tympanum, tympanic membrane.
[devices to aid human hearing by amplifying sound] ear trumpet,
speaking trumpet, hearing aid, stethoscope.
[distance within which direct hearing is possible] earshot, hearing
distance, hearing, hearing range, sound, carrying distance.
[devices for talking beyond hearing distance] telephone[exlist],
phone, telephone booth, intercom, house phone, radiotelephone, radiophone,
wireless, wireless telephone, mobile telephone, car radio, police radio,
two-way radio, walkie-talkie[military], handie-talkie, citizen's band, CB,
amateur radio, ham radio, short-wave radio, police band, ship-to-shore
radio, airplane radio, control tower communication; (communication) 525,
527, 529, 531, 532; electronic devices (POINFO @.
[devices for recording and reproducing recorded sound] phonograph,
gramophone, megaphone, phonorganon[obs3].
[device to convert sound to electrical signals] microphone,directional
microphone, mike, hand mike, lapel microphone.
[devices to convert recorded sound to electronic signals] phonograph
needle, stylus, diamond stylus, pickup; reading head (electronic devices).
hearer, auditor, listener, eavesdropper, listener-in.
auditory, audience.
[science of hearing] otology, otorhinolaryngology.
[physicians specializing in hearing] otologist, otorhinolaryngologist.
V. hear, overhear; hark, harken; list, listen, pay attention, take
heed; give an ear, lend an ear, bend an ear; catch, catch a sound, prick up
one's ears; give ear, give a hearing, give audience to.
hang upon the lips of, be all ears, listen with both ears.
become audible; meet the ear, fall upon the ear, catch the ear,
reach the ear; be heard; ring in the ear &c. (resound) 4O8.
Adj. hearing &c. v.; auditory, auricular, acoustic; phonic.
Adv. arrectis auribus[Lat].
Int. hark, hark ye! hear! list, listen! O yes! Oyez!
listen up [coll.]; listen here! hear ye! attention! achtung [German].

#419. Deafness. -- N. deafness, hardness of hearing, surdity|;
inaudibility, inaudibleness[obs3].
V. be deaf &c. adj.; have no ear; shut one's ears, stop one's ears,
close one's ears; turn a deaf ear to.
render deaf, stun, deafen.
Adj. deaf, earless[obs3], surd; hard of hearing, dull of hearing;
deaf-mute, stunned, deafened; stone deaf; deaf as a post, deaf as an
adder, deaf as a beetle, deaf as a trunkmaker[obs3].
inaudible, out of hearing.
Phr. hear no evil.

<-- p. 118 -->

(6) Light

#420. Light.-- N. light, ray, beam, stream, gleam, streak, pencil;
sunbeam, moonbeam; aurora.
day; sunshine; light of day, light of heaven; moonlight, starlight,
sun &c. (luminary) 432 light; daylight, broad daylight, noontide light;
noontide, noonday, noonday sun.
glow &c. v.; glimmering &c. v.; glint; play of light, flood of light;
phosphorescence, lambent flame.
flush, halo, glory, nimbus, aureola.
spark, scintilla; facula; sparkling &c. v.; emication|, scintillation,
flash, blaze, coruscation, fulguration[obs3]; flame &c. (fire) 382;
lightning, levin[obs3], ignis fatuus[Lat], &c. (luminary) 423.
luster, sheen, shimmer, reflexion[Brit], reflection; gloss, tinsel,
spangle, brightness, brilliancy, splendor; effulgence, refulgence;
fulgor[obs3], fulgidity[obs3]; dazzlement[obs3], resplendence,
transplendency[obs3]; luminousness &c. adj.; luminosity; lucidity;
renitency|, nitency[obs3]; radiance,, radiation; irradiation, illumination.
actinic rays, actinism; Roentgen-ray, Xray; photography, heliography;
photometer &c. 445.
[Science of light] optics; photology[obs3], photometry;
dioptrics[obs3], catoptrics[obs3].
[Distribution of light] chiaroscuro, clairobscur[obs3], clear obscure,
breadth, light and shade, black and white, tonality.
reflection, refraction, dispersion; refractivity.
V. shine, glow, glitter; glister, glisten; twinkle, gleam; flare,
flare up; glare, beam, shimmer, glimmer, flicker, sparkle, scintillate,
coruscate, flash, blaze; be bright &c. adj.; reflect light, daze, dazzle,
bedazzle, radiate, shoot out beams; fulgurate.
clear up, brighten.
lighten, enlighten; levin[obs3]; light, light up; irradiate, shine
upon; give out a light, hang out a light; cast light upon, cast light in,
throw light upon, throw light in, shed light upon, shed luster upon;
illume[obs3], illumine, illuminate; relume[obs3], strike a light; kindle
&c. (set fire to) 384.
Adj. shining &c. v.; luminous, luminiferous[obs3]; lucid, lucent,
luculent[obs3], lucific[obs3], luciferous; light, lightsome; bright, vivid,
splendent[obs3], nitid[obs3], lustrous, shiny, beamy[obs3],
scintillant[obs3], radiant, lambent; sheen, sheeny; glossy, burnished,
glassy, sunny, orient, meridian; noonday, tide; cloudless, clear;
unclouded, unobscured[obs3].
gairish[obs3], garish; resplendent, transplendent[obs3]; refulgent,
effulgent; fulgid[obs3], fulgent[obs3]; relucent[obs3], splendid, blazing,
in a blaze, ablaze, rutilant[obs3], meteoric, phosphorescent; aglow. bright
as silver; light as day, bright as day, light as noonday, bright as
noonday, bright as the sun at noonday. actinic; photogenic[obs2],
graphic; heliographic; heliophagous[obs3].
Phr. "a day for gods to stoop and men to soar" [Tennyson]; "dark
with excessive bright" [Milton].

#421. Darkness. -- N. darkness &c. adj., absence of light; blackness
&c. (dark color) 431; obscurity, gloom, murk; dusk &c. (dimness) 422.
Cimmerian darkness[obs3], Stygian darkness, Egyptian darkness; night;
midnight; dead of night, witching hour of night, witching time of night;
blind man's holiday; darkness visible, darkness that can be felt; palpable
obscure; Erebus[Lat]; "the jaws of darkness" [Midsummer Night's Dream];
"sablevested night" [Milton].
shade, shadow, umbra, penumbra; sciagraphy[obs3].
obscuration; occultation, adumbration, obumbration[obs3];
obtenebration[obs3], offuscation|, caligation|; extinction; eclipse, total
eclipse; gathering of the clouds.
shading; distribution of shade; chiaroscuro &c. (light) 420.
[perfectly black objects] black body; hohlraum[Phys]; black hole; dark
star; dark matter, cold dark matter.
V. be dark &c. adj.
darken, obscure, shade; dim; tone down, lower; overcast, overshadow;
eclipse; obfuscate, offuscate|; obumbrate[obs3], adumbrate; cast into the
shade becloud, bedim[obs3], bedarken[obs3]; cast a shade, throw a shade,
spread a shade, cast a shadow, cast a gloom, throw a shadow, spread a
shadow, cast gloom, throw gloom, spread gloom.
extinguish; put out, blow out, snuff out; doubt.
turn out the lights, douse the lights, dim the lights, turn off the
lights, switch off the lights.
Adj. dark, darksome[obs3], darkling; obscure, tenebrious[obs3],
sombrous[obs3], pitch dark, pitchy, pitch black; caliginous[obs3]; black
&c. (in color) 431.
sunless, lightless &c. (see sun[obs3], light, &c. 423); somber, dusky;
unilluminated &c. (see illuminate &c. 420)[obs3]; nocturnal; dingy, lurid,
gloomy; murky, murksome[obs3]; shady, umbrageous; overcast &c. (dim) 422;
cloudy &c. (opaque) 426; darkened; &c. v.
dark as pitch, dark as a pit, dark as Erebus[Lat].
benighted; noctivagant!|, noctivagous!|.
Adv. in the dark, in the shade.
Phr. "brief as the lightning in the collied night" [M. N. D.];
"eldest Night and Chaos, ancestors of Nature" [P. L.]; "the blackness of
the noonday night" [Longfellow]; "the prayer of Ajax was for light"

<-- p. 119 -->

#422. Dimness. -- N. dimness &c. adj.; darkness &c. 421; paleness &c.
(light color) 429.
half light, demi-jour; partial shadow, partial eclipse; shadow of a

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