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Roget's Thesaurus by Peter Mark Roget

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fusiform[Microb], wedge-shaped, cuneiform; cuneate[obs3],
multangular[obs3], oxygonal[obs3]; triangular, trigonal[obs3], trilateral;
quadrangular, quadrilateral; foursquare; rectangular, square, multilateral;
polygonal &c. n.; cubical, rhomboid, rhomboidal, pyramidal.

#245. Curvature. -- N. curvature, curvity[obs3], curvation[obs3];
incurvature[obs3], incurvity|; incurvation[obs3]; bend; flexure, flexion,
flection[obs3]; conflexure|; crook, hook, bought, bending; deflection,
deflexion[obs3]; inflection, inflexion[obs3]; concameration[obs3];
arcuation[obs3], devexity|, turn, deviation, detour, sweep; curl, curling;
bough; recurvity[obs3], recurvation[obs3]; sinuosity &c. 248.
carve, arc, arch, arcade, vault, bow, crescent, half-moon,
lunule[obs3], horseshoe, loop, crane neck; parabola, hyperbola; helix,
spiral; catenary[obs3], festoon; conchoid[obs3], cardioid; caustic;
tracery; arched ceiling, arched roof; bay window, bow window.
sine curve; spline, spline curve, spline function; obliquity &c. 217.
V. be curved &c. adj[intrans].; curve, sweep, sway, swag, sag;
deviate &c. 279; curl, turn; reenter.
[trans] render curved &c. adj.; flex, bend, curve, incurvate[obs3];
inflect; deflect, scatter[Phys]; refract (light) 420; crook; turn, round,
arch, arcuate, arch over, concamerate[obs3]; bow, curl, recurve, frizzle.
rotundity &c. 249; convexity &c. 250.
Adj. curved &c. v.; curviform[obs3], curvilineal[obs3], curvilinear;
devex|, devious; recurved, recurvous[obs3]; crump[obs3]; bowed &c. v.;
vaulted, hooked; falciform[obs3], falcated[obs3]; semicircular, crescentic;
sinusoid[Geom], parabolic, paraboloid; luniform[obs3], lunular[obs3];
semilunar, conchoidal[obs3]; helical, double helical, spiral; kinky;
cordiform[obs3], cordated[obs3]; cardioid; heart shaped, bell shaped, boat
shaped, crescent shaped, lens shaped, moon shaped, oar shaped, shield
shaped, sickle shaped, tongue shaped, pear shaped, fig shaped; kidney-
shaped, reniform; lentiform[obs3], lenticular; bow-legged &c. (distorted)
243; oblique &c. 217; circular &c. 247.
aduncated[obs3], arclike[obs3], arcuate, arched, beaked; bicorn[obs3],
bicornuous[obs3], bicornute[obs3]; clypeate[obs3], clypeiform[obs3];
cymbiform[obs3], embowed[obs3], galeiform[obs3]; hamate[obs3],
hamiform[obs3], hamous[obs3]; hooked; linguiform[obs3], lingulate[obs3];
lobiform[obs3], lunate, navicular[obs3], peltate[obs3], remiform[obs3],
rhamphoid[obs3]; rostrate[obs3], rostriferous[obs3], rostroid[obs3];
scutate[obs3], scaphoid[obs3], uncate[obs3]; unguiculate[obs3],

#246. Straightness. -- N. straightness, rectilinearity[obs3],
directness; inflexibility &c. (stiffness) 323; straight line, right line,
direct line; short cut.
V. be straight &c. adj.; have no turning; not incline to either side,
not bend to either side, not turn to either side, not deviate to either
side; go straight; steer for &c. (directions) 278.
render straight, straighten, rectify; set straight, put straight;
unbend, unfold, uncurl &c. 248, unravel &c. 219, unwrap.
Adj. straight; rectilinear, rectilineal[obs3]; direct, even, right,
true, in a line; unbent, virgate &c. v[obs3].; undeviating, unturned,
undistorted, unswerving; straight as an arrow &c. (direct) 278; inflexible
&c. 323.
laser-straight; ramrod-straight.

#247. [Simple circularity.] Circularity. -- N. circularity, roundness;
rotundity &c. 249.
circle, circlet, ring, areola, hoop, roundlet[obs3], annulus,
annulet[obs3], bracelet, armlet; ringlet; eye, loop, wheel; cycle, orb,
orbit, rundle, zone, belt, cordon, band; contrate wheel[obs3], crown wheel;
hub; nave; sash, girdle, cestus[obs3], cincture, baldric, fillet, fascia,
wreath, garland; crown, corona, coronet, chaplet, snood, necklace, collar;
noose, lasso, lassoo[obs3].
ellipse, oval, ovule; ellipsoid, cycloid; epicycloid[Geom], epicycle;
semicircle; quadrant, sextant, sector.
sphere &c. 249.
V. make round &c. adj.; round.
go round; encircle &c. 227; describe a circle &c. 311.
Adj. round, rounded, circular, annular, orbicular; oval, ovate;
elliptic, elliptical; egg-shaped; pear-shaped &c. 245; cycloidal &c.
n[obs3].; spherical &c. 249.
Phr. "I watched the little circles die" [Tennyson].

<-- p. 74 -->

#248. [Complex curvature.] Convolution. -- N. winding &c. v.;
convolution, involution, circumvolution; wave, undulation, tortuosity,
anfractuosity[obs3]; sinuosity, sinuation[obs3]; meandering, circuit,
circumbendibus[obs3], twist, twirl, windings and turnings, ambages[obs3];
torsion; inosculation[obs3]; reticulation &c. (crossing) 219;
rivulation[obs3]; roughness &c. 256.
coil, roll, curl; buckle, spiral, helix, corkscrew, worm, volute,
rundle; tendril; scollop[obs3], scallop, escalop[obs3]; kink; ammonite,
serpent, eel, maze, labyrinth.
V. be convoluted &c. adj.; wind, twine, turn and twist, twirl; wave,
undulate, meander; inosculate[obs3]; entwine, intwine[obs3]; twist, coil,
roll; wrinkle, curl, crisp, twill; frizzle; crimp, crape, indent,
scollop[obs3], scallop, wring, intort[obs3]; contort; wreathe &c. (cross)
Adj. convoluted; winding, twisted &c. v.; tortile[obs3], tortive|;
wavy; undated, undulatory; circling, snaky, snake-like, serpentine;
serpent, anguill[obs3], vermiform; vermicular; mazy, tortuous, sinuous,
flexuous, anfractuous[obs3], reclivate[obs3], rivulose[obs3],
scolecoid[obs3]; sigmoid, sigmoidal[Geom]; spiriferous[obs3],
involved, intricate, complicated, perplexed; labyrinth,
labyrinthic[obs3], labyrinthian[obs3], labyrinthine; peristaltic;
daedalian[obs3]; kinky, knotted.
wreathy[obs3], frizzly, crepe, buckled; raveled &c. (in disorder) 59.
spiral, coiled, helical; cochleate, cochleous; screw-shaped;
turbinated, turbiniform[obs3].
Adv. in and out, round and round; a can of worms; Gordian knot.

#249. Rotundity. -- N. rotundity; roundness &c. adj.;
cylindricity[obs3]; sphericity, spheroidity[obs3]; globosity[obs3].
cylinder, cylindroid[obs3], cylindrical; barrel, drum; roll, roller;
rouleau[obs3], column, rolling-pin, rundle.
cone, conoid[obs3]; pear shape, egg shape, bell shape.
sphere, globe, ball, boulder, bowlder[obs3]; spheroid, ellipsoid;
oblong spheroid; oblate spheroid, prolate spheroid; drop, spherule,
globule, vesicle, bulb, bullet, pellet, pelote[obs3], clew, pill, marble,
pea, knob, pommel, horn; knot (convolution) 248.
curved surface, hypersphere; hyperdimensional surface.
V. render spherical &c. adj.; form into a sphere, sphere, roll into a
ball; give rotundity &c. n.; round.
Adj. rotund; round &c. (circular) 247; cylindric, cylindrical,
cylindroid[obs3]; columnar, lumbriciform[obs3]; conic, conical; spherical,
spheroidal; globular, globated[obs3], globous[obs3], globose; egg shaped,
bell shaped, pear shaped; ovoid, oviform; gibbous; rixiform[obs3];
campaniform[obs3], campanulate[obs3], campaniliform[obs3]; fungiform[obs3],
bead-like, moniliform[obs3], pyriform[obs3], bulbous; tres atque
rotundus[Lat]; round as an orange, round as an apple, round as a ball,
round as a billiard ball, round as a cannon ball.

3. Superficial Form

#250. Convexity. -- N. convexity, prominence, projection, swelling,
gibbosity[obs3], bilge, bulge, protuberance, protrusion; camber, cahot
[obs3][N. Am.], thank-ye-ma'am [U.S.]. swell.
intumescence; tumour[Brit], tumor; tubercle, tuberosity[Anat];
excrescence; hump, hunch, bunch.
boss, embossment, hub, hubble
[convex body parts] tooth[U.S.], knob, elbow, process,
apophysis[obs3], condyle, bulb, node, nodule, nodosity[obs3], tongue,
dorsum, bump, clump; sugar loaf &c. (sharpness) 253; bow; mamelon[obs3];
molar; belly, corporation|!, pot belly, gut[coll]; withers, back, shoulder,
lip, flange.
[convexities on skin] pimple, zit [slang]; wen, wheel, papula[Med],
pustule, pock, proud flesh, growth, sarcoma, caruncle[obs3], corn, wart,
pappiloma, furuncle, polypus[obs3], fungus, fungosity[obs3],
exostosis[obs3], bleb, blister, blain[obs3]; boil &c. (disease) 655;
airbubble[obs3], blob, papule, verruca.
[convex body parts on chest] papilla, nipple, teat, tit [vulgar],
titty [vulgar], boob [vulgar], knocker[vulgar], pap, breast, dug,
[prominent convexity on the face] proboscis, nose, neb, beak, snout,
nozzle, schnoz[coll].
peg, button, stud, ridge, rib, jutty, trunnion, snag.
cupola, dome, arch, balcony, eaves; pilaster.
relief, relievo[It], cameo; bassorilievo[obs3], mezzorilevo[obs3],
altorivievo; low relief, bas relief[Fr], high relief.
hill &c. (height) 206; cape, promontory, mull; forehead,
foreland[obs3]; point of land, mole, jetty, hummock, ledge, spur;
naze[obs3], ness.
V. be prominent &c. adj.; project, bulge, protrude, pout, bouge|[Fr],
bunch; jut out, stand out, stick out, poke out; stick up, bristle up, start
up, cock up, shoot up; swell over, hang over, bend over; beetle.
render prominent &c. adj.; raise 307; emboss, chase.
[become convex] belly out.
Adj. convex, prominent, protuberant, projecting &c. v.; bossed,
embossed, bossy, nodular, bunchy; clavate, clavated[obs3], claviform;
hummocky[obs3], moutonne[obs3], mammiliform[obs3]; papulous[obs3],
papilose[obs3]; hemispheric, bulbous; bowed, arched; bold; bellied;
tuberous, tuberculous; tumous[obs3]; cornute[obs3], odontoid[obs3];
lentiform[obs3], lenticular; gibbous; club shaped, hubby [obs3][U.S.],
hubbly [obs3][U.S.], knobby, papillose, saddle-shaped, selliform[obs3],
subclavate[obs3], torose[obs3], ventricose[obs3], verrucose[obs3].
salient, in relief, raised, repousse; bloated &c, (expanded) 194.

<-- p. 75 -->

#251. Flatness. -- N. flatness &c. adj.; smoothness &c. 255.
plane; level &c. 213; plate, platter, table, tablet, slab.
V. render flat, flatten; level &c. 213.
Adj. flat, plane, even, flush, scutiform[obs3], discoid; level &c.
(horizontal) 213; flat as a pancake, flat as a fluke, flat as a flounder,
flat as a board, flat as my hand.

#252. Concavity. -- N. concavity, depression, dip; hollow, hollowness;
indentation, intaglio, cavity, dent, dint, dimple, follicle, pit, sinus,
alveolus[obs3], lacuna; excavation, strip mine; trough &c. (furrow) 259;
cup, basin, crater, punch bowl; cell &c. (receptacle) 191; socket.
valley, vale, dale, dell, dingle, combe[obs3], bottom, slade[obs3],
strath[obs3], glade, grove, glen, cave, cavern, cove; grot[obs3], grotto;
alcove, cul-de-sac; gully &c. 198; arch &c. (curve) 245; bay &c. (of the
sea) 343.
excavator, sapper, miner.
honeycomb (sponge) 252a.
V. be concave &c. adj.; retire, cave in.
render concave &c. adj.; depress, hollow; scoop, scoop out; gouge,
gouge out, dig, delve, excavate, dent, dint, mine, sap, undermine, burrow,
tunnel, stave in.
Adj. depressed &c. v.; alveolate[obs3], calathiform[obs3], cup-shaped,
dishing; favaginous[obs3], faveolate[obs3], favose[obs3]; scyphiform[obs3],
scyphose[obs3]; concave, hollow, stove in; retiring; retreating; cavernous;
porous &c. (with holes) 260; infundibul[obs3], infundibular[obs3],
infundibuliform[obs3]; funnel shaped, bell shaped; campaniform[obs3],
capsular; vaulted, arched.

252a Sponge -- N. sponge, honeycomb, network; frit[Chem], filter.
sieve, net, screen (opening) 260.
Adj. cellular, spongy, spongious[obs3]; honeycombed, alveolar;
sintered; porous (opening) 260.

#253. Sharpness. -- N. sharpness &c. adj.; acuity, acumination[obs3];
point, spike, spine, spicule[Biol], spiculum[obs3]; needle, hypodermic
needle, tack, nail, pin; prick, prickle; spur, rowel, barb; spit, cusp;
horn, antler; snag; tag thorn, bristle; Adam's needle[obs3], bear grass
[U.S.], tine, yucca.
nib, tooth, tusk; spoke, cog, ratchet.
crag, crest, arete[Fr], cone peak, sugar loaf, pike, aiguille[obs3];
spire, pyramid, steeple.
beard, chevaux de frise[Fr], porcupine, hedgehog, brier, bramble,
thistle; comb; awn, beggar's lice, bur, burr, catchweed[obs3], cleavers,
clivers[obs3], goose, grass, hairif[obs3], hariff, flax comb, hackle,
hatchel[obs3], heckle.
wedge; knife edge, cutting edge; blade, edge tool, cutlery, knife,
penknife, whittle, razor, razor blade, safety razor, straight razor,
electric razor; scalpel; bistoury[obs3], lancet; plowshare, coulter,
colter[obs3]; hatchet, ax, pickax, mattock, pick, adze, gill; billhook,
cleaver, cutter; scythe, sickle; scissors, shears, pruning shears, cutters,
wire cutters, nail clipper, paper cutter; sword &c. (arms) 727; bodkin &c.
(perforator) 262; belduque[obs3], bowie knife[obs3], paring knife;
bushwhacker [U.S.]; drawing knife, drawing shave; microtome[Microbiol];
chisel, screwdriver blade; flint blade; guillotine.
sharpener, hone, strop; grindstone, whetstone; novaculite[obs3];
steel, emery.
V. be sharp &c. adj.; taper to a point; bristle with.
render sharp &c. adj.; sharpen, point, aculeate, whet, barb,
spiculate[obs3], set, strop, grind; chip [flint].
cut &c. (sunder) 44.
Adj. sharp, keen; acute; acicular, aciform[obs3]; aculeated[obs3],
acuminated[obs3]; pointed; tapering; conical, pyramidal; mucronate[obs3],
mucronated[obs3]; spindle shaped, needle shaped; spiked, spiky,
ensiform[obs3], peaked, salient; cusped, cuspidate, cuspidated[obs3];
cornute[obs3], cornuted[obs3], cornicultate[obs3]; prickly; spiny,
spinous[obs3], spicular; thorny, bristling, muricated[obs3],
pectinated[obs3], studded, thistly, briary[obs3]; craggy &c. (rough) 256;
snaggy, digitated[obs3], two-edged, fusiform[Microb]; dentiform[obs3],
denticulated; toothed; odontoid[obs3]; starlike; stellated[obs3],
stelliform[obs3]; sagittate[obs3], sagittiform[obs3]; arrowheaded[obs3];
arrowy[obs3], barbed, spurred.
acinaciform; apiculate[obs3], apiculated[obs3]; aristate[obs3], awned,
awny[obs3], bearded, calamiform[obs3], cone-shaped, coniform[obs3],
crestate[obs3], echinate[obs3], gladiate[obs3]; lanceolate[obs3],
lanciform; awl, awl-shaped, lance-shaped, awl-shaped, scimitar-shaped,
sword-shaped; setarious[obs3], spinuliferous[obs3], subulate[obs3],
tetrahedral, xiphoid[obs3].
cutting; sharp edged, knife edged; sharp as a razor, keen as a razor;
sharp as a needle, sharp as a tack; sharpened &c. v.; set.

<-- p. 76 -->

#254. Bluntness. -- N. bluntness &c. adj.
V. be blunt, render blunt &c. adj.; obtund[obs3], dull; take off the
point, take off the edge; turn.
Adj. blunt, obtuse, dull, bluff; edentate, toothless.

#255. Smoothness. -- N. smoothness &c. adj.; polish, gloss; lubricity,
[smooth materials] down, velvet, velure, silk, satin; velveteen,
velour, velours, velumen[obs3]; glass, ice.
slide; bowling green &c. (level) 213; asphalt, wood pavement,
flagstone, flags.
[objects used to smooth other objects] roller, steam roller, lawn
roller, rolling pin, rolling mill; sand paper, emery paper, emery cloth,
sander; flat iron, sad iron; burnisher, turpentine and beeswax; polish,
shoe polish.
[art of cutting and polishing gemstones] lapidary.
[person who polishes gemstones] lapidary, lapidarian.
V. smooth, smoothen[obs3]; plane; file; mow, shave; level, roll;
macadamize; polish, burnish, calender[obs3], glaze; iron, hot-press,
mangle; lubricate &c. (oil) 332.
Adj. smooth; polished &c. v.; leiodermatous[obs3], slick,
velutinous[obs3]; even; level &c. 213; plane &c. (flat) 251; sleek, glossy;
silken, silky; lanate[obs3], downy, velvety; glabrous, slippery, glassy,
lubricous, oily, soft, unwrinkled[obs3]; smooth as glass, smooth as ice,
smooth as monumental alabaster, smooth as velvet, smooth as oil; slippery
as an eel; woolly &c. (feathery) 256.
Phr. smooth as silk; slippery as coonshit on a pump handle; slippery
as a greased pig.

#256. Roughness. -- N. roughness &c. adj.; tooth, grain, texture,
ripple; asperity, rugosity[obs3], salebrosity|, corrugation,
nodosity[obs3]; arborescence[obs3] &c. 242; pilosity[obs3].
brush, hair, beard, shag, mane, whisker, moustache, imperial, tress,
lock, curl, ringlet; fimbriae, pili, cilia, villi; lovelock;
beaucatcher[obs3]; curl paper; goatee; papillote, scalp lock.
plumage, plumosity[obs3]; plume, panache, crest; feather, tuft,
fringe, toupee.
wool, velvet, plush, nap, pile, floss, fur, down; byssus[obs3], moss,
bur; fluff.
knot (convolution) 248.
V. be rough &c. adj.; go against the grain.
render-rough &c. adj.; roughen, ruffle, crisp, crumple, corrugate, set
on edge, stroke the wrong way, rumple.
Adj. rough, uneven, scabrous, scaly ,knotted; rugged, rugose[obs3],
rugous[obs3]; knurly[obs3]; asperous[obs3], crisp, salebrous|, gnarled,
unpolished, unsmooth[obs3], roughhewn[obs3]; craggy, cragged;
crankling[obs3], scraggy; prickly &c. (sharp) 253; arborescent &c.
242[obs3]; leafy, well-wooded; feathery; plumose, plumigerous[obs3];
laciniate[obs3], laciniform[obs3], laciniose[obs3]; pappose[obs3];
pileous[obs3], pilose[obs3]; trichogenous[obs3], trichoid[Med]; tufted,
fimbriated, hairy, ciliated, filamentous, hirsute; crinose[obs3],
crinite[obs3]; bushy, hispid, villous, pappous[obs3], bearded,
pilous[obs3], shaggy, shagged; fringed, befringed[obs3]; setous|,
setose[obs3], setaceous; "like quills upon the fretful porcupine" [Hamlet];
rough as a nutmeg grater, rough as a bear.
downy, velvety, flocculent, woolly; lanate[obs3], lanated[obs3];
lanuginous[obs3], lanuginose[obs3]; tomentose[obs3]; fluffy.
Adv. against the grain.
Phr. cabello luengo y corto el seso[Sp].

#257. Notch. -- N. notch, dent, nick, cut; indent, indentation;
embrasure, battlement, machicolation[obs3]; saw, tooth,
crenelle[obs3], scallop, scollop[obs3], vandyke; depression; jag.
V. notch, nick, cut, dent, indent, jag, scarify, scotch, crimp,
scallop, scollop[obs3], crenulate[obs3], vandyke.
Adj. notched &c. v.; crenate[obs3], crenated[obs3]; dentate, dentated;
denticulate, denticulated; toothed, palmated[obs3], serrated.

<-- p. 77 -->

#258. Fold. -- N. fold, plicature[obs3], plait, pleat, ply, crease;
tuck, gather; flexion, flexure, joint, elbow, double, doubling,
duplicature[obs3], gather, wrinkle, rimple[obs3], crinkle, crankle[obs3],
crumple, rumple, rivel[obs3], ruck[obs3], ruffle, dog's ear, corrugation,
frounce[obs3], flounce, lapel; pucker, crow's feet; plication[obs3].
V. fold, double, plicate[obs3], plait, crease, wrinkle, crinkle,
crankle[obs3], curl, cockle up, cocker, rimple[obs3], rumple,
flute, frizzle, frounce[obs3], rivel[obs3], twill, corrugate, ruffle,
crimple|, crumple, pucker; turn down, double down, down under; tuck,
ruck[obs3], hem, gather.
Adj. folded, fluted, pleated &c. v..

#259. Furrow. -- N. furrow, groove, rut, sulcus[Anat], scratch,
streak, striae, crack, score, incision, slit; chamfer, fluting; corduroy
road, cradle hole.
channel, gutter, trench, ditch, dike, dyke; moat, fosse[obs3], trough,
kennel; ravine &c. (interval) 198; tajo [obs3][U.S.], thank-ye-ma'am
V. furrow &c. n.; flute, plow; incise, engrave, etch, bite in.
Adj. furrowed &c. v.; ribbed, striated, sulcated[Anat], fluted,
canaliculated[obs3]; bisulcous[obs3], bisulcate[obs3], bisulcated[obs3];
canaliferous[obs3]; trisulcate[obs3]; corduroy; unisulcate[obs3];
costate[obs3], rimiform[obs3].

#260. Opening -- N. hole, foramen; puncture, perforation;
fontanel[obs3]; transforation[obs3]; pinhole, keyhole, loophole, porthole,
peephole, mousehole, pigeonhole; eye of a needle; eyelet; slot.
opening; aperture, apertness[obs3]; hiation[obs3], yawning,
oscitancy[obs3], dehiscence, patefaction|, pandiculation[obs3]; chasm &c.
(interval) 198.
embrasure, window, casement; abatjour[obs3]; light; sky light, fan
light; lattice; bay window, bow window; oriel[Arch]; dormer, lantern.
outlet, inlet; vent, vomitory; embouchure; orifice, mouth, sucker,
muzzle, throat, gullet, weasand[obs3], wizen, nozzle; placket.
portal, porch, gate, ostiary|, postern, wicket, trapdoor, hatch, door;
arcade; cellarway[obs3], driveway, gateway, doorway, hatchway, gangway;
lich gate[obs3].
way, path &c. 627; thoroughfare; channel; passage, passageway; tube,
pipe; water pipe &c. 350; air pipe &c. 351; vessel, tubule, canal, gut,
fistula; adjutage[obs3], ajutage[obs3]; ostium[obs3]; smokestack; chimney,
flue, tap, funnel, gully, tunnel, main; mine, pit, adit[obs3], shaft;
alley, aisle, glade, vista.
bore, caliber; pore; blind orifice; fulgurite[obs3],
porousness, porosity.
sieve, cullender[obs3], colander; cribble[obs3], riddle, screen;
apertion[obs3], perforation; piercing &c. v.; terebration[obs3],
empalement[obs3], pertusion|, puncture, acupuncture, penetration.
key &c. 631, opener, master key, password, combination, passe-partout.
V. open, ope[obs3], gape, yawn, bilge; fly open.
perforate, pierce, empierce|, tap, bore, drill; mine &c. (scoop out)
252; tunnel; transpierce[obs3], transfix; enfilade, impale, spike, spear,
gore, spit, stab, pink, puncture, lance, stick, prick, riddle, punch; stave
cut a passage through; make way for, make room for.
uncover, unclose, unrip[obs3]; lay open, cut open, rip open, throw
open, pop open, blow open, pry open, tear open, pull open.
Adj. open; perforated &c. v.; perforate; wide open, ajar, unclosed,
unstopped; oscitant[obs3], gaping, yawning; patent.
tubular, cannular[obs3], fistulous; pervious, permeable;
foraminous[obs3]; vesicular, vasicular[obs3]; porous, follicular,
cribriform[obs3], honeycombed, infundibular[obs3], riddled; tubulous[obs3],
tubulated[obs3]; piped, tubate[obs3].
opening &c. v.; aperient[obs3].
Int. open sesame!

#261. Closure. -- N. closure, occlusion, blockade; shutting up &c. v.;
obstruction &c. (hindrance) 706; embolus; contraction &c. 195; infarction;
constipation, obstipation[obs3]; blind alley, blind corner; keddah[obs3];
cul-de-sac, caecum; imperforation[obs3], imperviousness &c. adj.;
impermeability; stopper &c. 263.
V. close, occlude, plug; block up, stop up, fill up, bung up, cork up,
button up, stuff up, shut up, dam up; blockade, obstruct &c.
(hinder) 706; bar, bolt, stop, seal, plumb; choke, throttle; ram down,
dam, cram; trap, clinch; put to the door, shut the door.
Adj. closed &c. v.; shut, operculated[obs3]; unopened.
unpierced[obs3], imporous[obs3], caecal[Med]; closable; imperforate,
impervious, impermeable; impenetrable; impassable, unpassable|2; invious|;
pathless, wayless[obs3]; untrodden, untrod.
unventilated; air tight, water tight; hermetically sealed; tight,

<-- p. 78 -->

#262. Perforator. -- N. perforator, piercer, borer, auger, chisel,
gimlet, stylet[obs3], drill, wimble[obs3], awl, bradawl, scoop, terrier,
corkscrew, dibble, trocar[Med], trepan, probe, bodkin, needle, stiletto,
rimer, warder, lancet; punch, puncheon; spikebit[obs3], gouge; spear &c.
(weapon) 727; puncher; punching machine, punching press; punch pliers.

#263. Stopper. -- N. stopper, stopple; plug, cork, bung, spike, spill,
stopcock, tap; rammer[obs3]; ram, ramrod; piston; stop-gap; wadding,
stuffing, padding, stopping, dossil[obs3], pledget[obs3], tompion[obs3],
cover &c. 223; valve, vent peg, spigot, slide valve.
janitor, doorkeeper, porter, warder, beadle, cerberus, ostiary[obs3].

Section IV. MOTION
1. Motion in General

#264. [Successive change of place.] Motion. -- N. motion, movement,
move; going &c. v.; unrest.
stream, flow, flux, run, course, stir; evolution; kinematics;
step, rate, pace, tread, stride, gait, port, footfall, cadence,
carriage, velocity, angular velocity; clip, progress, locomotion; journey
&c. 266; voyage &c. 267; transit &c. 270.
restlessness &c. (changeableness) 149; mobility; movableness, motive
power; laws of motion; mobilization.
V. be in motion &c. adj.; move, go, hie, gang, budge, stir, pass,
flit; hover about, hover round, hover about; shift, slide, glide; roll,
roll on; flow, stream, run, drift, sweep along; wander &c. (deviate) 279;
walk &c. 266; change one's place, shift one's place, change one's quarters,
shift one's quarters; dodge; keep going, keep moving;
put in motion, set in motion; move; impel &c. 276; propel &c. 284;
render movable, mobilize.
Adj. moving &c. v.; in motion; transitional; motory[obs3], motive;
shifting, movable, mobile, mercurial, unquiet; restless &c. (changeable)
149; nomadic &c. 266; erratic &c. 279.
Adv. under way; on the move, on the wing, on the tramp, on the march.
Phr. eppur si muove [It][Galileo]; es bildet ein Talent sich in der
Stille[Ger], sich ein Charakter in dem Strom der Welt[Ger].

#265. Quiescence. -- N. rest; stillness &c. adj.; quiescence;
stagnation, stagnancy; fixity, immobility, catalepsy; indisturbance[obs3];
quiet, tranquility, calm; repose &c. 687; peace; dead calm,
anticyclone|!; statue-like repose; silence &c. 203; not a breath of air,
not a mouse stirring; sleep &c. (inactivity) 683.
pause, lull &c. (cessation) 142; stand still; standing still &c. v.;
lock; dead lock, dead stop, dead stand; full stop; fix; embargo.
resting place; gite[Fr]; bivouac; home &c. (abode) 189; pillow &c.
(support) 215; haven &c. (refuge) 666; goal &c. (arrival) 292.
V. be quiescent &c. adj.; stand still, lie still; keep quiet, repose,
hold the breath.
remain, stay; stand, lie to, ride at anchor, remain in situ, tarry,
mark time; bring to, heave to, lay to; pull up, draw up; hold, halt; stop,
stop short; rest, pause, anchor; cast to an anchor, come to an anchor; rest
on one's oars; repose on one's laurels, take breath; stop &c. (discontinue)
stagnate; quieta non movere[Lat]; let alone; abide, rest and be
thankful; keep within doors, stay at home, go to bed.
dwell &c. (be present) 186; settle &c. (be located) 184; alight &c.
(arrive) 292 stick, stick fast; stand like a post; not stir a peg, not stir
a step; be at a stand &c. n. quell, becalm, hush, stay, lull to sleep, lay
an embargo on.
Adj. quiescent, still; motionless, moveless; fixed; stationary;
immotile; at rest at a stand, at a standstill, at anchor; stock, still;
standing still &c. v.; sedentary, untraveled, stay-at-home; becalmed,
stagnant, quiet; unmoved, undisturbed, unruffled; calm, restful;
cataleptic; immovable &c. (stable) 150; sleeping &c. (inactive) 683; silent
&c. 403; still as a statue, still as a post, still as a mouse, still as
death; vegetative, vegetating.
Adv. at a stand &c. adj.; tout court; at the halt.
Int. stop! stay! avast! halt! hold hard! whoa! hold! sabr karo[obs3]!.
Phr. requiescat in pace[Lat]; Deus nobis haec otia fecit
[Lat][Vergil]; "the noonday quiet holds the hill" [Tennyson].

<-- p. 79 -->

#266. [Locomotion by land.] Journey. -- N. travel; traveling &c. v.
wayfaring, campaigning.
journey, excursion, expedition, tour, trip, grand tour, circuit,
peregrination, discursion|, ramble, pilgrimage, hajj, trek, course,
ambulation[obs3], march, walk, promenade, constitutional, stroll, saunter,
tramp, jog trot, turn, stalk, perambulation; noctambulation[obs3],
noctambulism; somnambulism; outing, ride, drive, airing, jaunt.
equitation, horsemanship, riding, manege[Fr], ride and tie;
roving, vagrancy, pererration|; marching and countermarching;
nomadism; vagabondism, vagabondage; hoboism [U.S.]; gadding; flit,
flitting, migration; emigration, immigration, demigration|,
intermigration[obs3]; wanderlust.
plan, itinerary, guide; handbook, guidebook, road book;
Baedeker[obs3], Bradshaw, Murray; map, road map, transportation guide,
subway map.
procession, cavalcade, caravan, file, cortege, column.
[Organs and instruments of locomotion] vehicle &c. 272; automobile,
train, bus, airplane, plane, autobus, omnibus, subway, motorbike, dirt
bike, off-road vehicle, van, minivan, motor scooter, trolley, locomotive;
legs, feet, pegs, pins, trotters.
traveler &c. 268.
depot [U.S.], railway station, station.
V. travel, journey, course; take a journey, go a journey; take a walk,
go out for walk &c. n.; have a run; take the air.
flit, take wing; migrate, emigrate; trek; rove, prowl, roam, range,
patrol, pace up and down, traverse; scour the country, traverse the
country; peragrate|; circumambulate, perambulate; nomadize[obs3], wander,
ramble, stroll, saunter, hover, go one's rounds, straggle; gad, gad about;
walk, march, step, tread, pace, plod, wend, go by shank's mare;
promenade; trudge, tramp; stalk, stride, straddle, strut, foot it, hoof it,
stump, bundle, bowl along, toddle; paddle; tread a path.
take horse, ride, drive, trot, amble, canter, prance, fisk[obs3],
frisk, caracoler[obs3], caracole; gallop &c. (move quickly) 274.
[start riding] embark, board, set out, hit the road, get going, get
peg on, jog on, wag on, shuffle on; stir one's stumps; bend one's
steps, bend one's course; make one's way, find one's way, wend one's way,
pick one's way, pick one's way, thread one's way, plow one's way; slide,
glide, coast, skim, skate; march in procession, file on, defile.
go to, repair to, resort to, hie to, betake oneself to.
Adj. traveling &c. v.; ambulatory, itinerant, peripatetic, roving,
rambling, gadding, discursive, vagrant, migratory, monadic;
circumforanean[obs3], circumforaneous[obs3]; noctivagrant[obs3],
mundivagrant; locomotive.
wayfaring, wayworn; travel-stained.
Adv. on foot, on horseback, on Shanks's mare; by the Marrowbone stage,
in transitu &c. 270[Lat]; en route &c. 282.
Int. come along!

#267. [Locomotion by water, or air.] Navigation. -- N. navigation;
aquatics; boating, yachting; ship &c. 273; oar, paddle, screw, sail,
canvas, aileron.
natation[obs3], swimming; fin, flipper, fish's tail.
aerostation[obs3], aerostatics[obs3], aeronautics; balloonery[obs3];
balloon &c. 273; ballooning, aviation, airmanship; flying, flight,
volitation[obs3]; wing, pinion; rocketry, space travel, astronautics,
orbital mechanics, orbiting.
voyage, sail, cruise, passage, circumnavigation, periplus[obs3];
headway, sternway, leeway; fairway.
mariner &c. 269.
flight, trip; shuttle, run, airlift.
V. sail; put to sea &c. (depart) 293; take ship, get under way; set
sail, spread sail, spread canvas; gather way, have way on; make sail, carry
sail; plow the waves, plow the deep, plow the main, plow the ocean; walk
the waters.
navigate, warp, luff[obs3], scud, boom, kedge; drift, course, cruise,
coast; hug the shore, hug the land; circumnavigate.
ply the oar, row, paddle, pull, scull, punt, steam.
swim, float; buffet the waves, ride the storm, skim, effleurer[Fr],
dive, wade.
fly, be wafted, hover, soar, flutter, jet, orbit, rocket; take wing,
take a flight, take off, ascend, blast off, land, alight; wing one's
flight, wing one's way; aviate; parachute, jump, glide.
Adj. sailing &c. v.; volant[obs3], aerostatic[obs3]; seafaring,
nautical, maritime, naval; seagoing, coasting; afloat; navigable; aerial,
aeronautic; grallatory[obs3].
Adv. under way, under sail, under canvas, under steam; on the wing, in
flight, in orbit.
Phr. bon voyage; "spread the thin oar and catch the driving gale"

<-- p. 80 -->

#268. Traveler. -- N. traveler, wayfarer, voyager, itinerant,
passenger, commuter.
tourist, excursionist, explorer, adventurer, mountaineer, hiker,
backpacker, Alpine Club; peregrinator[obs3], wanderer, rover, straggler,
rambler; bird of passage; gadabout, gadling[obs3]; vagrant,
scatterling[obs3], landloper[obs3], waifs and estrays[obs3], wastrel,
foundling; loafer; tramp, tramper; vagabond, nomad, Bohemian, gypsy,
Arab[obs3], Wandering Jew, Hadji, pilgrim, palmer; peripatetic;
somnambulist, emigrant, fugitive, refugee; beach comber, booly[obs3];
globegirdler[obs3], globetrotter; vagrant, hobo [U.S.], night walker,
sleep walker; noctambulist, runabout, straphanger, swagman, swagsman
[obs3][Aust.]; trecker[obs3], trekker, zingano[obs3], zingaro[obs3].
runner, courier; Mercury, Iris, Ariel[obs3], comet.
pedestrian, walker, foot passenger; cyclist; wheelman.
rider, horseman, equestrian, cavalier, jockey, roughrider, trainer,
driver, coachman, whip, Jehu, charioteer, postilion, postboy[obs3],
carter, wagoner, drayman[obs3]; cabman, cabdriver; voiturier[obs3],
vetturino[obs3], condottiere[obs3]; engine driver; stoker, fireman, guard;
chauffeur, conductor, engineer, gharry-wallah[obs3], gari-wala[obs3],
hackman, syce[obs3], truckman[obs3].
Phr. on the road

#269. Mariner. -- N. sailor, mariner, navigator; seaman, seafarer,
seafaring man; dock walloper*; tar, jack tar, salt, able seaman, A. B.;
man-of-war's man, bluejacket, galiongee[obs3], galionji[obs3], marine,
jolly, midshipman, middy; skipper; shipman[obs3], boatman, ferryman,
waterman[obs3], lighterman[obs3], bargeman, longshoreman; bargee[obs3],
gondolier; oar, oarsman; rower; boatswain, cockswain[obs3]; coxswain;
steersman, pilot; crew.
aerial navigator, aeronaut, balloonist, Icarus; aeroplanist[obs3],
airman, aviator, birdman, man-bird, wizard of the air, aviatrix, flier,
pilot, test pilot, glider pilot, bush pilot, navigator, flight attendant,
steward, stewardess, crew; astronaut, cosmonaut; parachutist, paratrooper.

#270. Transference. -- N. transfer, transference; translocation,
elocation|; displacement; metastasis, metathesis; removal; remotion[obs3],
amotion[obs3]; relegation; deportation, asportation[obs3]; extradition,
conveyance, draft, carrying, carriage; convection, conduction, contagion;
transfer &c. (of property) 783.
transit, transition; passage, ferry, gestation; portage,
porterage[obs3], carting, cartage; shoveling &c. v.; vection|, vecture|,
vectitation|; shipment, freight, wafture[obs3]; transmission, transport,
transportation, importation, exportation, transumption[obs3],
transplantation, translation; shifting, dodging; dispersion &c. 73;
transposition &c. (interchange) 148; traction &c. 285.
[Thing transferred] drift.
V. transfer, transmit, transport, transplace[obs3], transplant,
translocate; convey, carry, bear, fetch and carry; carry over, ferry over;
hand pass, forward; shift; conduct, convoy, bring, fetch, reach; tote
[U.S.]; port, import, export.
send, delegate, consign, relegate, turn over to, deliver; ship,
embark; waft; shunt; transpose &c. (interchange) 148; displace &c. 185;
throw &c. 284; drag &c. 285; mail, post.
shovel, ladle, decant, draft off, transfuse, infuse, siphon.
Adj. transferred &c. v.; drifted, movable; portable, portative[obs3];
mailable [U.S.]; contagious.
Adv. from hand to hand, from pillar to post.
on the way, by the way; on the road, on the wing, under way, in
transit, on course; as one goes; in transitu[Lat], en route, chemin
faisant[Fr], en passant[Fr], in mid progress, in mid course.

<-- p. 81 -->

#271. Carrier. -- N. carrier, porter, bearer, tranter|, conveyer;
cargador[obs3]; express, expressman; stevedore, coolie; conductor,
locomotive, motor.
beast, beast of burden, cattle, horse, nag, palfrey, Arab[obs3], blood
horse, thoroughbred, galloway[obs3], charger, courser, racer, hunter,
jument[obs3], pony, filly, colt, foal, barb, roan, jade, hack, bidet, pad,
cob, tit, punch, roadster, goer[obs3]; racehorse, pack horse, draft horse,
cart horse, dray horse, post horse; ketch; Shetland pony, shelty, sheltie;
garran[obs3], garron[obs3]; jennet, genet[obs3], bayard[obs3], mare,
stallion, gelding; bronco, broncho[obs3], cayuse [U.S.]; creature, critter
[rural U.S.]; cow pony, mustang, Narraganset, waler[obs3]; stud.
Pegasus, Bucephalus, Rocinante.
ass, donkey, jackass, mule, hinny; sumpter horse, sumpter mule; burro,
cuddy[obs3], ladino [obs3][U.S.]; reindeer; camel, dromedary, llama,
elephant; carrier pigeon.
[object used for carrying] pallet, brace, cart, dolley; support &c.
215; fork lift.
carriage &c. (vehicle) 272; ship &c. 273.
Adj. equine, asinine.

#272. Vehicle. -- N. vehicle, conveyance, carriage, caravan, van;
common carrier; wagon, waggon[obs3], wain, dray, cart, lorry.
truck, tram; cariole, carriole[obs3]; limber, tumbrel, pontoon;
barrow; wheel barrow, hand barrow; perambulator; Bath chair, wheel chair,
sedan chair; chaise; palankeen[obs3], palanquin; litter, brancard[obs3],
crate, hurdle, stretcher, ambulance; black Maria; conestoga wagon,
conestoga wain; jinrikisha, ricksha, brett[obs3], dearborn [obs3][U.S.],
dump cart, hack, hackery[obs3], jigger, kittereen[obs3], mailstate[obs3],
manomotor[obs3], rig, rockaway[obs3], prairie schooner [U.S.], shay, sloven
[Can.], team, tonga[obs3], wheel; hobbyhorse, go-cart; cycle; bicycle,
bike, two-wheeler; tricycle, velocipede, quadricycle[obs3].
equipage, turn-out; coach, chariot, phaeton, break, mail phaeton,
wagonette, drag, curricle[obs3], tilbury[obs3], whisky, landau, barouche,
victoria, brougham, clarence[obs3], calash, caleche[French], britzka[obs3],
araba[obs3], kibitka[obs3]; berlin; sulky, desobligeant[French], sociable,
vis-a-vis, dormeuse[Fr]; jaunting car, outside car; dandi[obs3];
doolie[obs3], dooly[obs3]; munchil[obs3], palki[obs3]; roller skates,
skate; runabout; ski; tonjon[obs3]; vettura[obs3].
post chaise, diligence, stage; stage coach, mail coach, hackney coach,
glass coach; stage wagon, car, omnibus, fly, cabriolet[obs3], cab, hansom,
shofle[obs3], four-wheeler, growler, droshki[obs3], drosky[obs3].
dogcart, trap, whitechapel, buggy, four-in-hand, unicorn, random,
tandem; shandredhan[obs3], char-a-bancs[French].
motor car, automobile, limousine, car, auto, jalopy, clunker, lemon,
flivver, coupe, sedan, two-door sedan, four-door sedan, luxury sedan;
wheels [coll.], sports car, roadster, gran turismo[It], jeep, four-wheel
drive vehicle, electric car, steamer; golf cart, electric wagon; taxicab,
cab, taxicoach[obs3], checker cab, yellow cab; station wagon, family car;
motorcycle, motor bike, side car; van, minivan, bus, minibus, microbus;
truck, wagon, pick-up wagon, pick-up, tractor-trailer, road train,
articulated vehicle; racing car, racer, hot rod, stock car, souped-up car..
bob, bobsled, bobsleigh[obs3]; cutter; double ripper, double runner
[U.S.]; jumper, sled, sledge, sleigh, toboggan.
train; accommodation train, passenger train, express trail, special
train, corridor train, parliamentary train, luggage train, freight train,
goods train; 1st class train, 2nd class train, 3rd class train, 1st class
carriage, 2nd class carriage, 3rd class carriage, 1st class compartment,
2nd class compartment, 3rd class compartment; rolling stock; horse box,
cattle truck; baggage car, express car, freight car, parlor car, dining
car, Pullman car, sleeping car, sleeper, dome car; surface car, tram car,
trolley car; box car, box wagon; horse car [U.S.]; bullet train, shinkansen
[Jap.], cannonball, the Wabash cannonball, lightning express; luggage van;
mail, mail car, mail van.
shovel, spool, spatula, ladle, hod, hoe; spade, spaddle[obs3],
loy[obs3]; spud; pitchfork; post hole digger.
[powered construction vehicles] tractor, steamshovel, backhoe, fork
lift, earth mover, dump truck, bulldozer, grader, caterpillar, trench
digger, steamroller; pile driver; crane, wrecking crane.

#273. Ship. -- N. ship, vessel, sail; craft, bottom.
navy, marine, fleet, flotilla; shipping.
man of war &c. (combatant) 726; transport, tender, storeship[obs3];
merchant ship, merchantman; packet, liner; whaler, slaver, collier,
coaster, lighter; fishing boat, pilot boat; trawler, hulk; yacht;
baggala[obs3]; floating hotel, floating palace; ocean greyhound.
ship, bark, barque, brig, snow, hermaphrodite brig; brigantine,
barkantine[obs3]; schooner; topsail schooner, for and aft schooner, three
masted schooner; chasse-maree[Fr]; sloop, cutter, corvette, clipper, foist,
yawl, dandy, ketch, smack, lugger, barge, hoy[obs3], cat, buss; sailer,
sailing vessel; windjammer; steamer, steamboat, steamship, liner, ocean
liner, cruisp, flap, dab, pat, thump, beat, blow, bang, slam, dash; punch,
thwack, whack; hit hard, strike hard; swap, batter, dowse|, baste; pelt,
patter, buffet, belabor; fetch one a blow; poke at, pip, ship of the line;
destroyer, cruiser, frigate; landing ship, LST[abbr]; aircraft carrier,
carrier, flattop[coll.], nuclear powered carrier; submarine, submersible,
atomic submarine.
boat, pinnace, launch; life boat, long boat, jolly boat, bum boat, fly
boat, cock boat, ferry oat, canal boat; swamp boat, ark, bully [Nfld.],
bateau battery[Can.], broadhorn[obs3], dory, droger[obs3], drogher;
dugout, durham boat, flatboat, galiot[obs3]; shallop[obs3], gig, funny,
skiff, dingy, scow, cockleshell, wherry, coble[obs3], punt, cog, kedge,
lerret[obs3]; eight oar, four oar, pair oar; randan[obs3]; outrigger;
float, raft, pontoon; prame[obs3]; iceboat, ice canoe, ice yacht.
catamaran, hydroplane, hovercraft, coracle, gondola, carvel[obs3],
caravel; felucca, caique[obs3], canoe, birch bark canoe, dugout canoe;
galley, galleyfoist[obs3]; bilander[obs3], dogger[obs3], hooker,
howker[obs3]; argosy, carack[obs3]; galliass[obs3], galleon; polacca[obs3],
polacre[obs3], tartane[obs3], junk, lorcha[obs3], praam[obs3], proa[obs3],
prahu[obs3], saick[obs3], sampan, xebec, dhow; dahabeah[obs3];
nuggah[obs3]; kayak, keel boat [U.S.], log canoe, pirogue;
quadrireme[obs3], trireme; stern-wheeler [U.S.]; wanigan[obs3], wangan
[obs3][U.S.], wharf boat.
balloon; airship, aeroplane; biplane, monoplane, triplane[obs3];
hydroplane; aerodrome; air balloon, pilot balloon, fire balloon, dirigible,
zeppelin; aerostat, Montgolfier; kite, parachute.
jet plane, rocket plane, jet liner, turbojet, prop-jet, propeller
plane; corporate plane, corporate jet, private plane, private aviation;
airline, common carrier; fighter, bomber, fighter-bomber, escort plane, spy
plane; supersonic aircraft, subsonic aircraft.
Adv. afloat, aboard; on board, on ship board; hard a lee, hard a port,
hard a starboard, hard a weather.

<-- p. 82 -->
2. Degrees of Motion

#274. Velocity. -- N. velocity, speed, celerity; swiftness &c. adj.;
rapidity, eagle speed; expedition &c. (activity) 682; pernicity|;
acceleration; haste &c. 684.
spurt, rush, dash, race, steeple chase; smart rate, lively rate, swift
rate &c. adj.; rattling rate, spanking rate, strapping rate, smart pace,
lively pace, swift pace, rattling pace, spanking pace, strapping pace;
round pace; flying, flight.
lightning, greased lightning, light, electricity, wind; cannon ball,
rocket, arrow, dart, hydrargyrum[Lat], quicksilver; telegraph, express
train; torrent.
eagle, antelope, courser, race horse, gazelle, greyhound, hare, doe,
squirrel, camel bird, chickaree[obs3], chipmunk, hackee [obs3][U.S.],
ostrich, scorcher*.
Mercury, Ariel[obs3], Camilla[obs3], Harlequin.
[Measurement of velocity] log, log line; speedometer, odometer,
tachometer, strobe, radar speed detector, radar trap, air speed gauge, wind
sock, wind speed meter; pedometer.
V. move quickly, trip, fisk|; speed, hie, hasten, post, spank,
scuttle; scud, scuddle[obs3]; scour, scour the plain; scamper; run like
mad, beat it; fly, race, run a race, cut away, shot, tear, whisk, zoom,
swoosh, sweep, skim, brush; cut along, bowl along, barrel along, barrel;
scorch, burn up the track; rush &c. (be violent) 173; dash on, dash off,
dash forward; bolt; trot, gallop, amble, troll, bound, flit, spring, dart,
boom; march in quick time, march in double time; ride hard, get over the
hurry &c. (hasten) 684; accelerate, put on; quicken; quicken one's
pace, mend one's pace; clap spurs to one's horse; make haste, make rapid
strides, make forced marches, make the best of one's way; put one's best
leg foremost, stir one's stumps, wing one's way, set off at a score; carry
sail, crowd sail; go off like a shot, go like a shot, go ahead, gain
ground; outstrip the wind, fly on the wings of the wind.
keep up with, keep pace with; outstrip &c. 303; outmarch[obs3].
Adj. fast, speedy, swift, rapid, quick, fleet; aliped[obs3]; nimble,
agile, expeditious; express; active &c. 682; flying, galloping &c. v.;
light footed, nimble footed; winged, eagle winged, mercurial, electric,
telegraphic; light-legged, light of heel; swift as an arrow &c. n.; quick
as lightning &c. n., quick as a thought.
Adv. swiftly &c. adj.; with speed &c. n.; apace; at a great rate, at
full speed, at railway speed; full drive, full gallop; posthaste, in full
sail, tantivy[obs3]; trippingly; instantaneously &c. 113.
under press of sail, under press of canvas, under press of sail and
steam; velis et remis[Lat], on eagle's wing, in double quick time; with
rapid strides, with giant strides; a pas de geant[Fr]; in seven league
boots; whip and spur; ventre a terre[Fr]; as fast as one's legs will carry
one, as fast as one's heels will carry one; as fast as one can lay legs to
the ground, at the top of one's speed; by leaps and bounds; with haste &c.
Phr. vires acquirit eundo[Lat]; "I'll put a girdle about the earth in
forty minutes" [M.N.D.]; "swifter than arrow from the Tartar's bow"
[M.N.D.]; go like a bat out of hell; tempus fugit[Lat].

#275. Slowness. -- N. slowness &c. adj.; languor &c. (inactivity) 683;
drawl; creeping &c. v., lentor[obs3].
retardation; slackening &c. v.; delay &c. (lateness) 133;
jog trot, dog trot; mincing steps; slow march, slow time.
slow goer[obs3], slow coach, slow back; lingerer, loiterer, sluggard,
tortoise, snail; poke* [U.S.]; dawdle &c. (inactive) 683.
V. move slowly &c. adv.; creep, crawl, lag, slug, drawl, linger,
loiter, saunter; plod, trudge, stump along, lumber; trail, drag; dawdle &c.
(be inactive) 683; grovel, worm one's way, steal along; job on, rub on,
bundle on; toddle, waddle, wabble[obs3], slug, traipse, slouch, shuffle,
halt, hobble, limp, caludicate|, shamble; flag, falter, trotter, stagger;
mince, step short; march in slow time, march in funeral procession; take
one's time; hang fire &c. (be late) 133.
retard, relax; slacken, check, moderate, rein in, curb; reef; strike
sail, shorten sail, take in sail; put on the drag, apply the brake; clip
the wings; reduce the speed; slacken speed, slacken one's pace; lose
Adj. slow, slack; tardy; dilatory &c. (inactive) 683; gentle, easy;
leisurely; deliberate, gradual; insensible, imperceptible; glacial,
languid, sluggish, slow paced, tardigrade|!, snail-like; creeping &c. v.;
Adv. slowly &c. adj.; leisurely; piano, adagio; largo, larghetto; at
half speed, under easy sail; at a foots pace, at a snail's pace, at a
funeral pace; in slow time, with mincing steps, with clipped wings; haud
passibus aequis [Lat][Vergil].
gradually &c. adj.; gradatim[Lat]; by degrees, by slow degrees, by
inches, by little and little; step by step, one step at a time; inch by
inch, bit by bit, little by little, seriatim; consecutively.
Phr. dum Roma deliberat Saguntum perit[Lat]; at a glacial pace.

<-- p. 83 -->
3. Motion conjoined with Force
<-- distinguish between impact, collision, and impulse imparted thereby?
12-13-90 -->

#276. Impulse. -- N. impulse, impulsion, impetus; momentum; push,
pulsion[obs3], thrust, shove, jog, jolt, brunt, booming, boost [U.S.],
throw; explosion &c. (violence) 173; propulsion &c. 284.
percussion, concussion, collision, occursion|, clash, encounter,
cannon, carambole[obs3], appulse[obs3], shock, crash, bump; impact; elan;
charge &c. (attack) 716; beating &c. (punishment) 972.
blow, dint, stroke, knock, tap, rap, slap, smack, pat, dab; fillip;
slam, bang; hit, whack, thwack; cuff &c. 972; squash, dowse, swap,
whap[obs3], punch, thump, pelt, kick, punce|, calcitration[obs3];
ruade[obs3]; arietation|; cut, thrust, lunge, yerk|; carom, carrom[obs3],
clip *, jab, plug*, sidewinder* [U.S.], sidewipe[obs3], sideswipe [U.S.].
hammer, sledge hammer, mall, maul, mallet, flail; ram, rammer[obs3];
battering ram, monkey, pile-driving engine, punch, bat; cant hook; cudgel
&c. (weapon) 727; ax &c. (sharp) 253.
[Science of mechanical forces] dynamics; seismometer, accelerometer,
earthquake detector.
V. give an impetus &c. n.; impel, push; start, give a start to, set
going; drive, urge, boom; thrust, prod, foin[Fr]; cant; elbow, shoulder,
jostle, justle[obs3], hustle, hurtle, shove, jog, jolt, encounter; run
against, bump against, butt against; knock one's head against, run one's
head against; impinge; boost [U.S.]; bunt, carom, clip y; fan, fan out;
jab, plug *.
strike, knock, hit, tap, rap, slap, flap, dab, pat, thump, beat, blow,
bang, slam, dash; punch, thwack, whack; hit hard, strike hard; swap,
batter, dowse|, baste; pelt, patter, buffet, belabor; fetch one a blow;
poke at, pink, lunge, yerk[obs3]; kick, calcitrate[obs3]; butt, strike at
&c. (attack) 716; whip *c. (punish) 972.
come into a collision, enter into collision; collide; sideswipe; foul;
fall foul of, run foul of; telescope.
throw &c. (propel) 284.
Adj. impelling &c. v.; impulsive, impellent[obs3]; booming; dynamic,
dynamical; impelled &c. v.
Phr. "a hit, a very palpable hit" [Hamlet].

#277. Recoil. -- N. recoil; reaction, retroaction; revulsion; bounce,
rebound, ricochet; repercussion, recalcitration[obs3]; kick,
contrecoup[Fr]; springing back &c. v.; elasticity &c. 325; reflection,
reflexion[Brit], reflex, reflux; reverberation &c. (resonance) 408; rebuff,
repulse; return.
ducks and drakes; boomerang; spring, reactionist[obs3].
elastic collision, coefficient of restitution.
V. recoil, react; spring back, fly back, bounce back, bound back;
rebound, reverberate, repercuss[obs3], recalcitrate[obs3]; echo, ricochet.
Adj. recoiling &c. v.; refluent[obs3], repercussive, recalcitrant,
reactionary; retroactive.
Adv. on the rebound, on the recoil &c. n.
Phr. for every action there is a reaction equal in force and opposite
in direction [Newton].

<-- p. 84 -->
4. Motion with reference to Direction

#278. Direction. -- N. direction, bearing, course, vector; set, drift,
tenor; tendency &c. 176; incidence; bending, trending &c. v.; dip, tack,
aim, collimation; steering steerage.
point of the compass, cardinal points; North East, South, West; N by
E, ENE, NE by N, NE, &c; rhumb[obs3], azimuth, line of collimation.
line, path, road, range, quarter, line of march; alignment,
allignment[obs3]; air line, beeline; straight shoot.
V. tend towards, bend towards, point towards; conduct to, go to; point
to, point at; bend, trend, verge, incline, dip, determine.
steer for, steer towards, make for, make towards; aim at, level at;
take aim; keep a course, hold a course; be bound for; bend one's steps
towards; direct one's course, steer one's course, bend one's course, shape
one's course; align one's march, allign one's march[obs3]; to straight, go
straight to the point; march on, march on a point.
ascertain one's direction &c. n.; s'orienter[French], see which way
the wind blows; box the compass; take the air line.
Adj. directed &c. v. directed towards; pointing towards &c. v.; bound
for; aligned, with alligned with[obs3]; direct, straight; undeviating,
unswerving; straightforward; North, Northern, Northerly, &c. n.
Adv. towards; on the road, on the high road to; en avant; versus, to;
hither, thither, whither; directly; straight as an arrow, forwards as an
arrow; point blank; in a bee line to, in a direct line to, as the crow
flies, in a straight line to, in a bee line for, in a direct line for, in a
straight line for, in a bee line with, in a direct line with, in a straight
line with; in a line with; full tilt at, as the crow flies.
before the wind, near the wind, close to the wind, against the wind;
windwards, in the wind's eye.
through, via, by way of; in all directions, in all manner of ways;
quaquaversum[Lat], from the four winds.
Phr. the shortest distance between two points is a straight line.

#279. Deviation. -- N. deviation; swerving &c. v.; obliquation|, warp,
refraction; flection[obs3], flexion; sweep; deflection, deflexure[obs3];
diversion, digression, depart from, aberration; divergence &c. 291;
zigzag; detour &c. (circuit) 629; divagation.
[Desultory motion] wandering &c. v.; vagrancy, evagation[obs3];
bypaths and crooked ways; byroad.
[Motion sideways, oblique motion] sidling &c. v.; knight's move at
V. alter one's course, deviate, depart from, turn, trend; bend, curve
&c. 245; swerve, heel, bear off; gybe[obs3], wear.
intervert[obs3]; deflect; divert, divert from its course; put on a new
scent, shift, shunt, draw aside, crook, warp.
stray, straggle; sidle; diverge &c. 291; tralineate|; digress, wander;
wind, twist, meander; veer, tack; divagate; sidetrack; turn aside, turn a
corner, turn away from; wheel, steer clear of; ramble, rove, drift; go
astray, go adrift; yaw, dodge; step aside, ease off, make way for, shy.
fly off at a tangent; glance off; wheel about, face about; turn to the
right about, face to the right about; waddle &c. (oscillate) 314; go out of
one's way &c. (perform a circuit) 629; lose one's way.
Adj. deviating &c. v.; aberrant, errant; excursive, discursive;
devious, desultory, loose; rambling; stray, erratic, vagrant, undirected,
circuitous, indirect, zigzag; crab-like.
Adv. astray from, round about, wide of the mark; to the right about;
all manner of ways; circuitously &c. 629.
obliquely, sideling, like the move of the knight on a chessboard.

#280. [Going before.] Precession. -- N. precession, leading, heading;
precedence &c. 62; priority &c. 116; the lead, le pas; van &c. (front) 234;
precursor &c. 64.
V. go before, go ahead, go in the van, go in advance; precede,
forerun; usher in, introduce, herald, head, take the lead; lead the way,
lead the dance; get the start, have the start; steal a march; get before,
get ahead, get in front of; outstrip &c. 303; take precedence &c. (first in
order) 62.
Adj. leading, precedent &c. v.
Adv. in advance, before, ahead, in the van, in the lead; foremost,
headmost[obs3]; in front; at the head, out in front; way out in front, far
Phr. seniores priores[Lat], ahead of his time.

#281. [Going after.] Sequence. -- N. sequence; coming after &c.
(order) 63; (time) 117; following pursuit &c. 622.
follower, attendant, satellite, shadow, dangler, train.
V. follow; pursue &c. 622; go after, fly after.
attend, beset, dance attendance on, dog; tread in the steps of, tread
close upon; be in the wake of, be in the trail of, be in the rear of, go in
the wake of, go in the trail of, go in the rear of, follow in the wake of,
follow in the trail of, follow in the rear of; follow as a shadow, hang on
the skirts of; tread on the heels of, follow on the heels of; camp on the
Adj. subsequent, next, succeeding; following &c. v..
Adv. behind; in the rear &c. 235, in the train of, in the wake of;
after &c. (order) 63, (time) 117.

<-- p. 85 -->

#282. [Motion forward; progressive motion.] Progression. -- N.
progress, progression, progressiveness; advancing &c. v.; advance,
advancement; ongoing; flood, tide, headway; march &c. 266; rise;
improvement &c. 658.
V. advance; proceed, progress; get on, get along, get over the ground;
gain ground; forge ahead; jog on, rub on, wag on; go with the stream; keep
one's course, hold on one's course; go on, move on, come one, get on, pass
on, push on, press on, go forward, move forward, come forward, get forward,
pass forward, push forward, press forward, go forwards, move forwards, come
forwards, get forwards, pass forwards, push forwards, press forwards, go
ahead, move ahead, come ahead, get ahead, pass ahead, push ahead, press
ahead; make one's way, work one's way, carve one's way, push one's way,
force one's way, edge one's way, elbow one's way; make progress, make head,
make way, make headway, make advances, make strides, make rapid strides &c.
(velocity) 274; go ahead, shoot ahead; distance; make up leeway.
Adj. advancing &c. v.; progressive, profluent[obs3]; advanced.
Adv. forward, onward; forth, on, ahead, under way, en route for, on
one's way, on the way, on the road, on the high road, on the road to; in
progress; in mid progress; in transitu &c. 270[Lat].
Phr. vestigia nulla retrorsum[Lat]; "westward the course of empire
takes its way" [Berkeley].

#283. [Motion backwards.] Regression. -- N. regress, regression;
retrocession[obs3], retrogression, retrograduation[obs3], retroaction;
reculade[obs3]; retreat, withdrawal, retirement, remigration[obs3];
recession &c. (motion from) 287; recess; crab-like motion.
refluence[obs3], reflux; backwater, regurgitation, ebb, return;
resilience reflection, reflexion (recoil) 277[Brit]; flip-flop, volte-
counter motion, retrograde motion, backward movement, motion in
reverse, counter movement, counter march; veering, tergiversation,
recidivation|, backsliding, fall; deterioration &c. 659; recidivism,
reversal, relapse, turning point &c.(reversion) 145.
V. recede, regrade, return, revert, retreat, retire; retrograde,
retrocede; back out; back down; balk; crawfish* [U.S.], crawl*; withdraw;
rebound &c. 277; go back, come back, turn back, hark back, draw back, fall
back, get back, put back, run back; lose ground; fall astern, drop astern;
backwater, put about; backtrack, take the back track; veer round; double,
wheel, countermarch; ebb, regurgitate; jib, shrink, shy.
turn tail, turn round, turn upon one's heel, turn one's back upon;
retrace one's steps, dance the back step; sound a retreat, beat a retreat;
go home.
Adj. receding &c. v.; retrograde, retrogressive; regressive,
refluent[obs3], reflex, recidivous, resilient; crab-like; balky;
reactionary &c. 277.
Adv. back, backwards; reflexively, to the right about; a reculons[Fr],
a rebours[Fr].
Phr. revenons a nos moutons[Fr], as you were.

#284. [Motion given to an object situated in front.] Propulsion. -- N.
propulsion, projection; propelment[obs3]; vis a tergo[Lat: force from
behind]; push, shove &c. (impulse) 276; ejaculate; ejection &c. 297; throw,
fling, toss, shot, discharge, shy; launch, release.
[Science of propulsion] projectiles, ballistics, archery.
[devices to give propulsion] propeller, screw, twin screws, turbine,
jet engine.
[objects propelled] missile, projectile, ball, discus, quoit,
brickbat, shot;
[weapons which propel] arrow, gun, ballista &c. (arms) 727[obs3].
[preparation for propulsion] countdown, windup.
shooter; shot; archer, toxophilite[obs3]; bowman, rifleman, marksman;
good shot, crack shot; sharpshooter &c. (combatant) 726.
V. propel, project, throw, fling, cast, pitch, chuck, toss, jerk,
heave, shy, hurl; flirt, fillip.
dart, lance, tilt; ejaculate, jaculate[obs3]; fulminate, bolt, drive,
sling, pitchfork.
send; send off, let off, fire off; discharge, shoot; launch, release,
send forth, let fly; put in orbit, send into orbit, launch into orbit dash.
put in motion, set in motion; set agoing[obs3], start; give a start,
give an impulse to; impel &c. 276; trundle &c. (set in rotation) 312; expel
&c. 297.
carry one off one's legs; put to flight.
Adj. propelled &c. v.; propelling &c. v..; propulsive, projectile.

#285. [Motion given to an object situated behind.] Traction. -- N.
traction; drawing &c. v.; draught, pull, haul; rake; "a long pull a strong
pull and a pull all together"; towage[obs3], haulage.
V. draw, pull, haul, lug, rake, drag, tug, tow, trail, train; take in
wrench, jerk, twitch, touse|; yank [U.S.].
Adj. drawing &c. v.; tractile[obs3], tractive.

<-- p. 86 -->

#286. [Motion towards.] Approach. -- N. approach, approximation,
appropinquation[obs3]; access; appulse[obs3]; afflux[obs3],
affluxion[obs3]; advent &c. (approach of time) 121; pursuit &c. 622.
V. approach, approximate, appropinquate[obs3]; near; get near, go
near, draw near; come to close quarters, come near; move towards, set in
towards; drift; make up to; gain upon; pursue &c. 622; tread on the heels
of; bear up; make the land; hug the shore, hug the land.
Adj. approaching &c. v.; approximative[obs3]; affluent; impending,
imminent &c. (destined) 152.
Adv. on the road.
Int. come hither! approach! here! come! come near! forward!

#287. [Motion from.] Recession. -- N. recession, retirement,
withdrawal; retreat; retrocession &c. 283[obs3]; departure, &c. 293; recoil
&c. 277; flight &c. (avoidance) 623.
V. recede, go, move back, move from, retire; withdraw, shrink, back
off; come away, move away, back away, go away, get away, drift away; depart
&c. 293; retreat &c. 283; move off, stand off, sheer off; fall back, stand
aside; run away &c. (avoid) 623.
remove, shunt, distance.
Adj. receding &c. v.
Phr. distance oneself from a person.

#288. [Motion towards, actively; force causing to draw closer.]
Attraction. -- N. attraction, attractiveness; attractivity[obs3]; drawing
to, pulling towards, adduction[obs3].
electrical attraction, electricity, static electricity, static, static
cling; magnetism, magnetic attraction; gravity, attraction of gravitation.
[objects which attract by physical force] lodestone, loadstone,
lodestar, loadstar[obs3]; magnet, permanent magnet, siderite, magnetite;
electromagnet; magnetic coil, voice coil; magnetic dipole; motor coil,
rotor, stator.
electrical charge; positive charge, negative charge.
magnetic pole; north pole, south pole; magnetic monopole.
V. attract, draw; draw towards, pull towards, drag towards; adduce.
Adj. attracting &c. v.; attrahent[obs3], attractive, adducent[obs3],
Phr. ubi mel ibi apes [Latin][Plautus].

#289. [Motion from, actively; force driving apart.] Repulsion. -- N.
repulsion; driving from &c. v.; repulse, abduction.
magnetic repulsion, magnetic levitation; antigravity.
V. repel, push from, drive apart, drive from &c. 276; chase, dispel;
retrude[obs3]; abduce[obs3], abduct; send away; repulse.
keep at arm's length, turn one's back upon, give the cold shoulder;
send off, send away with a flea in one's ear.
Adj. repelling &c. v.; repellent, repulsive; abducent[obs3],
Phr. like charges repel; opposite charges attract; like poles repel,
opposite poles attract.

#290. [Motion nearer to.] Convergence. -- N. convergence, confluence,
concourse, conflux[obs3], congress, concurrence, concentration;
convergency; appulse[obs3], meeting; corradiation[obs3].
assemblage &c. 72; resort &c. (focus) 74; asymptote.
V. converge, concur, come together, unite, meet, fall in with; close
with, close in upon; center round, center in; enter in; pour in.
gather together, unite, concentrate, bring into a focus.
Adj. converging &c. v.; convergent, confluent, concurrent;
centripetal; asymptotical, asymptotic; confluxible[obs3].

#291. [Motion further off.] Divergence. -- N. divergence,
divergency[obs3]; divarication, ramification, forking; radiation;
separation &c. (disjunction) 44; dispersion &c. 73; deviation &c. 279;
V. diverge, divaricate, radiate; ramify; branch off, glance off, file
off; fly off, fly off at a tangent; spread, scatter, disperse &c. 73;
deviate &c. 279; part &c. (separate) 44.
Adj. diverging &c. v.; divergent, radiant, centrifugal; aberrant.

#292. [Terminal motion at.] Arrival. -- N. arrival, advent; landing;
debarkation, disembarkation; reception, welcome, vin d'honneur[Fr].
home, goal, goalpost; landing place, landing stage; bunder[obs3];
resting place; destination, harbor, haven, port, airport, spaceport;
terminus, halting place, halting ground, landing strip, runway, terminal;
journey's end; anchorage &c. (refuge) 666.
return, remigration[obs3]; meeting; rencounter[obs3], encounter.
completion &c. 729.
recursion[Math, Comp].
V. arrive; get to, come to; come; reach, attain; come up with, come up
to; overtake, make, fetch; complete &c. 729; join, rejoin.
light, alight, dismount; land, go ashore; debark, disembark; put in,
put into; visit, cast anchor, pitch one's tent; sit down &c. (be located)
184; get to one's journey's end; make the land; be in at the death; come
back, get back, come home, get home; return; come in &c. (ingress) 294;
make one's appearance &c. (appear) 446; drop in; detrain, deplane; outspan;
come to hand; come at, come across; hit; come upon, light upon, pop
upon, bounce upon, plump upon, burst upon, pitch upon; meet; encounter,
rencounter[obs3]; come in contact.
Adj. arriving &c. v.; homeward bound.
Adv. here, hither.
Int. welcome! hail! all Hail! good-day, good morrow!
Phr. any port in a storm.

<-- p. 87 -->

#293. [Initial motion from.] Departure. -- N. departure,
decession[obs3], decampment; embarkation; outset, start; removal; exit &c.
(egress) 295; exodus, hejira, flight.
leave taking, valediction, adieu, farewell, goodbye, auf
wiedersehen[Ger], sayonara, dosvidanya[Russ], ciao, aloha, hasta la
vista[Sp]; stirrup cup; valedictorian.
starting point, starting post; point of departure, point of
embarkation, place of departure, place of embarkation; port of embarkation;
airport, take-off point, taxiing runway, runway, launching pad, spaceport.
V. depart; go away; take one's departure, set out; set off, march off,
put off, start off, be off, move off, get off, whip off, pack off, go off,
take oneself off; start, issue, march out, debouch; go forth, sally forth;
sally, set forward; be gone; hail from.
leave a place, quit, vacate, evacuate, abandon; go off the stage, make
one's exit; retire, withdraw, remove; vamoose*, vamose* [obs3][U.S.]; go
one's way, go along, go from home; take flight, take wing; spring, fly,
flit, wing one's flight; fly away, whip away; embark; go on board, go
aboard; set sail' put to sea, go to sea; sail, take ship; hoist blue Peter;
get under way, weigh anchor; strike tents, decamp; walk one's chalks, cut
one's stick; take leave; say good bye, bid goodbye &c. n.; disappear &c.
449; abscond &c. (avoid) 623; entrain; inspan[obs3].
Adj. departing &c. v.; valedictory; outward bound.
Adv. whence, hence, thence; with a foot in the stirrup; on the wing,
on the move.
Int. begone! &c. (ejection) 297; farewell! adieu! goodbye! good day!
au revoir[Fr]! fare you well! God bless you! God speed! all aboard! auf
wiedersehen[Ger]! au plaisir de vous revoir[Fr]! bon voyage! gluckliche
Reise[Ger]! vive valeque[Fr]!

#294. [Motion into.] Ingress. -- N. ingress; entrance, entry;
introgression; influx, intrusion, inroad, incursion, invasion, irruption;
ingression; penetration, interpenetration; illapse[obs3], import,
infiltration; immigration; admission &c. (reception) 296; insinuation &c.
(interjacence) 228[obs3]; insertion &c. 300.
inlet; way in; mouth, door, &c. (opening) 260; barway[obs3]; path &c.
(way) 627; conduit &c. 350; immigrant.
V. have the entree; enter; go into, go in, come into, come in, pour
into, pour in, flow into, flow in, creep into, creep in, slip into, slip
in, pop into, pop in, break into, break in, burst into, burst in; set foot
on; ingress; burst in upon, break in upon; invade, intrude; insinuate
itself; interpenetrate, penetrate; infiltrate; find one's way into, wriggle
into, worm oneself into.
give entrance to &c. (receive) 296; insert &c. 300.
Adj. incoming.

#295. [Motion out of.] Egress. -- N. egress, exit, issue; emersion,
emergence; outbreak, outburst; eruption, proruption[obs3]; emanation;
egression; evacuation; exudation, transudation; extravasation[Med],
perspiration, sweating, leakage, percolation, distillation, oozing; gush
&c. (water in motion) 348; outpour, outpouring; effluence, effusion;
effluxion[obs3], drain; dribbling &c. v.; defluxion[obs3]; drainage;
outcome, output; discharge &c. (excretion) 299.
export, expatriation; emigration, remigration[obs3]; debouch,
debouche; emunctory[obs3]; exodus &c. (departure) 293; emigrant.
outlet, vent, spout, tap, sluice, floodgate; pore; vomitory,
outgate[obs3], sally port; way out; mouth, door &c. (opening) 260; path &c.
(way) 627; conduit &c. 350; airpipe &c. 351[obs3].
V. emerge, emanate, issue; egress; go out of, come out of, move out
of, pass out of, pour out of, flow out of; pass out of, evacuate.
exude, transude; leak, run through, out through; percolate,
transcolate|; egurgitate[obs3]; strain, distill; perspire, sweat, drain,
ooze; filter, filtrate; dribble, gush, spout, flow out; well, well out;
pour, trickle, &c. (water in motion) 348; effuse, extravasate[Med],
disembogue[obs3], discharge itself, debouch; come forth, break forth; burst
out, burst through; find vent; escape &c. 671.
Adj. effused &c. v.; outgoing.

<-- p. 88 -->

#296. [Motion into, actively.] Reception. -- N. reception; admission,
admittance, entree, importation; introduction, intromission;
immission[obs3], ingestion, imbibation[obs3], introception[obs3],
absorption, ingurgitation[obs3], inhalation; suction, sucking; eating,
drinking &c. (food) 298; insertion &c. 300; interjection &c. 228; introit.
V. give entrance to, give admittance to, give the entree; introduce,
intromit; usher, admit, receive, import, bring in, open the door to, throw
in, ingest, absorb, imbibe, inhale, breathe in; let in, take in, suck in,
draw in; readmit, resorb, reabsorb; snuff up, swallow, ingurgitate[obs3];
engulf, engorge; gulp; eat, drink &c. (food) 298.
Adj. admitting &c. v., admitted &c. v.; admissable; absorbent.

#297. [Motion out of, actively] Ejection. -- N. ejection, emission,
effusion, rejection, expulsion, exportation, eviction, extrusion,
trajection[obs3]; discharge.
emesis, vomiting, vomition[obs3].
egestion[obs3], evacuation; ructation[obs3], eructation; bloodletting,
venesection[Med], phlebotomy, paracentesis[obs3]; expuition, exspuition;
tapping, drainage; clearance, clearage[obs3].
deportation; banishment &c. (punishment ) 972; rouge's march;
relegation, extradition; dislodgment.
bouncer [U.S.], chucker-out*[obs3].
[material vomited] vomit, vomitus[Med], puke, barf[coll].
V. give exit, give vent to; let out, give out, pour out, squeeze out,
send out; dispatch, despatch; exhale, excern|, excrete; embogue[obs3];
secrete, secern[obs3]; extravasate[Med], shed, void, evacuation; emit; open
the sluices, open the floodgates; turn on the tap; extrude, detrude[obs3];
effuse, spend, expend; pour forth; squirt, spirt[obs3], spurt, spill, slop;
perspire &c. (exude) 295; breathe, blow &c. (wind) 349.
tap, draw off; bale out, lade out; let blood, broach.
eject, reject; expel, discard; cut, send to coventry, boycott;
chasser[Fr]; banish &c. (punish) 972; bounce * [U.S.]; fire *, fire out *;
throw &c. 284 throw out, throw up, throw off, throw away, throw aside; push
&c. 276 throw out, throw off, throw away, throw aside; shovel out, shovel
away, sweep out, sweep away; brush off, brush away, whisk off, whisk away,
turn off, turn away, send off, send away; discharge; send adrift, turn
adrift, cast adrift; turn out, bundle out; throw overboard; give the sack
to; send packing, send about one's business, send to the right about;
strike off the roll &c. (abrogate) 756; turn out neck and heels, turn out
head and shoulders, turn out neck and crop; pack off; send away with a flea
in the ear; send to Jericho; bow out, show the door to.
turn out of doors, turn out of house and home; evict, oust; unhouse,
unkennel; dislodge; unpeople[obs3], dispeople[obs3]; depopulate; relegate,
empty; drain to the dregs; sweep off; clear off, clear out, clear
away; suck, draw off; clean out, make a clean sweep of, clear decks, purge.
embowel[obs3], disbowel[obs3], disembowel; eviscerate, gut; unearth,
root out, root up; averuncate|; weed out, get out; eliminate, get rid of,
do away with, shake off; exenterate[obs3].
vomit, throw up, regurgitate, spew, puke, keck[obs3], retch, heave,
upchuck, chuck up, barf; belch out; cast up, bring up, be sick, get sick,
worship the porcelain god.
disgorge; expectorate, clear the throat, hawk, spit, sputter,
splutter, slobber, drivel, slaver, slabber[obs3]; eructate; drool.
unpack, unlade, unload, unship, offload; break bulk; dump.
be let out.
spew forth, erupt, ooze &c. (emerge) 295.
Adj. emitting, emitted, &c. v.
Int. begone! get you gone! get away, go away, get along, go along, get
along with you, go along with you! go your way! away with! off with you!
get the hell out of here![vulg.], go about your business! be off!
avaunt[obs3]! aroynt[obs3]! allez-vous-en[Fr]! jao[obs3]! va-t'en[Fr]!

<-- p. 89 -->

#298. [Eating.] Food. -- N. eating &c. v.; deglutition, gulp,
epulation[obs3], mastication, manducation[obs3], rumination; gluttony &c.
[eating specific foods] hippophagy[obs3], ichthyophagy[obs3].
[CAUSED BY: appetite &c. 865].
mouth, jaws, mandible, mazard[obs3], chops.
drinking &c. v.; potation, draught, libation; carousal &c. (amusement)
840; drunkenness &c. 959.
food, pabulum; aliment, nourishment, nutriment; sustenance,
sustentation, sustention; nurture, subsistence, provender, corn, feed,
fodder, provision, ration, keep, commons, board; commissariat &c.
(provision) 637; prey, forage, pasture, pasturage; fare, cheer; diet,
dietary; regimen; belly timber, staff of life; bread, bread and cheese.
comestibles, eatables, victuals, edibles, ingesta; grub, grubstake,
prog[obs3], meat; bread, bread stuffs; cerealia[obs3]; cereals; viands,
cates[obs3], delicacy, dainty, creature comforts, contents of the larder,
fleshpots; festal board; ambrosia; good cheer, good living.
beef, bisquit[obs3], bun; cornstarch [U.S.]; cookie, cooky [U.S.];
cracker, doughnut; fatling[obs3]; hardtack, hoecake [U.S.], hominy [U.S.];
mutton, pilot bread; pork; roti[obs3], rusk, ship biscuit; veal; joint,
piece de resistance[Fr], roast and boiled; remove, entremet[obs3];
releve[Fr], hash, rechauffe[Fr], stew, ragout, fricassee, mince; pottage,
potage[obs3], broth, soup, consomme, puree, spoonmeat[obs3]; pie, pasty,
volauvent[obs3]; pudding, omelet; pastry; sweets &c. 296; kickshaws[obs3];
condiment &c. 393.
appetizer, hors d'oeuvre[Fr].
main course, entree.
alligator pear, apple &c., apple slump; artichoke; ashcake[obs3],
griddlecake, pancake, flapjack; atole[obs3], avocado, banana, beche de
mer[Fr], barbecue, beefsteak; beet root; blackberry, blancmange, bloater,
bouilli[obs3], bouillon, breadfruit, chop suey [U.S.]; chowder,
chupatty[obs3], clam, compote, damper, fish, frumenty[obs3], grapes,
hasty pudding, ice cream, lettuce, mango, mangosteen, mince pie, oatmeal,
oyster, pineapple, porridge, porterhouse steak, salmis[obs3], sauerkraut,
sea slug, sturgeon ("Albany beef"), succotash [U.S.], supawn [obs3][U.S.],
trepang[obs3], vanilla, waffle, walnut.
table, cuisine, bill of fare, menu, table d'hote[Fr], ordinary,
meal, repast, feed, spread; mess; dish, plate, course; regale;
regalement[obs3], refreshment, entertainment; refection, collation, picnic,
feast, banquet, junket; breakfast; lunch, luncheon; dejeuner[Fr],
bever[obs3], tiffin[obs3], dinner, supper, snack, junk food, fast food,
whet, bait, dessert; potluck, table d'hote[Fr], dejeuner a la
fourchette[Fr]; hearty meal, square meal, substantial meal, full meal;
blowout*; light refreshment; bara[obs3], chotahazri[obs3]; bara
mouthful, bolus, gobbet[obs3], morsel, sop, sippet[obs3].
drink, beverage, liquor, broth, soup; potion, dram, draught, drench,
swill*; nip, sip, sup, gulp.
wine, spirits, liqueur, beer, ale, malt liquor, Sir John Barleycorn,
stingo[obs3], heavy wet; grog, toddy, flip, purl, punch, negus[obs3], cup,
bishop, wassail; gin &c. (intoxicating liquor) 959; coffee, chocolate,
cocoa, tea, the cup that cheers but not inebriates; bock beer, lager beer,
Pilsener beer, schenck beer[obs3]; Brazil tea, cider, claret, ice water,
mate, mint julep [U.S.]; near beer, 3.2 beer, non-alcoholic beverage.
eating house &c. 189.
[person who eats] diner; hippophage; glutton &c. 957.
V. eat, feed, fare, devour, swallow, take; gulp, bolt, snap; fall to;
despatch, dispatch; discuss; take down, get down, gulp down; lay in, tuck
in*; lick, pick, peck; gormandize &c. 957; bite, champ, munch,
cranch[obs3], craunch[obs3], crunch, chew, masticate, nibble, gnaw, mumble.
live on; feed upon, batten upon, fatten upon, feast upon; browse,
graze, crop, regale; carouse &c. (make merry) 840; eat heartily, do
justice to, play a good knife and fork, banquet.
break bread, break one's fast; breakfast, lunch, dine, take tea, sup.
drink in, drink up, drink one's fill; quaff, sip, sup; suck, suck up;
lap; swig; swill*, chugalug[slang], tipple &c. (be drunken) 959; empty
one's glass, drain the cup; toss off, toss one's glass; wash down, crack a
bottle, wet one's whistle.
purvey &c. 637.
Adj. eatable, edible, esculent[obs3], comestible, alimentary; cereal,
cibarious[obs3]; dietetic; culinary; nutritive, nutritious; gastric;
succulent; potable, potulent|; bibulous.
omnivorous, carnivorous, herbivorous, granivorous[obs3],
graminivorous, phytivorous[obs3]; ichthyivorous[obs3]; omophagic[obs3],
omophagous[obs3]; pantophagous[obs3], phytophagous[obs3], xylophagous
Phr[Biol]. "across the walnuts and the wine" [Tennyson]; "blessed
hour of our dinners!" [O. Meredith]; "now good digestion wait on appetite,
and health on both!" [Macbeth]; "who can cloy the hungry edge of appetite?"
[Richard II]

<-- p. 90 -->

#299. Excretion -- N. excretion, discharge, emanation; exhalation,
exudation, extrusion, secretion, effusion, extravasation[Med],
ecchymosis[Med]; evacuation, dejection, faeces, excrement, shit, stools,
crap[vulg.]; bloody flux; cacation[obs3]; coeliac-flux, coeliac-passion;
dysentery; perspiration, sweat; subation[obs3], exudation; diaphoresis;
sewage; eccrinology[Med].
saliva, spittle, rheum; ptyalism[obs3], salivation, catarrh;
diarrhoea; ejecta, egesta[Biol], sputa; excreta; lava; exuviae &c.
(uncleanness) 653[Lat].
hemorrhage, bleeding; outpouring &c. (egress) 295.
V. excrete &c. (eject) 297; emanate &c. (come out) 295.

#300. [Forcible ingress.] Insertion. -- N. insertion, implantation,
introduction; insinuation &c. (intervention) 228; planting, &c. v.;
injection, inoculation, importation, infusion; forcible ingress &c. 294;
immersion; submersion, submergence, dip, plunge; bath &c. (water), 337;
interment &c. 363.
clyster[Med], enema, glyster[obs3], lavage, lavement[obs3].
V. insert; introduce, intromit; put into, run into; import; inject;
interject &c. 298; infuse, instill, inoculate, impregnate, imbue, imbrue.
graft, ingraft[obs3], bud, plant, implant; dovetail.
obtrude; thrust in, stick in, ram in, stuff in, tuck in, press, in,
drive in, pop in, whip in, drop in, put in; impact; empierce| &c. (make a
hole) 260[obs3].
imbed; immerse, immerge, merge; bathe, soak &c. (water) 337; dip,
plunge &c. 310.
bury &c. (inter) 363.
insert &c itself; plunge in medias res.
Adj. inserted &c. v.

#301. [Forcible egress.] Extraction. -- N. extraction; extracting &c.
v.; removal, elimination, extrication, eradication, evolution.
evulsion[obs3], avulsion[obs3]; wrench; expression, squeezing;
extirpation, extermination; ejection &c. 297; export &c. (egress) 295.
extractor, corkscrew, forceps, pliers.
V. extract, draw; take out, draw out, pull out, tear out, pluck out,
pick out, get out; wring from, wrench; extort; root up, weed up, grub up,
rake up, root out, weed out, grub out, rake out; eradicate; pull up by the
roots, pluck up by the roots; averruncate|; unroot[obs3]; uproot, pull up,
extirpate, dredge.
remove; educe, elicit; evolve, extricate; eliminate &c. (eject) 297;
eviscerate &c. 297.
express, squeeze out, press out.
Adj. extracted &c. v.

#302. [Motion through.] Passage. -- N. passage, transmission;
permeation; penetration, interpenetration; transudation, infiltration;
endosmose exosmose[obs3]; endosmosis[Chem]; intercurrence[obs3]; ingress
&c. 294; egress &c. 295; path &c. 627; conduit &c. 350; opening &c. 260;
journey &c. 266; voyage &c. 267.
V. pass, pass through; perforate &c. (hole) 260; penetrate, permeate,
thread, thrid[obs3], enfilade; go through, go across; go over, pass over;
cut across; ford, cross; pass and repass, work; make one's way, thread
one's way, worm one's way, force one's way; make a passage form a passage;
cut one's way through; find its way, find its vent; transmit, make way,
clear the course; traverse, go over the ground.
Adj. passing &c. v.; intercurrent[obs3]; endosmosmic[obs3],
Adv. en passant &c. (transit) 270[Fr].

<-- p. 91 -->

#303. [Motion beyond] Transcursion -- N. transcursion|,
transiliency[obs3], transgression; trespass; encroachment, infringement;
extravagation|, transcendence; redundancy &c. 641.
V. transgress, surpass, pass; go beyond, go by; show in front, come to
the front; shoot ahead of; steal a march upon, steal a gain upon.
overstep, overpass, overreach, overgo[obs3], override, overleap,
overjump[obs3], overskip[obs3], overlap, overshoot the mark; outstrip,
outleap, outjump, outgo, outstep[obs3], outrun, outride, outrival, outdo;
beat, beat hollow; distance; leave in the lurch, leave in the rear; throw
into the shade; exceed, transcend, surmount; soar &c. (rise) 305.
encroach, trespass, infringe, trench upon, entrench on, intrench
on[obs3]; strain; stretch a point, strain a point; cross the Rubicon.
Adj. surpassing &c. v.
Adv. beyond the mark, ahead.

#304. [motion short of] Shortcoming -- N. shortcoming, failure;
falling short &c v.; default, defalcation; leeway; labor in vain, no go.
incompleteness &c. 53; imperfection &c. 651; insufficiency &c. 640;
noncompletion &c. 730; failure &c. 732.
V. 303, come short of, fall short of, stop short of, come short, fall
short, stop short; not reach; want; keep within bounds, keep within the
mark, keep within the compass.
break down, stick in the mud, collapse, flat out [U.S.], come to
nothing; fall through, fall to the ground; cave in, end in smoke, miss the
mark, fail; lose ground; miss stays.
Adj. unreached; deficient; short, short of; minus; out of depth;
perfunctory &c. (neglect) 460.
Adv. within the mark, within the compass, within the bounds;
behindhand; re infecta[Lat]; to no purpose; for from it.
Phr. the bubble burst.

#305. [Motion upwards] Ascent. -- N. ascent, ascension; rising &c.
309; acclivity, hill &c. 217; flight of steps, flight of stairs; ladder
rocket, lark; sky rocket, sky lark; Alpine Club.
V. ascend, rise, mount, arise, uprise; go up, get up, work one's way
up, start up; shoot up, go into orbit; float up; bubble up; aspire.
climb, clamber, ramp, scramble, escalade[obs3], surmount; shin,
shinny, shinney; scale, scale the heights.
[cause to go up] raise, elevate &c. 307.
go aloft, fly aloft; tower, soar, take off; spring up, pop up, jump
up, catapult upwards, explode upwards; hover, spire, plane, swim, float,
surge; leap &c. 309.
Adj. rising &c. v. scandent|, buoyant; supernatant, superfluitant|;
Adv. uphill.

#306. [Motion downwards] Descent. -- N. descent, descension[obs3],
declension, declination; fall; falling &c. v.: slump; drop, plunge,
plummet, cadence; subsidence, collapse, lapse; downfall, tumble, slip,
tilt, trip, lurch; cropper, culbute[obs3]; titubation[obs3], stumble; fate
of Icarus.
avalanche, debacle, landslip, landslide.
declivity, dip, hill.
[equipment for descending by rappeling] rappel.
V. descend; go down, drop down, come down; fall, gravitate, drop,
slip, slide, rappel, settle; plunge, plummet, crash; decline, set, sink,
droop, come down a peg; slump.
dismount, alight, light, get down; swoop; stoop &c. 308; fall
prostrate, precipitate oneself; let fall &c. 308.
tumble, trip, stumble, titubate[obs3], lurch, pitch, swag, topple,
topple over, tumble over, topple down, tumble down; tilt, sprawl, plump
down, come down a cropper.
Adj. descending &c. v.; descendent; decurrent[obs3], decursive[obs3];
labent[obs3], deciduous; nodding to its fall.
Adv. downhill, downwards.
Phr. the bottom fell out.

#307. Elevation. -- N. elevation; raising &c. v.; erection, lift;
sublevation[obs3], upheaval; sublimation, exaltation; prominence &c.
(convexity) 250.
lever &c. 633; crane, derrick, windlass, capstan, winch; dredge,
dredger, dredging machine.
dumbwaiter, elevator, escalator, lift.
V. heighten, elevate, raise, lift, erect; set up, stick up, perch up,
perk up, tilt up; rear, hoist, heave; uplift, upraise, uprear,
upbear[obs3], upcast[obs3], uphoist[obs3], upheave; buoy, weigh mount, give
a lift; exalt; sublimate; place on a pedestal, set on a pedestal.
[ref] escalate (increase) 35, 102, 194.
take up, drag up, fish up; dredge.
stand up, rise up, get up, jump up; spring to one's feet; hold
oneself, hold one's head up; drawn oneself up to his full height.
Adj. elevated &c. v.; stilted, attollent[obs3], rampant.
Adv. on stilts, on the shoulders of, on one's legs, on one's hind

<-- p. 92 -->

#308. Depression. -- N. lowering &c. v.; depression; dip &c.
(concavity) 252; abasement; detrusion[obs3]; reduction.
overthrow, overset[obs3], overturn; upset; prostration, subversion,
bow; courtesy, curtsy; genuflexion[obs3], genuflection, kowtow,
obeisance, salaam.
V. depress, lower, let down, take down, let down a peg, take down a
peg; cast; let drop, let fall; sink, debase, bring low, abase, reduce,
detrude[obs3], pitch, precipitate.
overthrow, overturn, overset[obs3]; upset, subvert, prostate, level,
fell; cast down, take down, throw down, fling down, dash down, pull down,
cut down, knock down, hew down; raze, raze to the ground, rase to the
ground[obs3]; trample in the dust, pull about one's ears.
sit, sit down; couch, squat, crouch, stoop, bend, bow; courtesy,
curtsy; bob, duck, dip, kneel; bend the knee, bow the knee, bend the head,
bow the head; cower; recline &c. (be horizontal) 213.
Adj. depressed &c. v.; at a low ebb; prostrate &c. (horizontal) 213;
Phr. facinus quos inquinat aequat [Lat][Lucan].

#309. Leap. -- N. leap, jump, hop, spring, bound, vault,
ance, caper; curvet, caracole; gambade|, gambado|; capriole,
demivolt[obs3]; buck, buck jump; hop skip and jump; falcade[obs3].
kangaroo, jerboa; chamois, goat, frog, grasshopper, flea;
buckjumper[obs3]; wallaby.
V. leap; jump up, jump over the moon; hop, spring, bound, vault, ramp,
cut capers, trip, skip, dance, caper; buck, buck jump; curvet, caracole;
foot it, bob, bounce, flounce, start; frisk &c. (amusement) 840; jump about
&c. (agitation) 315; trip it on the light fantastic toe, trip the light
fantastic, dance oneself off one's legs, dance off one's shoes.
Adj. leaping &c. v.; saltatory[obs3], frisky.
Adv. on the light fantastic toe.
Phr. di salto in salto[It].

#310. Plunge -- N. plunge, dip, dive, header; ducking &c. v.; diver.
V. plunge, dip, souse, duck; dive, plump; take a plunge, take a
header; make a plunge; bathe &c.(water) 337.
submerge, submerse; immerse; douse, sink, engulf, send to the bottom.
get out of one's depth; go to the bottom, go down like a stone, drop
like a lead balloon; founder, welter, wallow.

#311. [Curvilinear motion.] Circuition. -- N. circuition[obs3],
circulation; turn, curvet; excursion, circumvention, circumnavigation,
circumambulation; northwest passage; circuit &c. 629.
turning &c. v.; wrench; evolution; coil, corkscrew.
V. turn, bend, wheel; go about, put about; heel; go round to the right
about, turn round to the right about; turn on one's heel; make a circle,
make a complete circle, describe a circle, describe a complete circle; go
through 180x, go through 360x, pass through 180x, pass through 360x.
circumnavigate, circumambulate, circumvent; "put a girdle round about
the earth" [M.N.D.]; go the round, make the round of.
wind, circulate, meander; whisk, twirl; twist &c. (convolution) 248;
make a detour &c. (circuit) 629.
Adj. turning &c. v.; circuitous; circumforaneous[obs3],
Adv. round about.

#312. [Motion in a continued circle.] Rotation. -- N. rotation,
revolution, spinning, gyration, turning about an axis, turning around an
axis, circulation, roll; circumrotation[obs3], circumvolution,
circumgyration[obs3]; volutation[obs3], circination|, turbination[obs3],
pirouette, convolution.
verticity|, whir, whirl, eddy, vortex, whirlpool, gurge[obs3];
countercurrent; Maelstrom, Charybdis; Ixion.
[rotating air] cyclone; tornado, whirlwind; dust devil.
[rotation of an automobile] spin-out.
axis, axis of rotation, swivel, pivot, pivot point; axle, spindle,
pin, hinge, pole, arbor, bobbin, mandrel; axle shaft; gymbal; hub, hub of
[rotation and translation together] helix, helical motion.
[measure of rotation] angular momentum, angular velocity; revolutions
per minute, RPM.
[result of rotation] centrifugal force; surge; vertigo, dizzy round;
coriolus force.
[things that go around] carousel, merry-go-round; Ferris wheel; top,
dreidel ,teetotum[obs3]; gyroscope; turntable, lazy suzan; screw, whirligig,
rolling stone[obs3], water wheel, windmill; wheel, pulley wheel, roulette
wheel, potter's wheel, pinwheel, gear; roller; flywheel; jack; caster;
centrifuge, ultracentrifuge, bench centrifuge, refrigerated centrifuge, gas
centrifuge, microfuge; drill, augur, oil rig; wagon wheel, wheel, tire,
[Science of rotary motion] trochilics[obs3].
[person who rotates] whirling dervish.
V. rotate; roll along; revolve, spin; turn round; circumvolve[obs3];
circulate; gyre, gyrate, wheel, whirl, pirouette; twirl, trundle, troll,
roll up, furl; wallow, welter; box the compass; spin like a top, spin
like a teetotum|!.
[of an automobile] spin out.
Adj. rotating &c.v.; rotary, rotary; circumrotatory[obs3],
trochilic[obs3], vertiginous, gyratory; vortical, vorticose[obs3].
Adv. head over heels, round and round, like a horse in a mill.

<-- most of this should go under change (make a 146a)... develop not in
change section!!
revolution, evolution. revolution = change = #146-->
#313. [Motion in the reverse circle.] Evolution. -- N. evolution,
unfolding, development; evolvement; unfoldment; eversion &c. (inversion)
V. evolve; unfold, unroll, unwind, uncoil, untwist, unfurl, untwine,
unravel; untangle, disentangle; develop.
Adj. evolving &c. v.; evolved &c. v.

<-- p. 93 -->

#314. [Reciprocating motion, motion to and fro.] Oscillation. -- N.
oscillation; vibration, libration; motion of a pendulum; nutation;
undulation; pulsation; pulse.
alternation; coming and going &c. v.; ebb and flow, flux and reflux,
ups and down.
fluctuation; vacillation &c. (irresolution) 605.
wave, vibratiuncle[obs3], swing, beat, shake, wag, seesaw, dance,
lurch, dodge; logan[obs3], loggan[obs3], rocking-stone, vibroscope[obs3].
V. oscillate; vibrate, librate[obs3]; alternate, undulate, wave; rock,
swing; pulsate, beat; wag, waggle; nod, bob, courtesy, curtsy; tick; play;
wamble[obs3], wabble[obs3]; dangle, swag.
fluctuate, dance, curvet, reel, quake; quiver, quaver; shake, flicker;
wriggle; roll, toss, pitch; flounder, stagger, totter; move up and down,
bob up and down &c. Adv.; pass and repass, ebb and flow, come and go;
vacillate &c. 605; teeter [U.S.].
brandish, shake, flourish.
Adj. oscillating &c. v.; oscillatory, undulatory, pulsatory[obs3],
libratory, rectilinear; vibratory, vibratile[obs3]; pendulous.
Adv. to and fro, up and down, backwards and forwards, hither and yon,
seesaw, zigzag, wibble-wabble[obs3], in and out, from side to side, like
buckets in a well.

#315. [Irregular motion] Agitation. -- N. agitation, stir, tremor,
shake, ripple, jog, jolt, jar, jerk, shock, succussion[obs3], trepidation,
quiver, quaver, dance; jactitation|, quassation|; shuffling 7c. v.;
twitter, flicker, flutter.
turbulence, perturbation; commotion, turmoil, disquiet; tumult,
tumultuation|; hubbub, rout, bustle, fuss, racket, subsultus[obs3],
staggers, megrims, epilepsy, fits; carphology[obs3], chorea,
floccillation[obs3], the jerks, St. Vitus's dance, tilmus[obs3].
spasm, throe, throb, palpitation, convulsion.
disturbance, chaos &c. (disorder) 59; restlessness &c.
(changeableness) 149.
ferment, fermentation; ebullition, effervescence, hurly-burly,
cahotage[obs3]; tempest, storm, ground swell, heavy sea, whirlpool, vortex
&c. 312; whirlwind &c. (wind) 349.
V. be agitated &c.; shake; tremble, tremble like an aspen leaf;
quiver, quaver, quake, shiver, twitter, twire[obs3], writhe, toss, shuffle,
tumble, stagger, bob, reel, sway, wag, waggle; wriggle, wriggle like an
eel; dance, stumble, shamble, flounder, totter, flounce, flop, curvet,
prance, cavort [U.S.]; squirm.
throb, pulsate, beat, palpitate, go pitapat; flutter, flitter,
flicker, bicker; bustle.
ferment, effervesce, foam; boil, boil over; bubble up; simmer.
toss about, jump about; jump like a parched pea; shake like an aspen
leaf; shake to its center, shake to its foundations; be the sport of the
winds and waves; reel to and fro like a drunken man; move from post to
pillar and from pillar to post, drive from post to pillar and from pillar
to post, keep between hawk and buzzard.
agitate, shake, convulse, toss, tumble, bandy, wield, brandish, flap,
flourish, whisk, jerk, hitch, jolt; jog, joggle, jostle, buffet, hustle,
disturb, stir, shake up, churn, jounce, wallop, whip, vellicate[obs3].
Adj. shaking &c. v.; agitated, tremulous; desultory, subsultory|;
saltatoric[obs3]; quasative[obs3]; shambling; giddy-paced, saltatory[obs3],
convulsive, unquiet, restless, all of a twitter.
Adv. by fits and starts; subsultorily| &c. adj[obs3].; per
saltum[Lat]; hop skip and jump; in convulsions, in fits.
Phr. tempete dans un verre d'eau[Fr].

<-- p. 94 -->


#316. MATERIALITY. -- N. materiality, materialness; corporeity[obs3],
corporality[obs3]; substantiality, substantialness, flesh and blood,
plenum; physical condition.
matter, body, substance, brute matter, stuff, element, principle,
parenchyma[Biol], material, substratum, hyle[obs3], corpus, pabulum; frame.
object, article, thing, something; still life; stocks and stones;
materials &c. 635.
[Science of matter] physics; somatology[obs3], somatics; natural
philosophy, experimental philosophy; physicism[obs3]; physical science,
philosophie positive[Fr], materialism; materialist; physicist;
somatism[obs3], somatist[obs3].
Adj. material, bodily; corporeal, corporal; physical; somatic,
somatoscopic[obs3]; sensible, tangible, ponderable, palpable, substantial.
objective, impersonal, nonsubjective[obs3], neuter, unspiritual,

#317. Immateriality. -- N. immateriality, immaterialness;
incorporeity[obs3], spirituality; inextension[obs3]; astral plane.
personality; I, myself, me; ego, spirit &c. (soul) 450; astral body;
immaterialism[obs3]; spiritualism, spiritualist.
V. disembody, spiritualize.
Adj. immaterial, immateriate[obs3]; incorporeal, incorporal[obs3];
incorporate, unfleshly[obs3]; supersensible[obs3]; asomatous[obs3],
unextended[obs3]; unembodied[obs3], disembodied; extramundane, unearthly;
pneumatoscopic[obs3]; spiritual &c. (psychical) 450[obs3].
personal, subjective, nonobjective.

#318. World. -- N. world, creation, nature, universe; earth, globe,
wide world; cosmos; kosmos[obs3]; terraqueous globe[obs3], sphere;
macrocosm, megacosm[obs3]; music of the spheres.
heavens, sky, welkin|, empyrean; starry cope, starry heaven, starry
host; firmament; Midgard; supersensible regions[obs3]; varuna; vault of
heaven, canopy of heaven; celestial spaces.
heavenly bodies, stars, asteroids; nebulae; galaxy, milky way,
galactic circle, via lactea[Lat], ame no kawa [Jap.].
sun, orb of day, Apollo[obs3], Phoebus; photosphere, chromosphere;
solar system; planet, planetoid; comet; satellite, moon, orb of night,
Diana, silver-footed queen; aerolite[obs3], meteor; planetary ring; falling
star, shooting star; meteorite, uranolite[obs3].
constellation, zodiac, signs of the zodiac, Charles's wain, Big
Dipper, Little Dipper, Great Bear, Southern Cross, Orion's belt,
Cassiopea's chair, Pleiades.
colures[obs3], equator, ecliptic, orbit.
[Science of heavenly bodies] astronomy; uranography, uranology[obs3];
cosmology, cosmography[obs3], cosmogony; eidouranion[obs3], orrery; geodesy
&c. (measurement) 466; star gazing, star gazer[obs3]; astronomer;
observatory; planetarium.
Adj. cosmic, cosmical[obs3]; mundane, terrestrial, terrestrious|,
terraqueous[obs3], terrene, terreous|, telluric, earthly, geotic[obs3],
under the sun; sublunary[obs3], subastral[obs3].
solar, heliacal[obs3]; lunar; celestial, heavenly, sphery[obs3];
starry, stellar; sidereal, sideral[obs3]; astral; nebular; uranic.
Adv. in all creation, on the face of the globe, here below, under the
Phr. die Weltgeschichte ist das Weltergesicht[Ger]; "earth is but the
frozen echo of the silent voice of God" [Hageman]; "green calm below, blue
quietness above" [Whittier]; "hanging in a golden chain this pendant World"
[Paradise Lost]; "nothing in nature is unbeautiful" [Tennyson]; "silently
as a dream the fabric rose" [Cowper]; "some touch of nature's genial glow"
[Scott]; "this majestical roof fretted with golden fire" [Hamlet]; "through
knowledge we behold the World's creation" [Spenser].

<-- p. 95 -->

#319. Gravity. -- N. gravity, gravitation; weight; heaviness &c. adj.;
specific gravity; pondorosity[obs3], pressure, load; burden, burthen[obs3];
ballast, counterpoise; lump of, mass of, weight of.
lead, millstone, mountain, Ossa on Pelion.
weighing, ponderation[obs3], trutination|; weights; avoirdupois
weight, troy weight, apothecaries' weight; grain, scruple, drachma[obs3],
ounce, pound, lb, arroba[obs3], load, stone, hundredweight, cwt, ton, long
ton, metric ton, quintal, carat, pennyweight, tod[obs3].
[metric weights] gram, centigram, milligram, microgram, kilogram;
nanogram, picogram, femtogram, attogram.
[Weighing Instrument] balance, scale, scales, steelyard, beam,
weighbridge[obs3]; spring balance, piezoelectric balance, analytical
balance, two-pan balance, one-pan balance; postal scale, baby scale.
[Science of gravity] statics.
V. be heavy &c. adj.; gravitate, weigh, press, cumber, load.
[Measure the weight of] weigh, poise.
Adj. weighty; weighing &c. v.; heavy as lead; ponderous, ponderable;
lumpish[obs3], lumpy, cumbersome, burdensome; cumbrous, unwieldy, massive.
incumbent, superincumbent[obs3].

#320. Levity. -- N. levity; lightness &c. adj.; imponderability,
buoyancy, volatility.
feather, dust, mote, down, thistle, down, flue, cobweb, gossamer,
straw, cork, bubble, balloon; float, buoy; ether, air.
leaven, ferment, barm[obs3], yeast.
lighter-than-air balloon, helium balloon, hydrogen balloon, hot air
convection, thermal draft, thermal.
V. be light &c. adj.; float, rise, swim, be buoyed up.
render light &c. adj.; lighten, leaven.
Adj. light, subtile, airy; imponderous[obs3], imponderable;
astatic[obs3], weightless, ethereal, sublimated; gossamery; suberose[obs3],
suberous[obs3]; uncompressed, volatile; buoyant, floating &c. v.; portable.
light as a feather, light as a thistle, light as air; lighter than
air; rise like a balloon, float like a balloon.

1. Solid Matter

#321. Density.. -- N. density, solidity; solidness &c. adj.;
impenetrability, impermeability; incompressibility; imporosity[obs3];
cohesion &c. 46; constipation, consistence, spissitude|.
specific gravity; hydrometer, areometer[obs3].
condensation; caseation[obs3]; solidation[obs3], solidification;
consolidation; concretion, coagulation; petrification &c. (hardening) 323;
crystallization, precipitation; deposit, precipitate; inspissation[obs3];
gelation, thickening &c. v.
indivisibility, indiscerptibility[obs3], insolubility,
solid body, mass, block, knot, lump; concretion, concrete,
conglomerate; cake, clot, stone, curd, coagulum; bone, gristle, cartilage;
casein, crassamentum|; legumin[obs3].
superdense matter, condensed states of matter; dwarf star, neutron
V. be dense &c. adj.; become solid, render solid &c. adj.; solidify,
solidate[obs3]; concrete, set, take a set, consolidate, congeal, coagulate;
curd, curdle; lopper; fix, clot, cake, candy, precipitate, deposit, cohere,
crystallize; petrify &c. (harden) 323.
condense, thicken, gel, inspissate[obs3], incrassate[obs3]; compress,
squeeze, ram down, constipate.
Adj. dense, solid; solidified &c. v.; caseous; pukka[obs3]; coherent,
cohesive &c. 46; compact, close, serried, thickset; substantial, massive,
lumpish[obs3]; impenetrable, impermeable, nonporous, imporous[obs3];
incompressible; constipated; concrete &c. (hard) 323; knotted, knotty;
gnarled; crystalline, crystallizable; thick, grumous|, stuffy.
undissolved, unmelted[obs3], unliquefied[obs3], unthawed[obs3].
indivisible, indiscerptible[obs3], infrangible[obs3],
indissolvable[obs3], indissoluble, insoluble, infusible.

#322. Rarity. -- N. rarity, tenuity; absence of solidity &c. 321;
subtility[obs3]; subtilty[obs3], subtlety; sponginess, compressibility.
rarefaction, expansion, dilatation, inflation, subtilization[obs3].
vaporization, evaporation, diffusion, gassification[obs3].
ether &c. (gas) 334.
V. rarefy, expand, dilate, subtilize[obs3].
Adj. rare, subtile, thin, fine, tenuous, compressible, flimsy, slight;
light &c. 320; cavernous, spongy &c. (hollow) 252.
rarefied &c. v.; unsubstantial; uncompact[obs3], incompressed[obs3];

<-- p. 96 -->

#323. Hardness. -- N. hardness &c. adj.; rigidity; renitence[obs3],
renitency; inflexibility, temper, callosity, durity [obs3].
induration, petrifaction; lapidification[obs3], lapidescence[obs3];
vitrification, ossification; crystallization.
stone, pebble, flint, marble, rock, fossil, crag, crystal, quartz,
granite, adamant; bone, cartilage; hardware; heart of oak, block, board,
deal board; iron, steel; cast iron, decarbonized iron, wrought iron; nail;
brick, concrete; cement.
V. render hard &c. adj.; harden, stiffen, indurate, petrify, temper,
ossify, vitrify; accrust[obs3].
Adj. hard, rigid, stubborn, stiff, firm; starch, starched; stark,
unbending, unlimber, unyielding; inflexible, tense; indurate, indurated;
gritty, proof.
adamant, adamantine, adamantean[obs3]; concrete, stony, granitic,
calculous, lithic[obs3], vitreous; horny, corneous[obs3]; bony; osseous,
ossific[obs3]; cartilaginous; hard as a rock &c. n.; stiff as buckram,
stiff as a poker; stiff as starch, stiff as a board.

#324. Softness. -- N. softness, pliableness &c. adj.; flexibility;
pliancy, pliability; sequacity[obs3], malleability; ductility,
tractility[obs3]; extendibility, extensibility; plasticity; inelasticity,
flaccidity, laxity.
clay, wax, butter, dough, pudding; alumina, argil; cushion, pillow,
feather bed, down, padding, wadding; foam.
mollification; softening &c.v.
V. render -soft &c. adj.; soften, mollify, mellow, relax, temper;
mash, knead, squash.
bend, yield, relent, relax, give.
Adj. soft, tender, supple; pliant, pliable; flexible, flexile; lithe,
lithesome; lissom, limber, plastic; ductile; tractile[obs3], tractable;
malleable, extensile, sequacious[obs3], inelastic; aluminous[obs3];
yielding &c. v.; flabby, limp, flimsy.
doughy, spongy, penetrable, foamy, cushiony[obs3].
flaccid, flocculent, downy; edematous, oedematous[obs3],
medullary[Anat], argillaceous, mellow.
soft as butter, soft as down, soft as silk; yielding as wax, tender as

#325. Elasticity. -- N. elasticity, springiness, spring, resilience,
renitency, buoyancy.
rubber, India(n) rubber, latex, caoutchouc, whalebone, gum elastic,
baleen, natural rubber; neoprene, synthetic rubber, Buna-S, plastic.
flexibility, Young's modulus.
V. stretch, flex, extend, distend, be elastic &c. adj.; bounce, spring
back &c. (recoil) 277.
Adj. elastic, flexible, tensile, spring, resilient, renitent, buoyant;
ductile, stretchable, extendable.
Phr. the stress is proportional to the strain.

#326. Inelasticity. -- N. want of elasticity, absence of elasticity
&c. 325; inelasticity &c. (softness) 324,
Adj. unyielding, inelastic, inflexible &c. (soft) 324;

#327. Tenacity. -- N. {ant. 328} tenacity, toughness, strength;
(cohesion) 46; grip, grasp, stickiness, (cohesion) 46; sequacity[obs3];
stubbornness &c. (obstinacy); glue, cement, glutinousness[obs3],
sequaciousness[obs3], viscidity, (semiliquidity) 352.
leather; white leather, whitleather[obs3]; gristle, cartilage.
unbreakability, tensile strength.
V. be tenacious &c. adj.; resist fracture.
grip, grasp, stick (cohesion) 46.
Adj. tenacious, tough, strong, resisting, sequacious[obs3], stringy,
gristly cartilaginous, leathery, coriaceous[obs3], tough as
whitleather[obs3]; stubborn &c. (obstinate) 606.
unbreakable, indivisible; atomic.

#328. Brittleness. -- N. {ant. 327} brittleness &c. adj.; fragility,
friability, frangibility, fissibility[obs3]; house of cards, house of
V. be brittle &c. adj.; live in a glass house.
break, crack, snap, split, shiver, splinter, crumble, break short,
burst, fly, give way; fall to pieces; crumble to, crumble into dust.
Adj. brittle, brash [U.S.], breakable, weak, frangible, fragile,
frail, gimcrack|, shivery, fissile; splitting &c. v.; lacerable[obs3],
splintery, crisp, crimp, short, brittle as glass.

#329. [Structure.] Texture. -- N. structure (form) 240, organization,
anatomy, frame, mold, fabric, construction; framework, carcass,
architecture; stratification, cleavage.
substance, stuff, compages[obs3], parenchyma[Biol]; constitution,
staple, organism.
[Science of structures] organography[obs3], osteology, myology,
splanchnology[obs3], neurology, angiography[obs3], adeology[obs3];
angiography[obs3], adenography[obs3].
texture, surface texture; intertexture[obs3], contexture[obs3];
tissue, grain, web, surface; warp and woof, warp and weft; tooth, nap &c.
(roughness) 256; flatness (smoothness) 255; fineness of grain; coarseness
of grain, dry goods.
silk, satin; muslin, burlap.
[Science of textures] histology.
Adj. structural, organic; anatomic, anatomical.
textural, textile; fine grained, coarse grained; fine, delicate,
subtile, gossamery, filmy, silky, satiny; coarse; homespun.
rough, gritty; smooth.
smooth as silk, smooth as satin.

<-- p. 97 -->

#330. Pulverulence. -- N. powderiness[obs3][State of powder.],
pulverulence[obs3]; sandiness &c. adj.; efflorescence; friability.
powder, dust, sand, shingle; sawdust; grit; meal, bran, flour, farina,
rice, paddy, spore, sporule[obs3]; crumb, seed, grain; particle &c.
(smallness) 32; limature|, filings, debris, detritus, tailings, talus
slope, scobs[obs3], magistery[obs3], fine powder; flocculi[Lat].
smoke; cloud of dust, cloud of sand, cloud of smoke; puff of smoke,
volume of smoke; sand storm, dust storm.
[Reduction to powder] pulverization, comminution[obs3], attenuation,
granulation, disintegration, subaction[obs3], contusion, trituration[Chem],
levigation[obs3], abrasion, detrition, multure[obs3]; limitation;
tripsis[obs3]; filing &c.v..
[Instruments for pulverization] mill, arrastra[obs3], gristmill,
grater, rasp, file, mortar and pestle, nutmeg grater, teeth, grinder,
grindstone, kern[obs3], quern[obs3], koniology[obs3].
V. come to dust; be disintegrated, be reduced to powder &c.
reduce to powder, grind to powder; pulverize, comminute, granulate,
triturate, levigate[obs3]; scrape, file, abrade, rub down, grind, grate,
rasp, pound, bray, bruise; contuse, contund[obs3]; beat, crush,
cranch[obs3], craunch[obs3], crunch, scranch[obs3], crumble, disintegrate;
attenuate &c. 195.
Adj. powdery, pulverulent[obs3], granular, mealy, floury, farinaceous,
branny[obs3], furfuraceous[obs3], flocculent, dusty, sandy, sabulous[obs3],
psammous[obs3]; arenose[obs3], arenarious[obs3], arenaceous[obs3]; gritty,
efflorescent, impalpable; lentiginous[obs3], lepidote[obs3],
sabuline[obs3]; sporaceous[obs3], sporous[obs3].
pulverizable; friable, crumbly, shivery; pulverized &c. v.;
attrite[obs3]; in pieces.

#331. Friction. -- N. friction, attrition; rubbing, abrasion, scraping
&c. v.; confrication|, detrition, contrition|, affriction[obs3], abrasion,
arrosion|, limature|, frication[obs3], rub; elbow grease; rosin; massage;
roughness &c. 256.

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