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Roget's Thesaurus by Peter Mark Roget

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one's legs; vivify; refresh &c. 689; refect[obs3]; reinforce, reenforce &c.
(restore) 660.
Adj. strong, mighty, vigorous, forcible, hard, adamantine, stout,
robust, sturdy, hardy, powerful, potent, puissant, valid.
resistless, irresistible, invincible, proof against, impregnable,
unconquerable, indomitable, dominating, inextinguishable, unquenchable;
incontestable; more than a match for; overpowering, overwhelming; all
powerful, all sufficient; sovereign.
able-bodied; athletic; Herculean, Cyclopean, Atlantean[obs3];
muscular, brawny, wiry, well-knit, broad-shouldered, sinewy, strapping,
stalwart, gigantic.
manly, man-like, manful; masculine, male, virile.
unweakened[obs3], unallayed, unwithered[obs3], unshaken, unworn,
unexhausted[obs3]; in full force, in full swing; in the plenitude of power.
stubborn, thick-ribbed, made of iron, deep-rooted; strong as a lion,
strong as a horse, strong as an ox, strong as brandy; sound as a roach; in
fine feather, in high feather; built like a brick shithouse; like a giant
Adv. strongly &c. adj.; by force &c. n.; by main force &c. (by
compulsion) 744.
Phr. "our withers are unwrung" [Hamlet].
Blut und Eisen[Ger]; coelitus mihi vires[Lat]; du fort au diable[Fr];
en habiles gens[Lat]; ex vi termini; flecti non frangi[Lat]; "he that
wrestles with us strengthens our nerves and sharpens our skill" [Burke];
"inflexible in faith invincible in arms" [Beattie].

#160. Weakness.-- N. weakness &c. adj.; debility, atony[obs3],
relaxation, languor, enervation; impotence &c. 158; infirmity; effeminacy,
feminality[obs3]; fragility, flaccidity; inactivity &c. 683.
anaemia, bloodlessness, deficiency of blood, poverty of blood.
declension of strength, loss of strength, failure of strength;
delicacy, invalidation, decrepitude, asthenia[obs3], adynamy[obs3],
cachexy[obs3], cachexia[Med], sprain, strain.
reed, thread, rope of sand, house of cards.
softling[obs3], weakling; infant &c. 129; youth &c. 127.
V. be weak &c. adj.; drop, crumble, give way, totter, tremble, shake,
halt, limp, fade, languish, decline, flag, fail, have one leg in the grave.
render weak &c. adj.; weaken, enfeeble, debilitate, shake, deprive of
strength, relax, enervate, eviscerate; unbrace, unnerve; cripple, unman &c.
(render powerless) 158; cramp, reduce, sprain, strain, blunt the edge of;
dilute, impoverish; decimate; extenuate; reduce in strength, reduce the
strength of; mettre de l'eau dans son vin[Fr].
Adj. weak, feeble, debile|; impotent &c. 158; relaxed, unnerved, &c.
v.; sapless, strengthless[obs3], powerless; weakly, unstrung, flaccid,
adynamic[obs3], asthenic[obs3]; nervous.
soft, effeminate, feminate[obs3], womanly.
frail, fragile, shattery[obs3]; flimsy, unsubstantial, insubstantial,
gimcrack, gingerbread; rickety, creaky, creaking, cranky; craichy[obs3];
drooping, tottering &c. v..
broken, lame, withered, shattered, shaken, crazy, shaky; palsied &c.
158; decrepit.
languid, poor, infirm; faint, faintish[obs3]; sickly &c. (disease)
655; dull, slack, evanid|, spent, short-winded, effete; weather-beaten;
decayed, rotten, worn, seedy, languishing, wasted, washy, laid low, pulled
down, the worse for wear.
unstrengthened &c. 159[obs3], unsupported, unaided, unassisted;
aidless[obs3], defenseless &c. 158; cantilevered (support) 215.
on its last legs; weak as a child, weak as a baby, weak as a chicken,
weak as a cat, weak as a rat; weak as water, weak as water gruel, weak as
gingerbread, weak as milk and water; colorless &c. 429.
Phr. non sum qualis eram[Lat].

<-- p. 48 -->


#161. Production.-- N. {ant. 162, 158} production, creation,
construction, formation, fabrication, manufacture; building, architecture,
erection, edification; coinage; diaster[obs3]; organization; nisus
formativus[Lat]; putting together &c. v.; establishment; workmanship,
performance; achievement &c. (completion) 729.
flowering, fructification; inflorescence.
bringing forth &c. v.: parturition, birth, birth-throe, childbirth,
delivery, confinement, accouchement, travail, labor, midwifery, obstetrics;
geniture[obs3]; gestation &c. (maturation) 673; assimilation; evolution,
development, growth; entelechy[Phil]; fertilization, gemination,
germination, heterogamy[Biol], genesis, generation, epigenesis[obs3],
procreation, progeneration[obs3], propagation; fecundation, impregnation;
albumen &c. 357.
spontaneous generation; archegenesis[obs3], archebiosis[obs3];
biogenesis, abiogenesis[obs3], digenesis[obs3], dysmerogenesis[obs3],
eumerogenesis[obs3], heterogenesis[obs3], oogenesis, merogenesis[obs3],
metogenesis[obs3], monogenesis[obs3], parthenogenesis, homogenesis[obs3],
xenogenesis|[obs3]; authorship, publication; works, opus, oeuvre.
biogeny[obs3], dissogeny[obs3], xenogeny[obs3]; tocogony[obs3],
edifice, building, structure, fabric, erection, pile, tower, flower,
V. produce, perform, operate, do, make, gar, form, construct,
fabricate, frame, contrive, manufacture; weave, forge, coin, carve, chisel;
build, raise, edify, rear, erect, put together, set up, run up; establish,
constitute, compose, organize, institute; achieve, accomplish &c.
(complete) 729.
flower, bear fruit, fructify, teem, ean[obs3], yean[obs3], farrow,
drop, pup, kitten, kindle; bear, lay, whelp, bring forth, give birth to,
lie in, be brought to bed of, evolve, pullulate, usher into the world.
make productive &c. 168; create; beget, get, generate, fecundate,
impregnate; procreate, progenerate[obs3], propagate; engender; bring into
being, call into being, bring into existence; breed, hatch, develop, bring
induce, superinduce; suscitate|; cause &c. 153; acquire &c. 775.
Adj. produced, producing &c. v.; productive of; prolific &c. 168;
creative; formative, genetic, genial, genital; pregnant; enceinte, big
with, fraught with; in the family way, teeming, parturient, in the straw,
brought to bed of; puerperal, puerperous[obs3].
digenetic[obs3], heterogenetic[obs3], oogenetic, xenogenetic[obs3];
ectogenous[obs3], gamic[obs3], haematobious[obs3], sporogenous[Biol],
Phr. ex nihilo nihil[Lat]; fiat lux[Lat]; materiam superabat opus
[Lat][Ovid]; nemo dat quod non habet [Latin].

<-- p. 49 -->

#162. [Nonproduction.] Destruction.-- N. {ant. 161} destruction;
waste, dissolution, breaking up; diruption[obs3], disruption; consumption;
fall, downfall, devastation, ruin, perdition, crash;
eboulement[French], smash, havoc, delabrement[French], debacle; break down,
break up, fall apart; prostration; desolation, bouleversement[Fr], wreck,
wrack, shipwreck, cataclysm; washout.
extinction, annihilation; destruction of life &c. 361; knock-down
blow; doom, crack of doom.
destroying &c. v.; demolition, demolishment; overthrow, subversion,
suppression; abolition &c. (abrogation) 756; biblioclasm[obs3]; sacrifice;
ravage, razzia[obs3]; inactivation; incendiarism; revolution &c. 146;
extirpation &c. (extraction) 301; beginning of the end, commencement de la
fin[French], road to ruin; dilapidation &c. (deterioration) 659; sabotage.
V. be destroyed &c.; perish; fall to the ground; tumble, topple; go to
pieces, fall to pieces; break up; crumble to dust; go to the dogs, go to
the wall, go to smash, go to shivers, go to wreck, go to pot, go to wrack
and ruin; go by the board, go all to smash; be all over, be all up, be all
with; totter to its fall.
destroy; do away with, make away with; nullify; annual &c. 756;
sacrifice, demolish; tear up; overturn, overthrow, overwhelm; upset,
subvert, put an end to; seal the doom of, do in, do for, dish*, undo; break
up, cut up; break down, cut down, pull down, mow down, blow down, beat
down; suppress, quash, put down, do a job on; cut short, take off, blot
out; dispel, dissipate, dissolve; consume.
smash, crash, quell, squash, squelch, crumple up, shatter, shiver;
batter to pieces, tear to pieces, crush to pieces, cut to pieces, shake to
pieces, pull to pieces, pick to pieces; laniate[obs3]; nip; tear to rags,
tear to tatters; crush to atoms, knock to atoms; ruin; strike out; throw
over, knock down over; fell, sink, swamp, scuttle, wreck, shipwreck,
engulf, ingulf[obs3], submerge; lay in ashes, lay in ruins; sweep away,
erase, wipe out, expunge, raze; level with the dust, level with the ground;
waste; atomize, vaporize.
deal destruction, desolate, devastate, lay waste, ravage gut;
disorganize; dismantle &c. (render useless) 645; devour, swallow up, sap,
mine, blast, bomb, blow to smithereens, drop the big one, confound;
exterminate, extinguish, quench, annihilate; snuff out, put out, stamp out,
trample out; lay in the dust, trample in the dust; prostrate; tread under
foot; crush under foot, trample under foot; lay the ax to the root of; make
short work of, make clean sweep of, make mincemeat of; cut up root and
branch, chop into pieces, cut into ribbons; fling to the winds, scatter to
the winds; throw overboard; strike at the root of, sap the foundations of,
spring a mine, blow up, ravage with fire and sword; cast to the dogs;
eradicate &c. 301.
Adj. destroyed &c. v.; perishing &c. v.; trembling to its fall,
nodding to its fall, tottering to its fall; in course of destruction &c.
n.; extinct.
all-destroying, all-devouring, all-engulfing.
destructive, subversive, ruinous, devastating; incendiary, deletory|;
destroying &c. n. suicidal; deadly &c. (killing) 361.
Adv. with crushing effect, with a sledge hammer.
Phr. delenda est Carthago[Lat]; dum Roma deliberat Saguntum
perit[Lat]; ecrasez l'infame [Fr][Voltaire].

#163. Reproduction.-- N. reproduction, renovation; restoration &c.
660; renewal; new edition, reprint, revival, regeneration,
palingenesis[obs3], revivification; apotheosis; resuscitation, reanimation,
resurrection, reappearance; regrowth; Phoenix.
generation &c. (production) 161; multiplication.
V. reproduce; restore &c. 660; revive, renovate, renew, regenerate,
revivify, resuscitate, reanimate; remake, refashion, stir the embers, put
into the crucible; multiply, repeat; resurge[obs3].
crop up, spring up like mushrooms.
Adj. reproduced &c. v.; renascent, reappearing; reproductive;

#164. Producer.-- N. producer, originator, inventor, author, founder,
generator, mover, architect, creator, prime mover; maker &c. (agent) 690;
prime mover.

#165. Destroyer.-- N. destroyer &c. (destroy &c. 162); cankerworm &c.
(bane) 663; assassin &c. (killer) 361; executioner &c. (punish) 975;
biblioclast[obs3], eidoloclast[obs3], iconoclast, idoloclast[obs3];

#166. Paternity.-- N. paternity; parentage; consanguinity &c. 11.
parent; father, sire, dad, papa, paterfamilias, abba[obs3]; genitor,
progenitor, procreator; ancestor; grandsire[obs3], grandfather; great-
grandfather; fathership[obs3], fatherhood; mabap[obs3].
house, stem, trunk, tree, stock, stirps, pedigree, lineage, line,
family, tribe, sept, race, clan; genealogy, descent, extraction, birth,
ancestry; forefathers, forbears, patriarchs.
motherhood, maternity; mother, dam, mamma, materfamilias[Lat],
Adj. paternal, parental; maternal; family, ancestral, linear,
Phr. avi numerantur avorum[Lat]; "happy he with such a mother"
[Tennyson]; hombre bueno no le busquen abolengo[Sp][obs3]; philosophia
stemma non inspicit [Lat][Seneca].

<-- p. 50 -->

#167. Posterity.-- N. posterity, progeny, breed, issue, offspring,
brood, litter, seed, farrow, spawn, spat; family, grandchildren, heirs;
child, son, daughter; butcha[obs3]; bantling, scion; acrospire[obs3],
plumule[obs3], shoot, sprout, olive-branch, sprit[obs3], branch; off-shoot,
off-set; ramification; descendant; heir, heiress; heir-apparent, heir-
presumptive; chip off the old block; heredity; rising generation.
straight descent, sonship[obs3], line, lineage, filiation[obs3],
Adj. filial; diphyletic[obs3].
Phr. "the child is father of the man" [Wordsworth]; "the fruit doesn't
fall far from the tree", "like father, like son".

#168. Productiveness -- N. productiveness &c. adj.; fecundity,
fertility, luxuriance, uberty|.
pregnancy, pullulation, fructification, multiplication, propagation,
procreation; superfetation.
milch cow, rabbit, hydra, warren, seed plot, land flowing with milk
and honey; second crop, aftermath; aftercrop, aftergrowth[obs3];
arrish[obs3], eddish[obs3], rowen[obs3]; protoplasm; fertilization.
V. make -productive &c. adj.; fructify; procreate, generate,
fertilize, spermative[obs3], impregnate; fecundate, fecundify[obs3]; teem,
multiply; produce &c. 161; conceive.
Adj. productive, prolific; teeming, teemful[obs3]; fertile, fruitful,
frugiferous[obs3], fruit-bearing; fecund, luxuriant; pregnant,
procreant[obs3], procreative; generative, life-giving, spermatic;
multiparous; omnific[obs3], propagable.
parturient &c. (producing) 161; profitable &c. (useful) 644.

#169. Unproductiveness.-- N. unproductiveness &c. adj.; infertility,
sterility, infecundity[obs3]; masturbation; impotence &c. 158;
unprofitableness &c. (inutility) 645.
waste, desert, Sahara, wild, wilderness, howling wilderness.
V. be - unproductive &c. adj.; hang fire, flash in the pan, come to
[make unproductive] sterilize, addle; disable, inactivate.
Adj. unproductive, acarpous[obs3], inoperative, barren, addled,
infertile, unfertile, unprolific[obs3], arid, sterile, unfruitful,
infecund[obs3]; sine prole; fallow; teemless[obs3], issueless[obs3],
fruitless; unprofitable &c. (useless) 645; null and void, of no effect.

#170. Agency.-- N. agency, operation, force, working, strain,
function, office, maintenance, exercise, work, swing, play;
interworking[obs3], interaction; procurement.
causation &c. 153; instrumentality &c. 631; influence &c. 175; action
&c. (voluntary) 680; modus operandi &c. 627.
quickening power, maintaining power, sustaining power; home stroke.
V. be -in action &c. adj.; operate, work; act, act upon; perform,
play, support, sustain, strain, maintain, take effect, quicken, strike.
come play, come bring into operation; have play, have free play; bring
to bear upon.
Adj. operative, efficient, efficacious, practical, effectual.
at work, on foot; acting &c. (doing) 680; in operation, in force, in
action, in play, in exercise; acted upon, wrought upon.
Adv. by the -agency &c. n.- of; through &c. (instrumentality) 631; by
means of &c. 632.
Phr. "I myself must mix with action lest I wither by despair"

<-- p. 51 -->

#171. Physical Energy.-- N. energy, physical energy, force, power &c.
157; keenness &c. adj.; intensity, vigor, strength, elasticity; go; high
pressure; fire; rush.
acrimony, acritude[obs3]; causiticity[obs3], virulence; poignancy;
harshness &c. adj.; severity, edge, point; pungency &c. 392.
cantharides; seasoning &c. (condiment) 393.
activity, agitation, effervescence; ferment, fermentation; ebullition,
splutter, perturbation, stir, bustle; voluntary energy &c. 682;
resolution &c. (mental energy) 604; exertion &c. (effort) 686;
excitation &c. (mental) 824.
V. give -energy &c. n.; energize, stimulate, kindle, excite, exert;
sharpen, intensify; inflame &c. (render violent) 173; wind up &c.
(strengthen) 159.
strike home, into home, hard home; make an impression.
Adj. strong, energetic, forcible, active; intense, deep-dyed, severe,
keen, vivid, sharp, acute, incisive, trenchant, brisk.
rousing, irritation; poignant; virulent, caustic, corrosive, mordant,
harsh, stringent; double-edged, double-shotted[obs3], double-distilled;
drastic, escharotic|; racy &c. (pungent) 392.
potent &c. (powerful) 157; radioactive.
Adv. strongly &c. adj.; fortiter in re[Lat]; with telling effect.
Phr. the steam is up; vires acquirit eundo[Lat]; "the race by vigor
not by vaunts is won" [Pope].

#172. Physical Inertness.-- N. inertness, dullness &c. adj.; inertia,
vis inertiae[Latin], inertion[obs3], inactivity, torpor, languor;
quiescence &c. 265; latency, inaction; passivity.
mental inertness; sloth &c. (inactivity) 683; inexcitability &c.
826[obs3]; irresolution &c. 605; obstinacy &c. 606; permanence &c. 141.
rare gas, paraffin, noble metal, unreactivity.
V. be -inert &c. adj.; hang fire, smolder.
Adj. inert, inactive, passive; torpid &c. 683; sluggish, dull, heavy,
flat, slack, tame, slow, blunt; unreactive; lifeless, dead,
latent, dormant, smoldering, unexerted[obs3].
Adv. inactively &c. adj.; in suspense, in abeyance.

<-- separate force from violence? -->
#173. Violence.-- N. violence, inclemency, vehemence, might,
impetuosity; boisterousness &c. adj.; effervescence, ebullition;
turbulence, bluster; uproar, callithump [obs3][U. S.], riot, row, rumpus,
le diable a quatre[Fr], devil to pay, all the fat in the fire.
severity &c. 739; ferocity, rage, fury; exacerbation, exasperation,
malignity; fit, paroxysm; orgasm, climax, aphrodisia[obs3]; force, brute
force; outrage; coup de main; strain, shock, shog[obs3]; spasm, convulsion,
throe; hysterics, passion &c. (state of excitability) 825.
outbreak, outburst; debacle; burst, bounce, dissilience[obs3],
discharge, volley, explosion, blow up, blast, detonation, rush, eruption,
displosion|, torrent.
turmoil &c. (disorder) 59; ferment &c. (agitation) 315; storm,
tempest, rough weather; squall &c. (wind) 349; earthquake, volcano,
berserk, berserker; fury, dragon, demon, tiger, beldame,
Tisiphone[obs3], Megaera, Alecto[obs3], madcap, wild beast; fire eater &c.
(blusterer) 887.
V. be -violent &c. adj.; run high; ferment, effervesce; romp, rampage,
go on a rampage; run wild, run amuck, run riot; break the peace; rush,
tear; rush headlong, rush foremost; raise a storm, make a riot; rough
house*; riot, storm; wreak, bear down, ride roughshod, out Herod, Herod;
spread like wildfire.
[(person) shout or act in anger at something] explode, make a row,
kick up a row; boil, boil over; fume, foam, come on like a lion, bluster,
rage, roar, fly off the handle, go bananas, go ape, blow one's top, blow
one's cool, flip one's lid, hit the ceiling, hit the roof; fly into a rage
(anger) 900..
break out, fly out, burst out; bounce, explode, go off, displode|,
fly, detonate, thunder, blow up, crump[obs3], flash, flare, burst; shock,
strain; break open, force open, prize open.
render violent &c. adj.; sharpen, stir up, quicken, excite, incite,
annoy, urge, lash, stimulate, turn on; irritate, inflame, kindle,
suscitate|, foment; accelerate, aggravate, exasperate, exacerbate,
convulse, infuriate, madden, lash into fury; fan the flame; add fuel to the
flame, pour oil on the fire, oleum addere camino[Lat].
explode; let fly, fly off; discharge, detonate, set off,
detonize[obs3], fulminate.
Adj. violent, vehement; warm; acute, sharp; rough, rude, ungentle,
bluff, boisterous, wild; brusque, abrupt, waspish; impetuous; rampant.
turbulent; disorderly; blustering, raging &c. v.; troublous[obs3],
riotous; tumultuary[obs3], tumultuous; obstreperous, uproarious;
extravagant; unmitigated; ravening, inextinguishable, tameless; frenzied
&c. (insane) 503. desperate &c. (rash) 863; infuriate, furious, outrageous,
frantic, hysteric, in hysterics.
fiery, flaming, scorching, hot, red-hot, ebullient.
savage, fierce, ferocious, fierce as a tiger.
excited &c. v.; unquelled[obs3], unquenched, unextinguished[obs3],
unrepressed, unbridled, unruly; headstrong, ungovernable, unappeasable,
immitigable, unmitigable[obs3]; uncontrollable, incontrollable[obs3];
insuppressible, irrepressible; orgastic, orgasmatic, orgasmic.
spasmodic, convulsive, explosive; detonating &c. v.; volcanic,
meteoric; stormy &c. (wind) 349.
Adv. violently &c. adj.; amain[obs3]; by storm, by force, by main
force; with might and main; tooth and nail, vi et armis[Lat], at the point
of the sword, at the point of the bayonet; at one fell swoop; with a high
hand, through thick and thin; in desperation, with a vengeance; a
outrance[obs3], a toute outrance[Fr][obs3]; headlong, head foremost.
Phr. furor arma ministrat[Lat]; "blown with restless violence round
about the pendent world" [Measure for Measure].

<-- p. 52 -->

#174. Moderation.-- N. moderation, lenity &c. 740; temperateness,
gentleness &c. adj.; sobriety; quiet; mental calmness &c. (inexcitability)
moderating &c. v.; anaphrodisia[obs3]; relaxation, remission,
mitigation, tranquilization[obs3], assuagement, contemporation[obs3],
measure, juste milieu[Fr], golden mean, [Grk].
moderator; lullaby, sedative, lenitive, demulcent, antispasmodic,
carminative, laudanum; rose water, balm, poppy, opiate, anodyne, milk,
opium, "poppy or mandragora"; wet blanket; palliative.
V. be -moderate &c. adj.; keep within bounds, keep within compass;
sober down, settle down; keep the peace, remit, relent, take in sail.
moderate, soften, mitigate, temper, accoy|; attemper[obs3],
contemper[obs3]; mollify, lenify[obs3], dulcify[obs3], dull, take off the
edge, blunt, obtund[obs3], sheathe, subdue, chasten; sober down, tone down,
smooth down; weaken &c. 160; lessen &c. (decrease) 36; check palliate.
tranquilize, pacify, assuage, appease, swag, lull, soothe, compose,
still, calm, calm down, cool, quiet, hush, quell, sober, pacify, tame,
damp, lay, allay, rebate, slacken, smooth, alleviate, rock to sleep,
deaden, smooth, throw cold water on, throw a wet blanket over, turn off;
slake; curb &c. (restrain) 751; tame &c. (subjugate) 749; smooth over; pour
oil on the waves, pour oil on the troubled waters; pour balm into, mattre
de l'eau dans son vin[Fr].
go out like a lamb, "roar you as gently as any sucking dove,"
[Midsummer-Night's Dream].
Adj. moderate; lenient &c. 740; gentle, mild, mellow; cool, sober,
temperate, reasonable, measured; tempered &c. v.; calm, unruffled, quiet,
tranquil, still; slow, smooth, untroubled; tame; peaceful, peaceable;
pacific, halcyon.
unexciting, unirritating[obs3]; soft, bland, oily, demulcent,
lenitive, anodyne; hypnotic &c. 683; sedative; antiorgastic[obs3],
mild as mother's milk; milk and water.
Adv. moderately &c. adj.; gingerly; piano; under easy sail, at half
speed; within bounds, within compass; in reason.
Phr. est modue in rebus[obs3]; pour oil on troubled waters.

4. Indirect Power

#175. Influence.-- N. influence; importance &c. 642; weight, pressure,
preponderance, prevalence, sway; predominance, predominancy[obs3];
ascendency[obs3]; dominance, reign; control, domination, pull*; authority
&c.737; capability &c. (power) 157; effect &c. 154; interest.
synergy (cooperation) 709.
footing; purchase &c. (support) 215; play, leverage, vantage ground.
tower of strength, host in himself; protection, patronage, auspices.
V. have -influence &c. n.; be -influential &c. adj.; carry weight,
weigh, tell; have a hold upon, magnetize, bear upon, gain a footing, work
upon; take root, take hold; strike root in.
run through, pervade; prevail, dominate, predominate; out weigh, over
weigh; over-ride, over-bear; gain head; rage; be -rife &c. adj.; spread
like wildfire; have the upper hand, get the upper hand, gain the upper
hand, have full play, get full play, gain full play.
be recognized, be listened to; make one's voice heard, gain a hearing;
play a part, play a leading part, play a leading part in; take the lead,
pull the strings; turn the scale, throw one's weight into the scale; set
the fashion, lead the dance.
Adj. influential, effective; important &c. 642; weighty; prevailing
&c. v.; prevalent, rife, rampant, dominant, regnant, predominant, in the
ascendant, hegemonical[obs3].
Adv. with telling effect.
Phr. tel maure tel valet[Fr].

#175a. Absence of Influence.-- N. impotence &c. 158; powerlessness;
inertness &c. 172; irrelevancy &c. 10.
V. have no -influence &c. 175.
Adj. uninfluential[obs3], ineffective; inconsequential, nugatory;
unconducing, unconducive, unconducting to[obs3]; powerless &c. 158;
irrelevant &c. 10.

<-- p. 53 -->

#176. Tendency.-- N. tendency; aptness, aptitude; proneness,
proclivity, bent, turn, tone, bias, set, leaning to, predisposition,
inclination, propensity, susceptibility; conatus[Lat], nisus[Lat];
liability &c. 177; quality, nature, temperament; idiocrasy[obs3],
idiosyncrasy; cast, vein, grain; humor, mood; drift &c. (direction) 278;
conduciveness, conducement[obs3]; applicability &c. (utility) 644;
subservience &c. (instrumentality) 631.
V. tend, contribute, conduce, lead, dispose, incline, verge, bend to,
trend, affect, carry, redound to, bid fair to, gravitate towards; promote
&c. (aid) 707.
Adj. tending &c. v.; conducive, working towards, in a fair way to,
calculated to; liable &c. 177; subservient &c. (instrumental) 631; useful
&c. 644; subsidiary &c. (helping) 707.
Adv. for, whither.

#177. Liability.-- N. liability, liableness[obs3]; possibility,
contingency; susceptivity[obs3], susceptibility, exposure.
V. be -liable &c. adj.; incur, lay oneself open to; run the chance,
stand a chance; lie under, expose oneself to, open a door to.
Adj. liable, subject; in danger &c. 665; open to, exposed to,
obnoxious to; answerable; unexempt from[obs3]; apt to; dependent on;
incident to.
contingent, incidental, possible, on the cards, within range of, at
the mercy of.

5. Combinations of Causes

#178. Concurrence.-- N. concurrence, cooperation, coagency[obs3];
union; agreement &c. 23; consilience[obs3]; consent, coincidence &c.
(assent) 488; alliance; concert, additivity, synergy &c. 709; partnership
&c. 712.
common cause.
V. concur, conduce, conspire, contribute; agree, unite; hang together,
pull together, join forces, make common cause.
&c. (cooperate) 709; help to &c. (aid) 707.
keep pace with, run parallel; go with, go along with, go hand in hand
with, coincide.
Adj. concurring &c. v.; concurrent, in alliance with, banded together,
of one mind, at one with, coinciding.
Adv. with one consent.

#179. Counteraction.-- N. counteraction, opposition; contrariety &c.
14; antagonism, polarity; clashing &c. v.; collision, interference,
inhibition, resistance, renitency, friction; reaction; retroaction &c.
(recoil) 277; counterblast[obs3]; neutralization &c. (compensation) 30; vis
inertiae[Lat]; check &c. (hindrance) 706.
voluntary opposition &c. 708, voluntary resistance &c. 719; repression
&c. (restraint) 751.
opposites, action and reaction, yang and yin, yang-yin (contrariety)
V. counteract; run counter, clash, cross; interfere with, conflict
with; contravene; jostle; go against, run against, beat against, militate
against; stultify; antagonize, block, oppose &c. 708; traverse; withstand
&c. (resist) 719; hinder &c. 706; repress &c. (restrain) 751; react &c.
(recoil) 277.
undo, neutralize; counterpoise &c. (compensate) 30; overpoise[obs3].
Adj. counteracting &c. v.; antagonistic, conflicting, retroactive,
renitent, reactionary; contrary &c. 14.
Adv. although &c. 30; in spite of &c. 708; against.
Phr. "for every action there is a reaction, equal in force and
opposite in direction" [Newton].

<-- p. 54 -->


<-- dimensions must be broken down separately -->

#180. [Indefinite space.] Space.-- N. space, extension, extent,
superficial extent, expanse, stretch, hyperspace; room, scope, range,
field, way, expansion, compass, sweep, swing, spread.
dimension, length &c. 200; distance &c. 196; size &c. 192; volume;
latitude, play, leeway, purchase, tolerance, room for maneuver.
spare room, elbow room, house room; stowage, roomage[obs3], margin;
opening, sphere, arena.
open space, free space; void &c. (absence) 187; waste; wildness,
wilderness; moor, moorland; campagna[obs3].
abyss &c. (interval) 198; unlimited space; infinity &c. 105; world;
ubiquity &c. (presence) 186; length and breadth of the land.
proportions, acreage; acres, acres and perches, roods and perches,
hectares, square miles; square inches, square yards, square centimeters,
square meters, yards (clothing) &c.; ares, arpents[obs3].
Adj. spacious, roomy, extensive, expansive, capacious, ample;
widespread, vast, world-wide, uncircumscribed; boundless &c. (infinite)
105; shoreless[obs3], trackless, pathless; extended.
Adv. extensively &c. adj.; wherever; everywhere; far and near, far and
wide; right and left, all over, all the world over; throughout the world,
throughout the length and breadth of the land; under the sun, in every
quarter; in all quarters, in all lands; here there and everywhere; from
pole to pole, from China to Peru [Johnson], from Indus to the pole [Pope],
from Dan to Beersheba, from end to end; on the face of the earth, in the
wide world, from all points of the compass; to the four winds, to the
uttermost parts of the earth.

#180a. Inextension.-- N. inextension[obs3], nonextension[obs3], point;
dot; atom &c. (smallness) 32.

#181. [Definite space.] Region.-- N. region, sphere, ground, soil,
area, field, realm, hemisphere, quarter, district, beat, orb, circuit,
circle; reservation, pale &c. (limit) 233; compartment, department;
[political divisions: see property &c. 780 and Government &c. 737a.].
arena, precincts, enceinte, walk, march; patch, plot, parcel,
inclosure, close, field, court; enclave, reserve, preserve; street &c.
(abode) 189.
clime, climate, zone, meridian, latitude.
biosphere; lithosphere.
Adj. territorial, local, parochial, provincial, regional.

#182. [Limited space.] Place.-- N. place, lieu, spot, point, dot;
niche, nook &c. (corner) 244; hole; pigeonhole &c. (receptacle) 191;
compartment; premises, precinct, station; area, courtyard, square; abode
&c. 189; locality &c. (situation) 183.
ins and outs; every hole and corner.
Adv. somewhere, in some place, wherever it may be, here and there, in
various places, passim.


#183. Situation.-- N. situation, position, locality, locale, status,
latitude and longitude; footing, standing, standpoint, post; stage; aspect,
attitude, posture, pose.
environment, surroundings (location) 184; circumjacence &c. 227[obs3].
place, site, station, seat, venue, whereabouts; ground; bearings &c.
(direction) 278; spot &c. (limited space) 182.
topography, geography, chorography[obs3]; map &c. 554.
V. be situated, be situate; lie, have its seat in.
Adj. situate, situated; local, topical, topographical &c. n.
Adv. in situ, in loco; here and there, passim; hereabouts,
thereabouts, whereabouts; in place, here, there.
in such and such surroundings, in such and such environs, in
such and such entourage, amidst such and such surroundings, amidst such and
such environs, amidst such and such entourage.

#184. Location.-- N. location, localization; lodgment; deposition,
reposition; stowage, package; collocation; packing, lading; establishment,
settlement, installation; fixation; insertion &c. 300.
habitat, environment, surroundings (situation) 183; circumjacence &c.
anchorage, mooring, encampment.
plantation, colony, settlement, cantonment; colonization,
domestication, situation; habitation &c. (abode) 189; cohabitation; "a
local habitation and a name" [Midsummer Night's Dream]; endenization[obs3],
V. place, situate, locate, localize, make a place for, put, lay, set,
seat, station, lodge, quarter, post, install; house, stow; establish, fix,
pin, root; graft; plant &c. (insert) 300; shelve, pitch, camp, lay down,
deposit, reposit[obs3]; cradle; moor, tether, picket; pack, tuck in; embed,
imbed; vest, invest in.
billet on, quarter upon, saddle with; load, lade, freight; pocket, put
up, bag.
inhabit &c. (be present) 186; domesticate, colonize; take root, strike
root; anchor; cast anchor, come to an anchor; sit down, settle down;
settle; take up one's abode, take up one's quarters; plant oneself,
establish oneself, locate oneself; squat, perch, hive, se nicher[Fr],
bivouac, burrow, get a footing; encamp, pitch one's tent; put up at, put up
one's horses at; keep house.
endenizen[obs3], naturalize, adopt.
put back, replace &c. (restore) 660.
Adj. placed &c. v.; situate, posited, ensconced, imbedded,
embosomed[obs3], rooted; domesticated; vested in, unremoved[obs3].
moored &c. v.; at anchor.

#185. Displacement.-- N. displacement, elocation[obs3], transposition.
ejectment &c. 297[obs3]; exile &c. (banishment) 893; removal &c.
(transference) 270.
misplacement, dislocation &c. 61; fish out of water.
V. displace, misplace, displant[obs3], dislodge, disestablish; exile
&c. (seclude) 893; ablegate[obs3], set aside, remove; take away, cart away;
take off, draft off; lade &c. 184.
unload, empty &c. (eject) 297; transfer &c. 270; dispel.
vacate; depart &c. 293.
Adj. displaced &c. v.; unplaced, unhoused[obs3], unharbored[obs3],
unestablished[obs3], unsettled; houseless[obs3], homeless; out of place,
out of a situation; in the wrong place.
misplaced, out of its element.


#186. Presence.-- N. presence; occupancy, occupation; attendance;
permeation, pervasion; diffusion &c. (dispersion) 73.
ubiety[obs3], ubiquity, ubiquitariness[obs3]; omnipresence.
bystander &c. (spectator) 444.
V. exist in space, be present &c. adj.; assister[obs3]; make one of,
make one at; look on, attend, remain; find oneself, present oneself; show
one's face; fall in the way of, occur in a place; lie, stand; occupy; be
people; inhabit, dwell, reside, stay, sojourn, live, abide, lodge,
nestle, roost, perch; take up one's abode &c. (be located) 184; tenant.
resort to, frequent, haunt; revisit.
fill, pervade, permeate; be diffused, be disseminated, be through;
over spread, overrun; run through; meet one at every turn.
Adj. present; occupying, inhabiting &c. v.; moored &c. 184;
resiant[obs3], resident, residentiary[obs3]; domiciled.
ubiquitous, ubiquitary[obs3]; omnipresent; universally present.
peopled, populous, full of people, inhabited.
Adv. here, there, where, everywhere, aboard, on board, at home,
afield; here there and everywhere &c. (space) 180; in presence of, before;
under the eyes of, under the nose of; in the face of; in propria
on the spot; in person, in the flesh.
Phr. nusquam est qui ubique est [Lat][Seneca].

<-- p. 56 -->

#187. [Nullibiety.1] Absence.-- N. absence; inexistence &c. 2[obs3];
nonresidence, absenteeism; nonattendance, alibi.
emptiness &c. adj.; void, vacuum; vacuity, vacancy; tabula rasa[Lat];
exemption; hiatus &c. (interval) 198; lipotype|!.
truant, absentee.
nobody; nobody present, nobody on earth; not a soul; ame qui vive[Fr].
V. be absent &c. adj.; keep away, keep out of the way; play truant,
absent oneself, stay away; keep aloof, hold aloof.
withdraw, make oneself scarce, vacate; go away &c. 293.
Adj. absent, not present, away, nonresident, gone, from home; missing;
lost; wanting; omitted; nowhere to be found; inexistence &c. 2[obs3].
empty, void; vacant, vacuous; untenanted, unoccupied, uninhabited;
tenantless; barren, sterile; desert, deserted; devoid; uninhabitable.
Adv. without, minus, nowhere; elsewhere; neither here nor there; in
default of; sans; behind one's back.
Phr. the bird has flown, non est inventus[Lat].
"absence makes the heart grow fonder" [Bayley]; "absent in body but
present in spirit" [1 Corinthians v, 3]; absento nemo ne nocuisse velit
[Lat][Propertius]; "Achilles absent was Achilles still" [Homer]; aux
absents les os; briller par son absence[Fr]; "conspicuous by his absence"
[Russell]; "in the hope to meet shortly again and make our absence sweet"
[B. Jonson].

#188. Inhabitant.-- N. inhabitant; resident, residentiary[obs3];
dweller, indweller[obs3]; addressee; occupier, occupant; householder,
lodger, inmate, tenant, incumbent, sojourner, locum tenens,
commorant[obs3]; settler, squatter, backwoodsman, colonist; islander;
denizen, citizen; burgher, oppidan[obs3], cockney, cit, townsman, burgess;
villager; cottager, cottier[obs3], cotter; compatriot; backsettler[obs3],
boarder; hotel keeper, innkeeper; habitant; paying guest; planter.
native, indigene, aborigines, autochthones[obs3]; Englishman, John
Bull; newcomer &c. (stranger) 57.
aboriginal, American[obs3], Caledonian, Cambrian, Canadian, Canuck*,
downeaster [U.S.], Scot, Scotchman, Hibernian, Irishman, Welshman, Uncle
Sam, Yankee, Brother Jonathan.
garrison, crew; population; people &c. (mankind) 372; colony,
settlement; household; mir[obs3].
V. inhabit &c. (be present) 186; endenizen &c. (locate oneself)
Adj. indigenous; native, natal; autochthonal[obs3], autochthonous;
British; English; American[obs3]; Canadian, Irish, Scotch, Scottish, Welsh;
domestic; domiciliated[obs3], domiciled; naturalized, vernacular,
domesticated; domiciliary.
in the occupation of; garrisoned by, occupied by.

<-- 1. Bishop Wilkins. -->

<-- p. 57 -->

#189. [Place of habitation, or resort.] Abode.-- N. abode, dwelling,
lodging, domicile, residence, apartment, place, digs, pad, address,
habitation, where one's lot is cast, local habitation, berth, diggings,
lap, sojourn, housing, quarters, headquarters, resiance|, tabernacle,
throne, ark.
home, fatherland; country; homestead, homestall[obs3]; fireside;
hearth, hearth stone; chimney corner, inglenook, ingle side; harem,
seraglio, zenana[obs3]; household gods, lares et penates[Lat], roof,
household, housing, dulce domum[Lat], paternal domicile; native soil,
native land.
habitat, range, stamping ground; haunt, hangout; biosphere;
environment, ecological niche.
nest, nidus, snuggery[obs3]; arbor, bower, &c. 191; lair, den, cave,
hole, hiding place, cell, sanctum sanctorum[Lat], aerie, eyrie, eyry[obs3],
rookery, hive; covert, resort, retreat, perch, roost; nidification; kala
bivouac, camp, encampment, cantonment, castrametation[obs3]; barrack,
casemate[obs3], casern[obs3].
tent &c. (covering) 223; building &c. (construction) 161; chamber &c.
(receptacle) 191; xenodochium[obs3].
tenement, messuage, farm, farmhouse, grange, hacienda, toft[obs3].
cot, cabin, hut, chalet, croft, shed, booth, stall, hovel,
bothy[obs3], shanty, dugout [U.S.], wigwam; pen &c. (inclosure) 232; barn,
bawn[obs3]; kennel, sty, doghold[obs3], cote, coop, hutch, byre; cow house,
cow shed; stable, dovecote, columbary[obs3], columbarium; shippen[obs3];
igloo, iglu[obs3], jacal[obs3]; lacustrine dwelling[obs3], lacuslake
dwelling[obs3], lacuspile dwelling[obs3]; log cabin, log house; shack,
shebang*, tepee, topek[obs3].
house, mansion, place, villa, cottage, box, lodge, hermitage, rus in
urbe[Lat], folly, rotunda, tower, chateau, castle, pavilion, hotel, court,
manor-house, capital messuage, hall, palace; kiosk, bungalow; casa[Sp],
country seat, apartment house, flat house, frame house, shingle house,
tenement house; temple &c. 1000.
hamlet, village, thorp[obs3], dorp[obs3], ham, kraal; borough, burgh,
town, city, capital, metropolis; suburb; province, country; county town,
county seat; courthouse [U.S.]; ghetto.
street, place, terrace, parade, esplanade, alameda[obs3], board walk,
embankment, road, row, lane, alley, court, quadrangle, quad, wynd[Scot],
close, yard, passage, rents, buildings, mews.
square, polygon, circus, crescent, mall, piazza, arcade, colonnade,
peristyle, cloister; gardens, grove, residences; block of buildings, market
place, place, plaza.
anchorage, roadstead, roads; dock, basin, wharf, quay, port, harbor.
quarter, parish &c. (region) 181.
assembly room, meetinghouse, pump room, spa, watering place; inn;
hostel, hostelry; hotel, tavern, caravansary, dak bungalow[obs3], khan,
hospice; public house, pub, pot house, mug house; gin mill, gin palace;
bar, bar room; barrel house* [U.S.], cabaret, chophouse; club, clubhouse;
cookshop[obs3], dive [U.S.], exchange [euphemism, U.S.]; grill room, saloon
[U.S.], shebeen[obs3]; coffee house, eating house; canteen, restaurant,
buffet, cafe, estaminet[obs3], posada[obs3]; almshouse[obs3], poorhouse,
townhouse [U.S.].
garden, park, pleasure ground, plaisance[obs3], demesne.
[quarters for animals] cage, terrarium, doghouse; pen, aviary; barn,
stall; zoo.
V. take up one's abode &c. (locate oneself) 184; inhabit &c. (be
present) 186.
Adj. urban, metropolitan; suburban; provincial, rural, rustic;
domestic; cosmopolitan; palatial.
Phr. eigner Hert ist goldes Werth[Ger]; "even cities have their
graves" [Longfellow]; ubi libertas ibi patria[Lat]; home sweet home.

#190. [Things contained.] Contents.-- N. contents; cargo, lading,
freight, shipment, load, bale, burden, jag; cartload[obs3], shipload; cup
of, basket of, &c. (receptacle) 191 of; inside &c. 221; stuffing, ullage.

#191. Receptacle. -- N. receptacle; inclosure &c. 232; recipient,
receiver, reservatory.
compartment; cell, cellule; follicle; hole, corner, niche, recess,
nook; crypt, stall, pigeonhole, cove, oriel; cave &c. (concavity) 252.
capsule, vesicle, cyst, pod, calyx, cancelli, utricle, bladder;
pericarp, udder.
stomach, paunch, venter, ventricle, crop, craw, maw, gizzard,
breadbasket; mouth.
pocket, pouch, fob, sheath, scabbard, socket, bag, sac, sack, saccule,
wallet, cardcase, scrip, poke, knit, knapsack, haversack, sachel, satchel,
reticule, budget, net; ditty bag, ditty box; housewife, hussif; saddlebags;
portfolio; quiver &c. (magazine) 636.
chest, box, coffer, caddy, case, casket, pyx, pix, caisson, desk,
bureau, reliquary; trunk, portmanteau, band-box, valise; grip, grip sack
[U.S.]; skippet, vasculum; boot, imperial; vache; cage, manger, rack.
vessel, vase, bushel, barrel; canister, jar; pottle, basket, pannier,
buck-basket, hopper, maund|, creel, cran, crate, cradle, bassinet, wisket,
whisket, jardiniere, corbeille, hamper, dosser, dorser, tray, hod, scuttle,
utensil; brazier; cuspidor, spittoon.
[For liquids] cistern &c. (store) 636; vat, caldron, barrel, cask,
drum, puncheon, keg, rundlet, tun, butt, cag, firkin, kilderkin, carboy,
amphora, bottle, jar, decanter, ewer, cruse, caraffe, crock, kit, canteen,
flagon; demijohn; flask, flasket; stoup, noggin, vial, phial, cruet,
caster; urn, epergne, salver, patella, tazza, patera; pig gin, big gin;
tyg, nipperkin, pocket pistol; tub, bucket, pail, skeel, pot, tankard, jug,
pitcher, mug, pipkin; galipot, gallipot; matrass, receiver, retort,
alembic, bolthead, capsule, can, kettle; bowl, basin, jorum, punch bowl,
cup, goblet, chalice, tumbler, glass, rummer, horn, saucepan, skillet,
posnet|, tureen.
[laboratory vessels for liquids] beaker, flask, Erlenmeyer flask,
Florence flask, round-bottom flask, graduated cylinder, test tube, culture
tube, pipette, Pasteur pipette, disposable pipette, syringe, vial, carboy,
vacuum flask, Petri dish, microtiter tray, centrifuge tube.
bail, beaker, billy, canakin; catch basin, catch drain; chatti, lota,
mussuk, schooner [U.S.], spider, terrine, toby, urceus.
plate, platter, dish, trencher, calabash, porringer, potager, saucer,
pan, crucible; glassware, tableware; vitrics.
compote, gravy boat, creamer, sugar bowl, butter dish, mug, pitcher,
punch bowl, chafing dish.
shovel, trowel, spoon, spatula, ladle, dipper, tablespoon, watch
glass, thimble.
closet, commode, cupboard, cellaret, chiffonniere, locker, bin,
bunker, buffet, press, clothespress, safe, sideboard, drawer, chest of
drawers, chest on chest, highboy, lowboy, till, scrutoire|, secretary,
secretaire, davenport, bookcase, cabinet, canterbury; escritoire, etagere,
vargueno, vitrine.
chamber, apartment, room, cabin; office, court, hall, atrium; suite of
rooms, apartment [U.S.], flat, story; saloon, salon, parlor; by-room,
cubicle; presence chamber; sitting room, best room, keeping room, drawing
room, reception room, state room; gallery, cabinet, closet; pew, box;
boudoir; adytum, sanctum; bedroom, dormitory; refectory, dining room,
salle-a-manger; nursery, schoolroom; library, study; studio; billiard room,
smoking room; den; stateroom, tablinum, tenement.
[room for defecation and urination] bath room, bathroom, toilet,
lavatory, powder room; john, jakes, necessary, loo; [in public places]
men's room, ladies' room, rest room; [fixtures: see 653 (uncleanness)].
attic, loft, garret, cockloft, clerestory; cellar, vault, hold,
cockpit; cubbyhole; cook house; entre-sol; mezzanine floor; ground floor,
rez-de-chaussee; basement, kitchen, pantry, bawarchi-khana, scullery,
offices; storeroom &c. (depository) 636; lumber room; dairy, laundry.
coach house; garage; hangar; outhouse; penthouse; lean-to.
portico, porch, stoop, stope, veranda, patio, lanai, terrace, deck;
lobby, court, courtyard, hall, vestibule, corridor, passage, breezeway;
ante room, ante chamber; lounge; piazza [=veranda, U.S.].
conservatory, greenhouse, bower, arbor, summerhouse, alcove, grotto,
lodging &c. (abode) 189; bed &c. (support) 215; carriage &c. (vehicle)
Adj. capsular; saccular, sacculated; recipient; ventricular, cystic,
vascular, vesicular, cellular, camerated, locular, multilocular,
polygastric; marsupial; siliquose, siliquous.



#192. Size.-- N. size, magnitude, dimension, bulk, volume; largeness
&c. adj.; greatness &c. (of quantity) 31; expanse &c. (space) 180;
amplitude, mass; proportions.
capacity, tonnage, tunnage; cordage; caliber, scantling.
turgidity &c. (expansion) 194; corpulence, obesity; plumpness &c.
adj.; embonpoint, corporation, flesh and blood, lustihood.
hugeness &c. adj.; enormity, immensity, monstrosity.
giant, Brobdingnagian, Antaeus, Goliath, Gog and Magog, Gargantua,
monster, mammoth, Cyclops; cachalot, whale, porpoise, behemoth, leviathan,
elephant, hippopotamus; colossus; tun, cord, lump, bulk, block, loaf, mass,
swad, clod, nugget, bushel, thumper, whooper, spanker, strapper; "Triton
among the minnows" [Coriolanus].
mountain, mound; heap &c. (assemblage) 72.
largest portion &c. 50; full size, life size.
V. be large &c. adj.; become large &c. (expand) 194.
Adj. large, big; great &c. (in quantity) 31; considerable, bulky,
voluminous, ample, massive, massy; capacious, comprehensive; spacious &c.
180; mighty, towering, fine, magnificent.
corpulent, stout, fat, obese, plump, squab, full, lusty, strapping,
bouncing; portly, burly, well-fed, full-grown; corn fed, gram fed;
stalwart, brawny, fleshy; goodly; in good case, in good condition; in
condition; chopping, jolly; chub faced, chubby faced.
lubberly, hulky, unwieldy, lumpish, gaunt, spanking, whacking,
whopping, walloping, thumping, thundering, hulking; overgrown; puffy &c.
(swollen) 194.
huge, immense, enormous, mighty; vast, vasty; amplitudinous,
stupendous; monster, monstrous, humongous, monumental; elephantine, jumbo,
mammoth; gigantic, gigantean, giant, giant like, titanic; prodigious,
colossal, Cyclopean, Brobdingnagian, Bunyanesque, Herculean, Gargantuan;
infinite &c. 105.
large as life; plump as a dumpling, plump as a partridge; fat as a
pig, fat as a quail, fat as butter, fat as brawn, fat as bacon.
immeasurable, unfathomable, unplumbed; inconceivable, unimaginable,
of cosmic proportions; of epic proportions, the mother of all, the
granddaddy of all.

<-- p. 59 -->

#193. Littleness.-- N. littleness &c. adj.; smallness &c. (of
quantity) 32; exiguity, inextension[obs3]; parvitude[obs3], parvity[obs3];
duodecimo[obs3]; Elzevir edition, epitome, microcosm; rudiment; vanishing
point; thinness &c. 203.
dwarf, pygmy, pigmy[obs3], Liliputian, chit, pigwidgeon[obs3], urchin,
elf; atomy[obs3], dandiprat[obs3]; doll, puppet; Tom Thumb, Hop-o'-my-
thumb[obs3]; manikin, mannikin; homunculus, dapperling[obs3], cock-sparrow.
animalcule, monad, mite, insect, emmet[obs3], fly, midge, gnat,
shrimp, minnow, worm, maggot, entozoon[obs3]; bacteria; infusoria[obs3];
microzoa[Microbiol]; phytozoaria[obs3]; microbe; grub; tit, tomtit, runt,
mouse, small fry; millet seed, mustard seed; barleycorn; pebble, grain of
sand; molehill, button, bubble.
point; atom &c. (small quantity) 32; fragment &c. (small part) 51;
powder &c. 330; point of a pin, mathematical point; minutiae &c.
(unimportance) 643.
micrometer; vernier; scale.
microphotography, photomicrography, micrography[obs3];
photomicrograph, microphotograph; microscopy; microscope (optical
instruments) 445..
V. be little &c. adj.; lie in a nutshell; become small &c. (decrease)
36, (contract) 195.
Adj. little; small &c. (in quantity) 32; minute, diminutive,
microscopic; microzoal; inconsiderable &c. (unimportant) 643; exiguous,
puny, tiny, wee, petty, minikin[obs3], miniature, pygmy, pigmy[obs3],
elfin; undersized; dwarf, dwarfed, dwarfish; spare, stunted, limited;
cramp, cramped; pollard, Liliputian, dapper, pocket; portative[obs3],
portable; duodecimo[obs3]; dumpy, squat; short &c. 201.
impalpable, intangible, evanescent, imperceptible, invisible,
inappreciable, insignificant, inconsiderable, trivial; infinitesimal,
homoeopathic[obs3]; atomic, subatomic, corpuscular, molecular; rudimentary,
rudimental; embryonic, vestigial.
weazen|!, scant, scraggy, scrubby; thin &c. (narrow) 203; granular &c.
(powdery) 330; shrunk &c. 195; brevipennate[obs3].
Adv. in a small compass, in a nutshell; on a small scale; minutely,

#194. Expansion.-- N. expansion; increase &c. 35 of size; enlargement,
extension, augmentation; amplification, ampliation[obs3]; aggrandizement,
spread, increment, growth, development, pullulation, swell, dilation,
rarefaction; turgescence[obs3], turgidness, turgidity; dispansion|; obesity
&c. (size) 192; hydrocephalus, hydrophthalmus[Med]; dropsy, tumefaction,
intumescence, swelling, tumor, diastole, distension; puffing, puffiness;
inflation; pandiculation[obs3].
dilatability, expansibility.
germination, growth, upgrowth[obs3]; accretion &c. 35; budding,
overgrowth, overdistension[obs3]; hypertrophy, tympany[obs3].
bulb &c. (convexity) 250; plumper; superiority of size.
[expansion of the universe] big bang; Hubble constant.
V. become larger &c. (large &c. 192); expand, widen, enlarge, extend,
grow, increase, incrassate[obs3], swell, gather; fill out; deploy, take
open order, dilate, stretch, distend, spread; mantle, wax; grow up, spring
up; bud, bourgeon[Fr], shoot, sprout, germinate, put forth, vegetate,
pullulate, open, burst forth; gain flesh, gather flesh; outgrow; spread
like wildfire, overrun.
be larger than; surpass &c. (be superior) 33.
render larger &c. (large &c. 192); expand, spread, extend, aggrandize,
distend, develop, amplify, spread out, widen, magnify, rarefy, inflate,
puff, blow up, stuff, pad, cram; exaggerate; fatten.
Adj. expanded &c. v.; larger &c. (large &c. 192; swollen; expansive;
wide open, wide spread; flabelliform[obs3]; overgrown, exaggerated,
bloated, fat, turgid, tumid, hypertrophied, dropsical; pot bellied, swag
bellied|; edematous, oedematous[obs3], obese, puffy, pursy[obs3], blowzy,
bigswoln[obs3], distended; patulous; bulbous &c. (convex) 250; full blown,
full grown, full formed; big &c. 192; abdominous[obs3], enchymatous[obs3],
rhipidate[obs3]; tumefacient[obs3], tumefying[obs3].

<-- p. 60 -->

#195. Contraction.-- N. contraction, reduction, diminution; decrease
&c. 36 of size; defalcation, decrement; lessening, shrinking &c. v.;
compaction; tabes[obs3], collapse, emaciation, attenuation,
tabefaction[obs3], consumption, marasmus[obs3], atrophy; systole, neck,
condensation, compression, compactness; compendium &c. 596; squeezing
&c. v.; strangulation; corrugation; astringency; astringents, sclerotics;
contractility, compressibility; coarctation[obs3].
inferiority in size.
V. become small, become smaller; lessen, decrease &c. 36; grow less,
dwindle, shrink, contract, narrow, shrivel, collapse, wither, lose flesh,
wizen, fall away, waste, wane, ebb; decay &c. (deteriorate) 659.
be smaller than, fall short of; not come up to &c. (be inferior) 34.
render smaller, lessen, diminish, contract, draw in, narrow,
coarctate[obs3]; boil down; constrict, constringe[obs3]; condense,
compress, squeeze, corrugate, crimp, crunch, crush, crumple up, warp, purse
up, pack, squeeze, stow; pinch, tighten, strangle; cramp; dwarf,
bedwarf[obs3]; shorten &c. 201; circumscribe &c. 229; restrain &c. 751.
[reduce in size by abrasion or paring; see subtraction 38] abrade,
pare, reduce, attenuate, rub down, scrape, file, file down, grind, grind
down, chip, shave, shear, wear down.
Adj. contracting &c. v.; astringent; shrunk, contracted &c. v.;
strangulated, tabid[obs3], wizened, stunted; waning &c. v.; neap, compact.
unexpanded &c. (expand &c. 194)[obs3]; contractile; compressible;
smaller &c. (small &c.193).

#196. Distance.-- N. distance; space &c. 180; remoteness,
farness[obs3], far-cry to; longinquity[obs3], elongation; offing,
background; remote region; removedness[obs3]; parallax; reach, span,
outpost, outskirt; horizon; aphelion; foreign parts, ultima
Thule[Lat], ne plus ultra[Lat], antipodes; long range, giant's stride.
dispersion &c.73.
[units of distance] length &c. 200.
cosmic distance, light-years.
V. be distant &c. adj.; extend to, stretch to, reach to, spread to, go
to, get to, stretch away to; range.
remain at a distance; keep away, keep off, keep aloof, keep clear of,
stand away, stand off, stand aloof, stand clear of, stay away, keep one's
[transitive] distance; distance oneself from.
Adj. distant; far off, far away; remote, telescopic, distal, wide of;
stretching to &c. v.; yon, yonder; ulterior; transmarine[obs3],
transpontine[obs3], transatlantic, transalpine; tramontane; ultramontane,
ultramundane[obs3]; hyperborean, antipodean; inaccessible, out of the way;
unapproached[obs3], unapproachable; incontiguous[obs3].
Adv. far off, far away; afar, afar off; off; away; a long way off, a
great way off, a good way off; wide away, aloof; wide of, clear of; out of
the way, out of reach; abroad, yonder, farther, further, beyond; outre
mer[Fr], over the border, far and wide, "over the hills and far away"
[Gay]; from pole to pole &c. (over great space) 180; to the uttermost
parts, to the ends of the earth; out of hearing, nobody knows where, a
perte de vue[Fr], out of the sphere of, wide of the mark; a far cry to.
apart, asunder; wide apart, wide asunder; longo intervallo[It]; at
arm's length.
Phr. "distance lends enchantment" [Campbell]; "it's a long long way to
Tipperary"; out of sight, out of mind.

#197. Nearness.-- N. nearness &c. adj.; proximity, propinquity;
vicinity, vicinage; neighborhood, adjacency; contiguity &c. 199.
short distance, short step, short cut; earshot, close quarters,
stone's throw; bow shot, gun shot, pistol shot; hair's breadth, span.
purlieus, neighborhood, vicinage, environs, alentours[Fr], suburbs,
confines, banlieue[obs3], borderland; whereabouts.
bystander; neighbor, borderer[obs3].
approach &c. 286; convergence 7c. 290; perihelion.
V. be near &c. adj.; adjoin, hang about, trench on; border upon, verge
upon; stand by, approximate, tread on the heels of, cling to, clasp, hug;
huddle; hang upon the skirts of, hover over; burn.
touch &c. 199
bring near, draw near &c. 286; converge &c. 290; crowd &c. 72; place
side by side &c. adv.
Adj. near, nigh; close at hand, near at hand; close, neighboring;
bordering upon, contiguous, adjacent, adjoining; proximate, proximal; at
hand, handy; near the mark, near run; home, intimate.
Adv. near, nigh; hard by, fast by; close to, close upon; hard upon; at
the point of; next door to; within reach, within call,
within hearing, within earshot; within an ace of; but a step, not far
from, at no great distance; on the verge of, on the brink of, on the skirts
of; in the environs &c. n.; at one's door, at one's feet, at one's elbow,
at one's finger's end, at one's side; on the tip of one's tongue; under
one's nose; within a stone's throw &c. n.; in sight of, in presence of; at
close quarters; cheek by jole[obs3], cheek by jowl; beside, alongside, side
by side, tete-a-tete; in juxtaposition &c. (touching) 199; yardarm to
yardarm, at the heels of; on the confines of, at the threshold, bordering
upon, verging to; in the way.
about; hereabouts, thereabouts; roughly, in round numbers;
approximately, approximatively[obs3]; as good as, well-nigh.

<-- p. 61 -->

#198. Interval.-- N. interval, interspace[obs3]; separation &c. 44;
break, gap, opening; hole &c. 260; chasm, hiatus, caesura; interruption,
interregnum; interstice, lacuna, cleft, mesh, crevice, chink, rime, creek,
cranny, crack, chap, slit, fissure, scissure[obs3], rift, flaw, breach,
rent, gash, cut, leak, dike, ha-ha.
gorge, defile, ravine, canon, crevasse, abyss, abysm; gulf; inlet,
frith[obs3], strait, gully; pass; furrow &c. 259; abra[obs3];
barranca[obs3], barranco[obs3]; clove [U.S.], gulch [U.S.], notch [U.S.];
yawning gulf; hiatus maxime[Lat], hiatus valde deflendus[Lat]; parenthesis
&c. (interjacence) 228[obs3]; void 7c. (absence) 187; incompleteness &c.
[interval of time] period &c. 108; interim (time) 106.
V. gape &c. (open) 260.
Adj. with an interval, far between; breachy[obs3], rimose[obs3],
Adv. at intervals &c. (discontinuously) 70; longo intervallo[It].

#199. Contiguity.-- N. contiguity, contact, proximity, apposition,
abuttal[obs3], juxtaposition; abutment, osculation; meeting, appulse[obs3],
rencontre[obs3], rencounter[obs3], syzygy[Astron], coincidence,
coexistence; adhesion &c. 46; touching &c. v. (see touch 379).
borderland; frontier &c. (limit) 233; tangent; abutter.
V. be contiguous &c. adj.; join, adjoin, abut on, march with; graze,
touch, meet, osculate, come in contact, coincide; coexist; adhere &c. 46.
[transitive][cause to be contiguous] juxtapose; contact; join (unite)
43; link (vinculum) 45.
Adj. contiguous; touching &c. v.; in contact &c. n.; conterminous, end
to end, osculatory; pertingent|; tangential.
hand to hand; close to &c. (near) 197; with no interval &c. 198.


#200. Length.-- N. length, longitude, span; mileage; distance &c. 196.
line, bar, rule, stripe, streak, spoke, radius.
lengthening &c. v.; prolongation, production, protraction; tension,
tensure[obs3]; extension.
[Measures of length] line, nail, inch, hand, palm, foot, cubit, yard,
ell, fathom, rood, pole, furlong, mile, league; chain, link; arpent[obs3],
handbreadth[obs3], jornada [obs3][U.S.], kos[obs3], vara[obs3].
[astronomical units of distance] astronomical unit, AU, light-year,
[metric units of length] nanometer, nm, micron, micrometer,
millimicron, millimeter, mm, centimeter, cm, meter, kilometer, km.
pedometer, perambulator; scale &c. (measurement) 466.
V. be long &c. adj.; stretch out, sprawl; extend to, reach to, stretch
to; make a long arm, "drag its slow length along."
render long &c. adj.; lengthen, extend, elongate; stretch; prolong,
produce, protract; let out, draw out, spin out|!; drawl.
enfilade, look along, view in perspective.
distend (expand) 194.
Adj. long, longsome[obs3]; lengthy, wiredrawn[obs3], outstretched;
lengthened &c. v.; sesquipedalian &c. (words) 577; interminable, no end
of; macrocolous[obs3].
linear, lineal; longitudinal, oblong.
as long as my arm, as long as today and tomorrow; unshortened &c.
(shorten &c. 201)[obs3].
Adv. lengthwise, at length, longitudinally, endlong[obs3], along;
tandem; in a line &c. (continuously) 69; in perspective.
from end to end, from stem to stern, from head to foot, from the crown
of the head to the sole of the foot, from top to toe; fore and aft.

#201. Shortness.-- N. shortness &c. adj.; brevity; littleness &c. 193;
a span.
shortening &c. v.; abbreviation, abbreviature[obs3]; abridgment,
concision, retrenchment, curtailment, decurtation|; reduction &c.
(contraction) 195; epitome &c. (compendium) 596.
elision, ellipsis; conciseness &c. (in style) 572.
abridger, epitomist[obs3], epitomizer[obs3].
V. be short &c. adj.; render short &c. adj.; shorten, curtail,
abridge, abbreviate, take in, reduce; compress &c. (contract) 195;
epitomize &c. 596.
retrench, cut short, obtruncate[obs3]; scrimp, cut, chop up, hack,
hew; cut down, pare down; clip, dock, lop, prune, shear, shave, mow, reap,
crop; snub; truncate, pollard, stunt, nip, check the growth of;
foreshorten[in drawing].
Adj. short, brief, curt; compendious, compact; stubby, scrimp; shorn,
stubbed; stumpy, thickset, pug; chunky [U.S.], decurtate[obs3];
retrousse[obs3]; stocky; squab, squabby[obs3]; squat, dumpy; little &c.
193; curtailed of its fair proportions; short by; oblate; concise &c. 572;
Adv. shortly &c. adj.; in short &c. (concisely) 572.

#202. Breadth, Thickness.-- N. breadth, width, latitude, amplitude;
diameter, bore, caliber, radius; superficial extent &c. (space) 180.
thickness, crassitude[obs3]; corpulence &c. (size) 192; dilation &c.
(expansion) 194.
V. be broad &c. adj.; become broad, render broad &c. adj.; expand &c.
194; thicken, widen, calibrate.
Adj. broad, wide, ample, extended; discous[obs3]; fanlike; outspread,
outstretched; "wide as a church-door" [Romeo and Juliet];
latifoliate[obs3], latifolous[obs3].
thick, dumpy, squab, squat, thickset; thick as a rope.

#203. Narrowness. Thinness.-- N. narrowness &c. adj.; closeness,
exility[obs3]; exiguity 7c. (little) 193.
line; hair's breadth, finger's breadth; strip, streak, vein.
monolayer; epitaxial deposition[Engin].
thinness &c. adj.; tenuity; emaciation, macilency[obs3], marcor|.
shaving, slip &c. (filament) 205; thread paper, skeleton, shadow,
anatomy, spindleshanks[obs3], lantern jaws, mere skin and bone.
middle constriction, stricture, neck, waist, isthmus, wasp, hourglass;
ridge, ghaut[obs3], ghat[obs3], pass; ravine &c. 198.
narrowing, coarctation[obs3], angustation[obs3], tapering; contraction
&c. 195.
V. be narrow &c. adj.; narrow, taper, contract &c. 195; render narrow
&c. adj; waste away.
Adj. narrow, close; slender, thin, fine; thread-like &c. (filament)
205; finespun[obs3], gossamer; paper-thin; taper, slim, slight-made; scant,
scanty; spare, delicate, incapacious[obs3]; contracted &c. 195; unexpanded
&c. (expand &c. 194)[obs3]; slender as a thread.
[in reference to people or animals] emaciated, lean, meager, gaunt,
macilent[obs3]; lank, lanky; weedy, skinny; scrawny slinky[U.S.]; starved,
starveling; herring gutted; worn to a shadow, lean as a rake [Chaucer];
thin as a lath, thin as a whipping post, thin as a wafer; hatchet-faced;
attenuated, shriveled, extenuated, tabid[obs3], marcid|, barebone,

#204. Layer.-- N. layer, stratum, strata, course, bed, zone,
substratum, substrata, floor, flag, stage, story, tier, slab, escarpment;
table, tablet; dess[obs3]; flagstone; board, plank; trencher, platter.
plate; lamina, lamella; sheet, foil; wafer; scale, flake, peel;
coat, pellicle; membrane, film; leaf; slice, shive[obs3], cut, rasher,
shaving, integument &c. (covering) 223; eschar[obs3].
stratification, scaliness, nest of boxes, coats of an onion.
monolayer; bilayer; trilayer[Biochem].
V. slice, shave, pare, peel; delaminate; plate, coat, veneer; cover
&c. 223.
Adj. lamellar, lamellated[obs3], lamelliform[obs3], layered;
laminated, laminiferous[obs3]; micaceous[obs3]; schistose, schistous[obs3];
scaly, filmy, membranous, pellicular, flaky, squamous[Anat]; foliated,
foliaceous[obs3]; stratified, stratiform; tabular, discoid; spathic[obs3],

#205. Filament.-- N. filament, line; fiber, fibril; funicle[obs3],
vein; hair, capillament[obs3], cilium, cilia, pilus, pili; tendril,
gossamer; hair stroke; veinlet[obs3], venula[obs3], venule[obs3].
wire, string, thread, packthread, cotton, sewing silk, twine, twist,
whipcord, tape, ribbon, cord, rope, yarn, hemp, oakum, jute.
strip, shred, slip, spill, list, band, fillet, fascia, ribbon, riband,
roll, lath, splinter, shiver, shaving.
beard &c. (roughness) 256; ramification; strand.
Adj. filamentous, filamentiferous[obs3], filaceous[obs3],
filiform[obs3]; fibrous, fibrillous[obs3]; thread-like, wiry, stringy,
ropy; capillary, capilliform[obs3]; funicular, wire-drawn;
anguilliform[obs3]; flagelliform[obs3]; hairy &c. (rough) 256;
taeniate[obs3], taeniform[obs3], taenioid[obs3]; venose[obs3], venous.

<-- p. 63 -->

#206. Height. -- N. height, altitude, elevation; eminence, pitch;
loftiness &c. adj.; sublimity.
tallness &c. adj.; stature, procerity[obs3]; prominence &c. 250.
colossus &c. (size) 192; giant, grenadier, giraffe, camelopard.
mount, mountain; hill alto, butte [U.S.], monticle[obs3], fell,
knap[obs3]; cape; headland, foreland[obs3]; promontory; ridge, hog's back,
dune; rising ground, vantage ground; down; moor, moorland; Alp; uplands,
highlands; heights &c. (summit), 210; knob, loma[obs3], pena [obs3][U.S.],
picacho[obs3], tump[obs3]; knoll, hummock, hillock, barrow, mound, mole;
steeps, bluff, cliff, craig[obs3], tor[obs3], peak, pike, clough[obs3];
escarpment, edge, ledge, brae; dizzy height.
tower, pillar, column, obelisk, monument, steeple, spire, minaret,
campanile, turret, dome, cupola; skyscraper.
pole, pikestaff, maypole, flagstaff; top mast, topgallant mast.
ceiling &c. (covering) 223.
high water; high tide, flood tide, spring tide.
altimetry &c. (angel) 244[obs3]; batophobia[obs3].
satellite, spy-in-the-sky.
V. be high &c. adj.; tower, soar, command; hover, hover over, fly
over; orbit, be in orbit; cap, culminate; overhang, hang over, impend,
beetle, bestride, ride, mount; perch, surmount; cover &c. 223; overtop &c.
(be superior) 33; stand on tiptoe.
become high &c. adj.; grow higher, grow taller; upgrow[obs3]; rise &c.
(ascend) 305; send into orbit.
render high &c. adj.; heighten &c. (elevate) 307.
Adj. high, elevated, eminent, exalted, lofty, tall; gigantic &c. (big)
192; Patagonian; towering, beetling, soaring, hanging [gardens]; elevated
&c. 307; upper; highest &c. (topmost) 210; high reaching,
insessorial[obs3], perching.
upland, moorland; hilly, knobby [U.S.]; mountainous, alpine,
subalpine, heaven kissing; cloudtopt[obs3], cloudcapt[obs3],
cloudtouching[obs3]; aerial.
overhanging &c. v.; incumbent, overlying, superincumbent[obs3],
supernatant, superimposed; prominent &c. c. 250.
tall as a maypole, tall as a poplar, tall as a steeple, lanky &c.
(thin) 203.
Adv. on high, high up, aloft, up, above, aloof, overhead;
airwind[obs3]; upstairs, abovestairs[obs3]; in the clouds; on tiptoe, on
stilts, on the shoulders of; over head and ears; breast high.
over, upwards; from top to bottom &c. (completely) 52.
Phr. e meglio cader dalle finistre che dal tetto[It].

#207. Lowness. -- N. lowness &c. adj.; debasement, depression,
prostration &c. (horizontal) 213; depression &c. (concave) 252.
molehill; lowlands; basement floor, ground floor; rez de chaussee[Fr];
cellar; hold, bilge; feet, heels.
low water; low tide, ebb tide, neap tide, spring tide.
V. be low &c. adj.; lie low, lie flat; underlie; crouch, slouch,
wallow, grovel; lower &c. (depress) 308.
Adj. low, neap, debased; nether, nether most; flat, level with the
ground; lying low &c. v.; crouched, subjacent, squat, prostrate &c.
(horizontal) 213.
Adv. under; beneath, underneath; below; downwards; adown[obs3], at the
foot of; under foot, under ground; down stairs, below stairs; at a low ebb;
below par.

#208. Depth. -- N. depth; deepness &c. adj.; profundity, depression
&c. (concavity) 252.
hollow, pit, shaft, well, crater; gulf &c. 198; bowels of the earth,
bottomless pit[obs3], hell.
soundings, depth of water, water, draught, submersion; plummet, sound,
probe; sounding rod, sounding line; lead.
[instrument to measure depth] sonar, side-looking sonar;
V. be deep &c. adj.; render deep &c. adj.; deepen.
plunge &c. 310; sound, fathom, plumb, cast the lead, heave the lead,
take soundings, make soundings; dig &c. (excavate) 252.
Adj. deep, deep seated; profound, sunk, buried; submerged &c. 310;
subaqueous, submarine, subterranean, subterraneous, subterrene[obs3];
bottomless, soundless, fathomless; unfathomed, unfathomable; abysmal;
deep as a well; bathycolpian[obs3]; benthal[obs3], benthopelagic[obs3];
downreaching[obs3], yawning.
knee deep, ankle deep.
Adv. beyond one's depth, out of one's depth; over head and ears; mark
twine, mark twain.

#209. Shallowness. -- N. shallowness &c. adj.; shoals; mere scratch.
Adj. shallow, slight, superficial; skin deep, ankle deep, knee deep;
just enough to wet one's feet; shoal, shoaly[obs3].

<-- p. 64 -->

#210. Summit. -- N. summit, summity|; top, peak, vertex, apex, zenith,
pinnacle, acme, culmination, meridian, utmost height, ne plus utra, height,
pitch, maximum, climax, culminating point, crowning point, turning point;
turn of the tide, fountain head; water shed, water parting; sky, pole.
tip, tip top; crest, crow's nest, cap, truck, nib; end &c. 67; crown,
brow; head, nob[obs3], noddle[obs3], pate; capsheaf[obs3].
high places, heights.
topgallant mast, sky scraper; quarter deck, hurricane deck.
architrave, frieze, cornice, coping stone, zoophorus[obs3], capital,
epistyle[obs3], sconce, pediment, entablature[obs3]; tympanum; ceiling &c.
(covering) 223.
attic, loft, garret, house top, upper story.
[metaphorical use] summit conference, summit; peak of achievement,
peak of performance; peaks and troughs, peaks and valleys [in graphs].
V. culminate, crown, top; overtop &c. (be superior to) 33.
Adj. highest &c. (high &c. 206); top; top most, upper most; tiptop;
culminating &c. v.; meridian, meridional[obs3]; capital, head, polar,
supreme, supernal, topgallant.
Adv. atop, at the top of the tree.
Phr. en flute; fleur deau[Fr].

#211. Base. -- N. base, basement; plinth, dado, wainscot; baseboard,
mopboard[obs3]; bedrock, hardpan [U.S.]; foundation &c. (support) 215;
substructure, substratum, ground, earth, pavement, floor, paving, flag,
carped, ground floor, deck; footing, ground work, basis; hold, bilge.
bottom, nadir, foot, sole, toe, hoof, keel, root; centerboard.
Adj. bottom, undermost, nethermost; fundamental; founded on, based on,
grounded on, built on.

#212. Verticality. -- N. verticality; erectness &c. adj.;
perpendicularity &c. 216a; right angle, normal; azimuth circle.
wall, precipice, cliff.
elevation, erection; square, plumb line, plummet.
V. be vertical &c. adj.; stand up, stand on end, stand erect, stand
upright; stick up, cock up.
render vertical &c. adj.; set up, stick up, raise up, cock up; erect,
rear, raise on its legs.
Adj. vertical, upright, erect, perpendicular, plumb, normal, straight,
bolt, upright; rampant; standing up &c. v.; rectangular, orthogonal &c.
Adv. vertically &c. adj.; up, on end; up on end, right on end; a
plomb[Fr], endwise; one one's legs; at right angles.

#213. Horizontality. -- N. horizontality[obs3]; flatness; level,
plane; stratum &c. 204; dead level, dead flat; level plane.
recumbency, lying down &c. v.; reclination[obs3], decumbence[obs3];
decumbency[obs3], discumbency|; proneness &c. adj.; accubation[obs3],
supination[obs3], resupination[obs3], prostration; azimuth.
plain, floor, platform, bowling green; cricket ground; croquet ground,
croquet lawn; billiard table; terrace, estrade[obs3], esplanade, parterre.
[flat land area] table land, plateau, ledge; butte; mesa (plain) 344.
[instrument to measure horizontality] level, spirit level.
V. be horizontal &c. adj.; lie, recline, couch; lie down, lie flat,
lie prostrate; sprawl, loll, sit down.
render horizontal &c. adj.; lay down, lay out; level, flatten;
prostrate, knock down, floor, fell.
Adj. horizontal, level, even, plane; flat &c. 251; flat as a billiard
table, flat as a bowling green; alluvial; calm, calm as a mill pond;
smooth, smooth as glass.
recumbent, decumbent, procumbent, accumbent[obs3]; lying &c. v.;
prone, supine, couchant, jacent[obs3], prostrate, recubant[obs3].
Adv. horizontally &c. adj.; on one's back, on all fours, on its beam

#214. Pendency. -- N. pendency[obs3], dependency; suspension, hanging
&c. v.; pedicel, pedicle, peduncle; tail, train, flap, skirt, pigtail, pony
tail, pendulum; hangnail
peg, knob, button, hook, nail, stud, ring, staple, tenterhook;
fastening &c. 45; spar, horse.
V. be pendent &c. adj.; hang, depend, swing, dangle; swag;
daggle[obs3], flap, trail, flow; beetle.
suspend, hang, sling, hook up, hitch, fasten to, append.
Adj. pendent, pendulous; pensile; hanging &c. v.; beetling, jutting
over, overhanging, projecting; dependent; suspended &c. v.; loose, flowing.
having a peduncle &c. n.; pedunculate[obs3], tailed, caudate.

<-- p. 65 -->

#215. Support. -- N. support, ground, foundation, base, basis; terra
firma; bearing, fulcrum, bait [U.S.], caudex crib[obs3]; point d'appui[Fr],
[Grk][Grk], purchase footing, hold, locus standi[Lat];
landing place, landing stage; stage, platform; block; rest, resting place;
groundwork, substratum, riprap, sustentation, subvention; floor &c.
(basement) 211.
supporter; aid &c. 707; prop, stand, anvil, fulciment|; cue rest,
jigger; monkey; stay, shore, skid, rib, truss, bandage; sleeper; stirrup,
stilts, shoe, sole, heel, splint, lap, bar, rod, boom, sprit[obs3],
outrigger; ratlings[obs3].
staff, stick, crutch, alpenstock, baton, staddle[obs3]; bourdon[obs3],
cowlstaff[obs3], lathi[obs3], mahlstick[obs3].
post, pillar, shaft, thill[obs3], column, pilaster; pediment, pedicle;
pedestal; plinth, shank, leg, socle[obs3], zocle[obs3]; buttress, jamb,
mullion, abutment; baluster, banister, stanchion; balustrade; headstone;
upright; door post, jamb, door jamb.
frame, framework; scaffold, skeleton, beam, rafter, girder, lintel,
joist, travis[obs3], trave[obs3], corner stone, summer, transom; rung,
round, step, sill; angle rafter, hip rafter; cantilever, modillion[obs3];
crown post, king post; vertebra.
columella[obs3], backbone; keystone; axle, axletree; axis; arch,
trunnion, pivot, rowlock[obs3]; peg &c. (pendency) 214[obs3]; tiebeam
&c. (fastening) 45; thole pin[obs3].
board, ledge, shelf, hob, bracket, trevet[obs3], trivet, arbor, rack;
mantel, mantle piece[Fr], mantleshelf[obs3]; slab, console; counter,
dresser; flange, corbel; table, trestle; shoulder; perch; horse; easel,
desk; clotheshorse, hatrack; retable; teapoy[obs3].
seat, throne, dais; divan, musnud[obs3]; chair, bench, form, stool,
sofa, settee, stall; arm chair, easy chair, elbow chair, rocking chair;
couch, fauteuil[Fr], woolsack[obs3], ottoman, settle, squab, bench;
aparejo[obs3], faldstool[obs3], horn; long chair, long sleeve chair, morris
chair; lamba chauki[obs3], lamba kursi[obs3]; saddle, pannel[obs3],
pillion; side saddle, pack saddle; pommel.
bed, berth, pallet, tester, crib, cot, hammock, shakedown,
trucklebed[obs3], cradle, litter, stretcher, bedstead; four poster, French
bed, bunk, kip, palang[obs3]; bedding, bichhona, mattress, paillasse[obs3];
pillow, bolster; mat, rug, cushion.
footstool, hassock; tabouret[obs3]; tripod, monopod.
Atlas, Persides, Atlantes[obs3], Caryatides, Hercules.
V. be supported &c.; lie on, sit on, recline on, lean on, loll on,
rest on, stand on, step on, repose on, abut on, bear on, be based on &c.;
have at one's back; bestride, bestraddle[obs3].
support, bear, carry, hold, sustain, shoulder; hold up, back up,
bolster up, shore up; uphold, upbear[obs3]; prop; under prop, under pin,
under set; riprap; bandage &c. 43.
give support, furnish support, afford support, supply support, lend
support, give foundations, furnish foundations, afford foundations, supply
foundations, lend foundations; bottom, found, base, ground, imbed, embed.
maintain, keep on foot; aid &c. 707.
Adj. supporting, supported &c. v.; fundamental; dorsigerous[obs3].
Adv. astride on, straddle.

#216. Parallelism. -- N. {ant. 216a} parallelism; coextension[obs3];
equidistance[obs3]; similarity &c. 17.
Adj. parallel; coextensive; equidistant.
Adv. alongside &c. (laterally) 236.

#216a. Perpendicularity -- N. {ant. 216} perpendicularity,
orthogonality; verticality, &c. 212.
V. be perpendicular, be orthogonal; intersect at right angles, be
rectangular, be at right angles to, intersect at 90 degrees; have no
Adj. orthogonal, perpendicular; rectangular; uncorrelated.

<-- p. 66 -->

#217. Obliquity. -- N. obliquity, inclination, slope, slant,
crookedness &c. adj.; slopeness[obs3]; leaning &c. v.; bevel, tilt; bias,
list, twist, swag, cant, lurch; distortion &c. 243; bend &c. (curve) 245;
tower of Pisa.
acclivity, rise, ascent, gradient, khudd[obs3], rising ground, hill,
bank, declivity, downhill, dip, fall, devexity|; gentle slope, rapid slope,
easy ascent, easy descent; shelving beach; talus; monagne Russe[Fr];
facilis descensus averni[Lat].
V. intersect; lack parallelism.

#218. Inversion. -- N. inversion, eversion, subversion, reversion,
retroversion, introversion; contraposition &c. 237[obs3]; contrariety &c.
14; reversal; turn of the tide.
overturn; somersault, somerset; summerset[obs3]; culbute[obs3];
revulsion; pirouette.
transposition, transposal[obs3], anastrophy[obs3], metastasis,
hyperbaton[obs3], anastrophe[obs3], hysteron proteron[Grk][Grk],
hypallage[obs3], synchysis[obs3], tmesis[obs3], parenthesis; metathesis;
pronation and supination[Anat][obs3].
V. be inverted &c.; turn round, turn about, turn to the right about,
go round, go about, go to the right about, wheel round, wheel about, wheel
to the right about; turn over, go over, tilt over, topple over; capsize,
turn turtle.
invert, subvert, retrovert[obs3], introvert; reverse; up turn, over
turn, up set, over set; turn topsy turvy &c. adj.; culbuter[obs3];
transpose, put the cart before the horse, turn the tables.
Adj. inverted &c. v.; wrong side out, wrong side up; inside out,
upside down; bottom upwards, keel upwards; supine, on one's head, topsy-
turvy, sens dessus dessous[Fr].
inverse; reverse &c. (contrary) 14; opposite &c. 237.
top heavy.
Adv. inversely &c. adj.; hirdy-girdy[obs3]; heels over head, head over

#219. Crossing. -- N. crossing &c. v.; intersection, interdigitation;
decussation[obs3], transversion[obs3]; convolution &c. 248; level crossing.
reticulation, network; inosculation[obs3], anastomosis,
intertexture[obs3], mortise.
net, plexus, web, mesh, twill, skein, sleeve, felt, lace; wicker; mat,
matting; plait, trellis, wattle, lattice, grating, grille, gridiron,
tracery, fretwork, filigree, reticle; tissue, netting, mokes[obs3];
cross, chain, wreath, braid, cat's cradle, knot; entangle &c.
(disorder) 59.
[woven fabrics] cloth, linen, muslin, cambric &c.
[web-footed animal] webfoot.
V. cross, decussate[obs3]; intersect, interlace, intertwine,
intertwist[obs3], interweave, interdigitate, interlink.
twine, entwine, weave, inweave[obs3], twist, wreathe; anastomose[Med],
inosculate[obs3], dovetail, splice, link; lace, tat.
mat, plait, plat, braid, felt, twill; tangle, entangle, ravel; net,
knot; dishevel, raddle[obs3].
Adj. crossing &c. v.; crossed, matted &c, v. transverse.
cross, cruciform, crucial; retiform[obs3], reticular, reticulated;
areolar[obs3], cancellated[obs3], grated, barred, streaked; textile;
crossbarred[obs3], cruciate[obs3], palmiped[obs3], secant; web-footed.
Adv. cross, thwart, athwart, transversely; at grade [U.S.]; crosswise.

<-- p. 67 -->

<-- That is, dimensions having reference to a center -->

#220. Exteriority. -- N. exteriority[obs3]; outside, exterior;
surface, superficies; skin &c. (covering) 223; superstratum[obs3]; disk,
disc; face, facet; extrados[obs3].
excentricity[obs3]; eccentricity; circumjacence &c. 227[obs3].
V. be exterior &c. adj.; lie around &c. 227.
place exteriorly, place outwardly, place outside; put out, turn out.
Adj. exterior, external; outer most; outward, outlying, outside,
outdoor; round about &c. 227; extramural; extralimitary[obs3],
superficial, skin-deep; frontal, discoid.
extraregarding[obs3]; excentric[obs3], eccentric; outstanding;
extrinsic &c. 6; ecdemic[Med], exomorphic[obs3].
Adv. externally &c. adj.; out, with out, over, outwards, ab extra, out
of doors; extra muros[Lat].
in the open air; sub Jove, sub dio[Lat]; a la belle etoile[Fr], al

#221. Interiority. -- N. interiority; inside, interior;
interspace[obs3], subsoil, substratum; intrados.
contents &c. 190; substance, pith, marrow; backbone &c. (center) 222;
heart, bosom, breast; abdomen; vitals, viscera, entrails, bowels, belly,
intestines, guts, chitterings[obs3], womb, lap; penetralia[Lat], recesses,
innermost recesses; cave &c. (concavity) 252.
V. be inside &c. adj.; within &c. adv.
place within, keep within; inclose &c. (circumscribe) 229; intern;
imbed &c. (insert) 300.
Adj. interior, internal; inner, inside, inward, intraregarding[obs3];
inmost, innermost; deep seated, gut; intestine, intestinal; inland;
subcutaneous; abdominal, coeliac, endomorphic[Physiol]; interstitial &c.
(interjacent) 228[obs3]; inwrought &c. (intrinsic) 5; inclosed &c. v.
home, domestic, indoor, intramural, vernacular; endemic.
Adv. internally &c. adj.; inwards, within, in, inly[obs3]; here in,
there in, where in; ab intra, withinside[obs3]; in doors, within doors; at
home, in the bosom of one's family.

#222. Centrality. -- N. centrality, centricalness[obs3], center;
middle &c. 68; focus &c. 74.
core, kernel; nucleus, nucleolus; heart, pole axis, bull's eye; nave,
navel; umbilicus, backbone, marrow, pith; vertebra, vertebral column;
hotbed; concentration &c. (convergence) 290; centralization; symmetry.
center of gravity, center of pressure, center of percussion, center of
oscillation, center of buoyancy &c.; metacenter[obs3].
V. be central &c. adj.; converge &c. 290.
render central, centralize, concentrate; bring to a focus.
Adj. central, centrical[obs3]; middle &c. 68; azygous, axial, focal,
umbilical, concentric; middlemost; rachidian[obs3]; spinal, vertebral.
Adv. middle; midst; centrally &c. adj.

#223. Covering. -- N. covering, cover; baldachin, baldachino[obs3],
baldaquin[obs3]; canopy, tilt, awning, tent, marquee, tente d'abri[Fr],
umbrella, parasol, sunshade; veil (shade) 424; shield &c. (defense) 717.
roof, ceiling, thatch, tile; pantile, pentile[obs3]; tiling, slates,
slating, leads; barrack [U.S.], plafond, planchment [obs3][U.S.], tiling,
shed &c. (abode) 189.
top, lid, covercle|, door, operculum; bulkhead [U.S.].
bandage, plaster, lint, wrapping, dossil[obs3], finger stall.
coverlet, counterpane, sheet, quilt, tarpaulin, blanket, rug,
drugget[obs3]; housing; antimacassar, eiderdown, numdah[obs3], pillowcase,
pillowslip[obs3]; linoleum; saddle cloth, blanket cloth; tidy; tilpah
[obs3][U.S.], apishamore [obs3][U.S.].
integument, tegument; skin, pellicle, fleece, fell, fur, leather,
shagreen[obs3], hide; pelt, peltry[obs3]; cordwain[obs3]; derm[obs3]; robe,
buffalo robe [U.S.]; cuticle, scarfskin, epidermis.
clothing &c. 225; mask &c. (concealment) 530.
peel, crust, bark, rind, cortex, husk, shell, coat; eggshell,
capsule; sheath, sheathing; pod, cod; casing, case, theca[obs3];
elytron[obs3]; elytrum[obs3]; involucrum[Lat]; wrapping, wrapper; envelope,
vesicle; corn husk, corn shuck [U.S.]; dermatology, conchology;
inunction[obs3]; incrustation, superimposition, superposition,
obduction|; scale &c. (layer) 204.
[specific coverings: list] veneer, facing; overlay; plate, silver
plate, gold plate, copper plate; engobe[obs3]; ormolu; Sheffield plate;
pavement; coating, paint; varnish &c. (resin) 356a; plating, barrel
plating, anointing &c. v.; enamel; epitaxial deposition[Engin], vapor
deposition; ground, whitewash, plaster, spackel, stucco, compo; cerement;
ointment &c. (grease) 356.
V. cover; superpose, superimpose; overlay, overspread; wrap &c. 225;
encase, incase[obs3]; face, case, veneer, pave, paper; tip, cap, bind;
bulkhead, bulkhead in; clapboard [U.S.].
coat, paint, varnish, pay, incrust, stucco, dab, plaster, tar; wash;
besmear, bedaub; anoint, do over; gild, plate, japan, lacquer,
lacker[obs3], enamel, whitewash; parget[obs3]; lay it on thick.
overlie, overarch[obs3]; endome[obs3]; conceal &c. 528.
[of aluminum] anodize.
[of steel] galvanize.
Adj. covering &c. v.; superimposed, overlaid, plated &c. v.;
cutaneous, dermal, cortical, cuticular, tegumentary[obs3], skinny, scaly,
squamous[Anat]; covered &c. v.; imbricated, loricated[obs3], armor plated,
ironclad; under cover; cowled, cucullate[obs3], dermatoid[obs3],
encuirassed[obs3], hooded, squamiferous[obs3], tectiform[obs3];

<-- p. 68 -->

#224. Lining. -- N. lining, inner coating; coating &c. (covering) 223;
stalactite, stalagmite.
filling, stuffing, wadding, padding.
wainscot, parietes[Lat], wall.
V. line, stuff, incrust, wad, pad, fill.
Adj. lined &c. v..

<-- ++add separate entry under materials (constitution, substance); entry
for types of cloth and other materials for garments -->
#225. Clothing. -- N. clothing, investment; covering &c. 223; dress,
raiment, drapery, costume, attire, guise, toilet, toilette, trim;
habiliment; vesture, vestment; garment, garb, palliament|, apparel,
wardrobe, wearing apparel, clothes, things; underclothes.
array; tailoring, millinery; finery &c. (ornament) 847; full dress &c.
(show) 882; garniture; theatrical properties.
outfit, equipment, trousseau; uniform, regimentals; continentals [Am.
Hist.]; canonicals &c. 999; livery, gear, harness, turn-out, accouterment,
caparison, suit, rigging, trappings, traps, slops, togs, toggery[obs3]; day
wear, night wear, zoot suit; designer clothes; masquerade.
dishabille, morning dress, undress.
kimono; lungi[obs3]; shooting-coat; mufti; rags, tatters, old clothes;
mourning, weeds; duds; slippers.
robe, tunic, paletot[obs3], habit, gown, coat, frock, blouse, toga,
smock frock, claw coat, hammer coat, Prince Albert coat[obs3], sack coat,
tuxedo coat, frock coat, dress coat, tail coat.
cloak, pall, mantle, mantlet mantua[obs3], shawl, pelisse, wrapper;
veil; cape, tippet, kirtle[obs3], plaid, muffler, comforter, haik[obs3],
huke|, chlamys[obs3], mantilla, tabard, housing, horse cloth, burnoose,
burnous, roquelaure[obs3]; houppelande[Fr]; surcoat, overcoat, great coat;
surtout[Fr], spencer[obs3]; mackintosh, waterproof, raincoat; ulster, P-
coat, dreadnought, wraprascal[obs3], poncho, cardinal, pelerine[obs3];
barbe[obs3], chudder[obs3], jubbah[obs3], oilskins, pajamas, pilot jacket,
jacket[obs3], vest, jerkin, waistcoat, doublet, camisole, gabardine;
farthingale, kilt, jupe[obs3], crinoline, bustle, panier, skirt, apron,
pinafore; bloomer, bloomers; chaqueta[obs3], songtag[Ger], tablier[obs3].
pants, trousers, trowsers[obs3]; breeches, pantaloons,
inexpressibles|!, overalls, smalls, small clothes; shintiyan|!; shorts,
jockey shorts, boxer shorts; tights, drawers, panties, unmentionables;
knickers, knickerbockers; philibeg[obs3], fillibeg[obs3]; pants suit;
culottes; jeans, blue jeans, dungarees, denims.
[brand names for jeans] Levis, Calvin Klein, Calvins, Bonjour, Gloria
headdress, headgear; chapeau[Fr], crush hat, opera hat; kaffiyeh;
sombrero, jam, tam-o-shanter, tarboosh[obs3], topi, sola topi[Lat],
pagri[obs3], puggaree[obs3]; cap, hat, beaver hat, coonskin cap; castor,
bonnet, tile, wideawake, billycock[obs3], wimple; nightcap, mobcap[obs3],
skullcap; hood, coif; capote[obs3], calash; kerchief, snood, babushka;
head, coiffure; crown &c. (circle) 247; chignon, pelt, wig, front, peruke,
periwig, caftan, turban, fez, shako, csako[obs3], busby; kepi[obs3], forage
cap, bearskin; baseball cap; fishing hat; helmet &c. 717; mask, domino.
body clothes; linen; hickory shirt [U.S.]; shirt, sark[obs3], smock,
shift, chemise; night gown, negligee, dressing gown, night shirt;
bedgown[obs3], sac de nuit[Fr].
underclothes [underclothing], underpants, undershirt; slip [for
women], brassiere, corset, stays, corsage, corset, corselet, bodice, girdle
&c. (circle) 247; stomacher; petticoat, panties; under waistcoat;
jock [for men], athletic supporter, jockstrap.
sweater, jersey; cardigan; turtleneck, pullover; sweater vest.
neckerchief, neckcloth[obs3]; tie, ruff, collar, cravat, stock,
handkerchief, scarf; bib, tucker; boa; cummerbund, rumal[obs3],
shoe, pump, boot, slipper, sandal, galoche[obs3], galoshes, patten,
clog; sneakers, running shoes, hiking boots; high-low; Blucher boot,
wellington boot, Hessian boot, jack boot, top boot; Balmoral[obs3];
arctics, bootee, bootikin[obs3], brogan, chaparajos[obs3]; chavar[obs3],
chivarras[obs3], chivarros[obs3]; gums [U.S.], larrigan [obs3][N. Am.],
rubbers, showshoe, stogy[obs3], veldtschoen[Ger], legging, buskin,
greave[obs3], galligaskin[obs3], gamache[obs3], gamashes[obs3], moccasin,
gambado, gaiter, spatterdash[obs3], brogue, antigropelos[obs3]; stocking,
hose, gaskins[obs3], trunk hose, sock; hosiery.
glove, gauntlet, mitten, cuff, wristband, sleeve.
swaddling cloth, baby linen, layette; ice wool; taffeta.
pocket handkerchief, hanky[obs3], hankie.
clothier, tailor, milliner, costumier, sempstress[obs3], snip;
dressmaker, habitmaker[obs3], breechesmaker[obs3], shoemaker; Crispin;
friseur[Fr]; cordwainer[obs3], cobbler, hosier[obs3], hatter; draper, linen
draper, haberdasher, mercer.
[underpants for babies] diaper, nappy[obs3][Brit]; disposable diaper,
cloth diaper; Luvs[brand names for diapers], Huggies.
V. invest; cover &c. 223; envelope, lap, involve; inwrap[obs3],
enwrap; wrap; fold up, wrap up, lap up, muffle up; overlap; sheath, swathe,
swaddle, roll up in, circumvest.
vest, clothe, array, dress, dight[obs3], drape, robe, enrobe, attire,
apparel, accounter[obs3], rig, fit out; deck &c. (ornament) 847; perk,
equip, harness, caparison.
wear; don; put on, huddle on, slip on; mantle.
Adj. invested &c. v.; habited; dighted[obs3]; barbed, barded; clad,
costume, shod, chausse[Fr]; en grande tenue &c. (show) 882[Fr].
Phr. "the soul of this man is his clothes" [All's Well].

<-- p. 69 -->

#226. Divestment. -- N. divestment; taking off &c. v..
nudity; bareness &c. adj.; undress; dishabille &c. 225; the
altogether; nudation[obs3], denudation; decortication, depilation,
excoriation, desquamation; molting; exfoliation; trichosis[Med].
V. divest; uncover &c. (cover &c. 223); denude, bare, strip;
disfurnish[obs3]; undress, disrobe &c. (dress, enrobe &c. 225);
uncoif[obs3]; dismantle; put off, take off, cast off; doff; peel, pare,
decorticate, excoriate, skin, scalp, flay; expose, lay open; exfoliate,
molt, mew; cast the skin.
Adj. divested &c. v.; bare, naked, nude; undressed, undraped; denuded;
exposed; in dishabille; bald, threadbare, ragged, callow, roofless.
in a state of nature, in nature's garb, in the buff, in native buff,
in birthday suit; in puris naturalibus[Lat]; with nothing on, stark naked,
stark raving naked [joc.]; bald as a coot, bare as the back of one's hand;
out at elbows; barefoot; bareback, barebacked; leafless, napless[obs3],

#227. Circumjacence. -- N. circumjacence[obs3], circumambience[obs3];
environment, encompassment; atmosphere, medium, surroundings.
outpost; border &c. (edge) 231; girdle &c. (circumference) 230;
outskirts, boulebards, suburbs, purlieus, precincts, faubourgs[obs3],
environs, entourage, banlieue[obs3]; neighborhood, vicinage, vicinity.
V. lie around &c. adv.; surround, beset, compass, encompass, environ,
inclose, enclose, encircle, embrace, circumvent, lap, gird; belt; begird,
engird[obs3]; skirt, twine round; hem in &c. (circumscribe) 229.
Adj. circumjacent, circumambient[obs3], circumfluent[obs3]; ambient;
surrounding &c. v.; circumferential, suburban.
Adv. around, about; without; on every side; on all sides; right and
left, all round, round about.

#228. Interposition. -- N. interposition, interjacence[obs3],
intercurrence[obs3], intervenience[obs3], interlocation[obs3],
interdigitation, interjection, interpolation, interlineation,
interspersion, intercalation.
[interposition at a fine-grained level] interpenetration; permeation;
[interposition by one person in another's affairs, at the intervenor's
initiative] intervention, interference; intrusion, obtrusion; insinuation.
insertion &c. 300; dovetailing; embolism.
intermediary, intermedium[obs3]; go between, bodkin|!, intruder,
interloper; parenthesis, episode, flyleaf.
partition, septum, diaphragm; midriff; dissepiment[obs3]; party wall,
panel, room divider.
halfway house.
V. lie between, come between, get between; intervene, slide in,
interpenetrate, permeate.
put between, introduce, import, throw in, wedge in, edge in, jam in,
worm in, foist in, run in, plow in, work in; interpose, interject,
intercalate, interpolate, interline, interleave, intersperse, interweave,
interlard, interdigitate, sandwich in, fit in, squeeze in; let in,
dovetail, splice, mortise; insinuate, smuggle; infiltrate, ingrain.
interfere, put in an oar, thrust one's nose in; intrude, obtrude; have
a finger in the pie; introduce the thin end of the wedge; thrust in &c.
(insert) 300.
Adj. interjacent[obs3], intercurrent[obs3], intervenient[obs3],
intervening &c. v., intermediate, intermediary, intercalary, interstitial;
parenthetical, episodic; mediterranean; intrusive; embosomed[obs3];
Adv. between, betwixt; twixt; among, amongst; amid, amidst; mid,
midst; in the thick of; betwixt and between; sandwich-wise;
parenthetically, obiter dictum.

<-- p. 70 -->

#229. Circumscription. -- N. circumscription, limitation, inclosure;
confinement &c. (restraint) 751; circumvallation[obs3]; encincture;
envelope &c. 232.
container (receptacle) 191.
V. circumscribe, limit, bound, confine, inclose; surround &c. 227;
compass about; imprison &c. (restrain) 751; hedge in, wall in, rail in;
fence round, fence in, hedge round; picket; corral.
enfold, bury, encase, incase[obs3], pack up, enshrine, inclasp[obs3];
wrap up &c. (invest) 225; embay[obs3], embosom[obs3].
containment (inclusion) 76.
Adj. circumscribed &c. v.; begirt[obs3], lapt[obs3]; buried in,
immersed in; embosomed[obs3], in the bosom of, imbedded, encysted, mewed
up; imprisoned &c. 751; landlocked, in a ring fence.

#230. Outline. -- N. outline, circumference; perimeter, periphery,
ambit, circuit, lines tournure[obs3], contour, profile, silhouette; bounds;
coast line.
zone, belt, girth, band, baldric, zodiac, girdle, tyre[Brit],
cingle[obs3], clasp, girt; cordon &c. (inclosure) 232; circlet, &c. 247..

#231. Edge. -- N. edge, verge, brink, brow, brim, margin, border,
confine, skirt, rim, flange, side, mouth; jaws, chops, chaps, fauces; lip,
threshold, door, porch; portal &c. (opening) 260; coast, shore.
frame, fringe, flounce, frill, list, trimming, edging, skirting, hem,
selvedge, welt, furbelow, valance, gimp.
Adj. border, marginal, skirting; labial, labiated[obs3],

#232. Inclosure. -- N. inclosure, envelope; case &c. (receptacle) 191;
wrapper; girdle &c. 230.
pen, fold; pen fold, in fold, sheep fold; paddock, pound; corral;
yard; net, seine net.
wall, hedge, hedge row; espalier; fence &c. (defense) 717; pale,
paling, balustrade, rail, railing, quickset hedge, park paling,
circumvallation[obs3], enceinte, ring fence.
barrier, barricade; gate, gateway; bent, dingle [U.S.]; door, hatch,
cordon; prison &c. 752.
dike, dyke, ditch, fosse[obs3], moat.
V. inclose, circumscribe &c. 229.

#233. Limit. -- N. limit, boundary, bounds, confine, enclave, term,
bourn, verge, curbstone[obs3], but, pale, reservation; termination,
terminus; stint, frontier, precinct, marches; backwoods.
boundary line, landmark; line of demarcation, line of
circumvallation[obs3]; pillars of Hercules; Rubicon, turning point; ne plus
ultra[Lat]; sluice, floodgate.
Adj. definite; conterminate|, conterminable[obs3]; terminal, frontier;
Adv. thus far, thus far and no further.
Phr. stick to the reservation; go beyond the pale.

<-- p. 71 -->

#234. Front. -- N. front; fore, forepart; foreground; face, disk,
disc, frontage; facade, proscenium, facia[Lat], frontispiece;
anteriority[obs3]; obverse [of a medal or coin].
fore rank, front rank; van, vanguard; advanced guard; outpost; first
line; scout.
brow, forehead, visage, physiognomy, phiz[obs3], countenance,
mut*[obs3]; rostrum, beak, bow, stem, prow, prore[obs3], jib.
pioneer &c. (precursor) 64; metoposcopy[obs3].
V. be in front, stand in front &c. adj.; front, face, confront; bend
forwards; come to the front, come to the fore.
Adj. fore, anterior, front, frontal.
Adv. before; in front, in the van, in advance; ahead, right ahead;
forehead, foremost; in the foreground, in the lee of; before one's face,
before one's eyes; face to face, vis-a-vis; front a front.
Phr. formosa muta commendatio est [Lat][Syrus]; frons est animi janua
[Lat][Cicero]; "Human face divine" [Milton]; imago animi vultus est indices
oculi [Lat][Cicero]; "sea of upturned faces" [Scott].

#235. Rear. -- N. rear, back, posteriority; rear rank, rear guard;
background, hinterland.
occiput[Anat], nape, chine; heels; tail, rump, croup, buttock,
posteriors, backside scut[obs3], breech, dorsum, loin; dorsal region,
lumbar region; hind quarters; aitchbone[obs3]; natch, natch bone.
stern, poop, afterpart[obs3], heelpiece[obs3], crupper.
wake; train &c. (sequence) 281.
reverse; other side of the shield.
V. be behind &c. adv.; fall astern; bend backwards; bring up the rear.
Adj. back, rear; hind, hinder, hindmost, hindermost[obs3]; postern,
posterior; dorsal, after; caudal, lumbar; mizzen, tergal[obs3].
Adv. behind; in the rear, in the background; behind one's back; at the
heels of, at the tail of, at the back of; back to back.
after, aft, abaft, astern, sternmost[obs3], aback, rearward.
Phr. ogni medaglia ha il suo rovescio[It][obs3]; the other side of the

#236. Laterality. -- N. laterality[obs3]; side, flank, quarter, lee;
hand; cheek, jowl, jole[obs3], wing; profile; temple, parietes[Lat], loin,
haunch, hip; beam.
gable, gable end; broadside; lee side.
points of the compass; East, Orient, Levant; West; orientation.
V. be on one side &c. adv.; flank, outflank; sidle; skirt; orientate.
Adj. lateral, sidelong; collateral; parietal, flanking, skirting;
flanked; sideling.
many sided; multilateral, bilateral, trilateral, quadrilateral.
Eastern; orient, oriental; Levantine; Western, occidental, Hesperian.
Adv. sideways, sidelong; broadside on; on one side, abreast,
alongside, beside, aside; by the side of; side by side; cheek by jowl &c.
(near) 197; to windward, to leeward; laterally &c. adj.; right and left; on
her beam ends.
Phr. "his cheek the may of days outworn" [Shakespeare].

#237. Contraposition. -- N. contraposition[obs3], opposition;
polarity; inversion &c. 218; opposite side; reverse, inverse; counterpart;
antipodes; opposite poles, North and South.
antonym, opposite (contrariety) 14.
V. be opposite &c. adj.; subtend.
Adj. opposite; reverse, inverse; converse, antipodal,
subcontrary[obs3]; fronting, facing, diametrically opposite.
Northern, septentrional, Boreal, arctic; Southern, Austral, antarctic.
Adv. over, over the way, over against; against; face to face, vis-a-
vis; as poles asunder.

#238. Dextrality. -- N. dextrality[obs3]; right, right hand; dexter,
offside, starboard.
Adj. dextral, right-handed; dexter, dextrorsal[obs3], dextrorse[obs3];
ambidextral[obs3], ambidextrous; dextro-.
Adv. dextrad[obs3], dextrally[obs3].

#239. Sinistrality. -- N. sinistrality[obs3]; left, left hand, a
gauche; sinister, nearside[obs3], larboard, port.
Adj. left-handed; sinister; sinistral, sinistrorsal[obs3],
sinistrorse[obs3], sinistrous[obs3];
Pref. laevo-.
Adv. sinistrally, sinistrously[obs3].

<-- p. 72 -->
Section III. FORM
1. General Form

#240. Form. -- N. form, figure, shape; conformation, configuration;
make, formation, frame, construction, cut, set, build, trim, cut of one's
jib; stamp, type, cast, mold; fashion; contour &c. (outline) 230; structure
&c. 329; plasmature[obs3].
feature, lineament, turn; phase &c. (aspect) 448; posture, attitude,
[Science of form] morphism.
[Similarity of form] isomorphism.
forming &c. v.; formation, figuration, efformation[obs3]; sculpture;
V. form, shape, figure, fashion, efform[obs3], carve, cut, chisel,
hew, cast; rough hew, rough cast; sketch; block out, hammer out; trim; lick
into shape, put into shape; model, knead, work up into, set, mold,
sculpture; cast, stamp; build &c. (construct) 161.
Adj. formed &c. v.
[Receiving form] plastic, fictile[obs3]; formative; fluid.
[Giving form] plasmic[obs3].
[Similar in form] isomorphous.
[taking several forms] pleomorphic; protean; changeable, &c. 149.

#241. [Absence of form.] Amorphism. -- N. amorphism[obs3],
informity[obs3]; unlicked cub[obs3]; rudis indigestaque moles[Lat];
disorder &c. 59; deformity &c. 243.
disfigurement, defacement; mutilation; deforming.
chaos, randomness (disorder) 59.
[taking form from surroundings] fluid &c. 333.
V. deface[Destroy form], disfigure, deform, mutilate, truncate;
derange &c. 61; blemish, mar.
Adj. shapeless, amorphous, formless; unformed, unhewn[obs3],
unfashioned[obs3], unshaped, unshapen; rough, rude, Gothic, barbarous,

#242. [Regularity of form.] Symmetry. -- N. symmetry, shapeliness,
finish; beauty &c. 845; proportion, eurythmy[obs3], uniformity,
parallelism; bilateral symmetry, trilateral symmetry, multilateral
symmetry; centrality &c. 222.
arborescence[obs3], branching, ramification; arbor vitae.
Adj. symmetrical, shapely, well set, finished; beautiful &c. 845;
classic, chaste, severe.
regular, uniform, balanced; equal &c. 27; parallel, coextensive.
arborescent[obs3], arboriform[obs3]; dendriform[obs3], dendroid[obs3];
branching; ramous[obs3], ramose; filiciform[obs3], filicoid[obs3];
subarborescent[obs3]; papilionaceous[obs3].
fuji-shaped, fujigata[Jap.].

#243. [Irregularity of form.] Distortion. -- N. distortion,
detortion[obs3], contortion; twist, crookedness &c. (obliquity) 217;
grimace; deformity; malformation, malconformation[obs3]; harelip;
monstrosity, misproportion[obs3], want of symmetry, anamorphosis[obs3];
ugliness &c. 846; talipes[obs3]; teratology.
asymmetry; irregularity.
V. distort, contort, twist, warp, wrest, writhe, make faces, deform,
Adj. distorted &c. v.; out of shape, irregular, asymmetric,
unsymmetric[obs3], awry, wry, askew, crooked; not true, not straight; on
one side, crump[obs3], deformed; harelipped; misshapen, misbegotten;
misproportioned[obs3], ill proportioned; ill-made; grotesque, monstrous,
crooked as a ram's horn; camel backed, hump backed, hunch backed, bunch
backed, crook backed; bandy; bandy legged, bow legged; bow kneed, knock
kneed; splay footed, club footed; round shouldered; snub nosed; curtailed
of one's fair proportions; stumpy &c. (short) 201; gaunt &c. (thin) 203;
bloated &c. 194; scalene; simous[obs3]; taliped[obs3], talipedic[obs3].
Adv. all manner of ways.
Phr. crooked as a Virginia fence [U.S.].

<-- p. 73 -->
2. Special Form

#244. Angularity. -- N. angularity, angularness[obs3]; aduncity[obs3];
angle, cusp, bend; fold &c. 258; notch &c. 257; fork, bifurcation.
elbow, knee, knuckle, ankle, groin, crotch, crutch, crane, fluke,
scythe, sickle, zigzag, kimbo[obs3], akimbo.
corner, nook, recess, niche, oriel[Arch], coign[obs3].
right angle &c. (perpendicular) 216a, 212; obliquity &c. 217; angle
of 45x, miter; acute angle, obtuse angle, salient angle, reentering angle,
spherical angle.
angular measurement, angular elevation, angular distance, angular
velocity; trigonometry, goniometry; altimetry[obs3]; clinometer,
graphometer[obs3], goniometer; theodolite; sextant, quadrant; dichotomy.
triangle, trigon[obs3], wedge; rectangle, square, lozenge, diamond;
rhomb, rhombus; quadrangle, quadrilateral; parallelogram; quadrature;
polygon, pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, oxygon[obs3], decagon.
pyramid, cone.
Platonic bodies; cube, rhomboid; tetrahedron, pentahedron, hexahedron,
octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron, eicosahedron; prism, pyramid;
parallelopiped; curb roof, gambrel roof, mansard roof.
V. bend, fork, bifurcate, crinkle.
Adj. angular, bent, crooked, aduncous[obs3], uncinated[obs3],
aquiline, jagged, serrated; falciform[obs3], falcated[obs3];
furcated[obs3], forked, bifurcate, zigzag; furcular[obs3]; hooked;
dovetailed; knock kneed, crinkled, akimbo, kimbo[obs3], geniculated[obs3];
oblique &c. 217.

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