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Roget's Thesaurus by Peter Mark Roget

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a focus; amass, accumulate &c. (store) 636; collect in a dragnet; heap
Ossa upon Pelion.
Adj. assembled &c. v.; closely packed, dense, serried, crowded to
suffocation, teeming, swarming, populous; as thick as hops; all of a heap,
fasciculated, cumulative.
Phr. the plot thickens; acervatim[Lat]; tibi seris tibi metis[Lat].

#73. Nonassemblage. Dispersion. -- N. {opp. 72} dispersion;
disjunction &c. 44; divergence &c. 291; aspersion; scattering &c. v.;
dissemination, diffusion, dissipation, distribution; apportionment &c. 786;
spread, respersion[obs3], circumfusion[obs3], interspersion,
spargefaction[obs3]; affusion[obs3]. waifs and estrays[obs3], flotsam and
jetsam, disjecta membra[Lat], [Hor.]; waveson[obs3].
V. disperse, scatter, sow, broadcast, disseminate, diffuse, shed,
spread, bestrew, overspread, dispense, disband, disembody, dismember,
distribute; apportion &c. 786; blow off, let out, dispel, cast forth,
draught off; strew, straw, strow[obs3]; ted; spirtle[obs3], cast, sprinkle;
issue, deal out, retail, utter; resperse[obs3], intersperse; set
abroach[obs3], circumfuse[obs3].
turn adrift, cast adrift; scatter to the winds;
spread like wildfire, disperse themselves.
Adj. unassembled &c. (see assemble &c. 72); dispersed &c. v.; sparse,
dispread, broadcast, sporadic, widespread; epidemic &c. (general) 78;
adrift, stray; disheveled, streaming.
Adv. sparsim[obs3], here and there, passim.

<-- p. 24 -->

#74. [Place of meeting.] Focus. -- N. focus; point of convergence &c.
290; corradiation[obs3]; center &c. 222; gathering place, resort haunt
retreat; venue; rendezvous; rallying point, headquarters, home, club; depot
&c. (store) 636; trysting place; place of meeting, place of resort, place
of assignation; point de reunion; issue.
V. bring to a point, bring to a focus, bring to an issue.


#75. Class. -- N. class, division, category, categorema[obs3], head,
order, section; department, subdepartment, province, domain.
kind, sort, genus, species, variety, family, order, kingdom, race,
tribe, caste, sept, clan, breed, type, subtype, kit, sect, set, subset;
assortment; feather, kidney; suit; range; gender, sex, kin.
manner, description, denomination, designation, rubric, character,
stamp predicament; indication, particularization, selection, specification.
similarity &c. 17.

#76. Inclusion. [Comprehension under, or reference to a class.] -- N.
{opp. 77} inclusion, admission, comprehension, reception.
composition &c. (inclusion in a compound) 54.
V. be included in &c.; come under, fall under, range under; belong to,
pertain to; range with; merge in.
include, comprise, comprehend, contain, admit, embrace, receive;
inclose &c. (circumscribe) 229; embody, encircle.
reckon among, enumerate among, number among; refer to; place with,
arrange with, place under; take into account.
Adj. included, including &c. v.; inclusive; congener, congenerous; of
the same class &c. 75; encircling.
Phr. a maximis ad minima[Lat], et hoc genus omne[Lat], &c., etc.; et

#77. Exclusion. -- N. {opp. 76} exclusion &c. 55.
<-- The same set of words are used to express Exclusion from a class and
Exclusion from a compound. Reference is therefore made to the former at
55. This identity does not occur with regard to Inclusion, which therefore
constitutes a separate category. -->

#78. Generality. -- N. {opp. 79} generality, generalization;
universality; catholicity, catholicism; miscellany,
miscellaneousness[obs3]; dragnet; common run; worldwideness[obs3].
everyone, everybody; all hands, all the world and his wife; anybody, N
or M, all sorts.
prevalence, run.
V. be general &c. adj.; prevail, be going about, stalk abroad.
render general &c. adj.; generalize.
Adj. general, generic, collective; broad, comprehensive, sweeping;
encyclopedical[obs3], widespread &c. (dispersed) 73.
universal; catholic, catholical[obs3]; common, worldwide;
ecumenical, oecumenical[obs3]; transcendental; prevalent, prevailing, rife,
epidemic, besetting; all over, covered with.
Pan-American, Anglican[obs3], Pan-Hellenic, Pan-Germanic, Slavic;
every, all; unspecified, impersonal.
customary &c. (habitual) 613.
Adv. whatever, whatsoever; to a man, one and all.
generally &c. adj.; always, for better for worse; in general,
generally speaking; speaking generally; for the most part; in the long run
&c. (on an average) 29.

<-- p. 25 -->

#79. Speciality. -- N. {opp. 78} speciality, specialite[obs3];
individuality, individuity|; particularity, peculiarity; idiocrasy &c.
(tendency) 176[obs3]; personality, characteristic, mannerism, idiosyncrasy;
specificness &c. adj[obs3].; singularity &c. (unconformity) 83; reading,
version, lection; state; trait; distinctive feature; technicality;
particulars, details, items, counts; minutiae.
I, self, I myself; myself, himself, herself, itself.
V. specify, particularize, individualize, realize, specialize,
designate, determine; denote, indicate, point out, select.
descend to particulars, enter into detail, go into detail, come to the
Adj. special, particular, individual, specific, proper, personal,
original, private, respective, definite, determinate, especial, certain,
esoteric, endemic, partial, party, peculiar, appropriate, several,
characteristic, diagnostic, exclusive; singular &c. (exceptional) 83;
idiomatic; idiotypical; typical.
this, that; yon, yonder.
Adv. specially, especially, particularly &c. adj.; in particular,
in propria persona[Lat]; ad hominem[Lat]; for my part.
each, apiece, one by one, one at a time; severally, respectively, each
to each; seriatim, in detail, in great detail, in excruciating detail, in
mind-numbing detail; bit by bit; pro hac vice[Lat], pro re nata[Lat].
namely, that is to say, for example, id est, exemplia gratia[Lat],
e.g., i.e., videlicet, viz.; to wit.
Phr. le style est l'homme meme[Fr].


#80. Normality. -- N. normality, normalcy, normalness[obs3];
familiarity, naturalness; commonness (frequency) 136; rule, standard
(conformity) 82; customary (habit) 613; standard, pattern (prototype) 22.
V. normalize, standardize.
Adj. normal, natural, unexceptional; common, usual (frequency) 136;

#81. Multiformity. -- N. multiformity, omniformity[obs3]; variety,
diversity; multifariousness &c. adj.; varied assortment.
dissimilarity &c. 18.
Adj. polymorphous, multiform, multifold, multifarious,
multigenerous[obs3], multiplex; heterogeneous, diversified, dissimilar,
various, varied, variform[obs3]; manifold, many-sided; variegated, motley,
mosaic; epicene, indiscriminate, desultory, irregular; mixed, different,
assorted, mingled, odd, diverse, divers; all manner of; of every
description, of all sorts and kinds; et hoc genus omne[Lat]; and what not?
de omnibus rebus et quibusdam aliis [Lat].
jumbled, confused, mixed up, discordant; inharmonious, unmatched,
unrelated, nonuniform.
omniform[obs3], omnigenous[obs3], omnifarious[obs3]; protean (form)
Phr. "harmoniously confused" [Pope]; "variety's the very spice of
life" [Cowper].

#82. Conformity. -- N. {opp. 83} conformity, conformance; observance;
habituation; naturalization; conventionality &c. (custom) 613; agreement
&c. 23.
example, instance, specimen, sample, quotation; exemplification,
illustration, case in point; object lesson; elucidation.
standard, model, pattern &c. (prototype) 22.
rule, nature, principle; law; order of things; normal state, natural
state, ordinary state, model state, normal condition, natural condition,
ordinary condition, model condition; standing dish, standing order;
Procrustean law; law of the Medes and Persians; hard and fast rule.

V. conform to, conform to rule; accommodate oneself to, adapt oneself
to; rub off corners.
be regular &c. adj.; move in a groove; follow observe the rules, go by
the rules, bend to the rules, obey the rules, obey the precedents; comply
with, tally with, chime in with, fall in with; be guided by, be regulated
by; fall into a custom, fall into a usage; follow the fashion, follow the
crowd, follow the multitude; pass muster, do as others do, hurler avec les
loups [Fr]; stand on ceremony; when in Rome do as the Romans do; go with
the stream, go with the flow, swim with the stream, swim with the current,
swim with the tide, blow with the wind; stick to the beaten track &c.
(habit) 613; keep one in countenance.
exemplify, illustrate, cite, quote, quote precedent, quote authority,
appeal to authority, put a case; produce an instance &c. n.; elucidate,
Adj. conformable to rule; regular &c. 136; according to regulation,
according to rule, according to Hoyle, according to Cocker, according to
Gunter; en regle [Fr], selon les regles[Fr], well regulated, orderly;
symmetric &c. 242.
conventional &c. (customary) 613; of daily occurrence, of everyday
occurrence; in the natural order of things; ordinary, common, habitual,
usual, everyday, workaday.
in the order of the day; naturalized.
typical, normal, nominal, formal; canonical, orthodox, sound, strict,
rigid, positive, uncompromising, Procrustean.
secundum artem[Lat], shipshape, technical; exemple[Fr]. illustrative,
in point.
Adv. conformably &c. adj.; by rule; agreeably to; in conformity with,
in accordance with, in keeping with; according to; consistently with; as
usual, ad instar[Lat], instar omnium[Lat]; more solito[Lat], more-majorum.
for the sake of conformity; as a matter of course, of course; pro
forma[Lat], for form's sake, by the card.
invariably, &c. (uniformly) 16.
for example, exempli gratia[Lat], e. g.; inter alia[Lat], among other
things; for instance.
Phr. cela va sans dire[Fr]; ex pede Herculem[Lat]; noscitur a sociis
[Lat]; ne e quovis ligno Mercurius fiat [Lat][Erasmus]; "they are happy men
whose natures sort with their vocations" [Bacon]. "The nail that sticks up
will get hammered down" [Japanese saying]; "Stick your neck out and it may
get cut off."

<-- p. 26 -->

#83. Unconformity.-- N. {opp. 82} nonconformity &c. 82; unconformity,
disconformity; unconventionality, informality, abnormity[obs3],
abnormality, anomaly; anomalousness &c. adj[obs3].; exception, peculiarity;
infraction of law, breach, of law, violation of law, violation of
custom, violation of usage, infringement of law, infringement of custom,
infringement of usage; teratism[obs3], eccentricity, bizarrerie[obs3],
oddity, je ne sais quoi[Fr], monster, monstrosity, rarity; freak, freak of
Nature, weirdo, mutant; rouser, snorter* [U.S.].
individuality, idiosyncrasy, originality, mannerism.
aberration; irregularity; variety; singularity; exemption; salvo &c.
(qualification) 469.
nonconformist; nondescript, character, original, nonesuch,
nonsuch[obs3], monster, prodigy, wonder, miracle, curiosity, flying fish,
black sheep, black swan, lusus naturae[Lat], rara avis[Lat], queer fish;
mongrel, random breed; half-caste, half-blood, half-breed; metis[Lat],
crossbreed, hybrid, mule, hinny, mulatto; tertium quid[Lat], hermaphrodite.
[mythical animal] phoenix, chimera, hydra, sphinx, minotaur; griffin,
griffon; centaur; saggittary[obs3]; kraken, cockatrice, wyvern, roc,
dragon, sea serpent; mermaid, merman, merfolk[obs3]; unicorn; Cyclops, "men
whose heads do grow beneath their shoulders" [Othello]; teratology.
[unconformable to the surroundings] fish out of water; neither one
thing nor another, neither fish nor fowl, neither fish flesh nor fowl nor
good red herring; one in a million, one in a way, one in a thousand;
outcast, outlaw; off the beaten track; oasis.
V. be uncomformable &c. adj.; abnormalize[obs3]; leave the beaten
track, leave the beaten path; infringe a law, infringe a habit, infringe a
usage, infringe a custom, break a law, break a habit, break a usage, break
a custom, violate a law, violate a habit, violate a usage, violate a
custom; drive a coach and six through; stretch a point; have no business
there; baffle all description, beggar all description.
Adj. uncomformable, exceptional; abnormal, abnormous[obs3]; anomalous,
anomalistic; out of order, out of place, out of keeping, out of tune, out
of one's element; irregular, arbitrary; teratogenic; lawless, informal,
aberrant, stray, wandering, wanton; peculiar, exclusive, unnatural,
eccentric, egregious; out of the beaten track, off the beaten track, out of
the common, out of the common run; beyond the pale of, out of the pale of;
misplaced; funny.
unusual, unaccustomed, uncustomary, unwonted, uncommon; rare,
curious, odd, extraordinary, out of the ordinary; strange, monstrous;
wonderful &c. 870; unexpected, unaccountable; outre[Fr], out of the way,
remarkable, noteworthy; queer, quaint, nondescript, none such, sui
generis[Lat]; unfashionable; fantastic, grotesque, bizarre; outlandish,
exotic, tombe des nues[Fr], preternatural; denaturalized[obs3].
heterogeneous, heteroclite[Gram], amorphous, mongrel, amphibious,
epicene, half blood, hybrid; androgynous, androgynal[obs3]; asymmetric &c.
243; adelomorphous[obs3], bisexual, hermaphrodite, monoclinous[obs3].
qualified &c. 469.
singular, unique, one-of-a-kind.
newfangled, novel, non-classical; original, unconventional, unheard
of, unfamiliar; undescribed, unprecedented, unparalleled, unexampled.
Adv. unconformably &c. adj.; except, unless, save barring, beside,
without, save and except, let alone.
however, yet, but.
once in a blue moon, once in a million years.
Int. what on earth! what in the world! What the devil! Holy cow! Can
you top that?; Sacre bleu [Fr].
Phr. never was seen the like, never was heard the like, never was
known the like.
I could hardly believe it; I saw it, but I didn't believe it.

<-- p. 27 -->


#84. Number. -- N. number, symbol, numeral, figure, cipher, digit,
integer; counter; round number; formula; function; series.
sum, difference, complement, subtrahend; product; multiplicand,
multiplier, multiplicator[obs3]; coefficient, multiple; dividend, divisor,
factor, quotient, submultiple[Math]; fraction, rational number; surd,
irrational number; transcendental number; mixed number, complex number,
complex conjugate; numerator, denominator; decimal, circulating decimal,
repetend; common measure, aliquot part; prime number, prime, relative
prime, prime factor, prime pair; reciprocal; totient[obs3].
binary number, octal number, hexadecimal number[Comp].
permutation, combination, variation; election.
ratio, proportion, comparison &c.464; progression; arithmetical
progression, geometrical progression, harmonical progression[obs3];
percentage, permilage.
figurate numbers[obs3], pyramidal numbers, polygonal numbers.
power, root, exponent, index, logarithm, antilogarithm; modulus, base.
differential, integral, fluxion[obs3], fluent.
Adj. numeral, complementary, divisible, aliquot, reciprocal, prime,
relatively prime, fractional, decimal, figurate[obs3], incommensurable.
proportional, exponential, logarithmic, logometric[obs3],
differential, fluxional[obs3], integral, totitive[obs3].
positive, negative; rational, irrational; surd, radical, real;
complex, imaginary; finite; infinite; impossible.
Adv. numerically; modulo.

#85. Numeration. -- N. numeration; numbering &c. v.; pagination;
tale, recension[obs3], enumeration, summation, reckoning, computation,
supputation[obs3]; calculation, calculus; algorithm, algorism[obs3],
rhabdology[obs3], dactylonomy[obs3]; measurement &c. 466; statistics.
arithmetic, analysis, algebra, geometry, analytical geometry,
fluxions[obs3]; differential calculus, integral calculus, infinitesimal
calculus; calculus of differences.
[Statistics] dead reckoning, muster, poll, census, capitation, roll
call, recapitulation; account &c. (list) 86.
[Operations] notation, addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division, rule of three, practice, equations, extraction of roots,
reduction, involution, evolution, estimation, approximation, interpolation,
differentiation, integration.
[Instruments] abacus, logometer[obs3], slide rule, slipstick[coll.],
tallies, Napier's bones, calculating machine, difference engine, suan-
pan[obs3]; adding machine; cash register; electronic calculator,
calculator, computer;
[people who calculate] arithmetician, calculator, abacist[obs3],
algebraist, mathematician; statistician, geometer; programmer; accountant,
V. number, count, tally, tell; call over, run over; take an account
of, enumerate, muster, poll, recite, recapitulate; sum; sum up, cast up;
tell off, score, cipher, compute, calculate, suppute[obs3], add, subtract,
multiply, divide, extract roots; algebraize[obs3].
check, prove, demonstrate, balance, audit, overhaul, take stock; affix
numbers to, page.
amount to, add up to, come to.
Adj. numeral, numerical; arithmetical, analytic, algebraic,
statistical, numerable, computable, calculable; commensurable,
commensurate; incommensurable, incommensurate, innumerable, unfathomable,
Adv. quantitatively; arithmetically; measurably; in numbers.

#86. List. -- N. list, catalog, catalogue, inventory; register &c.
(record) 551.
account; bill, bill of costs; terrier; tally, listing, itemization;
atlas; book, ledger; catalogue raisonne[Fr]; tableau; invoice, bill of
lading; prospectus; bill of fare, menu, carte[Fr]; score, census,
statistics, returns.
[list of topics in a document] contents, table of contents, outline;
[list of topics in a protracted activity (frame)] program,
programme[Brit]; syllabus; agenda, schedule, calendar, docket.
[computer-generated list] listing, printout, output.
[written list used as an aid to memory] checklist.
table, chart, database; index, inverted file, word list, concordance.
dictionary, lexicon; vocabulary, glossary; thesaurus.
file, card index, card file, rolodex, address book.
Red book, Blue book, Domesday book; cadastre[Fr]; directory,
gazetter[obs3]. almanac; army list, clergy list, civil service list, navy
list; Almanach de Gotha[obs3], cadaster; Lloyd's register, nautical
who's who; Guiness's Book of World Records.
roll; check roll, checker roll, bead roll; muster roll, muster book;
roster, panel, jury list; cartulary, diptych.
V. list, itemize; sort, collate; enumerate, tabulate, catalog, tally.
Adj. cadastral[obs3].

<-- p. 28 -->


#87. {opp. 100} Unity. -- N. unity; oneness &c. adj.; individuality;
solitude &c. (seclusion) 893; isolation &c. (disjunction) 44; unification
&c. 48.
one, unit, ace; individual; none else, no other.
V. be one, be alone &c. adj.; dine with Duke Humphrey[obs3].
isolate &c. (disjoin) 44.
render one; unite &c. (join) 43, (combine) 48.
Adj. one, sole, single, solitary, unitary; individual, apart, alone;
unaccompanied, unattended; solus[Lat], single-handed; singular, odd,
unique, unrepeated[obs3], azygous, first and last; isolated &c. (disjoined)
44; insular.
monospermous[obs3]; unific[obs3], uniflorous[obs3], unifoliate[obs3],
unigenital[obs3], uniliteral[obs3], unijocular[obs3], unimodal
[statistics], unimodular[obs3].
lone, lonely, lonesome; desolate, dreary, insecable|,
inseverable[obs3], indiscerptible[obs3]; compact, indivisible, atomic,
Adv. singly &c. adj.; alone, by itself, per se, only, apart, in the
singular number, in the abstract; one by one, one at a time; simply; one
and a half, sesqui-[obs3].
Phr. natura il fece [It], e poi roppe la stampa[It]; du fort au faible
[obs3][Fr]; "two souls with but a single thought, two hearts that beat as

#88. Accompaniment. -- N. accompaniment; adjunct &c. 39; context;
appendage, appurtenance.
coexistence, concomitance, company, association, companionship;
partnership, copartnership; coefficiency[obs3].
concomitant, accessory, coefficient; companion, buddy, attendant,
fellow, associate, friend, colleague; consort, spouse, mate; partner, co-
partner; satellite, hanger on, fellow-traveller, shadow; escort, cortege;
V. accompany, coexist, attend; hang on, wait on; go hand in hand with;
synchronize &c. 120; bear company, keep company; row in the same boat;
bring in its train; associate with, couple with.
Adj. accompanying &c. v.; concomitant, fellow, twin, joint; associated
with, coupled with; accessory, attendant, obbligato.
Adv. with, withal; together with, along with, in company with; hand in
hand, side by side; cheek by jowl, cheek by jole[obs3]; arm in arm;
therewith, herewith; and &c. (addition) 37.
together, in a body, collectively.
Phr. noscitur a sociis[Lat]; virtutis fortuna comes[Lat].

#89. Duality. -- N. duality, dualism; duplicity; biplicity[obs3],
biformity[obs3]; polarity; two, deuce, couple, duet, brace, pair, cheeks,
twins, Castor and Pollux, gemini, Siamese twins; fellows; yoke,
conjugation; dispermy[obs3], doublets, dyad, span.
V. pair[unite in pairs], couple, bracket, yoke; conduplicate[obs3];
mate, span [U.S.].
Adj. two, twin; dual, dualistic, double; binary, binomial; twin,
biparous[obs3]; dyadic[Math]; conduplicate[obs3]; duplex &c. 90;
biduous[obs3], binate[obs3], diphyletic[obs3], dispermic[obs3],
unijugate[obs3]; tete-a-tete.
coupled &c. v.; conjugate.
both, both the one and the other.

#90. Duplication. -- N. duplication; doubling &c. v.; gemination,
ingemination[obs3]; reduplication; iteration &c. (repetition) 104; renewal.
V. double, redouble, duplicate, reduplicate; geminate; repeat &c. 104;
renew &c. 660.
Adj. double; doubled &c. v.; bicipital[obs3], bicephalous[obs3],
bidental[obs3], bilabiate, bivalve, bivalvular[obs3], bifold[obs3],
biform[obs3], bilateral; bifarious[obs3], bifacial[obs3]; twofold, two-
sided; disomatous[obs3]; duplex; double-faced, double-headed; twin,
duplicate, ingeminate[obs3]; second.
Adv. twice, once more; over again &c. (repeatedly) 104; as much again,
twofold; secondly, in the second place, again.

#91. [Division into two parts.] bisection. -- N. bisection,
bipartition; dichotomy, subdichotomy[obs3]; halving &c. v.;
bifurcation, forking, branching, ramification, divarication; fork,
prong; fold; half, moiety.
V. bisect, halve, divide, split, cut in two, cleave dimidiate[obs3],
go halves, divide with.
separate, fork, bifurcate; branch off, out; ramify.
Adj. bisected &c. v.; cloven, cleft; bipartite, biconjugate[obs3],
bicuspid, bifid; bifurcous[obs3], bifurcate, bifurcated; distichous,
dichotomous, furcular[obs3]; semi-, demi-, hemi[obs3].

<-- p. 29 -->

#92. Triality. -- N. Triality[obs3], trinity; triunity[obs3].
three, triad, triplet, trey, trio, ternion[obs3], leash; shamrock,
tierce[obs3], spike-team [U.S.], trefoil; triangle, trident,
triennium[obs3], trigon[obs3], trinomial, trionym[obs3], triplopia[obs3],
tripod, trireme, triseme[obs3], triskele[obs3], triskelion, trisula[obs3].
third power, cube; cube root.
Adj. three; triform[obs3], trinal[obs3], trinomial; tertiary;
ternary; triune; triarch, triadie[obs3]; triple &c. 93.
Pref. tri-, tris-.
Phr. tria juncta in uno[Lat].

#93. Triplication. -- N. triplication, triplicity[obs3];
trebleness[obs3], trine.
V. treble, triple; triplicate, cube.
Adj. treble, triple; tern, ternary; triplicate, threefold,
trilogistic[obs3]; third; trinal[obs3], trine.
Adv. three times, three fold; thrice, in the third place, thirdly;
trebly &c. adj.

#94. [Division into three parts.] Trisection. -- N. trisection,
tripartition[obs3], trichotomy; third, third part.
V. trisect, divide into three parts.
Adj. trifid; trisected &c. v.; tripartite, trichotomous[obs3],
Triadelphous[obs3], triangular, tricuspid, tricapsular[obs3],
tridental[obs3], tridentate, tridentiferous[obs3], trifoliate, trifurcate,
trigonal[obs3], trigrammic[obs3], trigrammatic[obs3], tripetalous[obs3],
tripodal, tripodic[obs3], triquetral[obs3], triquetrous[obs3].

<-- note that square in the mathematical sense is more related to two
than to four. Subdivide? -->
#95. Four. -- N. quaternity[obs3], four, tetrad, quartet, quaternion,
square, quarter.
[planar form with four sides] tetract[obs3], tetragon, quadrangle,
[three dimensional object with four surfaces] tetrahedron.
quadrature, quadrifoil, quadriform, quadruplet; quatrefoil.
[object or animal with four legs] tetrapod.
[geographical area with four sides] quadrangle, quad[coll.].
[electromagnetic object] quadrupole.
[four fundamental studies] quadrivium.
V. reduce to a square, square.
Adj. four; quaternary, quaternal[obs3]; quadratic; quartile;
tetract[obs3], tetractic[obs3], tetractinal[obs3]; tetrad, tetragonal;
square, quadrate.

#96. Quadruplication. -- N. quadruplication.
V. multiply by four, quadruplicate, biquadrate[obs3].
Adj. fourfold, four times; quadrable[obs3], quadrumanous[obs3],
quadruple, quadruplicate, quadrible[obs3]; fourth.
quadrifoliate[obs3], quadrifoliolate[obs3], quadrigeminal[obs3],
quadrigeminate[obs3], quadriplanar[obs3], quadriserial[obs3].
Adv. four times; in the fourth place, fourthly.

#97. [Division into four parts.] Quadrisection. -- N. quadrisection,
quadripartition[obs3]; quartering &c. v; fourth; quart; quarter,
quartern[obs3]; farthing (i.e. fourthing)[obs3]; quadrant.
V. quarter, divide into four parts.
Adj. quartered &c. v.; quadrifid[obs3], quadripartite.

#98. Five, &c. -- N. five, cinque[Fr], quint, quincux[obs3]; six,
half-a-dozen, half dozen; seven; eight; nine, three times three; dicker;
ten, decade; eleven; twelve, dozen; thirteen; long dozen, baker's dozen;
quintuplet; twenty, score; twenty-four, four and twenty, two dozen; twenty-
five, five and twenty, quarter of a hundred; forty, two score; fifty, half
a hundred; sixty, three score; seventy, three score and ten; eighty, four
score; ninety, fourscore and ten; sestiad[obs3].
hundred, centenary, hecatomb, century; hundredweight, cwt.; one
hundred and forty-four, gross.
thousand, chiliad; millennium, thousand years, grand[coll.]; myriad;
ten thousand, ban[Japanese], man[Japanese]; ten thousand years,
banzai[Japanese]; lac, one hundred thousand, plum; million; thousand
million, milliard, billion, trillion &c.
V. centuriate[obs3]; quintuplicate.
Adj. five, quinary[obs3], quintuple; fifth; senary[obs3], sextuple;
sixth; seventh; septuple; octuple; eighth; ninefold, ninth; tenfold,
decimal, denary[obs3], decuple[obs3], tenth; eleventh; duodenary[obs3],
duodenal; twelfth; in one's 'teens, thirteenth.
vicesimal[obs3], vigesimal; twentieth; twenty-fourth &c. n.;
vicenary[obs3], vicennial[obs3].
centuple[obs3], centuplicate[obs3], centennial, centenary,
centurial[obs3]; secular, hundredth; thousandth, &c.

#99. Quinquesection, &c. -- N. division by five &c. 98; quinquesection
&c.; decimation; fifth &c.
V. decimate; quinquesect.
Adj. quinquefid, quinquelateral, quinquepartite; quinqevalent,
pentavalent; quinquarticular[obs3]; octifid[obs3]; decimal, tenth, tithe;
duodecimal, twelfth; sexagesimal[obs3], sexagenary[obs3]; hundredth,
centesimal; millesimal &c. [obs3]

<-- p. 30 -->

#100. {opp. 87} [More than one.] Plurality. -- N. plurality; a number,
a certain number; one or two, two or three &c.; a few, several; multitude
&c. 102; majority.
[large number] multitude &c. 102.
Adj. plural, more than one, upwards of; some, several, a few; certain;
not alone &c. 87.
Adv. et cetera, &c., etc.
among other things, inter alia[Lat].
Phr. non deficit alter [Lat].

3. Indeterminate Number

#100a. [Less than one.] Fraction -- N. fraction, fractional part; part
&c. 51.
Adj. fractional, fragmentary, inconsiderable, negligible,

#101. Zero. -- N. zero, nothing; null, nul, naught, nought, void;
cipher, goose egg; none, nobody, no one; nichts[Ger.], nixie*, nix*; zilch,
zip, zippo [all slang]; not a soul; ame qui vive[Fr]; absence &c. 187;
unsubstantiality &c. 4[obs3].
Adj. not one, not a one, not any, nary a one [dial.]; not a, never a;
not a whit of, not an iota of, not a drop of, not a speck of, not a jot;
not a trace of, not a hint of, not a smidgen of, not a suspicion of, not a
shadow of, neither hide nor hair of.

#102. Multitude. -- N. multitude; numerous &c. adj.; numerosity,
numerality; multiplicity; profusion &c. (plenty) 639; legion, host; great
number, large number, round number, enormous number; a quantity, numbers,
array, sight, army, sea, galaxy; scores, peck, bushel, shoal, swarm,
draught, bevy, cloud, flock, herd, drove, flight, covey, hive, brood,
litter, farrow, fry, nest; crowd &c. (assemblage) 72; lots; all in the
world and his wife.
[Increase of number] greater number, majority; multiplication,
V. be numerous &c. adj.; swarm with, teem with, creep with; crowd,
swarm, come thick upon; outnumber, multiply; people; swarm like locusts,
swarm like bees.
Adj. many, several, sundry, divers, various, not a few; Briarean; a
hundred, a thousand, a myriad, a million, a quadrillion, a nonillion, a
thousand and one; some ten or a dozen, some forty or fifty &c.; half a
dozen, half a hundred &c.; very many, full many, ever so many; numerous;
numerose[obs3]; profuse, in profusion; manifold, multiplied, multitudinous,
multiple, multinominal, teeming, populous, peopled, crowded, thick,
studded; galore.
thick coming, many more, more than one can tell, a world of; no end
of, no end to; cum multis aliis[Lat]; thick as hops, thick as hail; plenty
as blackberries; numerous as the stars in the firmament, numerous as the
sands on the seashore, numerous as the hairs on the head; and what not, and
heaven knows what; endless &c. (infinite) 105.
Phr. their name is "legion"; acervatim[Lat]; en foule[Fr]; "many-
headed multitude" [Sidney]; "numerous as glittering gems of morning dew"
[Young]; vel prece vel pretio[Lat][obs3].

#103. Fewness. -- N. fewness &c. adj.; paucity, small number; small
quantity &c. 32; rarity; infrequency &c. 137; handful, maniple; minority;
[Diminution of number] reduction; weeding &c. v.; elimination,
sarculation|, decimation; eradication.
V. be few &c. adj.
render few &c. adj.; reduce, diminish the number, weed, eliminate,
cull, thin, decimate.
Adj. few; scant, scanty; thin, rare, scattered, thinly scattered,
spotty, few and far between, exiguous; infrequent &c. 137; rari
nantes[Latin]; hardly any, scarcely any; to be counted on one's fingers;
reduced &c. v.; unrepeated[obs3].
Adv. rarely, here and there.

<-- p. 31 -->

#104. Repetition. -- N. repetition, iteration, reiteration, harping,
recurrence, succession, run; battology, tautology; monotony, tautophony;
rhythm &c. 138; diffuseness, pleonasm, redundancy.
chimes, repetend, echo, ritornello[obs3], burden of a song, refrain;
rehearsal; rechauffe[Fr], rifacimento[It], recapitulation.
cuckoo &c. (imitation) 19; reverberation &c. 408; drumming &c. (roll)
407; renewal &c. (restoration) 660.
twice-told tale; old story, old song; second edition, new edition;
reappearance, reproduction, recursion [Comp]; periodicity &c. 138.
V. repeat, iterate, reiterate, reproduce, echo, reecho, drum, harp
upon, battologize[obs3], hammer, redouble.
recur, revert, return, reappear, recurse [Comp]; renew &c. (restore)
rehearse; do over again, say over again; ring the changes on; harp on
the same string; din in the ear, drum in the ear; conjugate in all its
moods tenses and inflexions[obs3], begin again, go over the same ground, go
the same round, never hear the last of; resume, return to, recapitulate,
Adj. repeated &c. v.; repetitional[obs3], repetitionary[obs3];
recurrent, recurring; ever recurring, thick coming; frequent, incessant;
redundant, pleonastic.
monotonous, harping, iterative, recursive [Math, Comp], unvaried;
mocking, chiming; retold; aforesaid, aforenamed[obs3]; above-mentioned,
above-said; habitual &c. 613; another.
Adv. repeatedly, often, again, anew, over again, afresh, once more;
ding-dong, ditto, encore, de novo, bis[obs3], da capo[It].
again and again; over and over, over and over again; recursively
[Comp]; many times over; time and again, time after time; year after year;
day by day &c.; many times, several times, a number of times; many a time,
full many a time; frequently &c. 136.
Phr. ecce iterum Crispinus[Lat]; toujours perdrix[Fr]; "cut and come
again" [Crabbe]; "tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow" [Macbeth]; cantilenam
eandem canis [Lat][Terence]; nullum est jam dictum quod non dictum sit
prius [Lat][Terence].

#105. Infinity. -- N. infinity, infinitude, infiniteness &c. adj.;
perpetuity &c. 112; boundlessness.
V. be infinite &c. adj.; know no limits, have no limits, know no
bounds, have no bounds; go on for ever.
Adj. infinite; immense; numberless, countless, sumless[obs3],
measureless; innumerable, immeasurable, incalculable, illimitable,
inexhaustible, interminable, unfathomable, unapproachable; exhaustless,
indefinite; without number, without measure, without limit, without end;
incomprehensible; limitless, endless, boundless, termless[obs3]; untold,
unnumbered, unmeasured, unbounded, unlimited; illimited[obs3]; perpetual
&c. 112.
Adv. infinitely &c. adj.; ad infinitum.
Phr. "as boundless as the sea" [Romeo and Juliet].



#106. Time. -- N. time, duration; period, term, stage, space, span,
spell, season; the whole time, the whole period; space-time; course &c.
109; snap.
intermediate time, while, interim, interval, pendency[obs3];
intervention, intermission, intermittence, interregnum, interlude; respite.
era, epoch; time of life, age, year, date; decade &c. (period) 108;
moment, &c. (instant) 113.
glass of time, sands of time, march of time, Father Time, ravages of
time; arrow of time; river of time, whirligig of time, noiseless foot of
time; scythe.
V. continue last endure, go on, remain, persist; intervene; elapse &c.
109; hold out.
take time, take up time, fill time, occupy time.
pass time, pass away time, spend time, while away time, consume time,
talk against time; tide over; use time, employ time; seize an opportunity
&c. 134; waste time &c. (be inactive) 683.
Adj. continuing &c. v.; on foot; permanent &c. (durable) 110.
Adv. while, whilst, during, pending; during the time, during the
interval; in the course of, at that point, at that point in time; for the
time being, day by day; in the time of, when; meantime, meanwhile; in the
meantime, in the interim; ad interim, pendente lite[Lat]; de die in
diem[Lat]; from day to day, from hour to hour &c.; hourly, always; for a
time, for a season;
till, until, up to, yet, as far as, by that time, so far, hereunto,
heretofore, prior to this, up to this point.
the whole time, all the time; all along; throughout &c. (completely)
52; for good &c. (diuturnity)[obs3] 110.
hereupon, thereupon, whereupon; then; anno Domini; A.D.; ante
Christum; A.C.; before Christ; B.C.; anno urbis conditae[Lat]; A.U.C.; anno
regni[Lat]; A.R.; once upon a time, one fine morning, one fine day, one
day, once.
Phr. time flies, tempus fugit [Lat.]; time runs out, time runs
against, race against time, racing the clock, time marches on, time is of
the essence, "time and tide wait for no man".
ad calendas Groecas[Lat]; "panting Time toileth after him in vain"
[Johnson]; "'gainst the tooth of time and razure of oblivion" [Measure for
Measure]; "rich with the spoils of time" [Gray]; tempus edax rerum
[Lat][Horace]; "the long hours come and go" [C.G. Rossetti]; "the time is
out of joint" [Hamlet]; "Time rolls his ceaseless course" [Scott]; "Time
the foe of man's dominion" [Peacock]; "time wasted is existence, used is
life" [Young]; truditur dies die [Lat][Horace]; volat hora per orbem
[Lat][Lucretius]; carpe diem[Lat].

<-- p. 32 -->

#107. Neverness. -- N. "neverness"; absence of time, no time; dies
non; Tib's eve; Greek Kalends, a blue moon.
Adv. never, ne'er[contr]; at no time, at no period; on the second
Tuesday of the week, when Hell freezes over; on no occasion, never in all
one's born days, nevermore, sine die; in no degree.

#108. [Definite duration, or portion of time.] Period. -- N. period,
age, era; second, minute, hour, day, week, month, quarter, year, decade,
decenniumm lustrum[obs3], quinquennium, lifetime, generation; epoch,
ghurry[obs3], lunation[obs3], moon.
century, millennium; annus magnus[Lat].
Adj. horary[obs3]; hourly, annual &c. (periodical) 138.

#108a. Contingent Duration.-- Adv. during pleasure, during good
behavior; quamdiu se bene gesserit[Latin].

#109. [Indefinite duration.] Course. -- N. corridors of time, sweep of
time, vesta of time[obs3], course of time, progress of time, process of
time, succession of time, lapse of time, flow of time, flux of time, stream
of time, tract of time, current of time, tide of time, march of time, step
of time, flight of time; duration &c. 106.
[Indefinite time] aorist[obs3].
V. elapse, lapse, flow, run, proceed, advance, pass; roll on, wear on,
press on; flit, fly, slip, slide, glide; run its course.
run out, expire; go by, pass by; be -past &c. 122.
Adj. elapsing &c. v.; aoristic[obs3]; progressive.
Adv. in due time, in due season; in in due course, in due process, in
the fullness of time; in time.
Phr. labitur et labetur [Lat][Horace]; truditur dies die
[Lat][Horace]; fugaces labuntur anni [Lat][Horace]; "tomorrow and tomorrow
and tomorrow creeps in this petty pace from day to day" [Macbeth].

#110. [Long duration.] Diuturnity. -- N. diuturnity[obs3]; a long
time, a length of time; an age, a century, an eternity; slowness &c. 275;
perpetuity &c. 112; blue moon, coon's age [U.S.], dog's age.
durableness, durability; persistence, endlessness, lastingness &c.
adj[obs3].; continuance, standing; permanence &c. (stability) 150 survival,
survivance[obs3]; longevity &c. (age) 128; distance of time.
protraction of time, prolongation of time, extension of time; delay
&c. (lateness) 133.
V. last, endure, stand, remain, abide, continue, brave a thousand
tarry &c. (be late) 133; drag on, drag its slow length along, drag a
lengthening chain; protract, prolong; spin out, eke out, draw out, lengthen
out; temporize; gain time, make time, talk against time.
outlast, outlive; survive; live to fight again.
Adj. durable; lasting &c. v.; of long duration, of long-standing;
permanent, endless, chronic, long-standing; intransient[obs3],
intransitive; intransmutable[obs3], persistent; lifelong, livelong;
longeval[obs3], long-lived, macrobiotic, diuturnal[obs3], evergreen,
perennial; sempervirent[obs3], sempervirid[obs3]; unrelenting,
unintermitting[obs3], unremitting; perpetual &c. 112.
lingering, protracted, prolonged, spun out &c. v. long-pending, long-
winded; slow &c. 275.
Adv. long; for a long time, for an age, for ages, for ever so long,
for many a long day; long ago &c. (in a past time) 122; longo
all the day long, all the year round; the livelong day, as the day is
long, morning noon and night; hour after hour, day after day, &c.; for
good; permanently &c. adj.

#111. [Short duration.] Transientness. -- N. transience, transientness
&c. adj[obs3].; evanescence, impermanence, fugacity[Chem], caducity[obs3],
mortality, span; nine days' wonder, bubble, Mayfly; spurt; flash in the
pan; temporary arrangement, interregnum.
velocity &c. 274; suddenness &c. 113; changeableness &c. 149.
transient, transient boarder, transient guest [U.S.].
V. be transient &c. adj.; flit, pass away, fly, gallop, vanish, fade,
evaporate; pass away like a cloud, pass away like a summer cloud, pass away
like a shadow, pass away like a dream.
Adj. transient, transitory, transitive; passing, evanescent, fleeting,
cursory, short-lived, ephemeral; flying &c. v.; fugacious, fugitive;
shifting, slippery; spasmodic; instantaneous, momentaneous[obs3].
temporal, temporary; provisional, provisory; deciduous; perishable,
mortal, precarious, unstable, insecure; impermanent.
brief, quick, brisk, extemporaneous, summary; pressed for time &c.
(haste) 684; sudden, momentary &c. (instantaneous) 113.
Adv. temporarily &c. adj.; pro tempore[Lat]; for the moment, for a
time; awhile, en passant[Fr], in transitu[Lat]; in a short time; soon &c.
(early) 132; briefly &c. adj.; at short notice; on the point of, on the eve
of; in articulo; between cup and lip.
Phr. one's days are numbered; the time is up; here today and gone
tomorrow; non semper erit aestas[Lat][obs3]; eheu! fugaces labuntur
anni[Lat]; sic transit gloria mundi[Lat]; a schoolboy's tale, the wonder of
the hour! [Byron]; dum loquimur fugerit invidia aetas[Lat][obs3]; fugit
hora[Lat]; all that is transitory is but an illusion [Goethe].

<-- p. 33 -->

#112. [Endless duration.] Perpetuity. -- N. perpetuity, eternity,
everness[obs3], aye, sempiternity[obs3], immortality, athanasia[obs3];
interminability[obs3], agelessness[obs3], everlastingness &c. adj.;
perpetuation; continued existence, uninterrupted existence;
perennity[obs3]; permanence (durability) 110.
V. last forever, endure forever, go on forever; have no end.
eternize, perpetuate.
Adj. perpetual, eternal; everduring[obs3], everlasting, ever-living,
ever-flowing; continual, sempiternal[obs3]; coeternal; endless, unending;
ceaseless, incessant, uninterrupted, indesinent[obs3], unceasing; endless,
unending, interminable, having no end; unfading[obs3], evergreen,
amaranthine; neverending[obs3], never-dying, never-fading; deathless,
immortal, undying, imperishable.
Adv. perpetually &c. adj.; always, ever, evermore, aye; for ever, for
aye, till the end of the universe, forevermore, forever and a day, for
ever and ever; in all ages, from age to age; without end; world without
end, time without end; in secula seculorum[Lat]; to the end of time, to the
crack of doom, to the "last syllable of recorded time" [Macbeth]; till
doomsday; constantly &c. (very frequently) 136.
Phr. esto perpetuum[Lat]; labitur et labetur in omne volubilis oevum
[Lat][Horace]; "but thou shall flourish in immortal youth" [Addison];
"Eternity! thou pleasing, dreadful thought" [Addison]; "her immortal part
with angels lives" [Romeo & Juliet]; ohne Rast [Ger][Goethe's motto]; ora e

#113. [Point of time] Instantaneity. -- N. instantaneity,
instantaneousness, immediacy; suddenness, abruptness.
moment, instant, second, minute; twinkling, trice, flash, breath,
crack, jiffy, coup, burst, flash of lightning, stroke of time.
epoch, time; time of day, time of night; hour, minute; very minute
&c., very time, very hour; present time, right time, true time, exact
correct time.
V. be instantaneous &c. adj.; twinkle, flash.
Adj. instantaneous, momentary, sudden, immediate, instant, abrupt,
discontinuous, precipitous, precipitant, precipitate; subitaneous[obs3],
hasty; quick as thought, quick as lightning, quick as a flash; rapid as
speedy, quick, fast, fleet, swift, lively, blitz; rapid (velocity)
Adv. instantaneously &c. adj.; in no time, in less than no time;
presto, subito[obs3], instanter, suddenly, at a stroke, like a shot; in a
moment &c. n. in the blink of an eye, in the twinkling of an eye, in a
trice; in one's tracks; right away; toute a l'heure[Fr]; at one jump, in
the same breath, per saltum[Lat], uno saltu[Lat]; at once, all at once;
plump, slap; "at one fell swoop"; at the same instant &c. n.; immediately
&c. (early) 132; extempore, on the moment, on the spot, on the spur of the
moment; no sooner said than done; just then; slap-dash &c. (haste) 684.
Phr. touch and go; no sooner said than done.

#114. [Estimation, measurement, and record of time.] Chronometry. --
N. chronometry, horometry[obs3], horology; date, epoch; style, era.
almanac, calendar, ephemeris; register, registry; chronicle, annals,
journal, diary, chronogram.
[Instruments for the measurement of time]; clock, wall clock, pendulum
clock, grandfather's clock, cuckoo clock, alarm clock, clock radio; watch,
wristwatch, pocket watch, stopwatch, Swiss watch; atomic clock, digital
clock, analog clock, quartz watch, water clock; chronometer,
chronoscope[obs3], chronograph; repeater; timekeeper, timepiece; dial,
sundial, gnomon, horologe, pendulum, hourglass, clepsydra[obs3];
chronographer[obs3], chronologer, chronologist, timekeeper; annalist.
calendar year, leap year, Julian calendar, Gregorian calendar, Chinese
calendar, Jewish calendar, perpetual calendar, Farmer's almanac, fiscal
V. fix the time, mark the time; date, register, chronicle; measure
time, beat time, mark time; bear date; synchronize watches.
Adj. chronological, chronometrical[obs3], chronogrammatical[obs3];
cinquecento[Fr], quattrocento[obs3], trecento[obs3].
Adv. o'clock.

#115. [False estimate of time.] Anachronism. -- N. anachronism,
metachronism, parachronism, prochronism; prolepsis, misdate; anticipation,
disregard of time, neglect of time, oblivion of time.
intempestivity &c. 135[obs3].
V. misdate, antedate, postdate, backdate, overdate[obs3]; anticipate;
take no note of time, lose track of time; anachronize[obs3].
Adj. misdated &c. v.; undated; overdue, past due; out of date.

<-- p. 34 -->


Time with reference to Succession

#116. Priority. -- N. priority, antecedence, anteriority, precedence,
pre-existence; precession &c. 280; precursor &c. 64; the past &c. 122;
V. precede, come before; forerun; go before &c. (lead) 280; preexist;
dawn; presage &c. 511; herald, usher in.
be beforehand &c. (be early) 132; steal a march upon, anticipate,
forestall; have the start, gain the start.
Adj. prior, previous; preceding, precedent; anterior, antecedent; pre-
existing, pre-existent; former, foregoing; aforementioned, before-
mentioned, abovementioned; aforesaid, said; introductory &c. (precursory)
Adv. before, prior to; earlier; previously &c. adj.; afore[obs3],
aforehand[obs3], beforehand, ere, theretofore, erewhile[obs3]; ere then,
ere now, before then, before now; erewhile[obs3], already, yet,
beforehand; on the eve of.
Phr. prior tempore prior jure[Lat].

#117. Posteriority. -- N. posteriority; succession, sequence;
following &c. 281.; subsequence, supervention; futurity &c. 121; successor;
sequel &c. 65; remainder, reversion.
V. follow &c. 281 after, come after, go after; succeed, supervene;
ensue, occur; step into the shoes of.
Adj. subsequent, posterior, following, after, later, succeeding,
postliminious[obs3], postnate[obs3]; postdiluvial[obs3],
postdiluvian[obs3]; puisne|!; posthumous; future &c. 121; afterdinner,
Adv. subsequently, after, afterwards, since, later; at a subsequent,
at a later period, at a later date; next, in the sequel, close upon,
thereafter, thereupon, upon which, eftsoons|; from that time, from that
moment; after a while, after a time; in process of time.

#118. The Present Time. -- N. the present, the present time, the
present day, the present moment, the present juncture, the present
occasion; the times, the existing time, the time being; today, these
days, nowadays, our times, modern times, the twentieth century; nonce,
crisis, epoch, day, hour.
age, time of life.
Adj. present, actual, instant, current, existing, extant, that is;
present-day, up-to-date, up-to-the-moment.
Adv. at this time, at this moment &c. 113; at the present time &c. n.;
now, at present; at hand.
at this time of day, today, nowadays; already; even now, but now,
just now; on the present occasion; for the time being, for the nonce; pro
hac vice[Lat].; on the nail, on the spot; on the spur of the moment, until
now; to this day, to the present day.
Phr. "the present hour alone is man's" [Johnson].

#119. [Time different from the present.] Different time. -- N.
different time, other time.
[Indefinite time] aorist.
Adj. aoristic; indefinite.
Adv. at that time, at which time, at that moment, at that instant;
then, on that occasion, upon; not now, some other time.
when; whenever, whensoever; upon which, on which occasion; at another,
at a different, at some other, at any- time; at various times; some one of
these days, one of these days, one fine morning; eventually, some day, by
and by, sooner or later; some time or other; once upon a time.

<-- p. 35 -->

#120. Synchronism. -- N. synchronism; coexistence, coincidence;
simultaneousness, simultaneity &c. adj.; concurrence, concomitance, unity
of time, interim.
[Having equal times] isochronism[obs3].
contemporary, coetanian[obs3].
V. coexist, concur, accompany, go hand in hand, keep pace with;
Adj. synchronous, synchronal[obs3], synchronic, synchronical,
synchronistical[obs3]; simultaneous, coexisting, coincident, concomitant,
concurrent; coeval, coevous[obs3]; contemporary, contemporaneous;
coetaneous[obs3]; coeternal; isochronous.
Adv. at the same time; simultaneously &c. adj.; together, in concert,
during the same time; in the same breath; pari passu[Lat]; in the interim;
as one.
at the very moment &c. 113; just as, as soon as; meanwhile &c. (while)

#121. [Prospective time.] Futurity. -- N. futurity, futurition;
future, hereafter, time to come; approaching time, coming time, subsequent
time, after time, approaching age, coming age, subsequent age, after age,
approaching days, coming days, subsequent days, after days, approaching
hours, coming hours, subsequent hours, after hours, approaching ages,
coming ages, subsequent ages, after ages, approaching life, coming life,
subsequent life, after life, approaching years, coming years, subsequent
years, after years; morrow; millennium, doomsday, day of judgment, crack of
doom, remote future.
approach of time advent, time drawing on, womb of time; destiny &c.
152; eventuality.
heritage, heirs posterity.
prospect &c. (expectation) 507; foresight &c. 510.
V. look forwards; anticipate &c. (expect) 507, (foresee) 510;
forestall &c. (be early) 132.
come on, draw on; draw near; approach, await, threaten; impend &c. (be
destined) 152.
Adj. future, to come; coming &c. (impending) 152; next, near; close at
hand; eventual, ulterior; in prospect &c. (expectation) 507.
Adv. prospectively, hereafter, in future; kal[obs3], tomorrow, the day
after tomorrow; in course of time, in process of time, in the fullness of
time; eventually, ultimately, sooner or later; proximo[Lat]; paulo post
futurum[Lat]; in after time; one of these days; after a time, after a
from this time; henceforth, henceforwards[obs3]; thence; thenceforth,
thenceforward; whereupon, upon which.
soon &c. (early) 132; on the eve of, on the point of, on the brink of;
about to; close upon.
Phr. quid sit futurum cras fuge quaerere [Latin][Horace].

#122. [Retrospective time.] The Past -- N. the past, past time; days
of yore, times of yore, days of old, times of old, days past, times past,
days gone by, times gone by; bygone days; old times, ancient times, former
times; fore time; the good old days, the olden time, good old time; auld
lang syne[obs3]; eld|.
antiquity, antiqueness[obs3], status quo; time immemorial; distance of
time; remote age, remote time; remote past; rust of antiquity
[study of the past] paleontology, paleography, paleology[obs3];
paleozoology; palaetiology|[obs3], archaeology; paleogeography;
paleoecology; paleobotany; paleoclimatoogy; archaism, antiquarianism,
medievalism, Pre-Raphaelitism; paleography.
retrospect, retrospection, looking back, memory &c. 505.
<-- originally - preterition; priority &c. 116 -->

laudator temporis acti[Lat]; medievalist, Pre-Raphaelite; antiquary,
antiquarian; archmologist &c.[obs3]; Oldbuck, Dryasdust.
ancestry &c. (paternity) 166.
V. be past &c. adj.; have expired &c. adj., have run its course, have
had its day; pass; pass by, go by, pass away, go away, pass off, go off;
lapse, blow over.
look back, trace back, cast the eyes back; exhume.
Adj. past, gone, gone by, over, passed away, bygone, foregone;
elapsed, lapsed, preterlapsed[obs3], expired, no more, run out, blown over,
has-been, that has been, extinct, antediluvian, antebellum, never to
return, gone with the wind, exploded, forgotten, irrecoverable; obsolete
&c. (old) 124.
former, pristine, quondam, ci-devant[Fr], late; ancestral.
foregoing; last, latter; recent, over night; preterperfect[obs3],
looking back &c. v.; retrospective, retroactive; archaeological &c. n.
Adv. paleo-; archaeo-; formerly; of old, of yore; erst[Ger], whilom,
erewhile[obs3], time was, ago, over; in the olden time &c. n.; anciently,
long ago, long since; a long while, a long time ago; years ago, yesteryear,
ages ago; some time ago, some time since, some time back.
yesterday, the day before yesterday; last year, ultimo; lately &c.
(newly) 123.
retrospectively; ere now, before now, till now; hitherto, heretofore;
no longer; once, once upon a time; from time immemorial, from prehistoric
times; in the memory of man; time out of mind; already, yet, up to this
time; ex post facto.
Phr. time was; the time has been, the time hath been; you can't go
home again; fuimus Troes [Lat][Vergil]; fruit Ilium [Vergil]; hoc erat in
more majorum[Lat]; "O call back yesterday, bid time return" [Richard II];
tempi passati[It]; "the eternal landscape of the past" [Tennyson]; ultimus
Romanorum[Lat]; "what's past is prologue" [Tempest]; "whose yesterdays look
backward with a smile" [Young].

<-- p. 36 -->

#123. Newness. -- N. newness &c. adj.; novelty, recency; immaturity;
youth &c. 127; gloss of novelty.
innovation; renovation &c. (restoration) 660.
modernism; mushroom, parvenu; latest fashion.
V. renew &c. (restore) 660; modernize.
Adj. new, novel, recent, fresh, green; young &c. 127; evergreen; raw,
immature, unsettled, yeasty; virgin; untried, unhandseled[obs3], untrodden,
untrod, unbeaten; fire-new, span-new.
late, modern, neoteric, hypermodern, nouveau; new-born, nascent,
neonatal[med.], new-fashioned, new-fangled, new-fledged; of yesterday;
just out, brand-new, up to date, up to the minute, with it, fashionable, in
fashion; in, hip [coll.]; vernal, renovated, sempervirent[obs3],
fresh as a rose, fresh as a daisy, fresh as paint; spick and span.
Adv. newly &c. adj.; afresh, anew, lately, just now, only yesterday,
the other day; latterly, of late.
not long ago, a short time ago.
Phr. di novello tutto par bello[It]; nullum est jam dictum quod non
dictum est prius[Lat]; una scopa nuova spazza bene[It].

#124. Oldness. -- N. oldness &c. adj[obs3].; age, antiquity; cobwebs
of antiquity; maturity; decline, decay; senility &c. 128.
seniority, eldership, primogeniture; archaism &c. (the past) 122;
thing of the past, relic of the past; megatherium[obs3]; Sanskrit.
tradition, prescription, custom, immemorial usage, common law.
V. be old &c. adj.; have had its day, have seen its day; become old
&c. adj.; age, fade, senesce.
Adj. old, ancient, antique; of long standing, time-honored, venerable;
elder, eldest; firstborn.
prime; primitive, primeval, primigenous[obs3]; paleolontological,
paleontologic, paleoanthropological, paleoanthropic[obs3], paleolithic;
primordial, primordinate[obs3]; aboriginal &c. (beginning) 66;
diluvian[obs3], antediluvian; protohistoric[obs3]; prehistoric; antebellum,
colonial, precolumbian; patriarchal, preadamite[obs3]; paleocrystic[obs3];
fossil, paleozoolical, paleozoic, preglacial[obs3], antemundane[obs3];
archaic, classic, medieval, Pre-Raphaelite, ancestral, black-letter.
immemorial, traditional, prescriptive, customary, whereof the memory
of man runneth not to the contrary; inveterate, rooted.
antiquated, of other times, rococo, of the old school, after-age,
obsolete; out of date, out of fashion, out of it; stale, old-fashioned,
behind the age; old-world; exploded; gone out, gone by; passe, run out;
senile &c. 128; time worn; crumbling &c. (deteriorated) 659; secondhand.
old as the hills, old as Methuselah, old as Adam[obs3], old as
[geological eras (list, starting at given number of years bp)]
Archeozoic[5,000,000,000], Proterozoic[1,500,000,000],
Paleozoic[600,000,000], Mesozoic[220,000,000], Cenozoic[70,000,000].
[geological periods (list)] Precambrian, Cambrian[600,000,000],
Ordovician[500,000,000], Silurian[440,000,000], Devonian[400,000,000],
Mississippian[350,000,000], Pennsylvanian[300,000,000],
Permian[270,000,000], Triassic[220,000,000], Jurassic[180,000,000],
Cretaceous[135,000,000]; Tertiary[70,000,000], Paleogene[70,000,000],
Neocene[25,0000,000]; Quaternary[1,000,000].
[geological epochs (list, starting at 70,000,000 years bp)] Paleocene,
Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, Recent.
Adv. since the world was made, since the year one, since the days of
Phr. vetera extollimus recentium incuriosi [Lat][Tacitus].

#125. Morning. [Noon.] -- N. morning, morn, forenoon, a.m., prime,
dawn, daybreak; dayspring[obs3], foreday[obs3], sunup;
peep of day, break of day; aurora; first blush of the morning, first flush
of the morning, prime of the morning; twilight, crepuscule, sunrise;
cockcrow, cockcrowing[obs3]; the small hours, the wee hours of the morning.
spring; vernal equinox, first point of Aries.
noon; midday, noonday; noontide, meridian, prime; nooning, noontime.
summer, midsummer.
Adj. matin, matutinal[obs3]; vernal.
Adv. at sunrise &c. n.; with the sun, with the lark, "when the morning
Phr. "at shut of evening flowers" [Paradise Lost]; entre chien et
loup[Fr]; "flames in the forehead of the morning sky" [Milton]; "the breezy
call of incense-breathing morn" [Gray].

#126. Evening. [Midnight.] -- N. evening, eve; decline of day, fall of
day, close of day; candlelight, candlelighting[obs3]; eventide, nightfall,
curfew, dusk, twilight, eleventh hour; sunset, sundown; going down of the
sun, cock- shut, dewy eve, gloaming, bedtime.
afternoon, postmeridian, p.m.
autumn; fall, fall of the leaf; autumnal equinox; Indian summer, St.
Luke's summer, St. Martin's summer.
midnight; dead of night, witching hour, witching hour of night,
witching time of night; winter; killing time.
Adj. vespertine, autumnal, nocturnal.
Phr. "midnight, the outpost of advancing day" [Longfellow]; "sable-
vested Night" [Milton]; "this gorgeous arch with golden worlds inlay'd"

<-- p. 37 -->

#127. Youth. -- N. youth; juvenility, juvenescence[obs3];
juniority[obs3]; infancy; babyhood, childhood, boyhood, girlhood,
youthhood[obs3]; incunabula; minority, nonage, teens, tender age, bloom.
cradle, nursery, leading strings, pupilage, puberty, pucelage[obs3].
prime of life, flower of life, springtide of life[obs3], seedtime of
life, golden season of life; heyday of youth, school days; rising
Adj. young, youthful, juvenile, green, callow, budding, sappy, puisne,
beardless, under age, in one's teens; in statu pupillari[Lat]; younger,
junior; hebetic[obs3], unfledged.
Phr. "youth on the prow and pleasure at the helm" [Gray];
"youth . . . the glad season of life" [Carlyle].

#128. Age. -- N. age; oldness[obs3] &c. adj.; old age, advanced age,
golden years; senility, senescence; years, anility[obs3], gray hairs,
climacteric, grand climacteric, declining years, decrepitude, hoary age,
caducity[obs3], superannuation; second childhood, second childishness;
dotage; vale of years, decline of life, "sear and yellow leaf" [Macbeth];
threescore years and ten; green old age, ripe age; longevity; time of life.
seniority, eldership; elders &c. (veteran) 130; firstling; doyen,
father; primogeniture.
[Science of old age.] geriatrics, nostology|.
V. be aged &c. adj.; grow old, get old &c. adj.; age; decline, wane,
dodder; senesce.
Adj. aged; old &c. 124; elderly, geriatric, senile; matronly, anile|;
in years; ripe, mellow, run to seed, declining, waning, past one's prime;
gray, gray-headed; hoar, hoary; venerable, time-worn, antiquated, passe,
effete, decrepit, superannuated; advanced in life, advanced in years;
stricken in years; wrinkled, marked with the crow's foot; having one foot in
the grave; doting &c. (imbecile) 499; like the last of pea time.
older, elder, eldest; senior; firstborn.
turned of, years old; of a certain age, no chicken, old as Methuselah;
ancestral, patriarchal, &c. (ancient) 124; gerontic.
Phr. "give me a staff of honor for my age" [Titus Andronicus]; bis
pueri senes [Lat]; peu de gens savent elre vieux[Fr]; plenus annis abiit
plenus honoribus [Lat][Pliny the Younger]; "old age is creeping on apace"
[Byron]; "slow-consuming age" [Gray]; "the hoary head is a crown of glory"
[Proverbs xvi, 31]; "the silver livery of advised age" [II Henry VI]; to
grow old gracefully; "to vanish in the chinks that Time has made" [Rogers].

#129. Infant.-- N. infant, babe, baby, babe in arms; nurseling,
suckling, yearling, weanling; papoose, bambino; kid; vagitus.
child, bairn, little one, brat, chit, pickaninny, urchin; bantling,
bratling[obs3]; elf; youth, boy, lad, stripling, youngster, youngun,
younker[obs3], callant[obs3], whipster[obs3], whippersnapper, whiffet
[obs3][U.S.], schoolboy, hobbledehoy, hopeful, cadet, minor, master; scion;
sap, seedling; tendril, olive branch, nestling, chicken, larva, chrysalis,
tadpole, whelp, cub, pullet, fry, callow; codlin, codling; foetus, calf,
colt, pup, foal, kitten; lamb, lambkin[obs3]; aurelia[obs3], caterpillar,
cocoon, nymph, nympha[obs3], orphan, pupa, staddle[obs3].
girl; lass, lassie; wench, miss, damsel, demoiselle; maid, maiden;
virgin; hoyden.
Adj. infantine[obs3], infantile; puerile; boyish, girlish, childish,
babyish, kittenish; baby; newborn, unfledged, new-fledged, callow.
in the cradle, in swaddling clothes, in long clothes, in arms, in
leading strings; at the breast; in one's teens.

#130. Veteran.-- N. veteran, old man, seer, patriarch, graybeard;
grandfather, grandsire; grandam; gaffer, gammer; crone; pantaloon;
sexagenarian, octogenarian, nonagenarian, centenarian; old stager; dotard
&c. 501.
preadamite[obs3], Methuselah, Nestor, old Parr; elders; forefathers
&c. (paternity) 166.
Phr. "superfluous lags the veteran on the stage" [Johnson].

<-- p. 38 -->

#131. Adolescence. -- N. adolescence, pubescence, majority; adultism;
adultness &c. adj.; manhood, virility, maturity full age, ripe age; flower
of age; prime of life, meridian of life, spring of life.
man &c. 373; woman &c. 374; adult, no chicken.
V. come of age, come to man's estate, come to years of discretion;
attain majority, assume the toga virilis[Lat]; have cut one's eyeteeth,
have sown one's mild oats.
Adj. adolescent, pubescent, of age; of full age, of ripe age; out of
one's teens, grown up, mature, full grown, in one's prime, middle-aged,
manly, virile, adult; womanly, matronly; marriageable, nubile.

Time with reference to an Effect or Purpose

#132. Earliness. -- N. {ant. 133} earliness &c. adj.; morning &c. 125.
punctuality; promptitude &c. (activity) 682; haste &c. (velocity) 274;
suddenness &c. (instantaneity) 113.
prematurity, precocity, precipitation, anticipation; a stitch in time.
V. be early &c. adj., be beforehand &c. adv.; keep time, take time by
the forelock, anticipate, forestall; have the start, gain the start; steal
a march upon; gain time, draw on futurity; bespeak, secure, engage,
accelerate; expedite &c. (quicken) 274; make haste &c. (hurry) 684.
Adj. early, prime, forward; prompt &c. (active) 682; summary.
premature, precipitate, precocious; prevenient[obs3], anticipatory;
sudden &c. (instantaneous) 113; unexpected &c. 508; near, near at
hand; immediate.
Adv. early, soon, anon, betimes, rath[obs3]; eft, eftsoons; ere long,
before long, shortly.
beforehand; prematurely &c. adj.; precipitately &c. (hastily) 684; too
soon; before its time, before one's time; in anticipation; unexpectedly
&c. 508.
suddenly &c. (instantaneously) 113; before one can say "Jack
Robinson", at short notice, extempore; on the spur of the moment, on the
spur of the occasion [Bacon]; at once; on the spot, on the instant; at
sight; offhand, out of hand; a' vue d'oeil[Fr]; straight, straightway,
straightforth[obs3]; forthwith, incontinently, summarily, immediately,
briefly, shortly, quickly, speedily, apace, before the ink is dry, almost
immediately, presently at the first opportunity, in no long time, by and
by, in a while, directly.
Phr. no sooner said than done, immediately, if not sooner; tout vient
a temps pour qui sait attendre[Fr].

#132a. Punctuality -- N. punctuality, promptness, immediateness.
V. be prompt, be on time, be in time; arrive on time; be in the nick
of time.
Adj. timely, seasonable, in time, punctual, prompt.
Adv. on time, punctually, at the deadline, precisely, exactly; right
on time, to the minute; in time; in good time, in military time, in pudding
time|, in due time; time enough; with no time to spare, by a hair's
Phr. touch and go, not a minute too soon, in the nick of time, just
under the wire, get on board before the train leaves the station.

#133. Lateness. -- N. {ant. 132} lateness &c. adj.; tardiness &c.
(slowness) 275.
delay, delation; cunctation, procrastination; deferring, deferral &c.
v.; postponement, adjournment, prorogation, retardation, respite, pause,
reprieve, stay of execution; protraction, prolongation; Fabian policy,
medecine expectante[Fr], chancery suit, federal case; leeway; high time;
moratorium, holdover.
V. be late &c. adj.; tarry, wait, stay, bide, take time; dawdle &c.
(be inactive) 683; linger, loiter; bide one's time, take one's time; gain
time; hang fire; stand over, lie over.
put off, defer, delay, lay over, suspend; table [parliamentary]; shift
off, stave off; waive, retard, remand, postpone, adjourn; procrastinate;
dally; prolong, protract; spin out, draw out, lengthen out, stretch out;
prorogue; keep back; tide over; push to the last, drive to the last; let
the matter stand over; reserve &c. (store) 636; temporize; consult one's
pillow, sleep on it.
lose an opportunity &c. 135; be kept waiting, dance attendance; kick
one's heels, cool one's heels; faire antichambre[Fr][obs3]; wait
impatiently; await &c. (expect) 507; sit up, sit up at night.
Adj. late, tardy, slow, behindhand, serotine[obs3], belated,
postliminious[obs3], posthumous, backward, unpunctual, untimely; delayed,
postponed; dilatory &c. (slow) 275; delayed &c. v.; in abeyance.
Adv. late; lateward[obs3], backward; late in the day; at sunset, at
the eleventh hour, at length, at last; ultimately; after time, behind time,
after the deadline; too late; too late for &c. 135.
slowly, leisurely, deliberately, at one's leisure; ex post facto; sine
die [parl.].
Phr. nonum prematur in annum [Lat][Horace]; "against the sunbeams
serotine and lucent" [Longfellow]; ie meglio tardi che mai[It]; deliberando
saepe perit occasio [Lat][Syrus].

<-- p. 39 -->

#134. Occasion. -- N. {ant. 135} timeliness, occasion, opportunity,
opening, room; event (eventuality) 151; suitable season, proper season,
suitable time, proper time; high time; opportuneness &c. adj.;
crisis, turn, juncture, conjuncture; crisis, turning point, given
nick of time; golden opportunity, well timed opportunity, fine
opportunity, favorable opportunity, opening; clear stage, fair field;
mollia tempora[Lat][obs3]; fata Morgana[Lat]; spare time &c. (leisure) 685.
V. seize &c. (take) 789 an opportunity, use &c. 677 an opportunity,
give &c. 784 an opportunity, use an occasion; improve the occasion.
suit the occasion &c. (be expedient) 646.
seize the occasion, strike while the iron is hot, battre le fer sur
l'enclume[Fr], make hay while the sun shines, seize the present hour, take
time by the forelock, prendre la balle au bond[Fr].
Adj. opportune, timely, well-timed, timeful[obs3], seasonable.
providential, lucky, fortunate, happy, favorable, propitious,
auspicious, critical; suitable &c. 23; obiter dicta.
Adv. opportunely &c. adj.; in proper course, in due course, in proper
season, in due season, in proper time, in due time; for the nonce; in the
nick of time, in the fullness of time; all in good time; just in time, at
the eleventh hour, now or never.
by the way, by the by; en passant[Fr], a propos[Fr]; pro re nata[Lat],
pro hac vice[Lat]; par parenthese[Fr], parenthetically, by way of
parenthesis, incidentally; while speaking of, while on the subject;
extempore; on the spur of the moment, on the spur of the occasion; on the
spot &c. (early) 132.
Phr. carpe diem[Lat], [Horace]; occasionem cognosce[Lat]; one's hour
is come, the time is up; that reminds me, now that you mention it, come to
think of it; bien perdu bien connu[Fr]; e sempre l'ora[It]; ex quovis ligno
non fit Mercurius[Lat]; nosce tempus[Lat]; nunc aut nunquam[Lat].

#135. Untimeliness -- N. {ant. 134} untimeliness,
intempestivity[obs3], unseasonableness, inexpedience; unsuitable time,
improper time; unreasonableness &c. adj; evil hour; contretemps; intrusion;
anachronism &c. 115.
bad time, wrong time, inappropriate time, not the right occasion,
unsuitable time, inopportune time, poor timing.
V. be ill timed &c. adj.; mistime, intrude, come amiss, break in upon;
have other fish to fry; be busy, be occupied.
lose an opportunity, throw away an opportunity, waste an opportunity,
neglect &c. 460 an opportunity; allow the opportunity to pass, suffer the
opportunity to pass, allow the opportunity to slip, suffer the opportunity
to slip, allow the opportunity to go by, suffer the opportunity to go by,
allow the opportunity to escape, suffer the opportunity to escape, allow
the opportunity to lapse, suffer the opportunity to lapse, allow the
occasion to pass, allow the occasion to slip by; waste time &c. (be
inactive) 683; let slip through the fingers, lock the barn door after the
horse is stolen.
Adj. ill-timed, mistimed; ill-fated, ill-omened, ill-starred;
untimely, unseasonable; out of date, out of season; inopportune, timeless,
intrusive, untoward, mal a propos[Fr], unlucky, inauspicious, infelicitous,
unbefitting, unpropitious, unfortunate, unfavorable; unsuited &c. 24;
inexpedient &c. 647.
unpunctual &c. (late) 133; too late for; premature &c. (early) 132;
too soon for; wise after the event, monday morning quarterbacking, twenty-
twenty hindsight.
Adv. inopportunely &c. adj.; as ill luck would have it, in an evil
hour, the time having gone by, a day after the fair.
Phr. after death the doctor, after meat mustard.


#136. Frequency. -- N. frequency, oftness[obs3], oftenness[obs3],
commonness; repetition &c. 104; normality &c. 80; example (conformity) 82;
routine, custom (habit) 613.
regularity, uniformity, constancy, clock-work precision; punctuality
&c. (exactness) 494; even tenor; system; routine &c. (custom) 613; formula;
rule &c. (form, regulation) 697; keynote, standard, model; precedent &c.
(prototype) 22; conformity &c. 82.
V. recur &c. 104; do nothing but; keep, keep on.
Adj. frequent, many times, not rare, thickcoming[obs3], incessant,
perpetual, continual, steady, constant, thick; uniform; repeated &c. 104;
customary &c. 613 (habit) 613; regular (normal) 80; according to rule &c.
(conformable) 82.
common, everyday, usual, ordinary, familiar.
old-hat, boring, well-known, trivial.
Adv. often, oft; ofttimes[obs3], oftentimes; frequently; repeatedly
&c. 104; unseldom[obs3], not unfrequently[obs3]; in quick succession, in
rapid succession; many a time and oft; daily, hourly &c.; every day, every
hour, every moment &c.
perpetually, continually, constantly, incessantly, without ceasing, at
all times, daily and hourly, night and day, day and night, day after day,
morning noon and night, ever anon, invariably (habit) 613.
most often; commonly &c. (habitually) 613.
sometimes, occasionally, at times, now and then, from time to time,
there being times when, toties quoties[Lat][obs3], often enough, when the
mood strikes, again and again.

<-- p. 40 -->

#137. Infrequency.-- N. infrequency, rareness, rarity; fewness &c.
103; seldomness[obs3]; uncommonness.
V. be rare &c. adj.
Adj. unfrequent[obs3], infrequent; rare, rare as a blue diamond; few
&c. 103; scarce; almost unheard of, unprecedented, which has not occurred
within the memory of the oldest inhabitant, not within one's previous
experience; not since Adam[obs3].
scarce as hen's teeth; one in a million; few and far between.
Adv. seldom, rarely, scarcely, hardly; not often, not much,
infrequently, unfrequently[obs3], unoften[obs3]; scarcely, scarcely ever,
hardly ever; once in a blue moon.
once; once in a blue moon; once in a million years; once for all, once
in a way; pro hac vice[Lat].
Phr. ein mal kein mal[German].

#138. Regularity of recurrence. Periodicity. -- N. periodicity,
intermittence; beat; oscillation &c. 314; pulse, pulsation; rhythm;
alternation, alternateness, alternativeness, alternity[obs3].
bout, round, revolution, rotation, turn, say.
anniversary, jubilee, centenary.
catamenia[obs3]; courses, menses, menstrual flux.
[Regularity of return] rota, cycle, period, stated time, routine; days
of the week; Sunday, Monday &c.; months of the year; January &c.; feast,
fast &c.; Christmas, Easter, New Year's day
Allhallows[obs3], Allhallowmas[obs3], All Saints' Day; All Souls', All
Souls' Day; Ash Wednesday, bicentennial, birthday, bissextile[obs3],
Candlemas[obs3], Dewali, groundhog day [U.S.], Halloween, Hallowmas[obs3],
Lady day, leap year, Midsummer day, Muharram, woodchuck day [U.S.], St.
Swithin's day, natal day; yearbook; yuletide.
punctuality, regularity, steadiness.
V. recur in regular order, recur in regular succession; return,
revolve; come again, come in its turn; come round, come round again; beat,
pulsate; alternate; intermit.
Adj. periodic, periodical; serial, recurrent, cyclical, rhythmical;
recurring &c. v.; intermittent, remittent; alternate, every other.
hourly; diurnal, daily; quotidian, tertian, weekly; hebdomadal|,
hebdomadary|; biweekly, fortnightly; bimonthly; catamenial|; monthly,
menstrual; yearly, annual; biennial, triennial, &c.; centennial, secular;
paschal, lenten, &c.
regular, steady, punctual, regular as clockwork.
Adv. periodically &c. adj.; at regular intervals, at stated times; at
fixed established, at established periods; punctually &c. adj. de die in
diem[Lat]; from day to day, day by day.
by turns; in turn, in rotation; alternately, every other day, off and
on, ride and tie, round and round.

#139. Irregularity of recurrence. -- N. irregularity, uncertainty,
unpunctuality; fitfulness &c. adj.; capriciousness, ecrhythmus|.
Adj. irregular, uncertain, unpunctual, capricious, desultory, fitful,
flickering; rambling, rhapsodical; spasmodic; immethodical[obs3],
unmethodical, variable.
Adv. irregularly &c. adj.; by fits and starts &c. (discontinuously)



#140. [Difference at different times.] Change. -- N. change,
alteration, mutation, permutation, variation, modification, modulation,
inflexion, mood, qualification, innovation, metastasis, deviation, turn,
evolution, revolution; diversion; break.
transformation, transfiguration; metamorphosis; transmutation;
deoxidization[Chem]; transubstantiation; mutagenesis[Genet],
transanimation[obs3], transmigration, metempsychosis|; avatar; alterative.
conversion &c. (gradual change) 144; revolution &c. (sudden or radical
change) 146 inversion &c. (reversal) 218; displacement &c. 185;
transference &c. 270.
changeableness &c. 149; tergiversation &c. (change of mind)
V. change, alter, vary, wax and wane; modulate, diversify, qualify,
tamper with; turn, shift, veer, tack, chop, shuffle, swerve, warp, deviate,
turn aside, evert, intervert[obs3]; pass to, take a turn, turn the corner,
work a change, modify, vamp, superinduce; transform, transfigure,
transmute, transmogrify, transume[obs3]; metamorphose, ring the changes.
innovate, introduce new blood, shuffle the cards; give a turn to, give
a color to; influence, turn the scale; shift the scene, turn over a new
recast &c. 146; reverse &c. 218; disturb &c. 61; convert into &c. 144.
Adj. changed &c. v.; newfangled; changeable &c. 149; transitional;
modifiable; alterative.
Adv. mutatis mutandis[Lat].
Int. quantum mutatus[Lat]!
Phr. "a change came o'er the spirit of my dream" [Byron]; nous avons
change tout cela [Fr][Moliere]; tempora mutantur nos et mutamur in
illis[Lat][obs3]; non sum qualis eram [Lat][Horace]; casaque tourner[Fr];
corpora lente augescent cito extinguuntur [Lat][obs3][Tacitus]; in statu
quo ante bellum[Lat]; "still ending and beginning still" [Cowper]; vox
audita perit littera scripta manet[Lat].

<-- p. 41 -->

#141. [Absence of change.] Permanence. -- N. stability &c. 150;
quiescence &c. 265; obstinacy &c. 606.
permanence, persistence, endurance; durability; standing, status quo;
maintenance, preservation, conservation; conservation; law of the Medes and
Persians; standing dish.
V. let alone, let be, let it be; persist, remain, stay, tarry, rest;
stet [copy editing]; hold, hold on; last, endure, bide, abide, aby[obs3],
dwell, maintain, keep; stand, stand still, stand fast; subsist, live,
outlive, survive; hold one's ground, keep one's ground, hold one's footing,
keep one's footing; hold good.
Adj. stable &c. 150; persisting &c. v.; permanent; established;
unchanged &c. (change &c. 140); renewed; intact, inviolate; persistent;
monotonous, uncheckered[obs3]; unfailing.
undestroyed, unrepealed, unsuppressed[obs3]; conservative, qualis ab
incepto[Lat]; prescriptive &c. (old) 124; stationary &c. 265.
Adv. in statu quo[Lat]; for good, finally; at a stand, at a
standstill; uti possidetis[Lat]; without a shadow of turning.
Phr. esto perpetua[Lat]; nolumus leges Angliae mutari[Lat][obs3]; j'y
suis et j'y ereste[Fr].

#142. [Change from action to rest.] Cessation. -- N. cessation,
discontinuance, desistance, desinence[obs3].
intermission, remission; suspense, suspension; interruption; stop;
stopping &c. v.; closure, stoppage, halt; arrival &c. 292. pause, rest,
lull, respite, truce, drop; interregnum, abeyance; cloture [U.S. congress].
dead stop, dead stand, dead lock; finis, cerrado[Sp]; blowout,
burnout, meltdown, disintegration; comma, colon, semicolon, period, full
stop; end &c. 67; death &c. 360.
V. cease, discontinue, desist, stay, halt; break off, leave off; hold,
stop, pull up, stop short; stick, hang fire; halt; pause, rest; burn out,
blow out, melt down.
have done with, give over, surcease, shut up shop; give up &c.
(relinquish) 624.
hold one's hand, stay one's hand; rest on one's oars repose on one's
come to a stand, come to a standstill; come to a deadlock, come to a
full stop; arrive &c. 292; go out, die away; wear away, wear off; pass away
&c. (be past) 122; be at an end; disintegrate, self-destruct.
intromit, interrupt, suspend, interpel[obs3]; intermit, remit; put an
end to, put a stop to, put a period to; derail; turn off, switch off, power
down, deactivate, disconnect; bring to a stand, bring to a standstill;
stop, cut short, arrest, stem the tide, stem the torrent; pull the check-
string, pull the plug on.
Int. hold! stop! enough! avast! have done! a truce to! soft! leave
off! tenez[Fr]!
Phr. "I pause for a reply" [Julius Caesar].

#143. Continuance in action. -- N. continuance, continuation; run;
perpetuation, prolongation; persistence &c. (perseverance) 604a; repetition
&c. 104.
V. continue, persist; go on, jog on, keep on, run on, hold on; abide,
keep, pursue, stick to its course, take its course, maintain its course;
carry on, keep up.
sustain, uphold, hold up, keep on foot; follow up, perpetuate;
maintain; preserve &c. 604a; harp upon &c. (repeat) 104.
keep going, keep alive, keep the pot boiling, keep up the ball, keep
up the good work; die in harness, die with one's boots on; hold on the even
tenor of one's way, pursue the even tenor of one's way.
let be; stare super antiquas vias[Lat][obs3]; quieta non movere[Lat];
let things take their course; stare decisis [Lat][Jurisprudence].
Adj. continuing &c. v.; uninterrupted, unintermitting[obs3],
unvarying, unshifting[obs3]; unreversed[obs3], unstopped, unrevoked,
unvaried; sustained; undying &c. (perpetual) 112; inconvertible.
Int. keep it up! go to it! right away! right on! attaboy!
Phr. nolumus leges Angliae mutari[Lat][obs3]; vestigia nulla retrorsum
[Lat][Horace]; labitur et albetur [Lat][obs3][Horace].

<-- p. 42 -->

#144. [Gradual change to something different.] Conversion. -- N.
conversion, reduction, transmutation, resolution, assimilation; evolution,
sea change; change of state; assumption; naturalization; transportation;
development [biol.], developing [photography].
[conversion of currency] conversion of currency, exchange of currency;
exchange rate; bureau de change.
chemistry, alchemy; progress, growth, lapse, flux.
passage; transit, transition; transmigration, shifting &c. v.; phase;
conjugation; convertibility.
crucible, alembic, caldron, retort.
convert, pervert, renegade, apostate.
V. be converted into; become, get, wax; come to, turn to, turn into,
evolve into, develop into; turn out, lapse, shift; run into, fall into,
pass into, slide into, glide into, grow into, ripen into, open into,
resolve itself into, settle into, merge into, emerge as; melt, grow, come
round to, mature, mellow; assume the form of, assume the shape of, assume
the state of, assume the nature of, assume the character of; illapse|;
begin a new phase, assume a new phase, undergo a change.
convert into, resolve into; make, render; mold, form &c. 240; remodel,
new model, refound[obs3], reform, reorganize; assimilate to, bring to,
reduce to.
Adj. converted into &c. v.; convertible, resolvable into;
transitional; naturalized.
Adv. gradually, &c. (slowly) 275 in transitu &c. (transference)

#145. Reversion. -- N. reversion, return; revulsion.
turning point, turn of the tide; status quo ante bellum; calm before a
storm; alternation &c. (periodicity) 138; inversion &c. 219; recoil &c.
277; retreat, regression, retrogression &c. 283; restoration &c. 660;
relapse, recidivism &c. 661; atavism; vicinism[obs3];
V. revert, turn back, regress; relapse &c. 661; recoil &c. 277;
retreat &c. 283; restore &c. 660; undo, unmake; turn the tide, roll back
the tide, turn the scale, tip the scale.
Adj. reverting &c. v.; regressive, revulsive, reactionary;
Adv. a rebours[Fr].

#146. [Sudden or violent change.] Revolution. -- N. revolution,
bouleversement, subversion, break up; destruction &c. 162; sudden change,
radical change, sweeping organic change; change of state, phase change;
quantum leap, quantum jump; clean sweep, coup d'etat[Fr], counter
jump, leap, plunge, jerk, start, transilience|; explosion; spasm,
convulsion, throe, revulsion; storm, earthquake, cataclysm.
legerdemain &c. (trick) 545.
V. revolutionize; new model, remodel, recast; strike out something
new, break with the past; change the face of, unsex.
Adj. unrecognizable; revolutionary.

#147. [Change of one thing for another.] Substitution. -- N.
substitution, commutation; supplanting &c. v.; metaphor, metonymy &c.
(figure of speech) 521.
[Thing substituted] substitute, ersatz, makeshift, temporary
expedient, replacement, succedaneum; shift, pis aller[Fr], stopgap, jury
rigging, jury mast, locum tenens, warming pan, dummy, scapegoat; double;
changeling; quid pro quo, alternative.
representative &c. (deputy) 759; palimpsest.
price, purchase money, consideration, equivalent.
V. substitute, put in the place of, change for; make way for, give
place to; supply the place of, take the place of; supplant, supersede,
replace, cut out, serve as a substitute; step into stand in the shoes of;
jury rig, make a shift with, put up with; borrow from Peter to pay Paul,
take money out of one pocket and put it in another, cannibalize; commute,
redeem, compound for.
Adj. substituted &c.; ersatz; phony; vicarious, subdititious[obs3].
Adv. instead; in place of, in lieu of, in the stead of, in the room
of; faute de mieux[Fr].

#148. [Double or mutual change.] Interchange. -- N. interchange,
exchange; commutation, permutation, intermutation; reciprocation,
transposition, rearrangement; shuffling; alternation, reciprocity; castling
[at chess]; hocus-pocus.
interchangeableness[obs3], interchangeability.
recombination; combination 48[ref], 84..
barter &c. 794; tit for tat &c. (retaliation) 718; cross fire,
battledore and shuttlecock; quid pro quo.
V. interchange, exchange, counterchange[obs3]; bandy, transpose,
shuffle, change bands, swap, permute, reciprocate, commute; give and take,
return the compliment; play at puss in the corner, play at battledore and
shuttlecock; retaliate &c. 718; requite.
rearrange, recombine.
Adj. interchanged &c. v.; reciprocal, mutual, commutative,
interchangeable, intercurrent[obs3].
combinatorial[Math, Statistics].
recombinant[Biology, Genetics].
Adv. in exchange, vice versa, mutatis mutandis[Lat], backwards and
forwards, by turns, turn and turn about; each in his turn, everyone in his
Adj. substituted &c. v.; vicarious, subdititious[obs3].
Adv. instead; in place of, in lieu of, in the stead of, in the room
of; faute de mieux[Fr].

<-- p. 43 -->

#149. Changeableness. -- N. changeableness &c. adj.; mutability,
inconstancy; versatility, mobility; instability, unstable equilibrium;
vacillation &c. (irresolution) 605; fluctuation, vicissitude; alternation
&c. (oscillation) 314.
restlessness &c. adj. fidgets, disquiet; disquietude, inquietude; unrest;
agitation &c. 315.
moon, Proteus, chameleon, quicksilver, shifting sands, weathercock,
harlequin, Cynthia of the minute, April showers[obs3]; wheel of Fortune;
transientness &c. 111[obs3].
V. fluctuate, vary, waver, flounder, flicker, flitter, flit, flutter,
shift, shuffle, shake, totter, tremble, vacillate, wamble[obs3], turn and
turn about, ring the changes; sway to and fro, shift to and fro; change and
change about; waffle, blow with the wind (irresolute) 605; oscillate &c.
314; vibrate between, two extremes, oscillate between, two extremes;
alternate; have as man phases as the moon.
Adj. changeable, changeful; changing &c. 140; mutable, variable,
checkered, ever changing; protean, proteiform|; versatile.
unstaid[obs3], inconstant; unsteady, unstable, unfixed, unsettled;
fluctuating &c. v.; restless; agitated &c. 315; erratic, fickle; irresolute
&c. 605; capricious &c. 608; touch and go; inconsonant, fitful, spasmodic;
vibratory; vagrant, wayward; desultory; afloat; alternating; alterable,
plastic, mobile; transient &c. 111; wavering.
Adv. seesaw &c. (oscillation) 314; off and on.
Phr. "a rolling stone gathers no moss"; pictra mossa non fa muschis[It];
honores mutant mores[Lat]; varium et mutabile semper femina [Lat][Vergil].

#150. Stability. -- N. stability; immutability &c. adj.;
unchangeability, &c. adj.; unchangeableness|!; constancy; stable
equilibrium, immobility, soundness, vitality, stabiliment[obs3], stiffness,
ankylosis[obs3], solidity, aplomb.
establishment, fixture; rock, pillar, tower, foundation, leopard's
spots, Ethiopia's skin.
permanence &c. 141; obstinacy &c. 606.
V. be firm &c. adj.; stick fast; stand firm, keep firm, remain firm;
weather the storm, stay the course, stick to the course, keep the faith,
don't give in, don't buckle under.
settle, establish, stablish[obs3], ascertain, fix, set,
stabilitate[obs3]; retain, keep hold; make good, make sure; fasten &c.
(join) 43; set on its legs, float; perpetuate.
settle down; strike roots, put down roots, take root; take up one's
abode &c. 184; build one's house on a rock.
Adj. unchangeable, immutable; unaltered, unalterable; not to be
changed, constant; permanent &c. 141; invariable, undeviating; stable,
durable; perennial &c. (diuturnal) 110[obs3].
fixed, steadfast, firm, fast, steady, balanced; confirmed, valid;
fiducial[obs3]; immovable, irremovable, riveted, rooted; settled,
established &c. v.; vested; incontrovertible, stereotyped, indeclinable.
tethered, anchored, moored, at anchor, on a rock, rock solid, firm as
a rock; firmly seated, firmly established &c. v.; deep-rooted,
ineradicable; inveterate; obstinate &c. 606.
transfixed, stuck fast, aground, high and dry, stranded.
[movable object rendered unmovable] stuck, jammed; unremovable;
quiescent &c. 265; deterioration &c. 659.
indefeasible, irretrievable, intransmutable[obs3], incommutable[obs3],
irresoluble[obs3], irrevocable, irreversible, reverseless[obs3],
inextinguishable, irreducible; indissoluble, indissolvable[obs3];
indestructible, undying, imperishable, incorruptible, indelible,
indeciduous[obs3]; insusceptible, insusceptible of change.
Int. stet.
Phr. littera scripta manet[Lat].

<-- p. 44 -->

Present Events

#151. Eventuality. -- N. eventuality, event, occurrence, incident,
affair, matter, thing, episode, happening, proceeding, contingency,
juncture, experience, fact; matter of fact; naked fact, bare facts, just
the facts; phenomenon; advent.
business, concern, transaction, dealing, proceeding; circumstance,
particular, casualty, accident, adventure, passage, crisis, pass,
emergency, contingency, consequence; opportunity (occasion) 143.
the world, life, things, doings, affairs in general; things in
general, affairs in general; the times, state of affairs, order of the day;
course of things, tide of things, stream of things, current of things, run
of things, march of things, course of events; ups and downs of life,
vicissitudes of life; chapter of accidents &c. (chance) 156; situation &c.
(circumstances) 8.
V. happen, occur; take place, take effect; come, become of; come off,
comeabout[obs3], come round, come into existence, come forth, come to pass,
come on; pass, present itself; fall; fall out, turn out; run, be on foot,
fall in; befall, betide, bechance[obs3]; prove, eventuate, draw on; turn
up, crop up, spring up, pop up, arise, show up, show its face, appear, come
forth, cast up; supervene, survene[obs3]; issue, arrive, ensue, arise,
start, hold, take its course; pass off &c. (be past) 122.
meet with; experience, enjoy, encounter, undergo, suffer, pass
through, go through, be subjected to, be exposed to; fall to the lot of; be
one's chance, be one's fortune, be one's lot; find; endure &c. (feel)
Adj. happening &c. v; going on, doing, current; in the wind, in the
air, afloat; on foot, afoot, on the tapis[obs3]; at issue, in question;
eventful, stirring, bustling, full of incident; memorable, momentous,
Adv. eventually; in the event of, in case, just in case; in the course
of things; as things, times go; as the world goes, wags; as the tree falls,
cat jumps; as it may turn out, happen.
Phr. that's the way the ball bounces, that's the way the cookie
crumbles; you never know what may turn up, you never know what the future
will bring; the plot thickens; "breasts the blows of circumstance"
[Tennyson]; "so runs round of life from hour to hour" "sprinkled along the
waste of years" [Tennyson][Keble].

Future Events

#152. Destiny. -- N. destiny &c. (necessity) 601; future existence,
post existence; hereafter; future state, next world, world to come, after
life; futurity &c. 121; everlasting life, everlasting death; life beyond
the grave, world beyond the grave; prospect &c. (expectation) 507.
V. impend; hang over, lie over; threaten, loom, await, come on,
approach, stare one in the face; foreordain, preordain; predestine, doom,
have in store for.
Adj. impending &c. v.; destined; about to be, happen; coming, in
store, to come, going to happen, instant, at hand, near; near, close at
hand; over hanging, hanging over one's head, imminent; brewing, preparing,
forthcoming; in the wind, on the cards, in reserve; that will, is to be; in
prospect &c. (expected) 507; looming in the distance, horizon, future;
unborn, in embryo; in the womb of time, futurity; pregnant &c. (producing)
Adv. in time, the long run; all in good time; eventually &c. 151;
whatever may happen &c. (certainly) 474; as chance &c. 156 would have it.



#153. [Constant antecedent]. Cause.-- N. cause, origin, source,
principle, element; occasioner[obs3], prime mover, primum mobile[Lat]; vera
causa[Lat]; author &c. (producer) 164; mainspring; agent; leaven;
groundwork, foundation &c. (support) 215.
spring, fountain, well, font; fountainhead, spring head, wellhead;
fons et origo[Lat], genesis; descent &c. (paternity) 166; remote cause;
pivot, hinge, turning point, lever, crux, fulcrum; key; proximate
cause, causa causans[Lat]; straw that breaks the camel's back.
ground; reason, reason why; why and wherefore, rationale, occasion,
derivation; final cause &c. (intention) 620; les dessous des cartes[Fr];
rudiment, egg, germ, embryo, bud, root, radix radical, etymon,
nucleus, seed, stem, stock, stirps, trunk, tap-root, gemmule[obs3],
radicle, semen, sperm.
nest, cradle, nursery, womb, nidus, birthplace, hotbed.
causality, causation; origination; production &c. 161.
V. be the cause &c. n of; originate; give origin to, give rise, to,
give occasion to; cause, occasion, sow the seeds of, kindle,
suscitate[obs3]; bring on, bring to bring pass, bring about; produce;
create &c. 161; set up, set afloat, set on foot; found, broach, institute,
lay the foundation of; lie at the root of.
procure, induce, draw down, open the door to, superinduce, evoke,
entail, operate; elicit, provoke.
conduce to &c. (tend to) 176; contribute; have a hand in the pie, have
a finger in the pie; determine, decide, turn the scale; have a common
origin; derive its origin &c. (effect) 154.
Adj. caused &c. v; causal, original; primary, primitive, primordial;
aboriginal; protogenal[obs3]; radical; embryonic, embryotic[obs3]; in
embryo, in ovo[Lat]; seminal, germinal; at the bottom of; connate, having a
common origin.
Adv. because &c. 155; behind the scenes.
Phr. causa latet vis est notissima [Lat][Ovid]; felix qui potuit rerum
cognoscere causas [Lat][Vergil].

<-- p. 45 -->

#154. [Constant sequent.] Effect.-- N. effect, consequence;
aftergrowth[obs3], aftercome[obs3]; derivative, derivation; result;
resultant, resultance[obs3]; upshot, issue, denouement; end &c. 67;
development, outgrowth, fruit, crop, harvest, product, bud.
production, produce, work, handiwork, fabric, performance; creature,
creation; offspring, offshoot; firstfruits[obs3], firstlings; heredity,
telegony[obs3]; premices premises[obs3].
V. be the effect of &c. n.; be due to, be owing to; originate in,
originate from; rise -, arise, take its rise spring from, proceed from,
emanate from, come from, grow from, bud from, sprout from, germinate from,
issue from, flow from, result from, follow from, derive its origin from,
accrue from; come to, come of, come out of; depend upon, hang upon, hinge
upon, turn upon.
take the consequences, sow the wind and reap the whirlwind.
Adj. owing to; resulting from &c. v.; derivable from; due to; caused
by &c. 153; dependent upon; derived from, evolved from; derivative;
hereditary; telegonous[obs3].
Adv. of course, it follows that, naturally, consequently; as a
consequence, in consequence; through, all along of, necessarily,
Phr. cela va sans dire[Fr], "thereby hangs a tale" [Taming of the

#155. [Assignment of cause] Attribution -- N. attribution, theory,
etiology, ascription, reference to, rationale; accounting for &c. v;
palaetiology|, imputation, derivation from.
filiation[obs3], affiliation; pedigree &c. (paternity) 166.
explanation &c. (interpretation) 522; reason why &c. (cause) 153.
V. attribute to, ascribe to, impute to, refer to, lay to, point to,
trace to, bring home to; put down to, set down to, blame; charge on,
ground on; invest with, assign as cause, lay at, the door of, father upon;
account for, derive from, point out the reason &c. 153; theorize; tell how
it comes; put the saddle on the right horse.
Adj. attributed &c. v.; attributable &c. v.; referable to, referrible
to[obs3], due to, derivable from; owing to &c. (effect) 154; putative;
Adv. hence, thence, therefore, for, since, on account of, because,
owing to; on that account; from this cause, from that cause; thanks to,
forasmuch as; whence, propter hoc[Lat].
why? wherefore? whence? how comes it, how is it, how happens it? how
does it happen?
in some way, in some such way; somehow, somehow or other.
Phr. that is why; hinc illae lachrymae [Lat][Horace].
1. Whewell History of the inductive Sciences, book xviii vol. iii.p.
397 (3d edit.).
2 The word Chance has two distinct meanings: the first, the absence
of assignable cause, as above; and the second, the absence of design -- for
the latter see 621.

#156. [Absence of assignable cause.] Chance. 2 -- N. chance,
indetermination, accident, fortune, hazard, hap, haphazard, chance medley,
random, luck, raccroc[obs3], casualty, contingence, adventure, hit; fate
&c. (necessity) 601; equal chance; lottery; tombola[obs3]; toss up &c. 621;
turn of the table, turn of the cards; hazard of the die, chapter of
accidents, fickle finger of fate; cast of the dice, throw of the dice;
heads or tails, flip of a coin, wheel of Fortune; sortes[obs3], sortes
probability, possibility, odds; long odds, run of luck;
accidentalness; main chance, odds on, favorable odds.
contingency, dependence (uncertainty) 475; situation (circumstance) 8.
statistics, theory of Probabilities, theory of Chances; bookmaking;
assurance; speculation, gaming &c. 621.
V. chance, hap, turn up; fall to one's lot; be one's -fate &c. 601;
stumble on light upon; take one's chance &c. 621.
Adj. casual, fortuitous, accidental, adventitious, causeless,
incidental, contingent, uncaused, undetermined, indeterminate; random,
statistical; possible &c. 470; unintentional &c. 621.
Adv. by chance, accidentally, by accident; casually; perchance &c.
(possibly) 470; for aught one knows; as good would have it, as bad would
have it, as luck would have it, as ill-luck would have it, as chance would
have it; as it may be, as it may chance, as it may turn up, as it may
happen; as the case may be.
Phr. "grasps the skirts of happy chance" [Tennyson]; "the accident
of an accident" [Lord Thurlow]. "There but for the grace of God go I."

<-- p. 46 -->
<-- "power" contains the concepts of both efficacy and efficiency -->

#157. Power.-- N. power; potency, potentiality; jiva[obs3]; puissance,
might, force, energy &c. 171; dint; right hand, right arm;
ascendency[obs3], sway, control; prepotency, prepollence|; almightiness,
omnipotence; authority &c. 737; strength &c. 159.
ability; ableness &c. adj[obs3].; competency; efficacy; efficiency,
productivity, expertise (skill) 698; validity, cogency; enablement[obs3];
vantage ground; influence &c. 175.
pressure; conductivity; elasticity; gravity, electricity, magnetism,
galvanism, voltaic electricity, voltaism, electromagnetism; atomic power,
nuclear power, thermonuclear power; fuel cell; hydraulic power, water
power, hydroelectric power; solar power, solar energy, solar panels; tidal
power; wind power; attraction; vis inertiae[Lat], vis mortua[Lat], vis viva
[Latin]; potential energy, dynamic energy; dynamic friction, dynamic
suction; live circuit, live rail, live wire.
capability, capacity; quid valeant humeri quid ferre recusent
[obs3][Latin]; faculty, quality, attribute, endowment, virtue, gift,
property, qualification, susceptibility.
V. be powerful &c. adj.; gain power &c. n.
belong to, pertain to; lie in one's power, be in one's power; can, be
give power, confer power, exercise power &c. n.; empower, enable,
invest; indue[obs3], endue; endow, arm; strengthen &c. 159; compel &c. 744.
Adj. powerful, puissant; potential; capable, able; equal to, up to;
cogent, valid; efficient, productive; effective, effectual, efficacious,
adequate, competent; multipotent[obs3], plenipotent[obs3], omnipotent;
forcible &c. adj. (energetic) 171; influential &c. 175; productive &c.
Adv. powerfully &c. adj.; by virtue of, by dint of.
Phr. a toute force[Fr]; gen/gr>[Sp][Grk][Grk][Grk][Grk][Grk]; eripuit coelo fulmen sceptrumque
tyrannis [Latin]; fortis cadere cedere non potest [Latin].

#158. Impotence.-- N. impotence; inability, disability; disablement,
impuissance, imbecility; incapacity, incapability; inaptitude, ineptitude,
incompetence, unproductivity[obs3]; indocility[obs3]; invalidity,
disqualification; inefficiency, wastefulness.
telum imbelle[Lat], brutum fulmen[Lat], blank, blank cartridge, flash
in the pan, vox et proeterea nihil[Lat], dead letter, bit of waste paper,
dummy; paper tiger; Quaker gun.
inefficacy &c. (inutility) 645[obs3]; failure &c. 732.
helplessness &c. adj.; prostration, paralysis, palsy, apoplexy,
syncope, sideration|, deliquium|[Lat], collapse, exhaustion, softening of
the brain, inanition; emasculation, orchiotomy [Med], orchotomy[Med].
cripple, old woman, muff, powder puff, creampuff, pussycat, wimp,
mollycoddle; eunuch.
V. be impotent &c. adj.; not have a leg to stand on.
vouloir rompre l'anguille au genou [French], vouloir prendre la lune
avec les dents [French].
collapse, faint, swoon, fall into a swoon, drop; go by the board, go
by the wayside; go up in smoke, end in smoke &c. (fail) 732.
render powerless &c. adj.; deprive of power; disable, disenable[obs3];
disarm, incapacitate, disqualify, unfit, invalidate, deaden, cramp, tie the
hands; double up, prostrate, paralyze, muzzle, cripple, becripple[obs3],
maim, lame, hamstring, draw the teeth of; throttle, strangle, garrotte,
garrote; ratten[obs3], silence, sprain, clip the wings of, put hors de
combat[Fr], spike the guns; take the wind out of one's sails, scotch the
snake, put a spoke in one's wheel; break the neck, break the back; unhinge,
unfit; put out of gear.
unman, unnerve, enervate; emasculate, castrate, geld, alter, neuter,
sterilize, fix.
shatter, exhaust, weaken &c. 160.
Adj. powerless, impotent, unable, incapable, incompetent; inefficient,
ineffective; inept; unfit, unfitted; unqualified, disqualified; unendowed;
inapt, unapt; crippled, disabled &c. v.; armless[obs3].
harmless, unarmed, weaponless, defenseless, sine ictu[Lat],
unfortified, indefensible, vincible, pregnable, untenable.
paralytic, paralyzed; palsied, imbecile; nerveless, sinewless[obs3],
marrowless[obs3], pithless[obs3], lustless[obs3]; emasculate, disjointed;
out of joint, out of gear; unnerved, unhinged; water-logged, on one's beam
ends, rudderless; laid on one's back; done up, dead beat, exhausted,
shattered, demoralized; graveled &c. (in difficulty) 704; helpless,
unfriended[obs3], fatherless; without a leg to stand on, hors de
combat[Fr], laid on the shelf.
null and void, nugatory, inoperative, good for nothing; ineffectual
&c. (failing) 732; inadequate &c. 640; inefficacious &c. (useless) 645.
Phr. der kranke Mann[Ger]; "desirous still but impotent to rise"
[Shenstone]; the spirit is willing but the flesh is weak.

<-- p. 47 -->

#159. [Degree of power.] Strength.-- N. strength; power &c. 157;
energy &c. 171; vigor, force; main force, physical force, brute force;
spring, elasticity, tone, tension, tonicity.
stoutness &c. adj.; lustihood[obs3], stamina, nerve, muscle, sinew,
thews and sinews, physique; pith, pithiness; virtility, vitality.
athletics, athleticism[obs3]; gymnastics, feats of strength.
adamant, steel, iron, oak, heart of oak; iron grip; grit, bone.
athlete, gymnast, acrobat; superman, Atlas, Hercules, Antaeus[obs3],
Samson, Cyclops, Goliath; tower of strength; giant refreshed.
strengthening &c. v.; invigoration, refreshment, refocillation[obs3].
[Science of forces] dynamics, statics.
V. be strong &c. adj., be stronger; overmatch.
render strong &c. adj.; give strength &c. n.; strengthen, invigorate,
brace, nerve, fortify, sustain, harden, case harden, steel, gird; screw up,
wind up, set up; gird up one's loins, brace up one's loins; recruit, set on

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