Part 9 out of 14
[Lat.], one in a thousand.
beneficence &c 906; good man &c 948.
V. be beneficial &c adj.; produce good, do good &c 618; profit &c (be
of use) 644; benefit; confer a benefit &c 618.
be the making of, do a world of good, make a man of.
produce a good effect; do a good turn, confer an obligation;
improve &c 658.
do no harm, break no bones.
be good &c adj.; excel, transcend &c (be superior) 33; bear away
stand the proof, stand the test; pass muster, pass an examination.
challenge comparison, vie, emulate, rival.
Adj. harmless, hurtless^; unobnoxious^, innocuous, innocent,
beneficial, valuable, of value; serviceable &c (useful) 644;
advantageous, edifying, profitable; salutary &c (healthful) 656.
favorable; propitious &c (hope-giving) 858; fair.
good, good as gold; excellent; better; superior &c 33; above par;
nice, fine; genuine &c (true) 494.
best, choice, select, picked, elect, recherche, rare, priceless;
unparagoned^, unparalleled &c (supreme) 33; superlatively &c 33; good;
bully [Slang], crackajack [Slang], giltedged; superfine,
superexcellent^; of the first water; first-rate, first-class; high-
wrought, exquisite, very best, crack, prime, tiptop, capital, cardinal;
standard &c (perfect) 650; inimitable.
admirable, estimable; praiseworthy &c (approve) 931; pleasing &c
829; couleur de rose [Fr.], precious, of great price; costly &c (dear)
814; worth its weight in gold, worth a Jew's eye; priceless,
invaluable, inestimable, precious as the apple of the eye.
tolerable &c (not very good) 651; up to the mark, unexceptionable,
unobjectionable; satisfactory, tidy.
in good condition, in fair condition; fresh; sound &c (perfect)
Adv. beneficially &c adj.; well &c 618.
Phr. Jewels five words long [Tennyson]; long may such goodness live!
[Rogers]; the luxury of doing good [Goldsmith].
649. [Capability of producing evil. Bad qualities.] Badness -- N.
hurtfulness &c adj.; virulence.
evil doer &c 913; bane &c 663; plague spot &c (insalubrity) 657;
evil star, ill wind; hoodoo; Jonah; snake in the grass, skeleton in the
closet; amari aliquid [Lat.], thorn in the side.
malignity; malevolence &c 907; tender mercies [Iron.].
ill-treatment, annoyance, molestation, abuse, oppression,
persecution, outrage; misusage &c 679; injury &c (damage) 659; knockout
badness &c adj.; peccancy^, abomination; painfulness &c 830;
pestilence &c (disease) 655; guilt &c 947; depravity &c 945.
V. be hurtful &c adj.; cause evil, produce evil, inflict evil, work
evil, do evil &c 619; damnify^, endamage^, hurt, harm; injure &c
(damage) 659; pain &c 830.
wrong, aggrieve, oppress, persecute; trample upon, tread upon,
bear hard upon, put upon; overburden; weigh down, weigh heavy on;
victimize; run down; molest &c 830.
maltreat, abuse; ill-use, ill-treat; buffet, bruise, scratch,
maul; smite &c (scourge) 972; do violence, do harm, do a mischief;
stab, pierce, outrage.
do mischief, make mischief; bring into trouble.
destroy &c 162.
Adj. hurtful, harmful, scathful^, baneful, baleful; injurious,
deleterious, detrimental, noxious, pernicious, mischievous, full of
mischief, mischief-making, malefic, malignant, nocuous, noisome;
prejudicial; disserviceable^, disadvantageous; wide-wasting.
unlucky, sinister; obnoxious; untoward, disastrous.
oppressive, burdensome, onerous; malign &c (malevolent) 907.
corrupting &c (corrupt) &c 659; virulent, venomous, envenomed,
corrosive; poisonous &c (morbific) 657 [Obs.]; deadly &c (killing) 361;
destructive &c (destroying) 162; inauspicious &c 859.
bad, ill, arrant, as bad as bad can be, dreadful; horrid,
horrible; dire; rank, peccant, foul, fulsome; rotten, rotten at the
vile, base, villainous; mean &c (paltry) 643; injured &c;
deteriorated &c 659; unsatisfactory, exceptionable indifferent; below
par &c (imperfect) 651; illcontrived, ill-conditioned; wretched, sad,
grievous, deplorable, lamentable; pitiful, pitiable, woeful &c
evil, wrong; depraved &c 945; shocking; reprehensible &c
hateful, hateful as a toad; abominable, detestable, execrable,
cursed, accursed, confounded; damned, damnable; infernal; diabolic &c
unadvisable &c (inexpedient) 647; unprofitable &c (useless) 645;
incompetent &c (unskillful) 699; irremediable &c (hopeless) 859.
Adv. badly &c adj.; wrong, ill; to one's cost; where the shoe pinches.
Phr. bad is the best: the worst come to the worst; herba mala presto
cresco [Lat.]; wrongs unredressed or insults unavenged [Wordsworth].
650. Perfection -- N. perfection; perfectness &c adj.; indefectibility^;
pink, beau ideal, phenix, paragon; pink of perfection, acme of
perfection; ne plus ultra [Lat.]; summit &c 210.
cygne noir [Fr.]; philosopher's stone; chrysolite, Koh-i-noor.
model, standard, pattern, mirror, admirable Crichton; trump, very
masterpiece, superexcellence &c (goodness) 648 [Obs.];
transcendence &c (superiority) 33.
V. be perfect &c adj.; transcend &c (be supreme) 33.
bring to perfection, perfect, ripen, mature; complete &c 729; put
in trim &c (prepare) 673; maturate.
Adj. perfect, faultless; indefective^, indeficient^, indefectible;
immaculate, spotless, impeccable; free from imperfection &c 651;
unblemished, uninjured &c 659; sound, sound as a roach; in perfect
condition; scathless^, intact, harmless; seaworthy &c (safe) 644; right
as a trivet; in seipso totus teres atque rotundus [Lat.] [Horace];
consummate &c (complete) 52; finished &c 729.
best &c (good) 648; model, standard; inimitable, unparagoned^,
unparalleled &c (supreme) 33; superhuman, divine; beyond all praise &c
(approbation) 931; sans peur et sans reproche [Fr.].
Adv. to perfection; perfectly &c adj.; ad unguem [Lat.]; clean, clean
as a whistle.
Phr. let us go on unto perfection [Hebrews vi, 1]; the perfection of
art is to conceal art [Quintilian].
651. Imperfection -- N. imperfection; imperfectness &c adj.;
deficiency; inadequacy &c (insufficiency) 640; peccancy &c (badness)
649 [Obs.]; immaturity &c 674.
fault, defect, weak point; screw loose; flaw &c (break) 70; gap &c
198; twist &c 243; taint, attainder; bar sinister, hole in one's coat;
blemish &c 848; weakness &c 160; half blood; shortcoming &c 304;
drawback; seamy side.
mediocrity; no great shakes, no great catch; not much to boast of;
V. be imperfect &c adj.; have a defect &c n.; lie under a disadvantage;
spring a leak.
not pass muster, barely pass muster; fall short &c 304.
Adj. imperfect; not perfect &c 650; deficient, defective; faulty,
unsound, tainted; out of order, out of tune; cracked, leaky; sprung;
warped &c (distort) 243; lame; injured &c (deteriorated) 659; peccant
&c (bad) 649; frail &c (weak) 160; inadequate &c (insufficient) 640;
crude &c (unprepared) 674; incomplete &c 53; found wanting; below par;
short-handed; below its full strength, under its full strength, below
its full complement.
indifferent, middling, ordinary, mediocre; average &c 29; so-so;
coucicouci, milk and water; tolerable, fair, passable; pretty well,
pretty good; rather good, moderately good; good; good enough, well
enough, adequate; decent; not bad, not amiss; inobjectionable^,
unobjectionable, admissible, bearable, only better than nothing.
secondary, inferior; second-rate, second-best; one-horse [U.S.].
Adv. almost &c; to a limited extent, rather &c 32; pretty, moderately,
passing; only, considering, all things considered, enough.
Phr. surgit amari aliquid [Lat.].
652. Cleanness -- N. cleanness, cleanliness &c adj.; purity; cleaning
&c v.; purification, defecation &c v.; purgation, lustration^;
detersion^, abstersion^; epuration^, mundation^; ablution, lavation^,
colature^; disinfection &c v.; drainage, sewerage.
lavatory, laundry, washhouse^; washerwoman, laundress, dhobi^,
laundryman, washerman^; scavenger, dustman^, sweep; white wings brush
[U.S.]; broom, besom^, mop, rake, shovel, sieve, riddle, screen, filter;
napkin, cloth, maukin^, malkin^, handkerchief, towel, sudary^;
doyley^, doily, duster, sponge, mop, swab.
wash, lotion, detergent, cathartic, purgative; purifier &c v.;
disinfectant; aperient^; benzene, benzine benzol, benolin^; bleaching
powder, chloride of lime, dentifrice, deobstruent^, laxative.
V. be clean, render clean &c adj.; clean, cleanse; mundify^, rinse,
wring, flush, full, wipe, mop, sponge, scour, swab, scrub, brush up.
wash, lave, launder, buck; absterge^, deterge^; decrassify^; clear,
purify; depurate^, despumate^, defecate; purge, expurgate, elutriate
[Chem], lixiviate^, edulcorate^, clarify, refine, rack; filter,
filtrate; drain, strain.
disinfect, fumigate, ventilate, deodorize; whitewash; castrate,
sift, winnow, pick, weed, comb, rake, brush, sweep.
rout out, clear out, sweep out &c; make a clean sweep of.
Adj. clean, cleanly; pure; immaculate; spotless, stainless, taintless;
trig; without a stain, unstained, unspotted, unsoiled, unsullied,
untainted, uninfected; sweet, sweet as a nut.
neat, spruce, tidy, trim, gimp, clean as a new penny, like a cat
in pattens; cleaned &c v.; kempt^.
abstergent^, cathartic, cleansing, purifying.
Adv. neatly &c adj.; clean as a whistle.
653. Uncleanness -- N. uncleanness &c adj.; impurity; immundity^,
immundicity^; impurity &c 961 [of mind]. defilement, contamination &c
v.; defoedation^; soilure^, soiliness^; abomination; leaven; taint,
tainture^; fetor &c 401 [Obs.].
decay; putrescence, putrefaction; corruption; mold, must, mildew,
dry rot, mucor, rubigo^.
slovenry^; slovenliness &c adj.; squalor.
dowdy, drab, slut, malkin^, slattern, sloven, slammerkin^,
slammock^, slummock^, scrub, draggle-tail, mudlark^, dust-man, sweep;
dirt, filth, soil, slop; dust, cobweb, flue; smoke, soot, smudge,
smut, grit, grime, raff^; sossle^, sozzle^.
sordes^, dregs, grounds, lees; argol^; sediment, settlement
heeltap^; dross, drossiness^; mother^, precipitate, scoriae, ashes,
recrement^, slag; scum, froth.
hogwash; ditchwater^, dishwater, bilgewater^; rinsings,
cheeseparings; sweepings &c (useless refuse) 645; offscourings^,
outscourings^; off scum; caput mortuum [Lat.], residuum, sprue, fecula
[Lat.], clinker, draff^; scurf, scurfiness^; exuviae [Lat.], morphea;
fur, furfur^; dandruff, tartar.
riffraff; vermin, louse, flea, bug, chinch^.
mud, mire, quagmire, alluvium, silt, sludge, slime, slush, slosh,
spawn, offal, gurry [U.S.]; lientery^; garbage, carrion; excreta &c
299; slough, peccant humor, pus, matter, suppuration, lienteria^;
faeces, feces, excrement, ordure, dung, crap [Vulg.], shit [Vulg.];
sewage, sewerage; muck; coprolite; guano, manure, compost.
dunghill, colluvies^, mixen^, midden, bog, laystall^, sink, privy,
jakes; toilet, john, head; cess^, cesspool; sump, sough, cloaca,
latrines, drain, sewer, common sewer; Cloacina; dust hole.
sty, pigsty, lair, den, Augean stable^, sink of corruption; slum,
V. be unclean, become unclean &c adj.; rot, putrefy, ferment, fester,
rankle, reek; stink &c 401; mold, molder; go bad &c adj.. render
unclean &c adj.; dirt, dirty; daub, blot, blur, smudge, smutch^, soil,
smoke, tarnish, slaver, spot, smear; smirch; begrease^; dabble,
drabble^, draggle, daggle^; spatter, slubber; besmear &c, bemire,
beslime^, begrime, befoul; splash, stain, distain^, maculate, sully,
pollute, defile, debase, contaminate, taint, leaven; corrupt &c
(injure) 659; cover with dust &c n.; drabble in the mud^; roil.
wallow in the mire; slobber, slabber^.
Adj. dirty, filthy, grimy; unclean, impure; soiled &c v.; not to be
handled with kid gloves; dusty, snuffy^, smutty, sooty, smoky; thick,
turbid, dreggy; slimy; mussy [U.S.].
slovenly, untidy, messy, uncleanly.
[of people] unkempt, sluttish, dowdy, draggle-tailed; uncombed.
unscoured^, unswept^, unwiped^, unwashed, unstrained, unpurified^;
squalid; lutose^, slammocky^, slummocky^, sozzly^.
nasty, coarse, foul, offensive, abominable, beastly, reeky,
reechy^; fetid &c 401.
[of rotting living matter] decayed, moldy, musty, mildewed, rusty,
moth-eaten, mucid^, rancid, weak, bad, gone bad, etercoral^,
lentiginous^, touched, fusty, effete, reasty^, rotten, corrupt, tainted,
high, flyblown, maggoty; putrid, putrefactive, putrescent, putrefied;
saprogenic, saprogenous^; purulent, carious, peccant; fecal, feculent;
stercoraceous^, excrementitious^; scurfy, scurvy, impetiginous^; gory,
bloody; rotting &c v.; rotten as a pear, rotten as cheese.
crapulous &c (intemperate) 954 [Obs.]; gross &c (impure in mind)
961; fimetarious^, fimicolous^.
Phr. they that touch pitch will be defiled [Much Ado About Nothing].
654. Health -- N. health, sanity; soundness &c adj.; vigor; good
health, perfect health, excellent health, rude health, robust health;
mens sana in corpore sano [Lat.]; Hygeia^; incorruption,
incorruptibility; good state of health, clean bill of health; eupepsia^;
euphoria, euphory^; St.
V. be in health &c adj.. bloom, flourish.
keep body and soul together, keep on one's legs; enjoy good
health, enjoy a good state of health; have a clean bill of health.
return to health; recover &c 660; get better &c (improve) 658;
take a new lease of life, fresh lease of life; recruit; restore to
health; cure &c (restore) 660; tinker.
Adj. healthy, healthful; in health &c n.; well, sound, hearty, hale,
fresh, green, whole; florid, flush, hardy, stanch, staunch, brave,
robust, vigorous, weatherproof.
unscathed, uninjured, unmaimed^, unmarred, untainted; sound of wind
and limb, safe and sound.
on one's legs; sound as a roach, sound as a bell; fresh as a
daisy, fresh as a rose, fresh as April^; hearty as a buck; in fine
feather, in high feather; in good case, in full bloom; pretty bobbish^,
tolerably well, as well as can be expected.
sanitary &c (health-giving) 656; sanatory &c (remedial) 662
Phr. health that snuffs the morning air [Grainger]; non est vivere sed
valere vita [Lat.] [Martial].
655. Disease -- N. disease; illness, sickness &c adj.; ailing &c; all
the ills that flesh is heir to [Hamlet]; morbidity, morbosity^;
infirmity, ailment, indisposition; complaint, disorder, malady;
visitation, attack, seizure, stroke, fit.
delicacy, loss of health, invalidation, cachexy^; cachexia [Med.],
atrophy, marasmus^; indigestion, dyspepsia; decay &c (deterioration)
659; decline, consumption, palsy, paralysis, prostration.
taint, pollution, infection, sepsis, septicity^, infestation;
epidemic, pandemic, endemic, epizootic; murrain, plague, pestilence,
sore, ulcer, abscess, fester, boil; pimple, wen &c (swelling) 250;
carbuncle, gathering, imposthume^, peccant humor, issue; rot, canker,
cold sore, fever sore; cancer, carcinoma, leukemia, neoplastic disease,
malignancy, tumor; caries, mortification, corruption, gangrene,
sphacelus^, sphacelation^, leprosy; eruption, rash, breaking out.
fever, temperature, calenture^; inflammation.
ague, angina pectoris [Lat.], appendicitis; Asiatic cholera^,
spasmodic cholera; biliary calculus, kidney stone, black death, bubonic
plague, pneumonic plague; blennorrhagia^, blennorrhoea^; blood
poisoning, bloodstroke^, bloody flux, brash; breakbone fever^, dengue
fever, malarial fever, Q-fever; heart attack, cardiac arrest,
cardiomyopathy [Med.]; hardening of the arteries, arteriosclerosis,
atherosclerosis; bronchocele [Med.], canker rash, cardialgia [Med.],
carditis [Med.], endocarditis [Med.]; cholera, asphyxia; chlorosis,
chorea, cynanche^, dartre [Fr.]; enanthem^, enanthema^; erysipelas;
exanthem^, exanthema; gallstone, goiter, gonorrhea, green sickness;
grip, grippe, influenza, flu; hay fever, heartburn, heaves, rupture,
hernia, hemorrhoids, piles, herpes, itch, king's evil, lockjaw;
measles, mumps^, polio; necrosis, pertussis, phthisis^, pneumonia,
psora^, pyaemia^, pyrosis [Med.], quinsy, rachitis^, ringworm, rubeola,
Vitus's dance, scabies, scarlatina, scarlet fever, scrofula,
seasickness, struma^, syntexis^, tetanus, tetter^, tonsillitis,
tonsilitis^, tracheocele [Med.], trachoma, trismus [Med.], varicella
[Med.], varicosis [Med.], variola [Med.], water qualm, whooping cough;
yellow fever, yellow jack.
fatal disease &c (hopeless) 859; dangerous illness, galloping
consumption, churchyard cough; general breaking up, break up of the
[Disease of mind] idiocy &c 499; insanity &c 503.
martyr to disease; cripple; the halt the lame and the blind;
valetudinary^, valetudinarian; invalid, patient, case; sickroom, sick-
[Science of disease] pathology, etiology, nosology^.
[Veterinary] anthrax, bighead; blackleg, blackquarter^; cattle
plague, glanders^, mange, scrapie, milk sickness; heartworm, feline
leukemia, roundworms; quarter-evil, quarter-ill; rinderpest.
[disease-causing agents] virus, bacterium, bacteria.
[types of viruses] DNA virus; RNA virus.
[RNA viruses] rhinovirus; rhabdovirus; picornavirus.
[DNA viruses] herpesvirus; cytomegalovirus, CMV; human
immunodefficiency virus, HIV.
V. be ill &c adj.; ail, suffer, labor under, be affected with, complain
of, have; droop, flag, languish, halt; sicken, peak, pine; gasp.
keep one's bed; feign sickness &c (falsehood) 544.
lay by, lay up; take a disease, catch a disease &c n., catch an
infection; break out.
Adj. diseased; ailing &c v.; ill, ill of; taken ill, seized with;
indisposed, unwell, sick, squeamish, poorly, seedy; affected with
illness, afflicted with illness; laid up, confined, bedridden,
invalided, in hospital, on the sick list; out of health, out of sorts;
under the weather [U.S.]; valetudinary^.
unsound, unhealthy; sickly, morbid, morbose^, healthless^, infirm,
chlorotic [Med.], unbraced^.
drooping, flagging, lame, crippled, halting.
morbid, tainted, vitiated, peccant, contaminated, poisoned, tabid^,
mangy, leprous, cankered; rotten, rotten to the core, rotten at the
core; withered, palsied, paralytic; dyspeptic; luetic^, pneumonic,
pulmonic [Med.], phthisic^, rachitic; syntectic^, syntectical^; tabetic^,
touched in the wind, broken-winded, spavined, gasping; hors de
combat &c (useless) 645 [Fr.].
weakly, weakened &c (weak) 160; decrepit; decayed &c
(deteriorated) 659; incurable &c (hopeless) 859; in declining health;
cranky; in a bad way, in danger, prostrate; moribund &c (death) 360.
morbific &c 657 [Obs.]; epidemic, endemic; zymotic^.
656. Salubrity -- N. salubrity; healthiness &c adj.. fine air, fine
[Preservation of health] hygiene; valetudinarian,
valetudinarianism; sanitarian; sanitarium, sanitOrium.
V. be salubrious &c adj.; agree with; assimilate &c 23.
Adj. salubrious, salutary, salutiferous^; wholesome; healthy, healthful;
sanitary, prophYlactic, benign, bracing, tonic, invigorating, good for,
nutritious; hygeian^, hygienic.
innoxious^, innocuous, innocent; harmless, uninjurious,
sanative &c (remedial) 662; restorative &c (reinstate) 660; useful
657. Insalubrity -- N. insalubrity; unhealthiness &c adj.; nonnaturals^;
plague spot; malaria &c (poison) 663; death in the pot, contagion;
Adj. insalubrious; unhealthy, unwholesome; noxious, noisome; morbific^,
morbiferous^; mephitic, septic, azotic^, deleterious; pestilent,
pestiferous, pestilential; virulent, venomous, envenomed; poisonous,
toxic, toxiferous^, teratogenic; narcotic.
contagious, infectious, catching, taking, epidemic, zymotic^;
innutritious^, indigestible, ungenial; uncongenial &c (disagreeing)
deadly &c (killing) 361.
658. Improvement -- N. improvement; amelioration, melioration;
betterment; mend, amendment, emendation; mending &c v.; advancement;
advance &c (progress) 282; ascent &c 305; promotion, preferment;
elevation &c 307; increase &c 35; cultivation, civilization; culture,
march of intellect; menticulture^; race-culture, eugenics.
reform, reformation; revision, radical reform; second thoughts,
correction, limoe labor [Lat.], refinement, elaboration; purification
&c 652; oxidation; repair &c (restoration) 660; recovery &c 660.
revise, new edition.
V. improve; be better, become better, get better; mend, amend.
advance &c (progress) 282; ascend &c 305; increase &c 35;
fructify, ripen, mature; pick up, come about, rally, take a favorable
turn; turn over a new leaf, turn the corner; raise one's head, sow
one's wild oats; recover &c 660.
be better &c adj., be improved by; turn to right account, turn to
good account, turn to best account; profit by, reap the benefit of;
make good use of, make capital out of; place to good account.
render better, improve, mend, amend, better; ameliorate,
meliorate; correct; decrassify^.
improve upon, refine upon; rectify; enrich, mellow, elaborate,
promote, cultivate, advance, forward, enhance; bring forward,
bring on; foster &c 707; invigorate &c (strengthen) 159.
touch up, rub up, brush up, furbish up, bolster up, vamp up,
brighten up, warm up; polish, cook, make the most of, set off to
advantage; prune; repair &c (restore) 660; put in order &c (arrange)
review, revise; make corrections, make improvements &c n.; doctor
&c (remedy) 662; purify, &c 652.
relieve, refresh, infuse new blood into, recruit.
reform, remodel, reorganize; new model.
view in a new light, think better of, appeal from Philip drunk to
palliate, mitigate; lessen an evil &c 36.
Adj. improving &c v.; progressive, improved &c v.; better, better off,
better for; all the better for; better advised.
reformatory, emendatory^; reparatory &c (restorative) 660 [Obs.];
remedial &c 662.
corrigible, improvable; accultural^.
Adv. on consideration, on reconsideration, on second thoughts, on
better advice; ad melius inquirendum [Lat.].
Phr. urbent latericiam invenit marmoream reliquit [Lat.].
659. Deterioration -- N. deterioration, debasement; wane, ebb;
recession &c 287; retrogradation &c 283 [Obs.]; decrease &c 36.
degeneracy, degeneration, degenerateness; degradation;
depravation, depravement; devolution; depravity &c 945; demoralization,
impairment, inquination^, injury, damage, loss, detriment,
delaceration^, outrage, havoc, inroad, ravage, scath^; perversion,
prostitution, vitiation, discoloration, oxidation, pollution,
defoedation^, poisoning, venenation^, leaven, contamination, canker,
corruption, adulteration, alloy.
decline, declension, declination; decadence, decadency^; falling
off &c v.; caducity^, decrepitude.
decay, dilapidation, ravages of time, wear and tear; corrosion,
erosion; moldiness, rottenness; moth and rust, dry rot, blight,
marasmus^, atrophy, collapse; disorganization; delabrement &c
(destruction). 162; aphid, Aphis, plant louse, puceron^; vinefretter^,
wreck, mere wreck, honeycomb, magni nominis umbra [Lat.]; jade,
plug, rackabones [U.S.], skate [U.S.]; tackey^, tacky [U.S.].
V. be worse, be deteriorated, become worse, become deteriorated &c
Adj.; have seen better days, deteriorate, degenerate, fall off; wane &c
(decrease) 36; ebb; retrograde &c 283, decline, droop; go down &c
(sink) 306; go downhill, go from bad to worse, go farther and fare
worse; jump out of the frying pan into the fire.
run to seed, go to seed, run to waste swale^, sweal^; lapse, be the
worse for; sphacelate: break^, break down; spring a leak, crack, start;
shrivel &c (contract) 195; fade, go off, wither, molder, rot, rankle,
decay, go bad; go to decay, fall into decay; fall into the sear and
yellow leaf, rust, crumble, shake; totter, totter to its fall; perish
&c 162; die &c 360.
[Render less good] deteriorate; weaken &c 160; put back, set back;
taint, infect, contaminate, poison, empoison^, envenom, canker, corrupt,
exulcerate^, pollute, vitiate, inquinate^; debase, embase^; denaturalize,
denature, leaven; deflower, debauch, defile, deprave, degrade;
ulcerate; stain &c (dirt) 653; discolor; alloy, adulterate,
sophisticate, tamper with, prejudice.
pervert, prostitute, demoralize, brutalize; render vicious &c 945.
embitter, acerbate, exacerbate, aggravate.
injure, impair, labefy^, damage, harm, hurt, shend^, scath^, scathe,
spoil, mar, despoil, dilapidate, waste; overrun; ravage; pillage &c
wound, stab, pierce, maim, lame, surbate^, cripple, hough^,
hamstring, hit between wind and water, scotch, mangle, mutilate,
disfigure, blemish, deface, warp.
blight, rot; corrode, erode; wear away, wear out; gnaw, gnaw at
the root of; sap, mine, undermine, shake, sap the foundations of, break
up; disorganize, dismantle, dismast; destroy &c 162.
damnify &c (aggrieve) 649 [Obs.]; do one's worst; knock down; deal
a blow to; play havoc with, play sad havoc with, play the mischief
with, play the deuce with, play the very devil with, play havoc among,
play sad havoc among, play the mischief among, play the deuce among,
play the very devil among; decimate.
Adj. unimproved &c (improve) &c 658; deteriorated &c v.; altered,
altered for the worse; injured &c v.; sprung; withering, spoiling &c
v.; on the wane, on the decline; tabid^; degenerate; marescent^; worse;
the worse for, all the worse for; out of repair, out of tune; imperfect
&c 651; the worse for wear; battered; weathered, weather-beaten; stale,
passe, shaken, dilapidated, frayed, faded, wilted, shabby, secondhand,
threadbare; worn, worn to a thread, worn to a shadow, worn to the
stump, worn to rags; reduced, reduced to a skeleton; far gone; tacky
decayed &c v.; moth-eaten, worm-eaten; mildewed, rusty, moldy,
spotted, seedy, time-worn, moss-grown; discolored; effete, wasted,
crumbling, moldering, rotten, cankered, blighted, tainted; depraved &c
(vicious) 945; decrepid^, decrepit; broke, busted, broken, out of
commission, hors de combat [Fr.], out of action, broken down; done,
done for, done up; worn out, used up, finished; beyond saving, fit for
the dust hole, fit for the wastepaper basket, past work &c (useless)
at a low ebb, in a bad way, on one's last legs; undermined,
deciduous; nodding to its fall &c (destruction) 162; tottering &c
(dangerous) 665; past cure &c (hopeless) 859; fatigued &c 688;
retrograde &c (retrogressive) 283; deleterious &c 649.
Phr. out of the frying pan into the fire; agrescit medendo [Lat.]; what
a falling off was there! [Hamlet].
660. Restoration -- N. restoration, restoral; reinstatement,
replacement, rehabilitation, reestablishment, reconstitution,
reconstruction; reproduction &c 163; renovation, renewal; revival,
revivessence^, reviviscence^; refreshment &c 689; resuscitation,
reanimation, revivification, reviction^; Phenix; reorganization.
renaissance, second youth, rejuvenescence^, new birth;
regeneration, regeneracy^, regenerateness^; palingenesis^, reconversion.
redress, retrieval, reclamation, recovery; convalescence;
resumption, resumption; sanativeness^.
recurrence &c (repetition) 104; rechauffe [Fr.], rifacimento [It].
cure, recure^, sanation^; healing &c v.; redintegration^;
repair, reparation, remanufacture; recruiting &c v.;
cicatrization; disinfection; tinkering.
reaction; redemption &c (deliverance) 672; restitution &c 790;
relief &c 834.
tinker, cobbler; vis medicatrix &c (remedy) 662 [Obs.].
V. return to the original state; recover, rally, revive; come come to,
come round, come to oneself; pull through, weather the storm, be
oneself again; get well, get round, get the better of, get over, get
about; rise from one's ashes, rise from the grave; survive &c (outlive)
110; resume, reappear; come to, come to life again; live again, rise
heal, skin over, cicatrize; right itself.
restore, put back, place in statu quo [Lat.]; reinstate, replace,
reseat, rehabilitate, reestablish, reestate^, reinstall.
reconstruct, rebuild, reorganize, reconstitute; reconvert; renew,
renovate; regenerate; rejuvenate.
redeem, reclaim, recover, retrieve; rescue &c (deliver) 672.
redress, recure^; cure, heal, remedy, doctor, physic, medicate;
break of; bring round, set on one's legs.
resuscitate, revive, reanimate, revivify, recall to life;
reproduce &c 163; warm up; reinvigorate, refresh &c 689.
make whole, redintegrate^; recoup &c 790; make good, make all
square; rectify, correct; put right, put to rights, set right, set to
rights, set straight; set up; put in order &c (arrange) 60; refit,
recruit; fill up, fill up the ranks; reinforce.
repair; put in repair, remanufacture, put in thorough repair, put
in complete repair; retouch, refashion, botch^, vamp, tinker, cobble; do
up, patch up, touch up, plaster up, vamp up; darn, finedraw^,
heelpiece^; stop a gap, stanch, staunch, caulk, calk, careen, splice,
bind up wounds.
Adj. restored &c v.; redivivus [Lat.], convalescent; in a fair way;
none the worse; rejuvenated.
restoring &c v.; restorative, recuperative; sanative, reparative,
sanatory^, reparatory^; curative, remedial.
restorable, recoverable, sanable^, remediable, retrievable,
Adv. in statu quo [Lat.]; as you were.
phr.. revenons a nos moutons [Fr.]; medecin [Fr.], gueris-toi toi-
meme [Fr.]; vestigia nulla retrorsum [Lat.] [Horace].
661. Relapse -- N. relapse, lapse; falling back &c v.; retrogradation
&c (retrogression) 283 [Obs.]; deterioration &c 659.
[Return to, or recurrence of a bad state] backsliding,
recidivation^; recidivism, recidivity^; recrudescence.
V. relapse, lapse; fall back, slide back, sink back; return; retrograde
&c 283; recidivate; fall off again &c 659.
662. Remedy -- N. remedy, help, cure, redress; medicine, medicament;
diagnosis, medical examination; medical treatment; surgery; preventive
[medical devices] clinical thermometer, stethoscope, X-ray
anthelmintic [Med.]; antidote, antifebrile [Med.], antipoison^,
counterpoison^, antitoxin, antispasmodic; bracer, faith cure, placebo;
helminthagogue^, lithagogue^, pick-meup, stimulant, tonic; vermifuge,
prophylactic, corrective, restorative; sedative &c 174; palliative;
febrifuge; alterant^, alterative; specific; antiseptic, emetic,
analgesic, pain-killer, antitussive [Med.], antiinflammatory [Med.],
antibiotic, antiviral [Med.], antifungal [Med.], carminative; Nepenthe,
cure, treatment, regimen; radical cure, perfect cure, certain
cure; sovereign remedy.
examination, diagnosis, diagnostics; analysis, urinalysis, biopsy,
medicine, physic, Galenicals^, simples, drug, pharmaceutical,
prescription, potion, draught, dose, pill, bolus, injection, infusion,
drip, suppository, electuary^; linctus^, lincture^; medicament;
nostrum, receipt, recipe, prescription; catholicon^, panacea,
elixir, elixir vitae, philosopher's stone; balm, balsam, cordial,
agueweed^, arnica, benzoin, bitartrate of potash, boneset^,
calomel, catnip, cinchona, cream of tartar, Epsom salts [Chem];
feverroot^, feverwort; friar's balsam, Indian sage; ipecac, ipecacuanha;
jonquil, mercurous chloride, Peruvian bark; quinine, quinquina^;
salve, ointment, cerate, oil, lenitive, lotion, cosmetic; plaster;
epithem^, embrocation^, liniment, cataplasm^, sinapism^, arquebusade^,
traumatic, vulnerary, pepastic^, poultice, collyrium^, depilatory;
emplastrum^; eyewater^, vesicant, vesicatory [Med.].
compress, pledget^; bandage &c (support) 215.
treatment, medical treatment, regimen; dietary, dietetics; vis
medicatrix^, vis medicatrix naturae [Lat.]; medecine expectante [Fr.];
bloodletting, bleeding, venesection [Med.], phlebotomy, cupping,
sanguisae, leeches; operation, surgical operation; transfusion,
infusion, intravenous infusion, catheter, feeding tube; prevention,
preventative medicine, immunization, inoculation, vaccination, vaccine,
shot, booster, gamma globulin.
pharmacy, pharmacology, pharmaceutics; pharmacopoeia, formulary;
acology^, Materia Medica [Lat.], therapeutics, posology^; homeopathy,
allopathy^, heteropathy [Med.], osteopathy, hydropathy [Med.]; cold
water cure; dietetics; surgery, chirurgery [Med.], chirurgy^; healing
art, leechcraft^; orthopedics, orthopedy^, orthopraxy^; pediatrics;
dentistry, midwifery, obstetrics, gynecology; tocology^; sarcology^.
hospital, infirmary; pesthouse^, lazarhouse^; lazaretto; lock
hospital; maison de sante [Fr.]; ambulance.
dispensary; dispensatory^, drug store, pharmacy, apothecary,
Hotel des Invalides; sanatorium, spa, pump room, well; hospice;
doctor, physician, surgeon; medical practitioner, general
practitioner, specialist; medical attendant, apothecary, druggist;
leech; osteopath, osteopathist^; optometrist, ophthalmologist;
internist, oncologist, gastroenterologist; epidemiologist [Med.],
public health specialist; dermatologist; podiatrist; witch doctor,
shaman, faith healer, quack, exorcist; Aesculapius^, Hippocrates, Galen;
accoucheur [Fr.], accoucheuse [Fr.], midwife, oculist, aurist^;
operator; nurse, registered nurse, practical nurse, monthly nurse,
sister; nurse's aide, candystriper; dresser; bonesetter; pharmaceutist^,
pharmacist, druggist, chemist, pharmacopolist^.
V. apply a remedy &c n.; doctor, dose, physic, nurse, minister to,
attend, dress the wounds, plaster; drain; prevent &c 706; relieve &c
834; palliate &c 658; restore &c 660; drench with physic; bleed, cup,
let blood; manicure.
operate, excise, cut out; incise.
Adj. remedial; restorative &c 660; corrective, palliative, healing;
sanatory^, sanative; prophylactic, preventative, immunizing;
salutiferous &c (salutary) 656 [Obs.]; medical, medicinal; therapeutic,
chirurgical [Med.], epulotic^, paregoric, tonic, corroborant,
analeptic^, balsamic, anodyne, hypnotic, neurotic, narcotic, sedative,
lenitive, demulcent^, emollient; depuratory^; detersive^, detergent;
abstersive^, disinfectant, febrifugal^, alterative; traumatic,
allopathic^, heteropathic^, homeopathic, hydropathic [Med.];
anthelmintic [Med.]; antifebrile [Med.], antiluetic^; aperient^,
chalybeate^, deobstruent^, depurative^, laxative, roborant^.
dietetic, alimentary; nutritious, nutritive; peptic; alexipharmic^,
alexiteric^; remediable, curable.
Phr.. aux grands maux les grands remedes [Fr.]; Dios que da la llaga da
la medicina [Sp.]; para todo hay remedio sino para la muerte [Sp.];
temporis ars medicina fere est [Lat.] [Ovid]; the remedy is worse than
the disease [Dryden]; throw physic to the dogs, I'll none of it
663. Bane -- N. bane, curse; evil &c 619; hurtfulness &c (badness) 649
[Obs.]; painfulness &c (cause of pain) 830; scourge &c (punishment)
975; damnosa hereditas [Lat.]; white elephant.
sting, fang, thorn, tang, bramble, brier, nettle.
poison, toxin; teratogen; leaven, virus venom; arsenic; antimony,
tartar emetic; strychnine, nicotine; miasma, miasm^, mephitis^, malaria,
azote^, sewer gas; pest.
[poisonous substances, examples] Albany hemp^, arsenious oxide,
arsenious acid; bichloride of mercury; carbonic acid, carbonic gas;
choke damp, corrosive sublimate, fire damp; hydrocyanic acid, cyanide,
Prussic acid, hydrogen cyanide; marsh gas, nux vomica [Lat.], ratsbane^.
[poisonous plants] hemlock, hellebore, nightshade, belladonna,
henbane, aconite; banewort^, bhang, ganja^, hashish; Upas tree.
[list of poisonous substances] Toxline (online).
rust, worm, helminth [Med.], moth, moth and rust, fungus, mildew;
dry rot; canker, cankerworm; cancer; torpedo; viper &c (evil doer) 913;
demon &c 980.
[Science of poisons] toxicology.
Adj. baneful &c (bad) 649; poisonous &c (unwholesome) 657.
phr.. bibere venenum in auro [Lat.].
3. Contingent Subservience
664. Safety -- N. safety, security, surety, impregnability;
invulnerability, invulnerableness &c adj.; danger past, danger over;
storm blown over; coast clear; escape &c 671; means of escape; blow
valve, safety valve, release valve, sniffing valve; safeguard,
guardianship, wardship, wardenship; tutelage, custody,
safekeeping; preservation &c 670; protection, auspices.
safe-conduct, escort, convoy; guard, shield &c (defense) 717;
guardian angel; tutelary god, tutelary deity, tutelary saint; genius
protector, guardian; warden, warder; preserver, custodian, duenna
[Sp.], chaperon, third person.
watchdog, bandog^; Cerberus; watchman, patrolman, policeman; cop
[Slang], dick [Slang], fuzz [Slang], smokey [Slang], peeler [Slang],
zarp [Slang]; sentinel, sentry, scout &c (warning) 668; garrison;
[Means of safety] refuge &c, anchor &c 666; precaution &c
(preparation) 673; quarantine, cordon sanitaire [Fr.].
[Sense of security]. confidence &c 858
V. be safe &c adj.; keep one's head above water, tide over, save one's
bacon; ride out the storm, weather the storm; light upon one's feet,
land on one's feet; bear a charmed life; escape &c 671.
make safe, render safe &c Adj.; protect; take care of &c (care)
459; preserve &c 670; cover, screen, shelter, shroud, flank, ward;
guard &c (defend) 717; secure &c (restrain) 751; entrench, intrench^,
fence round &c (circumscribe) 229; house, nestle, ensconce; take charge
escort, convoy; garrison; watch, mount guard, patrol.
make assurance doubly sure &c (caution) 864; take up a loose
thread; take precautions &c (prepare for) 673; double reef topsails.
seek safety; take shelter, find shelter &c 666.
Adj. safe, secure, sure; in safety, in security; on the safe side;
under the shield of, under the shade of, under the wing of, under the
shadow of one's wing; under cover, under lock and key; out of danger,
out of the woods, out of the meshes, out of harm's way; unharmed,
unscathed; on sure ground, at anchor, high and dry, above water;
unthreatened^, unmolested; protected &c v.; cavendo tutus [Lat.];
panoplied &c (defended) 717 [Obs.].
snug, seaworthy; weatherproof, waterproof, fireproof.
defensible, tenable, proof against, invulnerable; unassailable,
unattackable, impenetrable; impregnable, imperdible^; inexpugnable;
safe and sound &c (preserved) 670; scathless &c (perfect) 650;
unhazarded^; not dangerous &c 665.
unthreatening, harmless; friendly (cooperative) 709.
protecting, protective &c v.; guardian, tutelary; preservative &c
670; trustworthy &c 939.
Adv. ex abundanti cautela [Lat.]; with impunity.
Phr. all's well; salva res est [Lat.]; suave mari magno [Lat.]; a
couvert [Fr.]; e terra alterius spectare laborem [Lat.] [Lucretius];
Dieu vous garde [Fr.].
665. Danger -- N. danger, peril, insecurity, jeopardy, risk, hazard,
venture, precariousness, slipperiness; instability &c 149;
defenselessness &c adj., exposure &c (liability) 177; vulnerability;
vulnerable point, heel of Achilles^; forlorn hope &c (hopelessness) 859.
[Dangerous course] leap in the dark &c (rashness) 863; road to
ruin, faciles descensus Averni [Lat.] [Vergil], hairbreadth escape.
cause for alarm; source of danger &c 667.
rock ahead [Approach of danger], breakers ahead; storm brewing;
clouds in the horizon, clouds gathering; warning &c 668; alarm &c 669.
[Sense of danger] apprehension &c 860.
V. be in danger &c adj.; be exposed to danger, run into danger, incur
danger, encounter danger &c n.; run a risk; lay oneself open to &c
(liability) 177; lean on a broken reed, trust to a broken reed; feel
the ground sliding from under one, have to run for it; have the chances
against one, have the odds against one, face long odds; be in deep
trouble, be between a rock and a hard place.
hang by a thread, totter; sleep on a volcano, stand on a volcano;
sit on a barrel of gunpowder, live in a glass house.
bring in danger, place in danger, put in danger, place in
jeopardy, put in jeopardy &c n.; endanger, expose to danger, imperil;
jeopard^, jeopardize; compromise; sail too near the wind &c (rash) 863.
adventure, risk, hazard, venture, stake, set at hazard; run the
gauntlet &c (dare) 861; engage in a forlorn hope.
threaten danger &c 909; run one hard; lay a trap for &c (deceive)
Adj. in danger &c n.; endangered &c v.; fraught with danger; dangerous,
hazardous, perilous, parlous, periculous^; unsafe, unprotected &c (safe,
protect) &c 664; insecure.
untrustworthy; built upon.sand, on a sandy basis; wildcat.
defenseless, fenceless, guardless^, harborless; unshielded;
vulnerable, expugnable^, exposed; open to &c (liable) 177.
aux abois [Fr.], at bay; on the wrong side of the wall, on a lee
shore, on the rocks.
at stake, in question; precarious, critical, ticklish; slippery,
slippy; hanging by a thread &c v.; with a halter round one's neck;
between the hammer and the anvil, between Scylla and Charybdis, between
a rock and a hard place, between the devil and the deep blue sea,
between two fires; on the edge of a precipice, on the brink of a
precipice, on the verge of a precipice, on the edge of a volcano; in
the lion's den, on slippery ground, under fire; not out of the wood.
unwarned, unadmonished, unadvised, unprepared &c 674; off one's
guard &c (inexpectant) 508 [Obs.].
tottering; unstable, unsteady; shaky, top-heavy, tumbledown,
ramshackle, crumbling, waterlogged; helpless, guideless^; in a bad way;
reduced to the last extremity, at the last extremity; trembling in the
balance; nodding to its fall &c (destruction) 162.
threatening &c 909; ominous, illomened; alarming &c (fear) 860;
adventurous &c (rash) 863, (bold) 861.
Phr. incidit in Scyllam qui vult vitare Charybdim [Lat.]; nam tua res
agitur paries dum proximus ardet [Lat.].
666. [Means of safety.] Refuge -- N. refuge, sanctuary, retreat,
fastness; acropolis; keep, last resort; ward; prison &c 752; asylum,
ark, home, refuge for the destitute; almshouse^; hiding place &c
(ambush) 530; sanctum sanctorum &c (privacy) 893 [Lat.].
roadstead, anchorage; breakwater, mole, port, haven; harbor,
harbor of refuge; seaport; pier, jetty, embankment, quay.
covert, cover, shelter, screen, lee wall, wing, shield, umbrella;
barrier; dashboard, dasher [U.S.].
wall &c (inclosure) 232; fort &c (defense) 717.
anchor, kedge; grapnel, grappling iron; sheet anchor, killick^;
mainstay; support &c 215; cheek &c 706; ballast.
jury mast; vent-peg; safety valve, blow-off valve; safety lamp;
lightning rod, lightning conductor; safety belt, airbag, seat belt;
antilock brakes, antiskid tires, snow tires.
means of escape &c (escape) 671; lifeboat, lifejacket, life buoy,
swimming belt, cork jacket; parachute, plank, steppingstone; emergency
safeguard &c (protection) 664.
V. seek refuge, take refuge, find refuge &c n.; seek safety, find
safety &c 664; throw oneself into the arms of; break for taller timber
create a diversion.
Phr. any port in a storm; bibere venenum in auro [Lat.]; valet anchora
667. [Source of danger.] Pitfall -- N. rocks, reefs, coral reef, sunken
rocks, snags; sands, quicksands; syrt^, syrtis^; Goodwin sands, sandy
foundation; slippery ground; breakers, shoals, shallows, bank, shelf,
flat, lee shore, ironbound coast; rock ahead, breakers ahead.
precipice; maelstrom, volcano; ambush &c 530; pitfall, trapdoor;
trap &c (snare) 545.
sword of Damocles; wolf at the door, snake in the grass, death in
the pot; latency &c 526.
ugly customer, dangerous person, le chat qui dort [Fr.];
firebrand, hornet's nest.
Phr. latet anquis in herba [Lat.] [Vergil]; proximus ardet Ucalegon
668. Warning -- N. warning, early warning, caution, caveat; notice &c
(information) 527; premonition, premonishment^; prediction &c 511;
contraindication, lesson, dehortation^; admonition, monition; alarm &c
handwriting on the wall, mene mene tekel upharsin, red flag,
yellow flag; fog-signal, foghorn; siren; monitor, warning voice,
Cassandra^, signs of the times, Mother Cary's chickens^, stormy petrel,
bird of ill omen, gathering clouds, clouds in the horizon, death watch.
watchtower, beacon, signal post; lighthouse &c (indication of
sentinel, sentry,, watch, watchman; watch and ward; watchdog,
bandog^, housedog^; patrol, patrolman, vedette^, picket, bivouac, scout,
spy, spial^; undercover agent, mole, plainclothesman; advanced guard,
rear guard; lookout.
cautiousness &c 864.
monitor, guard camera, radar, AWACS, spy satellite, spy-in-the-
sky, U2 plane, spy plane.
V. warn, caution; forewarn, prewarn^; admonish, premonish^; give notice,
give warning, dehort^; menace &c (threaten) 909; put on one's guard;
sound the alarm &c 669; croak.
beware, ware; take warning, take heed at one's peril; keep watch
and ward &c (care) 459.
Adj. warning &c v.; premonitory, monitory, cautionary; admonitory,
admonitive^; sematic [Biol.].
warned, forewarned &c v.; on one's guard &c (careful) 459,
Adv. in terrorem [Lat.] &c (threat) 909.
Int. beware!, ware!, take care!, look out!, fore (golf), mind what you
are about!, take care what you are about!, mind!,
Phr. ne reveillez pas le chat qui dort [Fr.], don't wake a sleeping
cat; foenum habet in cornu [Lat.]; caveat actor; le silence du people
est la legon des rois [Fr.]; verbum sat sapienti [Lat.], a word to the
wise is sufficient; un averti en vaut deux [Fr.].
669. [Indication of danger.] Alarm -- N. alarm; alarum, larum^, alarm
bell, tocsin, alerts, beat of drum, sound of trumpet, note of alarm,
hue and cry, fire cross, signal of distress; blue lights; war-cry, war-
whoop; warning &c 668; fogsignal, foghorn; yellow flag; danger signal;
red light, red flag; fire bell; police whistle.
false alarm, cry of wolf; bug-bear, bugaboo.
V. give the alarm, raise the alarm, sound the alarm, turn in the alarm,
beat the alarm, give an alarm, raise an alarm, sound an alarm, turn in
an alarm, beat an alarm &c n.; alarm; warn &c 668; ring the tocsin;
battre la generale [Fr.]; cry wolf.
Adj. alarming &c v..
Int. sauve qui peut! [Fr.], every man for himself! [Fr.Tr.]; qui vive?
670. Preservation -- N. preservation; safe-keeping; conservation &c
(storage) 636; maintenance, support, susteritation^, conservatism; vis
conservatrix^; salvation &c (deliverance) 672.
[Means of preservation] prophylaxis; preserver, preservative,
additive; antibiotics, antifungals [Med.], biocide; hygiastics^,
hygiantics^; cover, drugget^; cordon sanitaire [Fr.]; canning; ensilage;
tinned goods, canned goods.
[Superstitious remedies] snake oil, spider webs, cure-all;
laetrile; charm &c 993.
V. preserve, maintain, keep, sustain, support, hold; keep up, keep
alive; refrigerate, keep on ice; not willingly let die; bank up; nurse;
save, rescue; be safe, make safe &c 664; take care of &c (care) 459;
guard &c (defend) 717.
stare super antiquas vias [Lat.] [Bacon]; hold one's own; hold
one's ground, stand one's ground &c (resist) 719.
embalm, cure, salt, pickle, season, kyanize^, bottle, pot, tin,
can; sterilize, pasteurize, radiate; dry, lyophilize [Chem], freeze-
dry, concentrate, evaporate; freeze, quick-freeze, deep-freeze; husband
&c (store) 636.
Adj. preserving &c v.; conservative; prophylactic; preservatory^,
preserved &c v.; unimpaired, unbroken, uninjured, unhurt,
unsinged^, unmarred; safe, safe and sound; intact, with a whole skin.
Phr. nolumus leges Angliae mutari [Lat.].
671. Escape -- N. escape, scape; avolation^, elopement, flight; evasion
&c (avoidance) 623; retreat; narrow escape, hairbreadth escape; close
call; come off, impunity.
[Means of escape] loophole &c (opening) 260; path &c 627; refuse
&c 666; vent, vent peg; safety valve; drawbridge, fire escape.
reprieve &c (deliverance) 672; liberation &c 750.
refugee &c (fugitive) 623.
V. escape, scape; make one's escape, effect one's escape, make good
one's escape; break jail; get off, get clear off, get well out of;
echapper belle [Fr.], save one's bacon, save one's skin; weather the
storm &c (safe) 664; escape scot-free.
elude &c, make off &c (avoid) 623; march off &c (go away) 293;
give one the slip; slip through the hands, slip through the fingers;
slip the collar, wriggle out of prison, break out, break loose, break
loose from prison; break away, slip away, get away; find vent, find a
hole to creep out of.
Adj. escaping, escaped &c v.. stolen away, fled.
Phr. the bird has flown the coop.
672. Deliverance -- N. deliverance, extrication, rescue; reprieve,
reprieval^; respite; liberation &c 750; emancipation; redemption,
salvation; riddance; gaol delivery; redeemableness^.
V. deliver, extricate, rescue, save, emancipate, redeem, ransom; bring
off, bring through; tirer d'affaire [Fr.], get the wheel out of the
rut, snatch from the jaws of death, come to the rescue; rid; retrieve
&c (restore) 660; be rid of, get rid of.
Adj. saved &c v.. extricable, redeemable, rescuable.
Int. to the rescue!,
3. PRECURSORY MEASURES
673. Preparation -- N. preparation; providing &c v.; provision,
providence; anticipation &c (foresight) 510; precaution,
preconcertation^, predisposition; forecast &c (plan) 626; rehearsal,
note of preparation.
[Putting in order] arrangement &c 60; clearance; adjustment &c 23;
tuning; equipment, outfit, accouterment, armament, array.
ripening &c v.; maturation, evolution; elaboration, concoction,
digestion; gestation, batching, incubation, sitting.
groundwork, first stone, cradle, stepping-stone; foundation,
scaffold &c (support) 215; scaffolding, echafaudage [Fr.].
[Preparation of men] training &c (education) 537; inurement &c
(habit) 613; novitiate; cooking [Preparation of food], cookery;
brewing, culinary art; tilling, plowing, [Preparation of the soil],
sowing; semination^, cultivation.
[State of being prepared] preparedness, readiness, ripeness,
mellowness; maturity; un impromptu fait a loisir [Fr.].
[Preparer] preparer, trainer; pioneer, trailblazer; avant-courrier
[Fr.], avant-coureur [Fr.]; voortrekker [Afrik.]; sappers and miners,
pavior^, navvy^; packer, stevedore; warming pan.
V. prepare; get ready, make ready; make preparations, settle
preliminaries, get up, sound the note of preparation.
set in order, put in order &c (arrange) 60; forecast &c (plan)
626; prepare the ground, plow the ground, dress the ground; till the
soil, cultivate the soil; predispose, sow the seed, lay a train, dig a
mine; lay the groundwork, fix the groundwork, lay the basis, fix the
basis, lay the foundations, fix the foundations; dig the foundations,
erect the scaffolding; lay the first stone &c (begin) 66.
roughhew; cut out work; block out, hammer out; lick into shape &c
elaborate, mature, ripen, mellow, season, bring to maturity;
nurture &c (aid) 707; hatch, cook, brew; temper, anneal, smelt;
barbecue; infumate^; maturate.
equip, arm, man; fit-out, fit up; furnish, rig, dress, garnish,
betrim^, accouter, array, fettle, fledge; dress up, furbish up, brush
up, vamp up; refurbish; sharpen one's tools, trim one's foils, set,
prime, attune; whet the knife, whet the sword; wind up, screw up;
adjust &c (fit) 27; put in trim, put in train, put in gear, put in
working order, put in tune, put in a groove for, put in harness; pack.
train &c (teach) 537; inure &c (habituate) 613; breed; prepare for
&c; rehearse; make provision for; take steps, take measures, take
precautions; provide, provide against; beat up for recruits; open the
door to &c (facilitate) 705.
set one's house in order, make all snug; clear the decks, clear
for action; close one's ranks; shuffle the cards.
prepare oneself; serve an apprenticeship &c (learn) 539; lay
oneself out for, get into harness, gird up one's loins, buckle on one's
armor, reculer pour mieux sauter [Fr.], prime and load, shoulder arms,
get the steam up, put the horses to.
guard against, make sure against; forearm, make sure, prepare for
the evil day, have a rod in pickle, provide against a rainy day,
feather one's nest; lay in provisions &c 637; make investments; keep on
be prepared, be ready &c adj.; hold oneself in readiness, keep
one's powder dry; lie in wait for &c (expect) 507; anticipate &c
(foresee) 510; principiis obstare [Lat.]; veniente occurrere morbo
Adj. preparing &c v.; in preparation, in course of preparation, in
agitation, in embryo, in hand, in train; afoot, afloat; on foot, on the
stocks, on the anvil; under consideration &c (plan) 626; brewing,
batching, forthcoming, brooding; in store for, in reserve.
precautionary, provident; preparative, preparatory; provisional,
inchoate, under revision; preliminary &c (precedent) 62.
prepared &c v.; in readiness; ready, ready to one's band, ready
made, ready cut and dried: made to one's hand, handy, on the table; in
gear; in working order, in working gear; snug; in practice.
ripe, mature, mellow; pukka^; practiced &c (skilled) 698; labored,
elaborate, highly-wrought, smelling of the lamp, worked up.
in full feather, in best bib and tucker; in harness, at harness;
in the saddle, in arms, in battle array, in war paint; up in arms;
armed at all points, armed to the teeth, armed cap a pie; sword in
hand; booted and spurred.
in utrumque paratus [Lat.], semper paratus [Lat.]; on the alert &c
(vigilant) 459; at one's post.
Adv. in preparation, in anticipation of; against, for; abroach^.
Phr. a bove majori discit arare minor [Lat.]; looking before and after
[Hamlet], si vis pacem para bellum [Lat.].
674. Nonpreparation -- N. non-preparation, absence of preparation, want
of preparation; inculture^, inconcoction^, improvidence.
immaturity, crudity; rawness &c adj.; abortion; disqualification.
[Absence of art] nature, state of nature; virgin soil, unweeded
garden; neglect &c 460.
rough copy &c (plan) 626; germ &c 153; raw material &c 635.
improvisation &c (impulse) 612.
V. be unprepared &c adj.; want preparation, lack preparation; lie
fallow; s'embarquer sans biscuits [Fr.]; live from hand to mouth.
[Render unprepared] dismantle &c (render useless) 645; undress &c
extemporize, improvise, ad lib.
Adj. unprepared &c (prepare); &c; 673; without preparation &c 673;
incomplete &c 53; rudimental, embryonic, abortive; immature, unripe,
kachcha^, raw, green, crude; coarse; rough cast, rough hewn; in the
rough; unhewn^, unformed, unfashioned^, unwrought, unlabored^, unblown,
uncooked, unboiled, unconcocted, unpolished.
unhatched, unfledged, unnurtured^, unlicked^, untaught, uneducated,
uncultivated, untrained, untutored, undrilled, unexercised; deckle-
edged^; precocious, premature; undigested, indigested^; unmellowed^,
unrehearsed, unscripted, extemporaneous, improvised, spontaneous,
ad lib, ad libitem [Lat.].
fallow; unsown, untilled; natural, in a state of nature;
undressed; in dishabille, en deshabille [Fr.].
unqualified, disqualified; unfitted; ill-digested; unbegun,
unready, unarranged^, unorganized, unfurnished, unprovided, unequipped,
untrimmed; out of gear, out of order; dismantled &c v.. shiftless,
improvident, unthrifty, thriftless, thoughtless, unguarded; happy-go-
lucky; caught napping &c (inexpectant) 508 [Obs.]; unpremeditated &c
Adv. extempore &c 612.
675. Essay -- N. essay, trial, endeavor, attempt; aim, struggle,
venture, adventure, speculation, coup d'essai [Fr.], debut; probation
&c (experiment) 463.
V. try, essay; experiment &c 463; endeavor, strive; tempt, attempt,
make an attempt; venture, adventure, speculate, take one's chance,
tempt fortune; try one's fortune, try one's luck, try one's hand; use
one's endeavor; feel one's way, grope one's way, pick one's way.
try hard, push, make a bold push, use one's best endeavor; do
one's best &c (exertion) 686.
Adj. essaying &c v.; experimental &c 463; tentative, empirical,
Adv. experimentally &c adj.; on trial, at a venture; by rule of thumb.
if one may be so bold.
Phr. aut non tentaris aut perfice [Lat.] [Ovid]; chi non s'arrischia
non guadagna [Fr.].
676. Undertaking -- N. undertaking; compact &c 769; adventure, venture;
engagement &c (promise) 768; enterprise, emprise^; pilgrimage; matter in
hand &c (business ) 625; move; first move &c (beginning) 66.
V. undertake; engage in, embark in; launch into, plunge into;
volunteer; apprentice oneself to; engage &c (promise) 768; contract &c
769; take upon oneself, take upon one's shoulders; devote oneself to &c
take up, take in hand; tackle; set about, go about; set to, fall
to, set to work; launch forth; set up shop; put in hand, put in
execution; set forward; break the neck of a business, be in, for; put
one's hand to, put one's foot in; betake oneself to, turn one's hand
to, go to do; begin one's &c 66; broach one's, institute one's &c
(originate) 153; put one's hand to the plow, lay one's hand to the
plow, put one's shoulder to the wheel.
have in hand &c (business) 625; have many irons in the fire &c
Adj. undertaking &c v.; on the anvil &c 625.
Int. here goes!,
677. Use -- N. use; employ, employment; exercise, exercitation^;
application, appliance; adhibition^, disposal; consumption; agency &c
(physical) 170; usufruct; usefulness &c 644; benefit; recourse, resort,
[Conversion to use] utilization, service, wear.
[Way of using] usage.
V. use, make use of, employ, put to use; put in action, put in
operation, put in practice; set in motion, set to work.
ply, work, wield, handle, manipulate; play, play off; exert,
exercise, practice, avail oneself of, profit by, resort to, have
recourse to, recur to, take betake oneself to; take up with, take
advantage of; lay one's hands on, try.
render useful &c 644; mold; turn to account, turn to use; convert
to use, utilize; work up; call into play, bring into play; put into
requisition; call forth, draw forth; press into service, enlist into
the service; bring to bear upon, devote, dedicate, consecrate, apply,
adhibit^, dispose of; make a handle of, make a cat's-paw of.
fall back upon, make a shift with; make the most of, make the best
use up, swallow up; consume, absorb, expend; tax, task, wear, put
Adj. in use; used &c v.; well-worn, well-trodden.
useful &c 644; subservient &c (instrumental) 631.
678. Disuse -- N. forbearance, abstinence; disuse; relinquishment &c
782; desuetude &c (want of habit) 614; disusage^.
V. not use; do without, dispense with, let alone, not touch, forbear,
abstain, spare, waive, neglect; keep back, reserve.
lay up, lay by, lay on the shelf, keep on the shelf, lay up in
ordinary; lay up in a napkin; shelve; set aside, put aside, lay aside;
disuse, leave off, have done with; supersede; discard &c (eject) 297;
dismiss, give warning.
throw aside &c (relinquish) 782; make away with &c (destroy) 162;
cast overboard, heave overboard, throw overboard; cast to the dogs,
cast to the winds; dismantle &c (Render useless) 645.
lie unemployed, remain unemployed &c adj.
Adj. not used &c v.; unemployed, unapplied, undisposed of, unspent,
unexercised, untouched, untrodden, unessayed^, ungathered^, unculled;
uncalled for, not required.
disused &c v.; done with.
679. Misuse -- N. misuse, misusage, misemployment^, misapplication,
abuse, profanation, prostitution, desecration; waste &c 638.
V. misuse, misemploy, misapply, misappropriate.
desecrate, abuse, profane, prostitute: waste &c 638; overtask,
overtax, overwork: squander &c 818.
cut blocks with a razor, employ a steam engine to crack a nut;
catch at a straw.
Adj. misused &c v..
Phr. ludere cum sacris [Lat.].
1. Simple voluntary Action
680. Action -- N. action, performance; doing, &c v.; perpetration;
exercise, excitation; movement, operation, evolution, work; labor &c
(exertion) 686; praxis, execution; procedure &c (conduct) 692;
handicraft; business &c 625; agency &c (power at work) 170.
deed, act, overt act, stitch, touch, gest transaction^, job,
doings, dealings, proceeding, measure, step, maneuver, bout, passage,
move, stroke, blow; coup, coup de main, coup d'etat [Fr.]; tour de
force &c (display) 882; feat, exploit; achievement &c (completion) 729;
handiwork, workmanship; manufacture; stroke of policy &c (plan) 626.
actor &c (doer) 690.
V. do, perform, execute; achieve &c (complete) 729; transact, enact;
commit, perpetrate, inflict; exercise, prosecute, carry on, work,
employ oneself, ply one's task; officiate, have in hand &c
(business) 625; labor &c 686; be at work; pursue a course; shape one's
course &c (conduct) 692.
act, operate; take action, take steps; strike a blow, lift a
finger, stretch forth one's hand; take in hand &c (undertake) 676; put
oneself in motion; put in practice; carry into execution &c (complete)
729; act upon.
be an actor &c 690; take a part in, act a part in, play a part in,
perform a part in; participate in; have a hand in, have a finger in the
pie; have to do with; be a party to, be a participator in; bear a hand,
lend a hand; pull an oar, run in a race; mix oneself up with &c
be in action; come into operation &c (power at work) 170.
Adj. doing &c v.; acting; in action; in harness; on duty; in operation
Adv. in the act, in the midst of, in the thick of; red-handed, in
flagrante delicto [Lat.]; while one's hand is in.
Phr. action is eloquence [Coriolanus]; actions speak louder than words;
actum aiunt ne agas [Terence]; awake, arise, or be forever fall'n
[Paradise Lost]; dii pia facta vident [Lat.] [Ovid]; faire sans dire
[Fr.]; fare fac [It]; fronte capillata post est occasio calva [Lat.];
our deeds are sometimes better than our thoughts [Bailey]; the great
end of life is not knowledge but action [Huxley]; thought is the soul
of act [R.
Browning]; vivre-ce nest pas respirer c'est agir [Fr.]; we live in
deeds not years [Bailey].
681. Inaction -- N. inaction, passiveness, abstinence from action;
noninterference, nonintervention; Fabian policy, conservative policy;
neglect &c 460.
inactivity &c 683; rest &c (repose) 687; quiescence &c 265; want
of occupation, inoccupation^; idle hours, time hanging on one's hands,
dolce far niente [It]; sinecure, featherbed, featherbedding, cushy job,
no-show job; soft snap, soft thing.
V. not do, not act, not attempt; be inactive &c 683; abstain from
doing, do nothing, hold, spare; not stir, not move, not lift a finger,
not lift a foot, not lift a peg; fold one's arms, fold one's hands;
leave alone, let alone; let be, let pass, let things take their course,
let it have its way, let well alone, let well enough alone; quieta non
movere [Lat.]; stare super antiquas vias [Lat.]; rest and be thankful,
live and let live; lie rest upon one's oars; laisser aller [Fr.], faire
[Fr.]; stand aloof; refrain &c (avoid) 623, keep oneself from doing;
remit one's efforts, relax one's efforts; desist &c (relinquish) 624;
stop &c (cease) 142; pause &c (be quiet) 265.
wait, lie in wait, bide one's time, take time, tide it over.
cool one's heels, kick one's heels; while away the time, while
away tedious hours; pass the time, fill up the time, beguile the time;
talk against time; let the grass grow under one's feet; waste time &c
lie by, lie on the shelf, lie in ordinary, lie idle, lie to, lie
fallow; keep quiet, slug; have nothing to do, whistle for want of
undo, do away with; take down, take to pieces; destroy &c 162.
Adj. not doing &c v.; not done &c v.; undone; passive; unoccupied,
unemployed; out of employ, out of work; fallow; desaeuvre [Fr.].
Adv. re infecta [Lat.], at a stand, les bras croisis [Fr.], with folded
arms; with the hands in the pockets, with the hands behind one's back;
pour passer le temps [Fr.].
Int. so let it be!, stop!, &c 142; hands off!,
Phr. cunctando restituit rem [Lat.], If it ain't broke don't fix it
[Bert Lance]; stare decisis [Lat.], let the decision stand;
682. Activity -- N. activity; briskness, liveliness &c adj.; animation,
life, vivacity, spirit, dash, energy; snap, vim.
nimbleness, agility; smartness, quickness &c adj.; velocity, &c
274; alacrity, promptitude; despatch, dispatch; expedition; haste &c
684; punctuality &c (early) 132.
eagerness, zeal, ardor, perfervidum aingenium [Lat.], empressement
[Fr.], earnestness, intentness; abandon; vigor &c (physical energy)
171; devotion &c (resolution) 604; exertion &c 686.
industry, assiduity; assiduousness &c adj.; sedulity;
laboriousness; drudgery &c (labor) 686; painstaking, diligence;
perseverance &c 604.1; indefatigation^; habits of business.
vigilance &c 459; wakefulness; sleeplessness, restlessness;
insomnia; pervigilium^, insomnium^; racketing.
movement, bustle, stir, fuss, ado, bother, pottering, fidget,
fidgetiness; flurry &c (haste) 684.
officiousness; dabbling, meddling; interference, interposition,
intermeddling; tampering with, intrigue.
press of business, no sinecure, plenty to do, many irons in the
fire, great doings, busy hum of men, battle of life, thick of the
housewife, busy bee; new brooms; sharp fellow, sharp blade;
devotee, enthusiast, zealot, meddler, intermeddler, intriguer,
busybody, pickthank^; hummer, hustler, live man [U.S.], rustler [U.S.].
V. be active &c adj.; busy oneself in; stir, stir about, stir one's
stumps; bestir oneself, rouse oneself; speed, hasten, peg away, lay
about one, bustle, fuss; raise up, kick up a dust; push; make a push,
make a fuss, make a stir; go ahead, push forward; fight one's way,
elbow one's way; make progress &c 282; toll &c (labor) 686; plod,
persist &c (persevere) 604.1; keep up the ball, keep the pot boiling.
look sharp; have all one's eyes about one &c (vigilance) 459;
rise, arouse oneself, hustle, get up early, be about, keep moving,
steal a march, kill two birds with one stone; seize the opportunity &c
134, lose no time, not lose a moment, make the most of one's time, not
suffer the grass to grow under one's feet, improve the shining hour,
make short work of; dash off; make haste &c 684; do one's best take
pains &c (exert oneself) 686; do wonders, work wonders.
have many irons in the fire, have one's hands full, have much on
one's hands; have other things to do, have other fish to fry; be busy;
not have a moment to spare, not have a moment that one can call one's
have one's fling, run the round of; go all lengths, stick at
nothing, run riot.
outdo; overdo, overact, overlay, overshoot the mark; make a toil
of a pleasure.
have a hand in &c (act in) 680; take an active part, put in one's
oar, have a finger in the pie, mix oneself up with, trouble, one's head
about, intrigue; agitate.
tamper with, meddle, moil; intermeddle, interfere, interpose;
obtrude; poke one's nose in, thrust one's nose in.
Adj. active, brisk, brisk as a lark, brisk as a bee; lively, animated,
vivacious; alive, alive and kicking; frisky, spirited, stirring.
nimble, nimble as a squirrel; agile; light-footed, nimble-footed;
quick, prompt, yare^, instant, ready, alert, spry, sharp, smart;
fast &c (swift) 274; quick as a lamplighter, expeditious; awake, broad
awake; go-ahead, live wide-awake &c (intelligent) 498 [U.S.].
forward, eager, strenuous, zealous, enterprising, in earnest;
resolute &c 604.
industrious, assiduous, diligent, sedulous, notable, painstaking;
intent &c (attention) 457; indefatigable &c (persevering) 604.1;
unwearied; unsleeping^, never tired; plodding, hard-working &c 686;
bustling; restless, restless as a hyena; fussy, fidgety,
pottering; busy, busy as hen with one chicken.
working, at work, on duty, in harness; up in arms; on one's legs,
at call; up and doing, up and stirring.
busy, occupied; hard at work, hard at it; up to one's ears in,
full of business, busy as a bee, busy as a one-armed paperhanger.
meddling &c v.; meddlesome, pushing, officious, overofficious^,
astir, stirring; agoing^, afoot; on foot; in full swing; eventful;
on the alert, &c (vigilant) 459.
Adv. actively &c adj.; with life and spirit, with might and main &c
686, with haste &c 684, with wings; full tilt, in mediis rebus [Lat.].
Int. be alive, look alive, look sharp!, move on, push on!, keep
moving!, go ahead!, stir your stumps!, age quod agis! [Lat.], jaldi!^,
karo!^, step lively!,
Phr. carpe diem [Lat.], seize the day; &c (opportunity) 134 nulla dies
sine linea [Lat.] [Pliny]; nec mora nec requies [Lat.] [Vergil]; the
plot thickens; No sooner said than done &c (early) 132; veni vidi vici
[Lat.] [Suetonius]; catch a weasel asleep; abends wird der Faule
fleissig [G.]; dictum ac factum [Lat.] [Terence]; schwere Arbeit in der
Jugend ist sanfte Ruhe im Alter [G.], hard work in youth means soft
rest in age; the busy hum of men [Milton].
683. Inactivity -- N. inactivity; inaction &c 681; inertness &c 172;
obstinacy &c 606.
lull &c (cessation) 142; quiescence &c 265; rust, rustiness.
idleness, remissness &c adj.; sloth, indolence, indiligence^;
dawdling &c v.. ergophobia^, otiosity^.
dullness &c adj.; languor; segnity^, segnitude^; lentor^;
sluggishness &c (slowness) 275; procrastination &c (delay) 133; torpor,
torpidity, torpescence^; stupor &c (insensibility) 823; somnolence;
drowsiness &c adj.; nodding &c v.; oscitation^, oscitancy^;
pandiculation^, hypnotism, lethargy; statuvolence heaviness^, heavy
sleep, slumber; sound sleep, heavy sleep, balmy sleep; Morpheus;
Somnus; coma, trance, ecstasis^, dream, hibernation, nap, doze, snooze,
siesta, wink of sleep, forty winks, snore; hypnology^.
dull work; pottering; relaxation &c (loosening) 47; Castle of
[Cause of inactivity] lullaby, sedative, tranquilizer, hypnotic,
sleeping pill, relaxant, anaesthetic, general anaesthetic &c 174;
[person who is inactive] idler, drone, droil^, dawdle, mopus^; do-
little faineant [Fr.], dummy, sleeping partner; afternoon farmer;
truant &c (runaway) 623; bummer^, loafer, goldbrick, goldbicker,
lounger, lazzarone [It]; lubber, lubbard^; slow coach &c (slow.) 275;
opium eater, lotus eater; slug; lag^, sluggard, slugabed; slumberer,
dormouse, marmot; waiter on Providence, fruges consumere natus [Lat.].
V. be inactive &c adj.; do nothing &c 681; move slowly &c 275; let the
grass grow under one's feet; take one's time, dawdle, drawl, droil^,
lag, hang back, slouch; loll, lollop^; lounge, poke, loaf, loiter; go to
sleep over; sleep at one's post, ne battre que d'une aile [Fr.].
take it easy, take things as they come; lead an easy life,
vegetate, swim with the stream, eat the bread of idleness; loll in the
lap of luxury, loll in the lap of indolence; waste time, consume time,
kill time, lose time; burn daylight, waste the precious hours.
idle away time, trifle away time, fritter away time, fool away
time; spend time in, take time in; peddle, piddle; potter, pudder^,
dabble, faddle fribble^, fiddle-faddle; dally, dilly-dally.
sleep, slumber, be asleep; hibernate; oversleep; sleep like a top,
sleep like a log, sleep like a dormouse; sleep soundly, heavily; doze,
drowze^, snooze, nap; take a nap &c n.; dream; snore one's best; settle
to sleep, go to sleep, go off to sleep; doze off, drop off; fall
asleep; drop asleep; close the eyes, seal up the eyes, seal up eyelids;
weigh down the eyelids; get sleep, nod, yawn; go to bed, turn; get some
z's, stack z's [Coll.].
languish, expend itself, flag, hang fire; relax.
render idle &c adj.; sluggardize^; mitigate &c 174.
Adj. inactive; motionless &c 265; unoccupied &c (doing nothing) 681;
indolent, lazy, slothful, idle, lusk^, remiss, slack, inert,
torpid, sluggish, otiose, languid, supine, heavy, dull, leaden,
lumpish^; exanimate^, soulless; listless; drony^, dronish^; lazy as
dilatory, laggard; lagging &c v.; slow &c 275; rusty, flagging;
lackadaisical, maudlin, fiddle-faddle; pottering &c v.; shilly-shally
&c (irresolute) 605.
sleeping, &c v.; asleep; fast asleep, dead asleep, sound asleep;
in a sound sleep; sound as a top, dormant, comatose; in the arms of
Morpheus, in the lap of Morpheus.
sleepy, sleepful^; dozy^, drowsy, somnolent, torpescent^, lethargic,
lethargical^; somnifacient^; statuvolent^, statuvolic^; heavy, heavy with
sleep; napping; somnific^, somniferous; soporous^, soporific,
soporiferous^; hypnotic; balmy, dreamy; unawakened, unawakened.
sedative &c 174.
Adv. inactively &c adj.; at leisure &c 685.
Phr. the eyes begin to draw straws; bankrupt of life yet prodigal of
ease [Dryden]; better 50 years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay
[Tennyson]; idly busy rolls their world away [Goldsmith]; the mystery
of folded sleep [Tennyson]; the timely dew of sleep [Milton]; thou
driftest gently down the tides of sleep [Longfellow]; tired Nature's
sweet restorer, balmy sleep [Young].
684. Haste -- N. haste, urgency; despatch, dispatch; acceleration,
spurt, spirt^, forced march, rush, dash; speed, velocity &c 274;
precipitancy, precipitation, precipitousness &c adj.; impetuosity;
brusquerie^; hurry, drive, scramble, bustle, fuss, fidget, flurry,
V. haste, hasten; make haste, make a dash &c n.; hurry on, dash on,
whip on, push on, press on, press forward; hurry, skurry^, scuttle
along, barrel along, bundle on, dart to and fro, bustle, flutter,
scramble; plunge, plunge headlong; dash off; rush &c (violence) 173;
bestir oneself &c (be active) 682; lose no time, lose not a
moment, lose not an instant; make short work of; make the best of one's
time, make the best of one's way.
be precipitate &c adj.; jump at, be in haste, be in a hurry &c n.;
have no time, have not a moment to lose, have not a moment to spare;
work against time.
quicken &c 274; accelerate, expedite, put on, precipitate, urge,
Adj. hasty, hurried, brusque; scrambling, cursory, precipitate,
headlong, furious, boisterous, impetuous, hotheaded; feverish, fussy;
in haste, in a hurry &c n.; in hot haste, in all haste;
breathless, pressed for time, hard pressed, urgent.
Adv. with haste, with all haste, with breathless speed; in haste &c
adj.; apace &c (swiftly) 274; amain^; all at once &c (instantaneously)
113; at short notice &c; immediately &c (early) 132; posthaste; by
cable, by express, by telegraph, by forced marches.
hastily, precipitately &c adj.; helter-skelter, hurry-skurry^,
holus-bolus; slapdash, slap-bang; full-tilt, full drive; heels over
head, head and shoulders, headlong, a corps perdu [Fr.].
by fits and starts, by spurts; hop skip and jump.
Phr. [panic] sauve qui peut [Fr.], every man for himself [Fr.Tr.],
devil take the hindmost, no time to be lost; no sooner said than done
&c (early) 132; a word and a blow; haste makes waste, maggiore fretta
minore atto [It]; ohne Hast aber ohne Rast [G.], [Goethe's motto];
stand not upon the order of your going but go at once [Macbeth]; swift,
swift, you dragons of the night [Cymbeline].
685. Leisure -- N. leisure; convenience; spare time, spare hours, spare
moments; vacant hour; time, time to spare, time on one's hands;
holiday, relaxation &c (rest) 687; otium cum dignitate [Lat.] [Cicero],
no hurry; no big rush; no deadline.
V. have leisure &c n.; take one's time, take one's leisure, take one's
ease; repose &c 687; move slowly &c 275; while away the time &c
(inaction) 681; be master of one's time, be an idle man.
Adj. leisure, leisurely; slow &c 275; deliberate, quiet, calm,
undisturbed; at leisure, at one's ease, at loose ends, at a loose end.
Adv. unhurriedly, deliberately, without undue haste; anytime.
Phr. time hanging heavy on one's hands; eile mit Weile [G.].
686. Exertion -- N. exertion, effort, strain, tug, pull, stress, throw,
stretch, struggle, spell, spurt, spirt^; stroke of work, stitch of work.
a strong pull a long pull and a pull all together; dead lift;
heft; gymnastics; exercise, exercitation^; wear and tear; ado; toil and
trouble; uphill work, hard work, warm work; harvest time.
labor, work, toil, travail, manual labor, sweat of one's brow,
swink^, drudgery, slavery, fagging^, hammering; limae labor [Lat.];
industry, industriousness, operoseness^, operosity^.
trouble, pains, duty; resolution &c 604; energy &c (physical) 171.
V. exert oneself; exert one's energies, tax one's energies; use
labor, work, toil, moil, sweat, fag, drudge, slave, drag a
lengthened chain, wade through, strive, stretch a long arm; pull, tug,
ply; ply the oar, tug at the oar; do the work; take the laboring oar
bestir oneself (be active) 682; take trouble, trouble oneself.
work hard; rough it; put forth one's strength, put forth a strong
arm; fall to work, bend the bow; buckle to, set one's shoulder to the
wheel &c (resolution) 604; work like a horse, work like a cart horse,
work like a galley slave, work like a coal heaver; labor day and night,
work day and night; redouble one's efforts; do double duty; work double
hours, work double tides; sit up, burn the candle at both ends; stick
to &c (persevere) 604.1; work one's way, fight one's way, lay about
one, hammer at.
take pains; do one's best, do one's level best, do one's utmost;
give one hundred percent, do the best one can, do all one can, do all
in one's power, do as much as in one lies, do what lies in one's power;
use one's best endeavor, use one's utmost endeavor; try one's best, try
one's utmost; play one's best card; put one's best leg foremost, put
one's right leg foremost; have one's whole soul in his work, put all
one's strength into, strain every nerve; spare no efforts, spare no
pains; go all lengths; go through fire and water &c (resolution) 604;
move heaven and earth, leave no stone unturned.
Adj. laboring &c v.. laborious, operose^, elaborate; strained; toilsome,
troublesome, wearisome; uphill; herculean, gymnastic, palestric^.
hard-working, painstaking; strenuous, energetic.
hard at work, on the stretch.
Adv. laboriously &c adj.; lustily; pugnis et calcibus [Lat.]; with
might and main, with all one's might, with a strong hand, with a sledge
hammer, with much ado; to the best of one's abilities, totis viribus
[Lat.], vi et armis [Lat.], manibus pedibusque [Lat.], tooth and nail,
unguibus et rostro [Lat.], hammer and tongs, heart and soul; through
thick and thin &c (perseverance) 604.1.
by the sweat of one's brow, suo Marte.
Phr. aide-toi le ciel t'aidera [Fr.]; and still be doing, never done
[Butler]; buen principio la mitad es hecha [Sp.]; cosa ben fatta e'
fatta due volie [It]; it is better to wear out than to rust out [Bp.
Hornel]; labor omnia vincit [Lat.] [Vergil]; labor, wide as the
earth, has its summit in Heaven [Carlyle]; le travail du corps delivre
des peines de l'esprit [Fr.]; manu forti [Lat.]; ora et labora [Lat.].
687. Repose -- N. repose, rest, silken repose; sleep &c 683.
relaxation, breathing time; halt, stay, pause &c (cessation) 142;
day of rest, dies non, Sabbath, Lord's day, holiday, red-letter
day, vacation, recess.
V. repose; rest, rest and be thankful; take a rest, take one's ease,
take it easy.
relax, unbend, slacken; take breath &c (refresh) 689; rest upon
one's oars; pause &c (cease) 142; stay one's hand.
lie down; recline, recline on a bed of down, recline on an easy
chair; go to rest, go to bed, go to sleep &c 683.
take a holiday, shut up shop; lie fallow &c (inaction) 681.
Adj. reposing &c v. [of people]; relaxed &c v.; unstrained.
[of materials and people] unstressed.
Adv. at rest.
Phr. The best of men have ever loved repose [Thompson]; to repair our
nature with comforting repose [Henry VIII].
688. Fatigue -- N. fatigue; weariness &c 841; yawning, drowsiness &c
683; lassitude, tiredness, fatigation^, exhaustion; sweat; dyspnoea.
anhelation, shortness of breath; faintness; collapse, prostration,
swoon, fainting, deliquium [Lat.], syncope, lipothymy^; goneness^.
V. be fatigued &c adj.; yawn &c (get sleepy) 683; droop, sink, flag;
lose breath, lose wind; gasp, pant, puff, blow, drop, swoon, faint,
fatigue, tire, weary, irk, flag, jade, harass, exhaust, knock up,
wear out, prostrate.
tax, task, strain; overtask, overwork, overburden, overtax,
Adj. fatigued, tired &c v.; weary &c 841; drowsy &c 683; drooping &c
v.; haggard; toilworn^, wayworn:, footsore, surbated^, weather-beaten;
faint; done up, used up, knocked up; bushed [U.S.]; exhausted,
prostrate, spent; overtired, overspent, overfatigued; unrefreshed^,
worn, worn out; battered, shattered, pulled down, seedy, altered.
breathless, windless; short of breath, out of breath, short of
wind; blown, puffing and blowing; short-breathed; anhelose^; broken
winded, short-winded; dyspnaeal^, dyspnaeic^.
ready to drop, all in, more dead than alive, dog-weary, walked off
one's legs, tired to death, on one's last legs, played out, hors de
fatiguing &c v.; tiresome, irksome, wearisome; weary, trying.
689. Refreshment -- N. bracing &c v.; recovery of strength,
recuperation &c 159; restoration, revival &c 660; repair, refection,
refocillation^, refreshment, regalement^, bait; relief &c 834.
refreshment stand; refreshments; [Refreshments], ice cream, cold
soda, soda pop, hot dogs (food).
V. brace &c (strengthen) 159; reinvigorate; air, freshen up, refresh,
recruit; repair &c (restore) 660; fan, refocillate^; refresh the inner
breathe, respire; drink in the ozone; take a break, take a
breather, take five, draw breath, take a deep breath, take breath,
gather breath, take a long breath, regain breath, recover breath; get
better, raise one's head; recover one's strength, regain one's
strength, renew one's strength &c 159; perk up, get one's second wind.
come to oneself &c (revive) 660; feel refreshed, feel like a giant
Adj. refreshing &c v.; recuperative &c 660.
refreshed &c v.; untired^, unwearied.
690. Agent -- N. doer, actor, agent, performer, perpetrator, operator;
executor, executrix; practitioner, worker, stager.
bee, ant, working bee, termite, white ant; laboring oar, servant
of all work, factotum.
workman, artisan; craftsman, handicraftsman; mechanic, operative;
working man; laboring man; demiurgus, hewers of wood and drawers of
water, laborer, navvy^; hand, man, day laborer, journeyman, charwoman,
hack; mere tool &c 633; beast of burden, drudge, fag; lumper^,
maker, artificer, artist, wright, manufacturer, architect,
builder, mason, bricklayer, smith, forger, Vulcan; carpenter; ganger,
platelayer; blacksmith, locksmith, sailmaker, wheelwright.
machinist, mechanician, engineer.
sempstress^, semstress^, seamstress; needlewoman^, workwoman;
minister &c (instrument) 631; servant &c 746; representative &c
(commissioner) 758, (deputy) 759.
coworker, party to, participator in, particeps criminis [Lat.],
dramatis personae [Lat.]; personnel.
Phr. quorum pars magna fui [Lat.] [Vergil]; faber est quisque fortunae
691. Workshop -- N. workshop, workhouse, workplace, shop, place of
business; manufactory, mill, plant, works, factory; cabinet, studio;
office, branch office bureau, atelier.
[specific types of workplace: list], hive, hive of industry;
nursery; hothouse, hotbed; kitchen; mint, forge, loom; dock, dockyard;
alveary^; armory; laboratory, lab, research institute; refinery;
cannery; power plant; beauty parlor; beehive, bindery, forcing pit,
nailery^, usine^, slip, yard, wharf; foundry, foundery^; furnace;
vineyard; crucible, alembic, caldron, matrix.
Adj. at work, at the office, at the shop; working.
2. Complex Voluntary Action
692. Conduct -- N. conduct [actions of an individual agent]; behavior;
deportment, comportment; carriage, maintien^, demeanor, guise, bearing,
dealing, transaction &c (action) 680; business &c 625.
tactics, game, game plan, policy, polity; generalship,
statesmanship, seamanship; strategy, strategics^; plan &c 626.
management; husbandry; housekeeping, housewifery; stewardship;
menage; regime; economy, economics; political economy; government &c
execution, manipulation, treatment, campaign, career, life,
course, walk, race, record.
course of conduct, line of conduct, line of action, line of
proceeding; role; process, ways, practice, procedure, modus operandi,
MO, method of operating; method &c; path &c 627.
V. transact [cause to occur], execute; despatch, dispatch; proceed
with, discharge; carry on, carry through, carry out, carry into effect,
put into effect; work out; go through, get through; enact; put into
practice; do &c 680; officiate &c 625.
bear oneself, behave oneself, comport oneself, demean oneself,
carry oneself, conduct oneself, acquit oneself.
run a race, lead a life, play a game; take a course, adopt a
course; steer one's course, shape one's course; play one's paint, play
one's cards, shift for oneself; paddle one's own canoe; bail one's own
conduct; manage, supervise &c (direct) 693.
participate &c 680.
deal with, have to do with; treat, handle a case; take steps, take
Adj. conducting &c v.. strategical, businesslike, practical, executive.
693. Direction -- N. direction; management, managery^; government,
gubernation^, conduct, legislation, regulation, guidance; bossism
[U.S.]; legislature; steerage, pilotage; reins, reins of government;
helm, rudder, needle, compass; guiding star, load star, lode star, pole
supervision, superintendence; surveillance, oversight; eye of the
master; control, charge; board of control &c (council) 696; command &c
premiership, senatorship; director &c 694; chair, portfolio.
statesmanship; statecraft, kingcraft^, queencraft^.
ministry, ministration; administration; stewardship, proctorship^;
[person who directs] director &c 694.
V. direct, manage, govern, conduct; order, prescribe, cut out work for;
bead, lead; lead the way, show the way; take the lead, lead on;
regulate, guide, steer, pilot; tackle, take the helm, be at the helm;
have the reins, handle the reins, hold the reins, take the reins;
superintend, supervise; overlook, control, keep in order, look
after, see to, legislate for; administer, ministrate^; matronize^; have
the care of, have the charge of; be in charge of, have charge of, take
the direction; boss, boss one around; pull the strings, pull the wires;
rule &c (command) 737; have the direction, hold office, hold the
portfolio; preside, preside at the board; take the chair, occupy the
chair, be in the chair; pull the stroke oar.
Adj. directing &c v.; hegemonic.
Adv. at the helm, at the head of.
694. Director -- N. director, manager, governor, rector, comptroller.
superintendent, supervisor, straw boss; intendant; overseer,
overlooker^; supercargo^, husband, inspector, visitor, ranger, surveyor,
aedile^; moderator, monitor, taskmaster; master &c 745; leader,
ringleader, demagogue, corypheus, conductor, fugleman^, precentor^,
bellwether, agitator; caporal^, choregus^, collector, file leader,
guiding star &c (guidance) 693; adviser &c 695; guide &c
(information) 527; pilot; helmsman; steersman, steermate^; wire-puller.
driver, whip, Jehu, charioteer; coachman, carman, cabman;
postilion, vetturino^, muleteer, arriero^, teamster; whipper in.
head, head man, head center, boss; principal, president, speaker;
chair, chairman, chairwoman, chairperson; captain &c (master) 745;
superior; mayor &c (civil authority) 745; vice president, prime
minister, premier, vizier, grand vizier, eparch^.
officer, functionary, minister, official, red-tapist^, bureaucrat;
man in office, Jack in office; office bearer; person in authority &c
statesman, strategist, legislator, lawgiver, politician, statist^,
statemonger^; Minos, Draco; arbiter &c (judge) 967; boss [U.S.],
board &c (council) 696.
secretary, secretary of state; Reis Effendi; vicar &c (deputy)
759; steward, factor; agent &c 758; bailiff, middleman; foreman, clerk
of works; landreeve^; factotum, major-domo^, seneschal, housekeeper,
shepherd, croupier; proctor, procurator.
Adv. ex officio.
695. Advice -- N. advice, counsel, adhortation^; word to the wise;
suggestion, submonition^, recommendation, advocacy; advisement.
exhortation &c (persuasion) 615; expostulation &c (dissuasion)
616; admonition &c (warning) 668; guidance &c (direction) 693.
instruction, charge, injunction, obtestation^; Governor's message,
President's message; King's message, Queen's speech; message, speech
from the throne.
adviser, prompter; counsel, counselor; monitor, mentor, Nestor,
magnus Apollo [Lat.], senator; teacher &c 540.
guide, manual, chart &c (information) 527.
physician, doctor, leech^, archiater^.
arbiter &c (judge) 967.
reference, referment^; consultation, conference, pourparler.
V. advise, counsel; give advice, give counsel, give a piece of advice
[Fr.]; suggest, prompt, submonish^, recommend, prescribe, advocate;
exhort &c (persuade) 615.
enjoin, enforce, charge, instruct, call; call upon &c (request)
expostulate &c (dissuade) 616; admonish &c (warn) 668.
advise with; lay heads together, consult together; compare notes;
hold a council, deliberate, be closeted with.
confer, consult, refer to, call in; take advice, follow advice; be
advised by, have at one's elbow, take one's cue from.
Adj. recommendatory; hortative &c (persuasive) 615; dehortatory &c
(dissuasive) 616 [Obs.]; admonitory &c (warning) 668.
Int. go to!,
Phr. give every man thine ear but few thy voice [Hamlet]; I pray thee
cease thy counsel [Much Ado About Nothing]; my guide, philosopher, and
friend [Pope]; 'twas good advice and meant, my son be good [Crabbe];
verbum sat sapienti [Lat.], a word to the wise is sufficient; vive
memor leti [Lat.]; we, ask advice but we mean approbation [Colton].
696. Council -- N. council, committee, subcommittee, comitia [Lat.],
court, chamber, cabinet, board, bench, staff.
senate, senatus [Lat.], parliament, chamber of deputies,
directory, reichsrath [G.], rigsdag, cortes [Sp.], storthing^,
witenagemote^, junta, divan, musnud^, sanhedrim; classis^; Amphictyonic
council^; duma [Rus.], house of representatives; legislative assembly,
legislative council; riksdag^, volksraad [G.], witan^, caput^,
consistory, chapter, syndicate; court of appeal &c (tribunal) 966;
board of control, board of works; vestry; county council, local board.
audience chamber, council chamber, state chamber.
cabinet council, privy council; cockpit, convocation, synod,
congress, convention, diet, states-general.
[formal gathering of members of a council: script] assembly,
caucus, conclave, clique, conventicle; meeting, sitting, seance,
conference, convention, exhibition, session, palaver, pourparler,
durbar^, house; quorum; council fire [U.S.], powwow [U.S.], primary
meeting, assemblage &c 72.
[person who is member of a council] member; senator; member of
parliament, M.P.; councilor, representative of the people; assemblyman,
congressman; councilman, councilwoman, alderman, freeholder.
V. assemble, gather together, meet (assemblage) 72; confer, caucus,
hold council; huddle [Coll.].
Adj. senatorial, curule^; congressional, parliamentary; legislative,
law-making; regulatory; deliberative.
697. Precept -- N. precept, direction, instruction, charge; prescript,
prescription; recipe, receipt; golden rule; maxim &c 496.
rule, canon, law, code, corpus juris [Lat.], lex scripta [Lat.],
act, statute, rubric, stage direction, regulation; form, formula,
formulary; technicality; canon law; norm.
order &c (command) 741.
698. Skill -- N. skill, skillfulness, address; dexterity,
dexterousness; adroitness, expertness &c adj.; proficiency, competence,
technical competence, craft, callidity^, facility, knack, trick,
sleight; mastery, mastership, excellence, panurgy^; ambidexterity,
ambidextrousness^; sleight of hand &c (deception) 545.
seamanship, airmanship, marksmanship, horsemanship; rope-dancing.
accomplishment, acquirement, attainment; art, science;
technicality, technology; practical knowledge, technical knowledge.
knowledge of the world, world wisdom, savoir faire [Fr.]; tact;
mother wit &c (sagacity) 498; discretion &c (caution) 864; finesse;
craftiness &c (cunning) 702; management &c (conduct) 692; self-help.
cleverness, talent, ability, ingenuity, capacity, parts, talents,
faculty, endowment, forte, turn, gift, genius; intelligence &c 498;
sharpness, readiness &c (activity) 682; invention &c 515; aptness,
aptitude; turn for, capacity for, genius for; felicity, capability,
curiosa felicitas [Lat.], qualification, habilitation.
proficient &c 700.
masterpiece, coup de maitre [Fr.], chef d'euvre [Fr.], tour de
force; good stroke &c (plan) 626.
V. be skillful &c adj.; excel in, be master of; have a turn for &c n..
know what's what, know a hawk from a handsaw, know what one is about,
know on which side one's bread is buttered, know what's o'clock; have
cut one's eye teeth, have cut one's wisdom teeth.
see one's way, see where the wind lies, see which way the wind
blows; have all one's wits about one, have one's hand in; savoir vivre
[Fr.]; scire quid valeant humeri quid ferre recusent [Lat.].
look after the main chance; cut one's coat according to one's
cloth; live by one's wits; exercise one's discretion, feather the oar,
sail near the wind; stoop to conquer &c (cunning) 702; play one's cards
well, play one's best card; hit the right nail on the head, put the
saddle on the right horse.
take advantage of, make the most of; profit by &c (use) 677; make
a hit &c (succeed) 731; make a virtue of necessity; make hay while the
sun shines &c (occasion) 134.
Adj. skillful, dexterous, adroit, expert, apt, handy, quick, deft,
ready, gain; slick, smart &c (active) 682; proficient, good at, up to,
at home in, master of, a good hand at, au fait, thoroughbred, masterly,
crack, accomplished; conversant &c (knowing) 490.
experienced, practiced, skilled, hackneyed; up in, well up in; in
practice, in proper cue; competent, efficient, qualified, capable,
fitted, fit for, up to the mark, trained, initiated, prepared, primed,
clever, cute, able, ingenious, felicitous, gifted, talented,
endowed; inventive &c 515; shrewd, sharp, on the ball &c (intelligent)
498; cunning &c 702; alive to, up to snuff, not to be caught with
neat-handed, fine-fingered, nimble-fingered, ambidextrous, sure-
footed; cut out for, fitted for.
technical, artistic, scientific, daedalian^, shipshape; workman-
like, business-like, statesman-like.
Adv. skillfully &c adj.; well &c 618; artistically; with skill, with
consummate skill; secundum artem [Lat.], suo Marte; to the best of
one's abilities &c (exertion) 686.
Phr. ars celare artem [Lat.]; artes honorabit [Lat.]; celui qui veut
celui-la peut [Fr.]; c'est une grande habilite que de savoir cacher
sonhabilite [Fr.]; expertus metuit [Lat.] [Horace]; es bildet ein
Talent sich in der Stille sich ein Charakter in dem Strom der Welt
[G.]; heart to conceive, the understanding to direct, or the hand to
execute; [Junius]; if you have lemons, make lemonade.
699. Unskillfulness -- N. unskillfulness &c adj.; want of skill &c 698;
incompetence, incompentency^; inability, infelicity, indexterity^,
inexperience; disqualification, unproficiency^; quackery.
folly, stupidity &c 499; indiscretion &c (rashness) 863;
thoughtlessness &c (inattention) 458 (neglect) 460; sabotage.
mismanagement, misconduct; impolicy^; maladministration; misrule,
misgovernment, misapplication, misdirection, misfeasance; petticoat
absence of rule, rule of thumb; bungling &c v.; failure &c 732;
screw loose: too many cooks.
blunder &c (mistake) 495; etourderie gaucherie [Fr.], act of
folly, balourdise^; botch, botchery^; bad job, sad work.
sprat sent out to catch a whale, much ado about nothing, wild-
bungler &c 701; fool &c 501.
V. be unskillful &c adj.; not see an inch beyond one's nose; blunder,
bungle, boggle, fumble, botch, bitch, flounder, stumble, trip; hobble
&c 275; put one's foot in it; make a mess of, make hash of, make sad
work of; overshoot the mark.
play tricks with, play Puck, mismanage, misconduct, misdirect,
stultify oneself, make a fool of oneself, commit oneself; act
foolishly; play the fool; put oneself out of court; lose control, lose
control of oneself, lose one's head, lose one's cunning.
begin at the wrong end; do things by halves &c (not complete) 730;
make two bites of a cherry; play at cross purposes; strain at a gnat
and swallow a camel &c (caprice) 608; put the cart before the horse;
lock the stable door when the horse is stolen &c (too late) 135.
not know what one is about, not know one's own interest, not know
on which side one's bread is buttered; stand in one's own light,
quarrel with one's bread and butter, throw a stone in one's own garden,
kill the goose which lays the golden eggs, pay dear for one's whistle,
cut one's own throat, bum one's fingers; knock one's head against a
stone wall, beat one's head against a stone wall; fall into a trap,
catch a Tartar, bring the house about one's ears; have too many eggs in
one basket (imprudent) 863, have too many irons in the fire.
mistake &c 495; take the shadow for the substance &c (credulity)
486; bark up the wrong tree; be in the wrong box, aim at a pigeon and
kill a crow; take the wrong pig by the tail, get the wrong pig by the
tail, get the wrong sow by the ear, get the dirty end of the stick; put
the saddle on the wrong horse, put a square peg into a round hole, put
new wine into old bottles.
cut blocks with a razor; hold a farthing candle to the sun &c
(useless) 645; fight with a shadow, grasp at a shadow; catch at straws,
lean on a broken reed, reckon without one's host, pursue a wild goose
chase; go on a fool's goose chase, sleeveless errand; go further and
fare worse; lose one's way, miss one's way; fail &c 732.
Adj. unskillful &c 698; inexpert; bungling &c v.; awkward, clumsy,
unhandy, lubberly, gauche, maladroit; left-handed, heavy-handed;
slovenly, slatternly; gawky.
adrift, at fault.
inapt, unapt; inhabile [Fr.]; untractable^, unteachable; giddy &c
(inattentive) 458; inconsiderate &c (neglectful) 460; stupid &c 499;
inactive &c 683; incompetent; unqualified, disqualified, ill-qualified;
unfit; quackish; raw, green, inexperienced, rusty, out of practice.
unaccustomed, unused, untrained &c 537, uninitiated, unconversant
&c (ignorant) 491 [Obs.]; shiftless; unstatesmanlike.
unadvised; ill-advised, misadvised; ill-devised, ill-imagined,
ill-judged, ill-contrived, ill-conducted; unguided, misguided;
misconducted, foolish, wild; infelicitous; penny wise and pound foolish
&c (inconsistent) 608.
Phr. one's fingers being all thumbs; the right hand forgets its
cunning; il se noyerait dans une goutte d'eau [Fr.]; incidit in Scyllam
qui vult vitare Charybdim [Lat.]; out of the frying pan into the fire;
non omnia possumus omnes [Lat.] [Vergil].
700. Proficient -- N. proficient, expert, adept, dab; dabster^,
crackerjack; connoisseur &c (scholar) 492; master, master hand; prima
donna [Sp.], first fiddle, top gun, chef de cuisine, top sawyer;
protagonist; past master; mahatma.
picked man; medallist, prizeman^.
veteran; old stager, old campaigner, old soldier, old file, old
hand; man of business, man of the world.
nice hand, good hand, clean hand; practiced hand, experienced eye,
experienced hand; marksman; good shot, dead shot, crack shot;
ropedancer, funambulist^, acrobat; cunning man; conjuror &c (deceiver)
548; wizard &c 994.
genius; mastermind, master head, master spirit.
cunning blade, sharp blade, sharp fellow; jobber; cracksman &c
(thief) 792 [Obs.]; politician, tactician, strategist.
pantologist^, admirable Crichton, Jack of all trades; prodigy of
701. Bungler -- N. bungler; blunderer, blunderhead^; marplot, fumbler,
lubber, duffer, dauber, stick; bad hand, poor hand, poor shot;
no conjurer, flat, muff, slow coach, looby^, lubber, swab; clod,
yokel, awkward squad, blanc-bec; galoot^.
land lubber; fresh water sailor, fair weather sailor; horse
marine; fish out of water, ass in lion's skin, jackdaw in peacock's
feathers; quack &c (deceiver) 548; lord of misrule.
sloven, slattern, trapes^.
amateur, novice, greenhorn (learner) 541.
Phr. il n'a pas invente' la poudre [Fr.]; he will never set the Thames
on fire; acierta errando [Lat.]; aliquis in omnibus nullus in singulis
702. Cunning -- N. cunning, craft; cunningness^, craftiness &c adj.;
subtlety, artificiality; maneuvering &c v.; temporization;
chicane, chicanery; sharp practice, knavery, jugglery^; concealment
&c 528; guile, doubling, duplicity &c (falsehood) 544; foul play.
diplomacy, politics; Machiavelism; jobbery, backstairs influence.
art, artifice; device, machination; plot &c (plan) 626; maneuver,
stratagem, dodge, sidestep, artful dodge, wile; trick, trickery &c
(deception) 545; ruse, ruse de guerre [Fr.]; finesse, side blow, thin
end of the wedge, shift, go by, subterfuge, evasion; white lie &c
(untruth) 546; juggle, tour de force; tricks of the trade, tricks upon
travelers; espieglerie [Fr.]; net, trap &c 545.
Ulysses, Machiavel, sly boots, fox, reynard; Scotchman; Jew,
Yankee; intriguer, intrigant^; floater [U.S.], Indian giver [U.S.],
keener [U.S.], repeater [U.S.].
V. be cunning &c adj.; have cut one's eyeteeth; contrive &c (plan) 626;
live by one's wits; maneuver; intrigue, gerrymander, finesse, double,
temporize, stoop to conquer, reculer pour mieux sauter [Fr.],
circumvent, steal a march upon; overreach &c 545; throw off one's
guard; surprise &c 508; snatch a verdict; waylay, undermine, introduce
the thin end of the wedge; play a deep game, play tricks with; ambiguas
in vulgum spargere voces [Lat.]; flatter, make things pleasant; have an
ax to grind.
dodge, sidestep, bob and weave.
Adj. cunning, crafty, artful; skillful &c 698; subtle, feline, vulpine;
cunning as a fox, cunning as a serpent; deep, deep laid; profound;
designing, contriving; intriguing &c v.; strategic, diplomatic,
politic, Machiavelian, timeserving^; artificial; tricky, tricksy^; wily,
sly, slim, insidious, stealthy; underhand &c (hidden) 528; subdolous^;
deceitful &c 545; slippery as an eel, evasive &c 623; crooked; arch,
pawky^, shrewd, acute; sharp, sharp as a tack, sharp as a needle^;
canny, astute, leery, knowing, up to snuff, too clever by half, not to
be caught with chaff.
tactful, diplomatic, politic; polite &c 894.
Adv. cunningly &c adj.; slyly, slily^, on the sly, by a side wind.
Phr. diamond cut diamond; a' bis ou a blanc [Fr.]; fin contre fin
[Fr.]; something is rotten in the state of Denmark [Hamlet].
703. Artlessness -- N. artlessness &c adj.; nature, simplicity;
innocence &c 946; bonhomie, naivete, abandon, candor, sincerity;
singleness of purpose, singleness of heart; honesty &c 939; plain
speaking; epanchement [Fr.].
rough diamond, matter of fact man; le palais de verite [Fr.];
enfant terrible [Fr.].
V. be artless &c adj.; look one in the face; wear one's heart upon his
sleeves for daws to peck at^; think aloud; speak out, speak one's mind;
be free with one, call a spade a spade.
Adj. artless, natural, pure, native, confiding, simple, lain,
inartificial^, untutored, unsophisticated, ingenu^, unaffected, naive;
sincere, frank; open, open as day; candid, ingenuous, guileless;
unsuspicious, honest &c 939; innocent &c 946; Arcadian^; undesigning,
straightforward, unreserved, aboveboard; simple-minded, single-minded;
frank-hearted, open-hearted, single-hearted, simple-hearted.
free-spoken, plain-spoken, outspoken; blunt, downright, direct,
matter of fact, unpoetical^; unflattering.
Adv. in plain words, in plain English; without mincing the matter; not
to mince the matter &c (affirmation) 535.
Phr. Davus sum non Oedipus [Lat.] [Terence]; liberavi animam meam
[Lat.]; as frank as rain on cherry blossoms [E.B.
1. Conditional Antagonism
704. Difficulty -- N. difficulty; hardness &c adj.; impracticability &c
(impossibility) 471; tough work, hard work, uphill work; hard task,
Herculean task, Augean task^; task of Sisyphus, Sisyphean labor, tough
job, teaser, rasper^, dead lift.
dilemma, embarrassment; deadlock; perplexity &c (uncertainty) 475;
intricacy; entanglement, complexity &c 59; cross fire; awkwardness,
delicacy, ticklish card to play, knot, Gordian knot, dignus vindice
nodus [Lat.], net, meshes, maze; coil &c (convolution) 248; crooked
nice point, delicate point, subtle point, knotty point; vexed
question, vexata quaestio [Lat.], poser; puzzle &c (riddle) 533;
paradox; hard nut to crack, nut to crack; bone to pick, crux, pons
asinorum [Lat.], where the shoe pinches.
nonplus, quandary, strait, pass, pinch, pretty pass, stress,
brunt; critical situation, crisis; trial, rub, emergency, exigency,
scrape, hobble, slough, quagmire, hot water, hornet's nest; sea of
troubles, peck of troubles; pretty kettle of fish; pickle, stew,
imbroglio, mess, ado; false position.
set fast, stand, standstill; deadlock, dead set.
fix, horns of a dilemma, cul de sac [Fr.]; hitch; stumbling block
&c (hindrance) 706.
[difficult person] crab; curmudgeon.
V. be difficult &c adj.; run one hard, go against the grain, try one's
patience, put one out; put to one's shifts, put to one's wit's end; go
hard with one, try one; pose, perplex &c (uncertain) 475; bother,
nonplus, gravel, bring to a deadlock; be impossible &c 471; be in the
way of &c (hinder) 706.
meet with difficulties; labor under difficulties; get into
difficulties; plunge into difficulties; struggle with difficulties;
contend with difficulties; grapple with difficulties; labor under a
disadvantage; be in difficulty &c adj.. fish in troubled waters, buffet
the waves, swim against the stream, scud under bare poles.
Have much ado with, have a hard time of it; come to the push, come
to the pinch; bear the brunt.
grope in the dark, lose one's way, weave a tangled web, walk among
get into a scrape &c n.; bring a hornet's nest about one's ears;
be put to one's shifts; flounder, boggle, struggle; not know which way
to turn &c (uncertain) 475; perdre son Latin [Fr.]; stick at, stick in
the mud, stick fast; come to a stand, come to a standstill, come to a
deadlock; hold the wolf by the ears, hold the tiger by the tail.
render difficult &c adj.; enmesh, encumber, embarrass, ravel,
entangle; put a spoke in the wheel &c (hinder) 706; lead a pretty
Adj. difficult, not easy, hard, tough; troublesome, toilsome, irksome;
operose^, laborious, onerous, arduous, Herculean, formidable; sooner
said than done; more easily said than done, easier said than done.
difficult to deal with, hard to deal with; ill-conditioned,
crabbed, crabby; not to be handled with kid gloves, not made with rose
awkward, unwieldy, unmanageable; intractable, stubborn &c
(obstinate) 606; perverse, refractory, plaguy^, trying, thorny, rugged;
knotted, knotty; invious^; pathless, trackless; labyrinthine &c
(convoluted) 248; intricate, complicated &c (tangled) 59; impracticable
&c (impossible) 471; not feasible &c 470; desperate &c (hopeless) 859.
embarrassing, perplexing &c (uncertain) 475; delicate, ticklish,
critical; beset with difficulties, full of difficulties, surrounded by
difficulties, entangled by difficulties, encompassed with difficulties.
under a difficulty; in a box; in difficulty, in hot water, in the
suds, in a cleft stick, in a fix, in the wrong box, in a scrape &c n.,
in deep water, in a fine pickle; in extremis; between two stools,
between Scylla and Charybdis; surrounded by shoals, surrounded by
breakers, surrounded by quicksands; at cross purposes; not out of the
reduced to straits; hard pressed, sorely pressed; run hard;
pinched, put to it, straitened; hard up, hard put to it, hard set; put
to one's shifts; puzzled, at a loss, &c (uncertain) 475; at the end of
one's tether, at the end of one's rope, at one's wit's end, at a
nonplus, at a standstill; graveled, nonplused, nonplussed, stranded,
aground; stuck fast, set fast; up a tree, at bay, aux abois [Fr.],
driven into a corner, driven from pillar to post, driven to extremity,
driven to one's wit's end, driven to the wall; au bout de son Latin;
out of one's depth; thrown out.
accomplished with difficulty; hard-fought, hard-earned.
Adv. with difficulty, with much ado; barely, hardly &c adj.; uphill;
against the stream, against the grain; d rebours [Fr.]; invita Minerva
[Lat.]; in the teeth of; at a pinch, upon a pinch; at long odds,
against long odds.
Phr. ay there's the rub [Hamlet]; hic labor hoc opus [Lat.] [Vergil];
things are come to a pretty pass, ab inconvenienti [Lat.]; ad astra per
aspera [Lat.]; acun chemin de fleurs ne conduit a la gloire [Fr.].
705. Facility -- N. facility, ease; easiness &c adj.; capability;
feasibility &c (practicability) 470; flexibility, pliancy &c 324;
smoothness &c 255.
plain sailing, smooth sailing, straight sailing; mere child's
play, holiday task; cinch [U.S.].
smooth water, fair wind; smooth royal road; clear coast, clear
stage; tabula rasa [Lat.]; full play &c (freedom) 748.
disencumbrance^, disentanglement; deoppilation^; permission &c 760.
simplicity, lack of complication.
V. be easy &c adj.; go on smoothly, run smoothly; have full play &c n.;