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Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases: Body by Roget

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accent, accentuation; emphasis, stress; broad accent, strong
accent, pure accent, native accent, foreign accent; pronunciation.
[Word similarly pronounced] homonym.
orthoepy^; cacoepy^; euphony &c (melody) 413.
gastriloquism^, ventriloquism; ventriloquist; polyphonism^,
[Science of voice] phonology &c (sound) 402.
V. utter, breathe; give utterance, give tongue; cry &c (shout) 411;
ejaculate, rap out; vocalize, prolate^, articulate, enunciate,
pronounce, accentuate, aspirate, deliver, mouth; whisper in the ear.
Adj. vocal, phonetic, oral; ejaculatory, articulate, distinct,
stertorous; euphonious &c (melodious) 413.
Phr. how sweetly sounds the voice of a good woman [Massinger]; the
organ of the soul [Longfellow]; thy voice is a celestial melody

581. Aphony -- N. aphony^, aphonia^; dumbness &c adj.; obmutescence^;
absence of voice, want of voice; dysphony^; cacoepy^; silence &c
(taciturnity) 585; raucity^; harsh voice &c 410, unmusical voice &c 414;
falsetto, childish treble mute; dummy.
V. keep silence &c 585; speak low, speak softly; whisper &c (faintness)
silence; render mute, render silent; muzzle, muffle, suppress,
smother, gag, strike dumb, dumfounder; drown the voice, put to silence,
stop one's mouth, cut one short.
stick in the throat.
Adj. aphonous^, dumb, mute; deafmute, deaf and dumb; mum; tongue-tied;
breathless, tongueless, voiceless, speechless, wordless; mute as a
fish, mute as a stockfish^, mute as a mackerel; silent &c (taciturn)
585; muzzled; inarticulate, inaudible.
croaking, raucous, hoarse, husky, dry, hollow, sepulchral, hoarse
as a raven; rough.
Adv. with bated breath, with the finger on the lips; sotto voce [Lat.];
in a low tone, in a cracked voice, in a broken voice.
Phr. vox faucibus haesit [Lat.] [Vergil].

582. Speech -- N. speech, faculty of speech; locution, talk, parlance,
verbal intercourse, prolation^, oral communication, word of mouth,
parole, palaver, prattle; effusion.
oration, recitation, delivery, say, speech, lecture, harangue,
sermon, tirade, formal speech, peroration; speechifying; soliloquy &c
589; allocution &c 586; conversation &c 588; salutatory : screed:
valedictory [U.S.].
oratory; elocution, eloquence; rhetoric, declamation;
grandiloquence, multiloquence^; burst of eloquence; facundity^; flow of
words, command of words, command of language; copia verborum [Lat.];
power of speech, gift of the gab; usus loquendi [Lat.].
speaker &c v.; spokesman; prolocutor, interlocutor; mouthpiece,
Hermes; orator, oratrix^, oratress^; Demosthenes, Cicero; rhetorician;
stump orator, platform orator; speechmaker, patterer^, improvisatore^.
V. speak of; say, utter, pronounce, deliver, give utterance to; utter
forth, pour forth; breathe, let fall, come out with; rap out, blurt out
have on one's lips; have at the end of one's tongue, have at the tip of
one's tongue.
break silence; open one's lips, open one's mouth; lift one's
voice, raise one's voice; give the tongue, wag the tongue; talk,
outspeak^; put in a word or two, hold forth; make a speech, deliver a
speech &c n.; speechify, harangue, declaim, stump, flourish, recite,
lecture, sermonize, discourse, be on one's legs; have one's say, say
one's say; spout, rant, rave, vent one's fury, vent one's rage;
expatiate &c (speak at length) 573; speak one's mind, go on the stump,
take the stump [U.S.].
soliloquize &c 589; tell &c (inform) 527; speak to &c 586; talk
together &c 588.
be eloquent &c adj.; have a tongue in one's head, have the gift of
the gab &c n.. pass one's lips, escape one's lips; fall from the lips,
fall from the mouth.
Adj. speaking &c; spoken &c v.; oral, lingual, phonetic, not written,
unwritten, outspoken; eloquent, elocutionary; oratorical, rhetorical;
declamatory; grandiloquent &c 577; talkative &c 584; Ciceronian,
nuncupative, Tullian.
Adv. orally &c adj.; by word of mouth, viva voce, from the lips of.
Phr. quoth he, said he &c; action is eloquence [Coriolanus]; pour the
full tide of eloquence along [Pope]; she speaks poignards and every
word stabs [Much Ado About Nothing]; speech is but broken light upon
the depth of the unspoken [G.
Eliot]; to try thy eloquence now 'tis time [Antony and Cleopatra].

583. [Imperfect Speech.] Stammering -- N. inarticulateness; stammering
&c v.; hesitation &c v.; impediment in one's speech; titubancy^,
traulism^; whisper &c (faint sound) 405; lisp, drawl, tardiloquence^;
nasal tone, nasal accent; twang; falsetto &c (want of voice) 581;
broken voice, broken accents, broken sentences.
brogue &c 563; slip of the tongue, lapsus linouae [Lat.].
V. stammer, stutter, hesitate, falter, hammer; balbutiate^,
balbucinate^, haw, hum and haw, be unable to put two words together.
mumble, mutter; maud^, mauder^; whisper &c 405; mince, lisp;
jabber, gibber; sputter, splutter; muffle, mump^; drawl, mouth; croak;
speak thick, speak through the nose; snuffle, clip one's words; murder
the language, murder the King's English, murder the Queen's English;
mispronounce, missay^.
Adj. stammering &c v.; inarticulate, guttural, nasal; tremulous;
Adv. sotto voce &c (faintly) 405 [Lat.].

584. Loquacity -- N. loquacity, loquaciousness; talkativeness &c adj.;
garrulity; multiloquence^, much speaking.
jaw; gabble; jabber, chatter; prate, prattle, cackle, clack;
twaddle, twattle, rattle; caquet^, caquetterie [Fr.]; blabber,
bavardage^, bibble-babble^, gibble-gabble^; small talk &c (converse) 588.
fluency, flippancy, volubility, flowing, tongue; flow of words;
flux de bouche [Fr.], flux de mots [Fr.]; copia verborum [Lat.],
cacoethes loquendi [Lat.]; furor loquendi [Lat.]; verbosity &c
(diffuseness) 573; gift of the gab &c (eloquence) 582.
talker; chatterer, chatterbox; babbler &c v.; rattle; ranter;
sermonizer, proser^, driveler; blatherskite [U.S.]; gossip &c (converse)
588; magpie, jay, parrot, poll, Babel; moulin a paroles [Fr.].
V. be loquacious &c adj.; talk glibly, pour forth, patter; prate,
palaver, prose, chatter, prattle, clack, jabber, jaw; blather, blatter^,
blether^; rattle, rattle on; twaddle, twattle; babble, gabble; outtalk;
talk oneself out of breath, talk oneself hoarse; expatiate &c (speak at
length) 573; gossip &c (converse) 588; din in the ears &c (repeat) 104;
talk at random, talk nonsense &c 497; be hoarse with talking.
Adj. loquacious, talkative, garrulous, linguacious^, multiloquous^;
largiloquent^; chattering &c v.; chatty &c (sociable) 892; declamatory
&c 582; open-mouthed.
fluent, voluble, glib, flippant; long tongued, long winded &c
(diffuse) 573.
Adv. trippingly on the tongue; glibly &c adj.; off the reel.
Phr. the tongue running fast, the tongue running loose, the tongue
running on wheels; all talk and no cider; foul whisperings are abroad
[Macbeth]; what a spendthrift is he of his tongue! [Tempest].

585. Taciturnity -- N. silence, muteness, obmutescence^; taciturnity,
pauciloquy^, costiveness^, curtness; reserve, reticence &c (concealment)
man of few words.
V. be silent &c adj.; keep silence, keep mum; hold one's tongue, hold
one's peace, hold one's jaw; not speak.
&c 582; say nothing, keep one's counsel; seal the lips, close the
lips, button the lips, zipper the lips, put a padlock on the lips, put
a padlock on the mouth; put a bridle on one's tongue; bite one's
tongue, keep one's tongue between one's teeth; make no sign, not let a
word escape one; keep a secret &c 528; not have a word to say; hush up,
hush, lay the finger on the lips, place the finger on the lips; render
mute &c 581.
stick in one's throat.
Adj. silent, mute, mum; silent as a post, silent as a stone, silent as
the grave &c (still) 403; dumb &c 581; unconversable^.
taciturn, sparing of words; closetongued; costive^, inconversable^,
curt; reserved; reticent &c (concealing) 528.
Int. shush!, tush!, silence!, mum!, hush!, chut!^, hist!, tut!, chup!^,
mum's the word; keep your mouth shut! [Vulg.].
Phr. cave quid dicis quando et cui [Lat.]; volto sciolto i pensieri
stretti [It].

586. Allocution -- N. allocution, alloquy^, address; speech &c 582;
apostrophe, interpellation, appeal, invocation, salutation; word in the
[Feigned dialogue] dialogism^.
platform &c 542; plank; audience &c (interview) 588.
V. speak to, address, accost, make up to, apostrophize, appeal to,
invoke; ball, salute; call to, halloo.
take aside, take by the button; talk to in private.
lecture &c (make a speech) 582.
Int. soho!^, halloo!, hey!, hist!,

587. Response -- N. &c see Answer 462.

588. Conversation -- N. conversation, interlocution; collocution^,
colloquy, converse, confabulation, talk, discourse, verbal intercourse;
oral communication, commerce; dialogue, duologue, trialogue.
causerie, chat, chitchat; small talk, table talk, teatable talk^,
town talk, village talk, idle talk; tattle, gossip, tittle-tattle;
babble, babblement^; tripotage^, cackle, prittle-prattle^, cancan, on dit
[Fr.]; talk of the town, talk of the village.
conference, parley, interview, audience, pourparler; tete-a-tete;
reception, conversazione [It]; congress &c (council) 696; powwow
hall of audience, durbar^.
palaver, debate, logomachy^, war of words.
gossip, tattler; Paul Pry; tabby; chatterer &c (loquacity) 584;
interlocutor &c (spokesman) 582; conversationist^, dialogist^.
the feast of reason and the flow of soul [Pope]; mollia tempora
fandi [Lat.].
V. talk together, converse, confabulate; hold on a conversation, carry
on a conversation, join in a conversation, engage in a conversation;
put in a word; shine in conversation; bandy words; parley; palaver;
chat, gossip, tattle; prate &c (loquacity) 584; powwow [U.S.].
discourse with, confer with, commune with, commerce with; hold
converse, hold conference, hold intercourse; talk it over; be closeted
with; talk with one in private, tete-a-tete.
Adj. conversing &c v.; interlocutory; conversational, conversable^;
discursive, discoursive^; chatty &c (sociable) 892; colloquial.
Phr. with thee conversing I forget all time [Paradise Lost].

589. Soliloquy -- N. soliloquy, monologue, apostrophe; monology^.
V. Soliloquize; say to oneself, talk to oneself; say aside, think
aloud, apostrophize.
Adj. soliloquizing &c v..
Adv. aside.
3. Written Language

590. Writing -- N. writing &c v.; chirography, stelography^,
cerography^; penmanship, craftmanship^; quill driving; typewriting.
writing, manuscript, MS., literae scriptae [Lat.]; these presents.
stroke of the pen, dash of the pen; coupe de plume; line;
headline; pen and ink.
letter &c 561; uncial writing, cuneiform character, arrowhead,
Ogham, Runes, hieroglyphic; contraction; Brahmi^, Devanagari, Nagari;
shorthand; stenography, brachygraphy^, tachygraphy^; secret
writing, writing in cipher; cryptography, stenography; phonography^,
pasigraphy^, Polygraphy^, logography^.
copy; transcript, rescript; rough copy, fair copy; handwriting;
signature, sign manual; autograph, monograph, holograph; hand, fist.
calligraphy; good hand, running hand, flowing hand, cursive hand,
legible hand, bold hand.
cacography^, griffonage^, barbouillage^; bad hand, cramped hand,
crabbed hand, illegible hand; scribble &c v.; pattes de mouche [Fr.];
ill-formed letters; pothooks and hangers.
stationery; pen, quill, goose quill; pencil, style; paper,
foolscap, parchment, vellum, papyrus, tablet, slate, marble, pillar,
table; blackboard; ink bottle, ink horn, ink pot, ink stand, ink well;
transcription &c (copy) 21; inscription &c (record) 551;
superscription &c (indication) 550; graphology.
composition, authorship; cacoethes scribendi [Lat.]; graphoidea^,
graphomania^; phrenoia^.
writer, scribe, amanuensis, scrivener, secretary, clerk, penman,
copyist, transcriber, quill driver; stenographer, typewriter, typist;
writer for the press &c (author) 593.
V. write, pen; copy, engross; write out, write out fair; transcribe;
scribble, scrawl, scrabble, scratch; interline; stain paper; write down
&c (record) 551; sign &c (attest) 467; enface^.
compose, indite, draw up, draft, formulate; dictate; inscribe,
throw on paper, dash off; manifold.
take up the pen, take pen in hand; shed ink, spill ink, dip one's
pen in ink.
Adj. writing &c v.; written &c v.; in writing, in black and white;
under one's hand.
uncial, Runic, cuneiform, hieroglyphical^.
Adv. currente calamo [Sp.]; pen in hand.
Phr. audacter et sincere [Lat.]; le style est l'homme meme [Fr.];
nature's noblest gift - my gray goose quill [Byron]; scribendi recte
sapere et principium et fons [Lat.] [Horace]; that mighty instrument of
little men [Byron]; the pen became a clarion [Longfellow].

591. Printing -- N. printing; block printing, type-printing; plate
printing &c 558 (engraving); the press &c (publication) 531;
print, letterpress, text; context, note, page, column.
typography; stereotype, electrotype, aprotype^; type, black letter,
font, fount; pi, pie; capitals &c (letters) 561; brevier^, bourgeois,
pica boldface &c, capitals, caps., catchword; composing-frame,
composing room, composing rule, composing stand, composing stick;
italics, justification, linotype, live matter, logotype; lower case,
upper case; make-up, matrix, matter, monotype^; [point system], 4-1/2
point, 5 point, 5-1/2 point, 6 point, 7 point, 8 point, press room,
press work; reglet^, roman; running head, running title; scale, serif,
shank, sheet work, shoulder, signature, slug, underlay.
folio &c (book) 593; copy, impression, pull, proof, revise;
author's proof, galley proof, press proof; press revise.
printer, compositor, reader; printer's devil copyholder.
V. print; compose; put to press, go to press; pass through the press,
see through the press; publish &c 531; bring out; appear in print, rush
into print; distribute, makeup, mortise, offset, overrun, rout.
Adj. printed &c v.; in type; typographical &c n.; solid in galleys.

592. Correspondence -- N. correspondence, letter, epistle, note,
billet, post card, missive, circular, favor, billet-doux; chit, chitty^,
letter card, picture post card; postal [U.S.], card; despatch;
dispatch; bulletin, these presents; rescript, rescription^; post &c
(messenger) 534.
V. correspond with; write to, send a letter to; keep up a
Adj. epistolary.
Phr. furor scribendi [Lat.].

593. Book -- N. booklet; writing, work, volume, tome, opuscule^; tract,
tractate^; livret^; brochure, libretto, handbook, codex, manual,
pamphlet, enchiridion^, circular, publication; chap book.
part, issue, number livraison [Fr.]; album, portfolio; periodical,
serial, magazine, ephemeris, annual, journal.
paper, bill, sheet, broadsheet^; leaf, leaflet; fly leaf, page;
quire, ream.
[subdivisions of a book] chapter, section, head, article,
paragraph, passage, clause; endpapers, frontispiece; cover, binding.
folio, quarto, octavo; duodecimo^, sextodecimo^, octodecimo^.
encyclopedia; encompilation^.
[collection of books] library, bibliotheca^.
press &c (publication) 531.
[complete description] definitive work, treatise, comprehensive
treatise (dissertation) 595.
[person who writes a book] writer, author, litterateur [Fr.],
essayist, journalism; pen, scribbler, the scribbling race; literary
hack, Grub-street writer; writer for the press, gentleman of the press,
representative of the press; adjective jerker^, diaskeaust^, ghost, hack
writer, ink slinger; publicist; reporter, penny a liner; editor,
subeditor^; playwright &c 599; poet &c 597.
bookseller, publisher; bibliopole^, bibliopolist^; librarian;
bookstore, bookshop, bookseller's shop.
knowledge of books, bibliography; book learning &c (knowledge)
Phr. among the giant fossils of my past [E.
Browning]; craignez tout d'un auteur en courroux [Fr.]; for
authors nobler palms remain [Pope]; I lived to write and wrote to live
[Rogers]; look in thy heart and write [Sidney]; there is no Past so
long as Books shall live [Bulwer Lytton]; the public mind is the
creation of the Master-Writers [Disraeli]; volumes that I prize above
my dukedom [Tempest].

594. Description -- N. description, account, statement, report; expose
&c (disclosure) 529; specification, particulars; state of facts,
summary of facts; brief &c (abstract) 596; return &c (record) 551;
catalogue raisonne &c (list) 86 [Fr.]; guidebook &c (information) 527.
delineation &c (representation) 554; sketch; monograph; minute
account, detailed particular account, circumstantial account, graphic
account; narration, recital, rehearsal, relation.
historiography^, chronography^; historic Muse, Clio; history;
biography, autobiography; necrology, obituary.
narrative, history; memoir, memorials; annals &c (chronicle) 551;
saga; tradition, legend, story, tale, historiette^; personal narrative,
journal, life, adventures, fortunes, experiences, confessions;
anecdote, ana^, trait.
work of fiction, novel, romance, Minerva press; fairy tale,
nursery tale; fable, parable, apologue^; dime novel, penny dreadful,
shilling shocker relator &c v.; raconteur, historian &c (recorder) 553;
biographer, fabulist^, novelist.
V. describe; set forth &c (state) 535; draw a picture, picture; portray
&c (represent) 554; characterize, particularize; narrate, relate,
recite, recount, sum up, run over, recapitulate, rehearse, fight one's
battles over again.
unfold a tale &c (disclose) 529; tell; give an account of, render
an account of; report, make a report, draw up a statement.
detail; enter into particulars, enter into details, descend to
particulars, descend to details; itemize.
Adj. descriptive, graphic, narrative, epic, suggestive, well-drawn;
historic; traditional, traditionary; legendary; anecdotic^, storied;
described &c v..
Phr. furor scribendi [Lat.].

595. Dissertation -- N. dissertation, treatise, essay; thesis, theme;
monograph, tract, tractate^, tractation^; discourse, memoir,
disquisition, lecture, sermon, homily, pandect^; excursus.
commentary, review, critique, criticism, article; leader, leading
article; editorial; running commentary.
investigation &c (inquiry) 461; study &c (consideration) 451;
discussion &c (reasoning) 476; exposition &c (explanation) 522.
commentator, critic, essayist, pamphleteer.
V. expound upon a subject, dissert upon a subject^, descant upon a
subject, write upon a subject, touch upon a subject; treat a subject,
treat a subject thoroughly, treat of a subject, take up a subject,
ventilate a subject, discuss a subject, deal with a subject, go into a
subject, go into a subject at length, canvass a subject, handle a
subject, do justice to a subject.
hold forth [oral dissertation], discourse, delve into.
Adj. discursive, discoursive^; disquisitionary^; expository.

596. Compendium -- N. compend, compendium; abstract, precis, epitome,
multum in parvo [Lat.], analysis, pandect^, digest, sum and substance,
brief, abridgment, summary, apercu, draft, minute, note; excerpt;
synopsis, textbook, conspectus, outlines, syllabus, contents, heads,
album; scrap book, note book, memorandum book, commonplace book;
extracts, excerpta^, cuttings; fugitive pieces, fugitive writing;
spicilegium^, flowers, anthology, collectanea^, analecta^; compilation.
recapitulation, resume, review.
abbreviation, abbreviature^; contraction; shortening &c 201;
compression &c 195.
V. abridge, abstract, epitomize, summarize; make an abstract, prepare
an abstract, draw an abstract, compile an abstract &c n.. recapitulate,
review, skim, run over, sum up.
abbreviate &c (shorten) 201; condense &c (compress) 195; compile
&c (collect) 72.
Adj. compendious, synoptic, analectic^; abrege [Fr.], abridged &c v.;
Adv. in short, in epitome, in substance, in few words.
Phr. it lies in a nutshell.

597. Poetry -- N. poetry, poetics, poesy, Muse, Calliope, tuneful Nine,
Parnassus, Helicon^, Pierides, Pierian spring.
versification, rhyming, making verses; prosody, orthometry^.
poem; epic, epic poem; epopee^, epopoea, ode, epode^, idyl, lyric,
eclogue, pastoral, bucolic, dithyramb, anacreontic^, sonnet, roundelay,
rondeau [Fr.], rondo, madrigal, canzonet^, cento^, monody [Slang],
elegy; amoebaeum, ghazal^, palinode.
dramatic poetry, lyric poetry; opera; posy, anthology; disjecta
membra poetae song [Lat.], ballad, lay; love song, drinking song, war
song, sea song; lullaby; music &c 415; nursery rhymes.
[Bad poetry] doggerel, Hudibrastic verse^, prose run mad;
macaronics^; macaronic verse^, leonine verse; runes.
canto, stanza, distich, verse, line, couplet, triplet, quatrain;
strophe, antistrophe^.
verse, rhyme, assonance, crambo^, meter, measure, foot, numbers,
strain, rhythm; accentuation &c (voice) 580; dactyl, spondee, trochee,
anapest &c; hexameter, pentameter; Alexandrine; anacrusis^, antispast^,
blank verse, ictus.
elegiacs &c adj.; elegiac verse, elegaic meter, elegaic poetry.
poet, poet laureate; laureate; bard, lyrist^, scald, skald^,
troubadour, trouvere [Fr.]; minstrel; minnesinger, meistersinger [G.];
improvisatore^; versifier, sonneteer; rhymer, rhymist^, rhymester;
ballad monger, runer^; poetaster; genus irritabile vatum [Lat.].
V. poetize, sing, versify, make verses, rhyme, scan.
Adj. poetic, poetical; lyric, lyrical, tuneful, epic, dithyrambic &c
n.; metrical; a catalectin^; elegiac, iambic, trochaic, anapestic^;
amoebaeic, Melibean, skaldic^; Ionic, Sapphic, Alcaic^, Pindaric.
Phr. a poem round and perfect as a star [Alex.
Smith]; Dichtung und Wahrheit [G.]; furor poeticus [Lat.]; his
virtues formed the magic of his song [Hayley]; I do but sing because I
must [Tennyson]; I learnt life from the poets [de Stael]; licentia
vatum [Lat.]; mutum est pictura poema [Lat.]; O for a muse of fire!
[Henry V]; sweet food of sweetly uttered knowledge [Sidney]; the true
poem is the poet's mind [Emerson]; Volk der Dichter und Denker [G.];
wisdom married to immortal verse [Wordsworth].

598. Prose -- N. prose, prose writer.
prosaicism^, prosaism^, prosaist^, proser^.
V. prose.
write prose, write in prose.
Adj. prosal^, prosy, prosaic; unpoetic, unpoetical^.
rhymeless^, unrhymed, in prose, not in verse.

599. The Drama -- N. the drama, the stage, the theater, the play; film
the film, movies, motion pictures, cinema, cinematography; theatricals,
dramaturgy, histrionic art, buskin, sock, cothurnus^, Melpomene and
Thalia, Thespis.
play, drama, stage play, piece [Fr.], five-act play, tragedy,
comedy, opera, vaudeville, comedietta^, lever de rideau [Fr.],
interlude, afterpiece^, exode^, farce, divertissement, extravaganza,
burletta^, harlequinade^, pantomime, burlesque, opera bouffe [Fr.],
ballet, spectacle, masque, drame comedie drame [Fr.]; melodrama,
melodrame^; comidie larmoyante [Fr.], sensation drama; tragicomedy,
farcical-comedy; monodrame monologue; duologue trilogy^; charade,
proverbs; mystery, miracle play; musical, musical comedy.
[movies] western, horse opera; flick [Coll.]; spy film, love
story, adventure film, documentary, nature film; pornographic film,
smoker, skin flick, X-rated film.
act, scene, tableau; induction, introduction; prologue, epilogue;
performance, representation, mise en scene [Fr.], stagery^, jeu de
theatre [Fr.]; acting; gesture &c 550; impersonation &c 554; stage
business, gag, buffoonery.
light comedy, genteel comedy, low comedy.
theater; playhouse, opera house; house; music hall; amphitheater,
circus, hippodrome, theater in the round; puppet show, fantoccini^;
marionettes, Punch and Judy.
auditory, auditorium, front of the house, stalls, boxes, pit,
gallery, parquet; greenroom, coulisses [Fr.].
flat; drop, drop scene; wing, screen, side scene; transformation
scene, curtain, act drop; proscenium.
stage, scene, scenery, the boards; trap, mezzanine floor; flies;
floats, footlights; offstage; orchestra.
theatrical costume, theatrical properties.
movie studio, back lot, on location.
part, role, character, dramatis personae [Lat.]; repertoire.
actor, thespian, player; method actor; stage player, strolling
player; stager, performer; mime, mimer^; artists; comedian, tragedian;
tragedienne, Roscius; star, movie star, star of stage and screen,
superstar, idol, sex symbol; supporting actor, supporting cast; ham,
hamfatter [Slang]; masker^.
pantomimist, clown harlequin, buffo^, buffoon, farceur, grimacer,
pantaloon, columbine; punchinello^; pulcinello^, pulcinella^; extra, bit-
player, walk-on role, cameo appearance; mute, figurante^, general
utility; super, supernumerary.
company; first tragedian, prima donna [Sp.], protagonist; jeune
premier [Fr.]; debutant, debutante [Fr.]; light comedian, genteel
comedian, low comedian; walking gentleman, amoroso^, heavy father,
ingenue [Fr.], jeune veuve [Fr.].
mummer, guiser^, guisard^, gysart^, masque.
mountebank, Jack Pudding; tumbler, posture master, acrobat;
contortionist; ballet dancer, ballet girl; chorus singer; coryphee
danseuse [Fr.].
property man, costumier, machinist; prompter, call boy; manager;
director, stage manager, acting manager.
producer, entrepreneur, impresario; backer, investor, angel
dramatic author, dramatic writer; play writer, playwright;
dramatist, mimographer^.
V. act, play, perform; put on the stage; personate &c 554; mimic &c
(imitate) 19; enact; play a part, act a part, go through a part,
perform a part; rehearse, spout, gag, rant; strut and fret one's hour
upon a stage; tread the boards, tread the stage; come out; star it.
Adj. dramatic; theatric, theatrical; scenic, histrionic, comic, tragic,
buskined^, farcical, tragicomic, melodramatic, operatic; stagy.
Adv. on the stage, on the boards; on film; before the floats, before an
audience; behind the scenes.
Phr. fere totus mundus exercet histrionem [Lat.] [Petronius Arbiter];
suit the action to the word, the word to the action [Hamlet]; the
play's the thing [Hamlet]; to wake the soul by tender strokes of art



1. Acts of Volition

600. Will -- N. will, volition, conation^, velleity; liberum arbitrium
[Lat.]; will and pleasure, free will; freedom &c 748; discretion;
option &c (choice) 609; voluntariness^; spontaneity, spontaneousness;
pleasure, wish, mind; desire; frame of mind &c (inclination) 602;
intention &c 620; predetermination &c 611; selfcontrol &c;
determination &c (resolution) 604; force of will.
V. will, list; see fit, think fit; determine &c (resolve) 604; enjoin;
settle &c (choose) 609; volunteer.
have a will of one's own; do what one chooses &c (freedom) 748;
have it all.one's own way; have one's will, have one's own way.
use one's discretion, exercise one's discretion; take upon
oneself, take one's own course, take the law into one's own hands; do
of one's own accord, do upon one's own authority; originate &c (cause)
Adj. voluntary, volitional, willful; free &c 748; optional;
discretional, discretionary; volitient^, volitive^.
minded &c (willing) 602; prepense &c (predetermined) 611 [Obs.];
intended &c 620; autocratic; unbidden &c (bid) &c 741; spontaneous;
original &c (casual) 153; unconstrained.
Adv. voluntarily &c adj.; at will, at pleasure; a volonte [Fr.], a
discretion; al piacere [It]; ad libitum, ad arbitrium [Lat.]; as one
thinks proper, as it seems good to; a beneplacito [It].
of one's won accord, of one's own free will; proprio motu [Lat.],
suo motu [Lat.], ex meromotu [Lat.]; out of one's won head; by choice
&c 609; purposely &c (intentionally) 620; deliberately &c 611.
Phr. stet pro ratione voluntas [Lat.]; sic volo sic jubeo [Lat.]; a
vostro beneplacito [It]; beneficium accipere libertatem est vendere
[Lat.]; Deus vult [Lat.]; was man nicht kann meiden muss man willig
leiden [G.].

601. Necessity -- N. involuntariness; instinct, blind impulse; inborn
proclivity, innate proclivity; native tendency, natural tendency;
natural impulse, predetermination.
necessity, necessitation; obligation; compulsion &c 744;
subjection &c 749; stern necessity, hard necessity, dire necessity,
imperious necessity, inexorable necessity, iron necessity, adverse
necessity; fate; what must be.
destiny, destination; fatality, fate, kismet, doom, foredoom,
election, predestination; preordination, foreordination; lot fortune;
fatalism; inevitableness &c adj.; spell &c 993.
star, stars; planet, planets; astral influence; sky, Fates,
Parcae, Sisters three, book of fate; God's will, will of Heaven; wheel
of Fortune, Ides of March, Hobson's choice.
last shift, last resort; dernier ressort [Fr.]; pis aller &c
(substitute) 147 [Fr.]; necessaries &c (requirement) 630.
necessarian^, necessitarian^; fatalist; automaton.
V. lie under a necessity; befated^, be doomed, be destined &c, in for,
under the necessity of; have no choice, have no alternative; be one's
fate &c n.. to be pushed to the wall to be driven into a corner, to be
unable to help.
destine, doom, foredoom, devote; predestine, preordain; cast a
spell &c 992; necessitate; compel &c 744.
Adj. necessary, needful &c (requisite) 630.
fated; destined &c v.; elect; spellbound compulsory &c (compel)
744; uncontrollable, inevitable, unavoidable, irresistible,
irrevocable, inexorable; avoidless^, resistless.
involuntary, instinctive, automatic, blind, mechanical;
unconscious, unwitting, unthinking; unintentional &c (undesigned) 621;
impulsive &c 612.
Adv. necessarily &c adv.; of necessity, of course; ex necessitate rei
[Lat.]; needs must; perforce &c 744; nolens volens [Lat.]; will he nil
he, willy nilly, bon gre mal gre [Fr.], willing or unwilling, coute que
coute [Fr.].
faute de mieux [Fr.]; by stress of; if need be.
Phr. it cannot be helped; there is no help for, there is no helping it;
it will be, it must be, it needs to be, it must be so, it will have its
way; the die is cast; jacta est alea [Lat.]; che sara sara [Fr.]; it is
written; one's days are numbered, one's fate is sealed; Fata obstant
[Lat.]; diis aliter visum [Lat.]; actum me invito factus [Lat.], non
est meus actus [Lat.]; aujord'hui roi demain rien [Fr.]; quisque suos
patimur manes [Lat.] [Vergil]; The moving finger writes and having writ
moves on.
Nor all thy piety nor wit shall draw it back to cancel half a
[Rubayyat of Omar Khayyam].

602. Willingness -- N. willingness, voluntariness &c adj.^; willing
mind, heart.
disposition, inclination, leaning, animus; frame of mind, humor,
mood, vein; bent &c (turn of mind) 820; penchant &c (desire) 865;
aptitude &c 698.
docility, docibleness^; persuasibleness^, persuasibility^;
pliability &c (softness) 324.
geniality, cordiality; goodwill; alacrity, readiness, earnestness,
forwardness; eagerness &c (desire) 865.
asset &c 488; compliance &c 762; pleasure &c (will) 600;
gratuitous service.
labor of love; volunteer, volunteering.
V. be willing &c adj.; incline, lean to, mind, propend; had as lief;
lend a willing ear, give a willing ear, turn a willing ear; have a half
a mind to, have a great mind to; hold to, cling to; desire &c 865.
see fit, think good, think proper; acquiesce &c (assent) 488;
comply with &c 762.
swallow the bait, nibble at the bait; gorge the hook; have no
scruple of, make no scruple of; make no bones of; jump at, catch at;
meet halfway; volunteer.
Adj. willing, minded, fain, disposed, inclined, favorable; favorably-
minded, favorably inclined, favorably disposed; nothing loth; in the
vein, in the mood, in the humor, in the mind.
ready, forward, earnest, eager; bent upon &c (desirous) 865;
predisposed, propense^.
docile; persuadable, persuasible; suasible^, easily persuaded,
facile, easy-going; tractable &c (pliant) 324; genial, gracious,
cordial, cheering, hearty; content &c (assenting) 488.
voluntary, gratuitous, spontaneous; unasked &c (ask) &c 765;
unforced &c (free) 748.
Adv. willingly &c adj.; fain, freely, as lief, heart and soul; with
pleasure, with all one's heart, with open arms; with good will, with
right will; de bonne volonte [Fr.], ex animo [Lat.]; con amore [It],
heart in hand, nothing loth, without reluctance, of one's own accord,
graciously, with a good grace.
a la bonne heure [Fr.]; by all means, by all manner of means; to
one's heart's content; yes &c (assent) 488.

603. Unwillingness -- N. unwillingness &c adj.; indisposition,
indisposedness^; disinclination, aversation^; nolleity^, nolition^;
renitence^, renitency; reluctance; indifference &c 866; backwardness &c
adj.; slowness &c 275; want of alacrity, want of readiness; indocility
&c (obstinacy) 606 [Obs.].
scrupulousness, scrupulosity; qualms of conscience, twinge of
conscience; delicacy, demur, scruple, qualm, shrinking, recoil;
hesitation &c (irresolution) 605; fastidiousness &c 868.
averseness &c (dislike) 867 [Obs.]; dissent &c 489; refusal &c
V. be unwilling &c adj.; nill; dislike &c 867; grudge, begrudge; not be
able to find it in one's heart to, not have the stomach to.
demur, stick at, scruple, stickle; hang fire, run rusty; recoil,
shrink, swerve; hesitate &c 605; avoid &c 623.
oppose &c 708; dissent &c 489; refuse &c 764.
Adj. unwilling; not in the vein, loth, loath, shy of, disinclined,
indisposed, averse, reluctant, not content; adverse &c (opposed) 708;
laggard, backward, remiss, slack, slow to; indifferent &c 866;
scrupulous; squeamish &c (fastidious) 868; repugnant &c (dislike) 867;
restiff^, restive; demurring &c v.; unconsenting &c (refusing) 764;
involuntary &c 601.
Adv. unwillingly &c adj.; grudgingly, with a heavy heart; with a bad,
with an ill grace; against one's wishes, against one's will, against
the grain, sore against one's wishes, sore against one's will, sore
against one's grain; invita Minerva [Lat.]; a contre caeur [Fr.];
malgre soi [Fr.]; in spite of one's teeth, in spite of oneself; nolens
volens &c (necessity) 601 [Lat.]; perforce &c 744; under protest; no &c
536; not for the world, far be it from me.

604. Resolution -- N. determination, will; iron will, unconquerable
will; will of one's own, decision, resolution; backbone; clear grit,
true grit, grit [U.S.]; sand, strength of mind, strength of will;
resolve &c (intent) 620; firmness &c (stability) 150; energy,
manliness, vigor; game, pluck; resoluteness &c (courage) 861; zeal &c
682; aplomb; desperation; devotion, devotedness.
mastery over self; self control, self command, self possession,
self reliance, self government, self restraint, self conquest, self
denial; moral courage, moral strength; perseverance &c 604.1; tenacity;
obstinacy &c 606; bulldog; British lion.
V. have determination &c n.; know one's own mind; be resolved &c adj.;
make up one's mind, will, resolve, determine; decide &c (judgment) 480;
form a determination, come to a determination, come to a resolution,
come to a resolve; conclude, fix, seal, determine once for all, bring
to a crisis, drive matters to an extremity; take a decisive step &c
(choice) 609; take upon oneself &c (undertake) 676.
devote oneself to, give oneself up to; throw away the scabbard,
kick down the ladder, nail one's colors to the mast, set one's back
against the wall, set one's teeth, put one's foot down, take one's
stand; stand firm &c (stability) 150; steel oneself; stand no nonsense,
not listen to the voice of the charmer.
buckle to; buckle oneself put one's shoulder to the wheel, lay
one's shoulder to the wheel, set one's shoulder to the wheel; put one's
heart into; run the gauntlet, make a dash at, take the bull by the
horns; rush in medias res, plunge in medias res; go in for; insist
upon, make a point of; set one's heart upon, set one's mind upon.
stick at nothing, stop at nothing; make short work of &c
(activity) 682; not stick at trifles; go all lengths, go the limit
[Slang], go the whole hog; persist &c (persevere) 604.1; go through
fire and water, ride the tiger, ride in the whirlwind and direct the
Adj. resolved &c v.; determined; strong-willed, strong-minded; resolute
&c (brave) 861; self-possessed; decided, definitive, peremptory,
tranchant^; unhesitating, unflinching, unshrinking^; firm, iron, gritty
[U.S.], indomitable, game to the backbone; inexorable, relentless, not
to be shaken, not to be put down; tenax propositi [Lat.]; inflexible &c
(hard) 323; obstinate &c 606; steady &c (persevering) 604.1.
earnest, serious; set upon, bent upon, intent upon.
steel against, proof against; in utrumque paratus [Lat.].
Adv. resolutely &c adj.; in earnest, in good earnest; seriously, joking
apart, earnestly, heart and soul; on one's mettle; manfully, like a
man, with a high hand; with a strong hand &c (exertion) 686.
at any rate, at any risk, at any hazard, at any price, at any
cost, at any sacrifice; at all hazards, at all risks, at all events; a'
bis ou a blanc [Fr.]; cost what it may; coute [Fr.]; a tort et a
travers^; once for all; neck or nothing; rain or shine.
Phr. spes sibi quisque [Lat.]; celui qui veut celui-la peut [Fr.]; chi
non s'arrischia non guadagna [Fr.]; frangas non flectes [Lat.]; manu
forti [Lat.]; tentanda via est [Lat.].

604a. Perseverance -- N. perseverance; continuance &c (inaction) 143;
permanence &c (absence of change) 141; firmness &c (stability) 150.
constancy, steadiness; singleness of purpose, tenacity of purpose;
persistence, plodding, patience; sedulity &c (industry) 682; pertinacy^,
pertinacity, pertinaciousness; iteration &c 104; bottom, game, pluck,
stamina, backbone, grit; indefatigability, indefatigableness; bulldog
V. persevere, persist; hold on, hold out; die in the last ditch, be in
at the death; stick to, cling to, adhere to; stick to one's text, keep
on; keep to one's course, keep to one's ground, maintain one's course,
maintain one's ground; go all lengths, go through fire and water; bear
up, keep up, hold up; plod; stick to work &c (work) 686; continue &c
143; follow up; die in harness, die at one's post.
Adj. persevering, constant; steady, steadfast; undeviating, unwavering,
unfaltering, unswerving, unflinching, unsleeping^, unflagging,
undrooping^; steady as time; unrelenting, unintermitting^, unremitting;
plodding; industrious &c 682; strenuous &c 686; pertinacious;
persisting, persistent.
solid, sturdy, staunch, stanch, true to oneself; unchangeable &c
150; unconquerable &c (strong) 159; indomitable, game to the last,
indefatigable, untiring, unwearied, never tiring.
Adv. through evil report and good report, through thick and thin,
through fire and water; per fas et nefas [Lat.]; without fail, sink or
swim, at any price, vogue la galere [Fr.].
Phr. never say die; give it the old college try; vestigia nulla
retrorsum [Lat.]; aut vincer aut mori [Lat.]; la garde meurt et ne se
rend pas [Fr.]; tout vient a temps pour qui sait attendre [Fr.].

605. Irresolution -- N. irresolution, infirmity of purpose, indecision;
indetermination, undetermination^; unsettlement; uncertainty &c 475;
demur, suspense; hesitating &c v., hesitation, hesitancy; vacillation;
changeableness &c 149; fluctuation; alternation &c (oscillation) 314;
caprice &c 608.
fickleness, levity, legerete [Fr.]; pliancy &c (softness) 324;
weakness; timidity &c 860; cowardice &c 862; half measures.
waverer, ass between two bundles of hay; shuttlecock, butterfly;
wimp; doughface [U.S.].
V. be irresolute &c adj.; hang in suspense, keep in suspense; leave "ad
referendum"; think twice about, pause; dawdle &c (inactivity) 683;
remain neuter; dillydally, hesitate, boggle, hover, dacker^, hum and
haw, demur, not know one's own mind; debate, balance; dally with,
coquet with; will and will not, chaser-balancer^; go halfway,
compromise, make a compromise; be thrown off one's balance, stagger
like a drunken man; be afraid &c 860; let 'I dare not' wait upon 'I
would' [Macbeth]; falter, waver vacillate &c 149; change &c 140;
retract &c 607; fluctuate; pendulate^; alternate &c (oscillate) 314;
keep off and on, play fast and loose; blow hot and cold &c (caprice)
shuffle, palter, blink; trim.
Adj. irresolute, infirm of purpose, double-minded, half-hearted;
undecided, unresolved, undetermined; shilly-shally; fidgety, tremulous;
hesitating &c v.; off one's balance; at a loss &c (uncertain) 475.
vacillating &c v.; unsteady &c (changeable) 149; unsteadfast^,
fickle, without ballast; capricious &c 608; volatile, frothy; light,
lightsome, light-minded; giddy; fast and loose.
weak, feeble-minded, frail; timid, wimpish, wimpy &c 860; cowardly
&c 862; dough-faced [U.S.]; facile; pliant &c (soft) 324; unable to say
'no', easy-going revocable, reversible.
Adv. irresolutely &c adj.; irresolved^, irresolvedly^; in faltering
accents; off and on; from pillar to post; seesaw &c 314.
Int. how happy could I be with either! [Gay].

606. Obstinacy -- N. obstinateness &c adj.; obstinacy, tenacity;
cussedness [U.S.]; perseverance &c 604.1; immovability; old school;
inflexibility &c (hardness) 323; obduracy, obduration^; dogged
resolution; resolution &c 604; ruling passion; blind side.
self-will, contumacy, perversity; pervicacy^, pervicacity^;
bigotry, intolerance, dogmatism; opiniatry^, opiniativeness; fixed
idea &c (prejudgment) 481; fanaticism, zealotry, infatuation,
monomania; opinionatedness opinionativeness^.
mule; opinionist^, opinionatist^, opiniator^, opinator^; stickler,
dogmatist; bigot; zealot, enthusiast, fanatic.
V. be obstinate &c adj.; stickle, take no denial, fly in the face of
facts; opinionate, be wedded to an opinion, hug a belief; have one's
own way &c (will) 600; persist &c (persevere) 604.1; have the last
word, insist on having the last word.
die hard, fight against destiny, not yield an inch, stand out.
Adj. obstinate, tenacious, stubborn, obdurate, casehardened; inflexible
&c (hard) 323; balky; immovable, unshakable, not to be moved; inert &c
172; unchangeable &c 150; inexorable &c (determined) 604; mulish,
obstinate as a mule, pig-headed.
dogged; sullen, sulky; unmoved, uninfluenced unaffected.
willful, self-willed, perverse; resty^, restive, restiff^;
pervicacious^, wayward, refractory, unruly; heady, headstrong; entete
[Fr.]; contumacious; crossgrained^.
arbitrary, dogmatic, positive, bigoted; prejudiced &c 481; creed-
bound; prepossessed, infatuated; stiff-backed, stiff necked, stiff
hearted; hard-mouthed, hidebound; unyielding; impervious,
impracticable, inpersuasible^; unpersuadable; intractable, untractable^;
incorrigible, deaf to advice, impervious to reason; crotchety &c 608.
Adv. obstinately &c adj..
Phr. non possumus [Lat.]; no surrender; ils n'ont rien appris ne rien
oublie [Fr.].

607. Tergiversation -- N. change of mind, change of intention, change
of purpose; afterthought.
tergiversation, recantation; palinode, palinody^; renunciation;
abjuration^, abjurement; defection &c (relinquishment) 624; going over
&c v.; apostasy; retraction, retractation^; withdrawal; disavowal &c
(negation) 536; revocation, revokement^; reversal; repentance &c 950;
redintegratio amoris [Lat.].
coquetry; vacillation &c 605; backsliding; volte-face [Fr.].
turn coat, turn tippet^; rat, apostate, renegade; convert, pervert;
proselyte, deserter; backslider; blackleg, crawfish [U.S.], scab
[Slang], mugwump [U.S.], recidivist.
time server, time pleaser^; timist^, Vicar of Bray, trimmer,
ambidexter^; weathercock &c (changeable) 149; Janus.
V. change one's mind, change one's intention, change one's purpose,
change one's note; abjure, renounce; withdraw from &c (relinquish) 624;
waver, vacillate; wheel round, turn round, veer round; turn a
pirouette; go over from one side to another, pass from one side to
another, change from one side to another, skip from one side to
another; go to the rightabout; box the compass, shift one's ground, go
upon another tack.
apostatize, change sides, go over, rat; recant, retract; revoke;
rescind &c (abrogate) 756; recall; forswear, unsay; come over, come
round to an opinion; crawfish [U.S.], crawl [U.S.].
draw in one's horns, eat one's words; eat the leek, swallow the
leek; swerve, flinch, back out of, retrace one's steps, think better of
it; come back return to one's first love; turn over a new leaf &c
(repent) 950.
trim, shuffle, play fast and loose, blow hot and cold, coquet, be
on the fence, straddle, bold with the hare but run with the hounds;
nager entre deux eaux [Fr.]; wait to see how the cat jumps, wait to see
how the wind blows.
Adj. changeful &c 149; irresolute &c 605; ductile, slippery as an eel,
trimming, ambidextrous, timeserving^; coquetting &c v.. revocatory^,
Phr. a change came o'er the spirit of my dream [Byron].

608. Caprice -- N. caprice, fancy, humor; whim, whimsy, whimsey^,
whimwham^; crotchet, capriccio, quirk, freak, maggot, fad, vagary,
prank, fit, flimflam, escapade, boutade [Fr.], wild-goose chase;
capriciousness &c adj.; kink.
V. be capricious &c adj.; have a maggot in the brain; take it into
one's head, strain at a gnat and swallow a camel; blow hot and cold;
play fast and loose, play fantastic tricks; tourner casaque [Fr.].
Adj. capricious; erratic, eccentric, fitful, hysterical; full of whims
&c n.; maggoty; inconsistent, fanciful, fantastic, whimsical,
crotchety, kinky [U.S.], particular, humorsome^, freakish, skittish,
wanton, wayward; contrary; captious; arbitrary; unconformable &c 83;
penny wise and pound foolish; fickle &c (irresolute) 605; frivolous,
sleeveless, giddy, volatile.
Adv. by fits and starts, without rhyme or reason.
Phr. nil fuit unquain sic inipar sibi [Lat.]; the deuce is in him.

609. Choice -- N. choice, option; discretion &c (volition) 600;
preoption^; alternative; dilemma, embarras de choix [Fr.]; adoption,
cooptation^; novation^; decision &c (judgment) 480.
election; political election (politics) 737.1.
selection, excerption, gleaning, eclecticism; excerpta^, gleanings,
cuttings, scissors and paste; pick &c (best) 650.
preference, prelation^, opinion poll, survey; predilection &c
(desire) 865.
V. offers one's choice, set before; hold out the alternative, present
the alternative, offer the alternative; put to the vote.
use option, use discretion, exercise option, exercise discretion,
one's option; adopt, take up, embrace, espouse; choose, elect, opt for;
take one's choice, make one's choice; make choice of, fix upon.
vote, poll, hold up one's hand; divide.
settle; decide &c (adjudge) 480; list &c (will) 600; make up one's
mind &c (resolve) 604.
select; pick and choose; pick out, single out; cull, glean,
winnow; sift the chaff from the wheat, separate the chaff from the
wheat, winnow the chaff from the wheat; pick up, pitch upon; pick one's
way; indulge one's fancy.
set apart, mark out for; mark &c 550.
prefer; have rather, have as lief; fancy &c (desire) 865; be
persuaded &c 615.
take a decided step, take a decisive step; commit oneself to a
course; pass the Rubicon, cross the Rubicon; cast in one's lot with;
take for better or for worse.
Adj. optional; discretional &c (voluntary) 600.
eclectic; choosing &c v.; preferential; chosen &c v.; choice &c
(good) 648.
Adv. optionally &c adj.; at pleasure &c (will) 600; either the one or
the other; or at the option of; whether or not; once and for all; for
one's money.
by choice, by preference; in preference; rather, before.

609a. Absence of Choice -- N. no choice, Hobson's choice; first come
first served, random selection; necessity &c 601; not a pin to choose
&c (equality) 27; any, the first that comes; that or nothing.
neutrality, indifference; indecision &c (irresolution) 605;
coercion (compulsion) 744.
V. be neutral &c adj.; have no choice, have no election; waive, not
vote; abstain from voting, refrain from voting; leave undecided; make a
virtue of necessity [Two Gentlemen].
Adj. neutral, neuter; indifferent, uninterested; undecided &c
(irresolute) 605.
Adv. either &c (choice) 609.
Phr. who cares?, what difference does it make?; There's not a dime's
worth of difference between them [George Wallace].

610. Rejection -- N. rejection, repudiation, exclusion; refusal &c 764;
V. reject; set aside, lay aside; give up; decline &c (refuse) 764;
exclude, except; pluck, spin; cast.
repudiate, scout, set at naught; fling to the winds, fling to the
dogs, fling overboard, fling away, cast to the winds, cast to the dogs,
cast overboard, cast away, throw to the winds, throw to the dogs, throw
overboard, throw away, toss to the winds, toss to the dogs, toss
overboard, toss away; send to the right about; disclaim &c (deny) 536;
discard &c (eject) 297, (have done with) 678.
Adj. rejected &c v.; reject, rejectaneous^, rejectious^; not chosen &c
609, to be thought of, out of the question
Adv. neither, neither the one nor the other; no &c 536.
Phr. non haec in faedera [Lat.].

611. Predetermination -- N. predestination, preordination,
premeditation, predeliberation^, predetermination; foregone conclusion,
fait accompli [Fr.]; parti pris [Fr.]; resolve, propendency^; intention
&c 620; project &c 626; fate, foredoom, necessity.
V. predestine, preordain, predetermine, premeditate, resolve, concert;
resolve beforehand, predesignate.
Adj. prepense^, premeditated &c v., predesignated, predesigned^;
advised, studied, designed, calculated; aforethought; intended &c 620;
well-laid, well-devised, well-weighed; maturely considered;
Adv. advisedly &c adj.; with premeditation, deliberately, all things
considered, with eyes open, in cold blood; intentionally &c 620.

612. Impulse -- N. impulse, sudden thought; impromptu, improvisation;
inspiration, flash, spurt.
improvisatore^; creature of impulse.
V. flash on the mind.
say what comes uppermost; improvise, extemporize.
Adj. extemporaneous, impulsive, indeliberate^; snap; improvised,
improvisate^, improvisatory^; unpremeditated, unmeditated; improvise;
unprompted, unguided; natural, unguarded; spontaneous &c (voluntary)
600; instinctive &c 601.
Adv. extempore, extemporaneously; offhand, impromptu, a limproviste
[Fr.]; improviso^; on the spur of the moment, on the spur of the

613. Habit [includes commonness due to frequency of occurrence] -- N.
habit, habitude; assuetude^, assuefaction^, wont; run, way.
common state of things, general state of things, natural state of
things, ordinary state of things, ordinary course of things, ordinary
run of things; matter of course; beaten path, beaten track, beaten
prescription, custom, use, usage, immemorial usage, practice;
prevalence, observance; conventionalism, conventionality; mode,
fashion, vogue; etiquette &c (gentility) 852; order of the day, cry;
conformity &c 82; consuetude, dustoor^.
one's old way, old school, veteris vestigia flammae [Lat.];
laudator temporis acti [Lat.].
rule, standing order, precedent, routine; red-tape, red-tapism^;
pipe clay; rut, groove.
cacoethes [Lat.]; bad habit, confirmed habit, inveterate habit,
intrinsic habit &c; addiction, trick.
training &c (education) 537; seasoning, second nature,
acclimatization; knack &c
V. be wont &c adj.. fall into a rut, fall into a custom &c (conform to)
82; tread the beaten track, follow the beaten track, tread the beaten
path, follow the beaten; stare super antiquas vias [Lat.]; move in a
rut, run on in a groove, go round like a horse in a mill, go on in the
old jog trot way.
habituate, inure, harden, season, caseharden; accustom,
familiarize; naturalize, acclimatize; keep one's hand in; train &c
(educate) 537.
get into the way, get into the knack of; learn &c 539; cling to,
adhere to; repeat &c 104; acquire a habit, contract a habit, fall into
a habit, acquire a trick, contract a trick, fall into a trick; addict
oneself to, take to, get into.
be habitual &c adj.; prevail; come into use, become a habit, take
root; gain upon one, grow upon one.
Adj. habitual; accustomary^; prescriptive, accustomed &c v.; of daily
occurrence, of everyday occurrence; consuetudinary^; wonted, usual,
general, ordinary, common, frequent, everyday, household, garden
variety, jog, trot; well-trodden, well-known; familiar, vernacular,
trite, commonplace, conventional, regular, set, stock, established,
stereotyped; prevailing, prevalent; current, received, acknowledged,
recognized, accredited; of course, admitted, understood.
&c 82; according to use, according to custom, according to
routine; in vogue, in fashion, in, with it; fashionable &c (genteel)
wont; used to, given to, addicted to, attuned to, habituated &c
v.; in the habit of; habitue; at home in &c (skillful) 698; seasoned;
imbued with; devoted to, wedded to.
hackneyed, fixed, rooted, deep-rooted, ingrafted^, permanent,
inveterate, besetting; naturalized; ingrained &c (intrinsic) 5.
Adv. habitually &c adj.; always &c (uniformly) 16.
as usual, as is one's wont, as things go, as the world goes, as
the sparks fly upwards; more suo, more solito [Lat.]; ex more.
as a rule, for the most part; usually, generally, typically &c
adj.; most often, most frequently.
Phr. cela s'entend [Fr.]; abeunt studia in mores [Lat.]; adeo in
teneris consuescere multum est [Lat.]; consuetudo quasi altera natura
[Lat.] [Cicero]; hoc erat in more majorum [Lat.]; How use doth breed a
habit in a man! [Two Gentlemen]; magna est vis consuetudinis [Lat.];
morent fecerat usus [Lat.] [Ovid].

614. Desuetude -- N. desuetude, disusage^; obsolescence, disuse &c 678;
want of habit, want of practice; inusitation^; newness to; new brooms.
infraction of usage &c (unconformity) 83; nonprevalence^; a custom
more honored in the breach than the observance [Hamlet].
V. be unaccustomed &c adj.; leave off a habit, cast off a habit, break
off a habit, wean oneself of a habit, violate a habit, break through a
habit, infringe a habit, leave off a custom, cast off a custom, break
off a custom, wean oneself of a custom, violate a custom, break through
a custom, infringe a custom, leave off a usage, cast off a usage, break
off a usage, wean oneself of a usage, violate a usage, break through a
usage, infringe a usage; disuse &c 678; wear off.
Adj. unaccustomed, unused, unwonted, unseasoned, uninured^,
unhabituated^, untrained; new; green &c (unskilled) 699; unhackneyed.
unusual &c (unconformable) 83; nonobservant^; disused &c 678.

2. Causes of Volition

615. Motive -- N. motive, springs of action, wellsprings of action.
reason, ground, call, principle; by end, by purpose; mainspring,
primum mobile [Lat.], keystone; the why and the wherefore; pro and con,
reason why; secret motive, arriere pensee [Fr.]; intention &c 620.
inducement, consideration; attraction; loadstone; magnet,
magnetism, magnetic force; allectation^, allective^; temptation,
enticement, agacerie^, allurement, witchery; bewitchment, bewitchery;
charm; spell &c 993; fascination, blandishment, cajolery; seduction,
seducement; honeyed words, voice of the tempter, song of the Sirens
forbidden fruit, golden apple.
persuasibility^, persuasibleness^; attractability^; impressibility,
susceptibility; softness; persuasiveness, attractiveness;
influence, prompting, dictate, instance; impulse, impulsion;
incitement, incitation; press, instigation; provocation &c (excitation
of feeling) 824; inspiration; persuasion, suasion; encouragement,
advocacy; exhortation; advice &c 695; solicitation &c (request) 765;
lobbyism; pull [Slang].
incentive, stimulus, spur, fillip, whip, goad, ankus^, rowel,
provocative, whet, dram.
bribe, lure; decoy, decoy duck; bait, trail of a red herring;
bribery and corruption; sop, sop for Cerberus.
prompter, tempter; seducer, seductor^; instigator, firebrand,
incendiary; Siren, Circe; agent provocateur; lobbyist.
V. induce, move; draw, draw on; bring in its train, give an impulse &c
n.; to; inspire; put up to, prompt, call up; attract, beckon.
stimulate &c (excite) 824; spirit up, inspirit; rouse, arouse;
animate, incite, foment, provoke, instigate, set on, actuate; act upon,
work upon, operate upon; encourage; pat on the back, pat on the
shoulder, clap on the back, clap on the shoulder.
influence, weigh with, bias, sway, incline, dispose, predispose,
turn the scale, inoculate; lead by the nose; have influence with, have
influence over, have influence upon, exercise influence with, exercise
influence over, exercise influence upon; go round, come round one; turn
the head, magnetize; lobby.
persuade; prevail with, prevail upon; overcome, carry; bring round
to one's senses, bring to one's senses; draw over, win over, gain over,
come over, talk over; procure, enlist, engage; invite, court.
tempt, seduce, overpersuade^, entice, allure, captivate, fascinate,
bewitch, carry away, charm, conciliate, wheedle, coax, lure; inveigle;
tantalize; cajole &c (deceive) 545.
tamper with, bribe, suborn, grease the palm, bait with a silver
hook, gild the pill, make things pleasant, put a sop into the pan,
throw a sop to, bait the hook.
enforce, force; impel &c (push) 276; propel &c 284; whip, lash,
goad, spur, prick, urge; egg on, hound, hurry on; drag &c 285; exhort;
advise &c 695; call upon &c; press &c (request) 765; advocate.
set an example, set the fashion; keep in countenance.
be persuaded &c; yield to temptation, come round; concede &c
(consent) 762; obey a call; follow advice, follow the bent, follow the
dictates of; act on principle.
Adj. impulsive, motive; suasive, suasory^, persuasive, persuasory^,
hortative, hortatory; protreptical^; inviting, tempting, &c v.; suasive,
suasory^; seductive, attractive; fascinating &c (pleasing) 829;
provocative &c (exciting) 824.
induced &c v.; disposed; persuadable &c (docile) 602; spellbound;
instinct with, smitten with, infatuated; inspired &c v.; by.
Adv. because, therefore &c (cause) 155; from this motive, from that
motive; for this reason, for that reason; for; by reason of, for the
sake of, count of; out of, from, as, forasmuch as.
for all the world; on principle.
Phr. fax mentis incendium gloriae [Lat.]; temptation hath a music for
all ears [Willis]; to beguile many and be beguiled by one [Othello].

615a. Absence of Motive -- N. absence of motive, aimlessness; caprice
&c 608; chance &c (absence of design) 621.
V. have no motive; scruple &c (be unwilling) 603.
Adj. without rhyme or reason; aimless, capricious, whimsical &c
(chance) 621.
Adv. out of mere caprice.

616. Dissuasion -- N. dissuasion, dehortation^, expostulation,
remonstrance; deprecation &c 766.
discouragement, damper, wet blanket; disillusionment,
cohibition &c (restraint) 751 [Obs.]; curb &c (means of restraint)
752; check &c (hindrance) 706.
reluctance &c (unwillingness) 603; contraindication.
V. dissuade, dehort^, cry out against, remonstrate, expostulate, warn,
disincline, indispose, shake, stagger; dispirit; discourage,
dishearten; deter; repress, hold back, keep back &c (restrain) 751;
render averse &c 603; repel; turn aside &c (deviation) 279; wean from;
act as a drag &c (hinder) 706; throw cold water on, damp, cool, chill,
blunt, calm, quiet, quench; deprecate &c 766.
disenchant, disillusion, deflate, take down a peg, pop one's
balloon, prick one's balloon, burst one's bubble; disabuse (correction)
Adj. dissuading &c v.; dissuasive; dehortatory^, expostulatory^;
monitive^, monitory.
dissuaded &c v.; admonitory; uninduced &c (induce) &c 615;
unpersuadable &c (obstinate) 606; averse &c (unwilling) 603; repugnant
&c (dislike) 867.

617. [Ostensible motive, ground, or reason assigned.] Pretext -- N.
pretext, pretense, pretension, plea^; allegation, advocation; ostensible
motive, ostensible ground, ostensible reason, phony reason; excuse &c
(vindication) 937; subterfuge; color; gloss, guise, cover.
loop hole, starting hole; how to creep out of, salvo, come off;
way of escape.
handle, peg to hang on, room locus standi [Lat.]; stalking-horse,
cheval de bataille [Fr.], cue.
pretense &c (untruth) 546; put off, dust thrown in the eyes;
blind; moonshine; mere pretext, shallow pretext; lame excuse, lame
apology; tub to a whale; false plea, sour grapes; makeshift, shift,
white lie; special pleading &c (sophistry) 477; soft sawder &c
(flattery) 933 [Obs.].
V. pretend, plead, allege; shelter oneself under the plea of; excuse &c
(vindicate) 937; lend a color to; furnish a handle &c n.; make a
pretext of, make a handle of; use as a plea &c n.; take one's stand
upon, make capital out of, pretend &c (lie) 544.
Adj. ostensibly &c (manifest) 525; alleged, apologetic; pretended &c
Adv. ostensibly; under color; under the plea, under the pretense of,
under the guise of.

3. Objects of Volition

618. Good -- N. good, benefit, advantage; improvement &c 658; greatest
good, supreme good; interest, service, behoof, behalf; weal; main
chance, summum bonum [Lat.], common weal; consummation devoutly to be
wished; gain, boot; profit, harvest.
boon &c (gift) 784; good turn; blessing; world of good; piece of
good luck [Fr.], piece of good fortune [Fr.]; nuts, prize, windfall,
godsend, waif, treasure-trove.
good fortune &c (prosperity) 734; happiness &c 827.
[Source of good] goodness &c 648; utility &c 644; remedy &c 662;
pleasure giving &c 829.
Adj. commendable &c 931; useful &c 644; good &c; beneficial &c 648.
Adv. well, aright, satisfactorily, favorably, not amis [Fr.]; all for
the best; to one's advantage &c n.; in one's favor, in one's interest
&c n..
Phr. so far so good; magnum bonum [Lat.].

619. Evil -- N. evil, ill, harm, hurt., mischief, nuisance;
machinations of the devil, Pandora's box, ills that flesh is heir to.
blow, buffet, stroke, scratch, bruise, wound, gash, mutilation;
mortal blow, wound; immedicabile vulnus [Lat.]; damage, loss &c
(deterioration) 659.
disadvantage, prejudice, drawback.
disaster, accident, casualty; mishap &c (misfortune) 735; bad job,
devil to pay; calamity, bale, catastrophe, tragedy; ruin &c
(destruction) 162; adversity &c 735.
mental suffering &c 828.
demon &c 980.
(Evil spirit) bane, &c 663 (cause of evil). badness, &c 649
(Production of Evil); painfulness, &c 830; evil doer, &c 913.
outrage, wrong, injury, foul play; bad turn, ill turn; disservice,
spoliation &c 791; grievance, crying evil.
V. be in trouble &c (adversity) 735.
Adj. disastrous, bad &c 649; awry, out of joint; disadvantageous.
Adv. amis [Fr.], wrong, ill, to one's cost
Phr. moving accidents by flood and field [Othello].



620. Intention -- N. intent, intention, intentionality; purpose; quo
animo [Lat.]; project &c 626; undertaking &c 676; predetermination &c
611; design, ambition.
contemplation, mind, animus, view, purview, proposal; study; look
final cause; raison d'etre [Fr.]; cui bono [Lat.]; object, aim,
end; the be all and the end all; drift &c (meaning) 516; tendency &c
176; destination, mark, point, butt, goal, target, bull's-eye, quintain
[Mediev.]; prey, quarry, game.
decision, determination, resolve; fixed set purpose, settled
purpose; ultimatum; resolution &c 604; wish &c 865; arriere pensee
[Fr.]; motive &c 615.
[Study of final causes] teleology.
V. intend, purpose, design, mean; have to; propose to oneself; harbor a
design; have in view, have in contemplation, have in one's eye, have in
petto; have an eye to.
bid for, labor for; be after, aspire after, endeavor after; be at,
aim at, drive at, point at, level at, aspire at; take aim; set before
oneself; study to.
take upon oneself &c (undertake) 676; take into one's head;
meditate, contemplate of, think of, dream of, talk of; premeditate &c
611; compass, calculate; destine, destinate^; propose.
project &c (plan) 626; have a mind to &c (be willing) 602; desire
&c 865; pursue &c 622.
Adj. intended &c v.; intentional, advised, express, determinate;
prepense &c 611 [Obs.]; bound for; intending &c v.; minded; bent upon
&c (earnest) 604; at stake; on the anvil, on the tapis^; in view, in
prospect, in the breast of; in petto; teleological
Adv. intentionally &c adj.; advisedly, wittingly, knowingly,
designedly, purposely, on purpose, by design, studiously, pointedly;
with intent &c n.; deliberately &c (with premeditation) 611; with one's
eyes open, in cold blood.
for; with a view, with an eye to; in order to, in order that; to
the end that, with the intent that; for the purpose of, with the view
of, in contemplation of, on account of.
in pursuance of, pursuant to; quo animo [Lat.]; to all intents and
Phr. The road to hell is paved with good intentions [Johnson]; sublimi
feriam sidera vertice [Lat.] [Horace].

621. [Absence of purpose in the succession of events] Chance -- N.
chance &c 156; lot, fate &c (necessity) 601; luck; good luck &c (good)
618; mascot.
speculation, venture, stake, game of chance; mere shot, random
shot; blind bargain, leap in the dark; pig in a poke &c (uncertainty)
475; fluke, potluck; faro bank; flyer [Slang]; limit.
uncertainty; uncertainty principle, Heisenberg's uncertainty
drawing lots; sortilegy^, sortition^; sortes^, sortes Virgilianae^;
rouge et noir [Fr.], hazard, ante, chuck-a-luck, crack-loo [U.S.],
craps, faro, roulette, pitch and toss, chuck, farthing, cup tossing,
heads or tails cross and pile, poker-dice; wager; bet, betting;
gambling; the turf.
gaming house, gambling house, betting house; bucket shop; gambling
joint; totalizator, totalizer; hell; betting ring; dice, dice box.
[person who takes chances] gambler, gamester; man of the turf;
adventurer; dicer^.
V. chance &c (hap) 156; stand a chance &c (be possible) 470.
toss up; cast lots, draw lots; leave to chance, trust to chance,
leave to the chapter of accidents, trust to the chapter of accidents;
tempt fortune; chance it, take one's chance, take a shot at it
(attempt) 675; run the risk, run the chance, incur the risk, incur the
chance, encounter the risk, encounter the chance; stand the hazard of
the die.
speculate, try one's luck, set on a cast, raffle, put into a
lottery, buy a pig in a poke, shuffle the cards.
risk, venture, hazard, stake; ante; lay, lay a wager; make a bet,
wager, bet, gamble, game, play for; play at chuck farthing.
Adj. fortuitous &c 156; unintentional, unintended; accidental; not
meant; undesigned, purposed; unpremeditated &c 612; unforeseen,
uncontemplated, never thought of.
random, indiscriminate, promiscuous; undirected; aimless,
driftless^, designless^, purposeless, causeless; without purpose.
possible &c 470.
unforeseeable, unpredictable, chancy, risky, speculative, dicey.
Adv. randomly, by chance, fortuitously; unpredictably, unforeseeably;
casually &c 156; unintentionally &c adj.; unwittingly.
en passant [Fr.], by the way, incidentally; as it may happen; at
random, at a venture, at haphazard.
Phr. acierta errando [Lat.]; dextro tempore [Lat.]; fearful
concatenation of circumstances [D.
Webster]; fortuitous combination of circumstances [Dickens]; le
jeu est le fils d'avarice et le pere du desespoir [Fr.]; the happy
combination of fortuitous circumstances [Scott]; the fortuitous or
casual concourse of atoms [Bentley]; God does not play dice with the
universe [A.

622. [Purpose in action.] Pursuit -- N. pursuit; pursuing &c v.;
prosecution; pursuance; enterprise &c (undertaking) 676; business &c
625; adventure &c (essay) 675; quest &c (search) 461; scramble, hue and
cry, game; hobby; still-hunt.
chase, hunt, battue^, race, steeple chase, hunting, coursing;
venation, venery; fox chase; sport, sporting; shooting, angling,
fishing, hawking; shikar (Geog loc:India).
pursuer; hunter, huntsman; shikari (Geog loc:India), sportsman,
Nimrod; hound &c 366.
V. pursue, prosecute, follow; run after, make after, be after, hunt
after, prowl after; shadow; carry on &c (do) 680; engage in &c
(undertake) 676; set about &c (begin) 66; endeavor &c 675; court &c
(request) 765; seek &c (search) 461; aim at &c (intention) 620; follow
the trail &c (trace) 461; fish for &c (experiment) 463; press on &c
(haste) 684; run a race &c (velocity) 274.
chase, give chase, course, dog, hunt, hound; tread on the heels,
follow on the heels of, &c (sequence) 281.
rush upon; rush headlong &c (violence) 173, ride full tilt at, run
full tilt at; make a leap at, jump at, snatch at run down; start game.
tread a path; take a course, hold a course; shape one's steps,
direct one's steps, bend one's steps, course; play a game; fight one's
way, elbow one's way; follow up; take to, take up; go in for; ride
one's hobby.
Adj. pursuing &c v.; in quest of &c (inquiry) 461; in pursuit, in full
cry, in hot pursuit; on the scent.
Adv. in pursuance of &c (intention) 620; after.
Int. tallyho!, yoicks!, soho!^,

623. [Absence of pursuit.] Avoidance -- N. abstention, abstinence; for
bearance^; refraining &c v.; inaction &c 681; neutrality.
avoidance, evasion, elusion; seclusion &c 893.
avolation^, flight; escape &c 671; retreat &c 287; recoil &c 277;
departure &c 293; rejection &c 610.
shirker &c v.; truant; fugitive, refugee; runaway, runagate;
V. abstain, refrain, spare, not attempt; not do &c 681; maintain the
even tenor of one's way.
eschew, keep from, let alone, have nothing to do with; keep aloof
keep off, stand aloof, stand off, hold aloof, hold off; take no part
in, have no hand in.
avoid, shun; steer clear of, keep clear of; fight shy of; keep
one's distance, keep at a respectful distance; keep out of the way, get
out of the way; evade, elude, turn away from; set one's face against &c
(oppose) 708; deny oneself.
shrink back; hang back, hold back, draw back; recoil &c 277;
retire &c (recede) 287; flinch, blink, blench, shy, shirk, dodge,
parry, make way for, give place to.
beat a retreat; turn tail, turn one's back; take to one's heels;
runaway, run for one's life; cut and run; be off like a shot; fly,
flee; fly away, flee away, run away from; take flight, take to flight;
desert, elope; make off, scamper off, sneak off, shuffle off, sheer
off; break away, tear oneself away, slip away, slink away, steel away,
make away from, scamper away from, sneak away from, shuffle away from,
sheer away from; slip cable, part company, turn one's heel; sneak out
of, play truant, give one the go by, give leg bail, take French leave,
slope, decamp, flit, bolt, abscond, levant, skedaddle, absquatulat
[U.S.], cut one's stick, walk one's chalks, show a light pair of heels,
make oneself scarce; escape &c 671; go away &c (depart) 293; abandon &c
624; reject &c 610.
lead one a dance, lead one a pretty dance; throw off the scent,
play at hide and seek.
Adj. unsought, unattempted; avoiding &c v.; neutral, shy of &c
(unwilling) 603; elusive, evasive; fugitive, runaway; shy, wild.
Adj. lest, in order to avoid.
Int. forbear!, keep off, hands off!, sauve qui peut! [Fr.], every man
for himself! [Fr.Tr.]; devil take the hindmost!,
Phr. things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme [Paradise Lost].

624. Relinquishment -- N. relinquishment, abandonment; desertion,
defection, secession, withdrawal; cave of Adullam^; nolle prosequi
discontinuance &c (cessation) 142; renunciation &c (recantation)
607; abrogation &c 756; resignation &c (retirement) 757; desuetude &c
614; cession &c (of property) 782.
V. relinquish, give up, abandon, desert, forsake, leave in the lurch;
go back on; depart from, secede from, withdraw from; back out of;
leave, quit, take leave of, bid a long farewell; vacate &c (resign)
renounce &c (abjure) 607; forego, have done with, drop; disuse &c
678; discard &c 782; wash one's hands of; drop all idea of.
break off, leave off; desist; stop &c (cease) 142; hold one's
hand, stay one's hand; quit one's hold; give over, shut up shop.
throw up the game, throw up the cards; give up the point, give up
the argument; pass to the order of the day, move to the previous
Adj. unpursued^; relinquished &c v.; relinquishing &c v..
Int. avast!, &c (stop) 142.
Phr. aufgeschoben ist nicht aufgehoben [G.]; entbehre gern was du nicht
hast [G.].

625. Business -- N. business, occupation, employment; pursuit &c 622;
what one is doing, what one is about; affair, concern, matter, case.
matter in hand, irons in the fire; thing to do, agendum, task,
work, job, chore [U.S.], errand, commission, mission, charge, care;
duty &c 926.
part, role, cue; province, function, lookout, department,
capacity, sphere, orb, field, line; walk, walk of life; beat, round,
routine; race, career.
office, place, post, chargeship^, incumbency, living; situation,
berth, employ; service &c (servitude) 749; engagement; undertaking &c
vocation, calling, profession, cloth, faculty; industry, art;
industrial arts; craft, mystery, handicraft; trade &c (commerce) 794.
exercise; work &c (action) 680; avocation; press of business &c
(activity) 682.
V. pass one's time in, employ one's time in, spend one's time in;
employ oneself in, employ oneself upon; occupy oneself with, concern
oneself with; make it one's business &c n.; undertake &c 676; enter a
profession; betake oneself to, turn one's hand to; have to do with &c
(do) 680.
office, place, post, chargeship^, incumbency, living; situation,
berth, employ; service &c (servitude) 749; engagement; undertaking &c
drive a trade; carry on a trade, do a trade, transact a trade,
carry on business, do business, transact business &c n.; keep a shop;
ply one's task, ply one's trade; labor in one's vocation; pursue the
even tenor of one's way; attend to business, attend to one's work.
officiate, serve, act; act one's part, play one's part; do duty;
serve the office of, discharge the office of, perform the office of,
perform the duties of, perform the functions of; hold an office, fill
an office, fill a place, fill a situation; hold a portfolio, hold a
place, hold a situation.
be about, be doing, be engaged in, be employed in, be occupied
with, be at work on; have one's hands in, have in hand; have on one's
hands, have on one's shoulders; bear the burden; have one's hands full
&c (activity) 682.
be in the hands of, be on the stocks, be on the anvil; pass
through one's hands.
Adj. businesslike; workaday; professional; official, functional; busy
&c (actively employed) 682; on hand, in hand, in one's hands; afoot; on
foot, on the anvil; going on; acting.
Adv. in the course of business, all in one's day's work; professionally
&c Adj..
Phr. a business with an income at its heels [Cowper]; amoto quaeramus
seria ludo [Lat.] [Horace]; par negotiis neque supra [Lat.] [Tacitus].

626. Plan -- N. plan, scheme, design, project; proposal, proposition,
suggestion; resolution, motion; precaution &c (provision) 673; deep-
laid plan &c (premeditated) 611; system &c (order) 58; organization &c
(arrangement) 60; germ &c (cause) 153.
sketch, skeleton, outline, draught, draft, ebauche [Fr.],
brouillon [Fr.]; rough cast, rough draft, draught copy; copy; proof,
drawing, scheme, schematic, graphic, chart, flow chart
(representation) 554.
forecast, program, programme, prospectus; carte du pays [Fr.];
card; bill, protocol; order of the day, list of agenda; bill of fare &c
(food) 298; base of operations; platform, plank, slate [U.S.], ticket
role; policy &c (line of conduct) 692.
contrivance, invention, expedient, receipt, nostrum, artifice,
device; pipelaying [U.S.]; stratagem &c (cunning) 702; trick &c
(deception) 545; alternative, loophole; shift &c (substitute) 147; last
shift &c (necessity) 601.
measure, step; stroke, stroke of policy; master stroke; trump
card, court card; cheval de bataille [Fr.], great gun; coup, coup
d'etat [Fr.]; clever stroke, bold stroke, good move, good hit, good
stroke; bright thought, bright idea.
intrigue, cabal, plot, conspiracy, complot^, machination; subplot,
underplot^, counterplot.
schemer, schemist^, schematist^; strategist, machinator; projector,
artist, promoter, designer &c v.; conspirator; intrigant &c (cunning)
702 [Obs.].
V. plan, scheme, design, frame, contrive, project, forecast, sketch;
devise, invent &c (imagine) 515; set one's wits to work &c 515; spring
a project; fall upon, hit upon; strike out, chalk out, cut out, lay
out, map out; lay down a plan; shape out a course, mark out a course;
predetermine &c 611; concert, preconcert, preestablish; prepare &c 673;
hatch, hatch a plot concoct; take steps, take measures.
cast, recast, systematize, organize; arrange &c 60; digest,
plot; counter-plot, counter-mine; dig a mine; lay a train;
intrigue &c (cunning) 702.
Adj. planned &c v.; strategic, strategical; planning &c v.; prepared,
in course of preparation &c 673; under consideration; on the tapis^, on
the carpet, on the floor.

627. Method [Path.] -- N. method, way, manner, wise, gait, form, mode,
fashion, tone, guise; modus operandi, MO; procedure &c (line of
conduct) 692.
path, road, route, course; line of way, line of road; trajectory,
orbit, track, beat, tack.
steps; stair, staircase; flight of stairs, ladder, stile; perron^.
bridge, footbridge, viaduct, pontoon, steppingstone, plank,
gangway; drawbridge; pass, ford, ferry, tunnel; pipe &c 260.
door; gateway &c (opening) 260; channel, passage, avenue, means of
access, approach, adit^; artery, lane, loan [Scot.], alley, aisle,
lobby, corridor; back-door, back-stairs; secret passage; covert way;
roadway, pathway, stairway; express; thoroughfare; highway;
turnpike, freeway, royal road, coach road; broad highway, King's
highway, Queen's highway; beaten track, beaten path; horse road, bridle
road, bridle track, bridle path; walk, trottoir^, footpath, pavement,
flags, sidewalk; crossroad, byroad, bypath, byway; cut; short cut &c
(mid-course) 628; carrefour^; private road, occupation road; highways
and byways; railroad, railway, tram road, tramway; towpath; causeway;
canal &c (conduit) 350; street &c (abode) 189; speedway.
adv.. how; in what way, in what manner; by what mode; so, in this
way, after this fashion.
one way or another, anyhow; somehow or other &c (instrumentality)
631; by way of; via; in transitu &c 270 [Lat.]; on the high road to.
Phr. hae tibi erunt artes [Lat.].

628. Mid-course -- N. middle course, midcourse; mean &c 29; middle &c
68; juste milieu [Fr.], mezzo termine [It], golden mean, ariston metron
[Gr.], aurea mediocritas [Lat.].
straight &c (direct) 278, straight course, straight path; short
cut, cross cut; great circle sailing.
neutrality; half measure, half and half measures; compromise.
V. keep in a middle course, preserve a middle course, preserve an even
course, go straight &c (direct) 278.
go halfway, compromise, make a compromise.
Adj. straight &c (direct) 278.
Phr. medium tenuere beati [Lat.].

629. Circuit -- N. circuit, roundabout way, digression, detour,
circumbendibus, ambages^, loop; winding &c (circuition) 311 [Obs.];
zigzag &c (deviation) 279.
V. perform a circuit; go round about, go out of one's way; make a
detour; meander &c (deviate) 279.
lead a pretty dance; beat about the bush; make two bites of a
Adj. circuitous, indirect, roundabout; zigzag &c (deviating) 279;
Adv. by a side wind, by an indirect course; in a roundabout way; from
pillar to post.

630. Requirement -- N. requirement, need, wants, necessities;
necessaries, necessaries of life; stress, exigency, pinch, sine qua
non, matter of necessity; case of need, case of life or death.
needfulness, essentiality, necessity, indispensability, urgency.
requisition &c (request) 765, (exaction) 741; run upon; demand,
call for.
charge, claim, command, injunction, mandate, order, precept.
desideratum &c (desire) 865; want &c (deficiency) 640.
V. require, need, want, have occasion for; not be able to do without,
not be able to dispense with; prerequire^.
render necessary, necessitate, create a, necessity for, call for,
put in requisition; make a requisition &c (ask for) 765, (demand) 741.
stand in need of; lack &c 640; desiderate^; desire &c 865; be
necessary &c Adj.
Adj. required &c v.; requisite, needful, necessary, imperative,
essential, indispensable, prerequisite; called for; in demand, in
urgent, exigent, pressing, instant, crying, absorbing.
in want of; destitute of &c 640.
Adv. ex necessitate rei &c (necessarily) 601 [Lat.]; of necessity.
Phr. there is no time to lose; it cannot be spared, it cannot be
dispensed with; mendacem memorem esse oportet [Lat.] [Quintilian];
necessitas non habet legem [Lat.]; nec tecum possum trivere nec sine te
[Lat.] [Martial].

1. Actual Subservience

631. Instrumentality -- N. instrumentality; aid &c 707; subservience,
subserviency; mediation, intervention, medium, intermedium^, vehicle,
hand; agency &c 170.
minister, handmaid; midwife, accoucheur [Fr.], accoucheuse [Fr.],
obstetrician; gobetween; cat's-paw; stepping-stone.
opener &c 260; key; master key, passkey, latchkey; open sesame;
passport, passe-partout, safe-conduct, password.
instrument &c 633; expedient &c (plan) 626; means &c 632.
V. subserve, minister, mediate, intervene; be instrumental &c adj.;
pander to; officiate; tend.
Adj. instrumental; useful &c 644; ministerial, subservient,
mediatorial^; intermediate, intervening; conducive.
Adv. through, by, per; whereby, thereby, hereby; by the agency of &c
170; by dint of; by virtue of, in virtue of; through the medium of &c
n.; along with; on the shoulders of; by means of &c 632; by the aid of,
with the aid of &c (assistance) 707.
per fas et nefas [Lat.], by fair means or foul; somehow, somehow
or other; by hook or by crook.

632. Means -- N. means, resources, wherewithal, ways and means; capital
&c (money) 800; revenue; stock in trade &c 636; provision &c 637; a
shot in the locker; appliances &c (machinery) 633; means and
appliances; conveniences; cards to play; expedients &c (measures) 626;
two strings to one's bow; sheet anchor &c (safety) 666; aid &c 707;
medium &c 631.
V. find means, have means, possess means &c n..
Adj. instrumental &c 631; mechanical &c 633.
Adv. by means of, with; by what means, by all means, by any means, by
some means; wherewith, herewith, therewith; wherewithal.
how &c (in what manner) 627; through &c (by the instrumentality
of) 631; with the aid of, by the aid of &c (assistance) 707; by the
agency of &c 170

633. Instrument -- N. machinery, mechanism, engineering.
instrument, organ, tool, implement, utensil, machine, engine,
lathe, gin, mill; air engine, caloric engine, heat engine.
gear; tackle, tackling, rig, rigging, apparatus, appliances;
plant, materiel; harness, trappings, fittings, accouterments; barde^;
equipment, equipmentage^; appointments, furniture, upholstery; chattels;
paraphernalia &c (belongings) 780.
mechanical powers; lever, leverage; mechanical advantage; crow,
crowbar; handspike^, gavelock^, jemmy^, jimmy, arm, limb, wing; oar,
paddle; pulley; wheel and axle; wheelwork, clockwork; wheels within
wheels; pinion, crank, winch; cam; pedal; capstan &c (lift) 307; wheel
&c (rotation) 312; inclined plane; wedge; screw; spring, mainspring;
can hook, glut, heald^, heddle^, jenny, parbuckle^, sprag^, water wheel.
handle, hilt, haft, shaft, heft, shank, blade, trigger, tiller,
helm, treadle, key; turnscrew, screwdriver; knocker.
hammer &c (impulse) 276; edge tool &c (cut) 253; borer &c 262;
vice, teeth, &c (hold) 781; nail, rope &c (join) 45; peg &c (hang) 214;
support &c 215; spoon &c (vehicle) 272; arms &c 727; oar &c
(navigation) 267; cardiograph, recapper^, snowplow, tenpenny^,
Adj. instrumental &c 631; mechanical, machinal^; brachial [Med.].

634. Substitute -- N. substitute &c 147; deputy &c 759; badli^.

635. Materials -- N. material, raw material, stuff, stock, staple;
adobe, brown stone; chinking; clapboard; daubing; puncheon; shake;
shingle, bricks and mortar; metal; stone; clay, brick crockery &c 384;
compo, composition; concrete; reinforced concrete, cement; wood, ore,
materials; supplies, munition, fuel, grist, household stuff
pabulum &c (food) 298; ammunition &c (arms) 727; contingents; relay,
reinforcement, reenforcement^; baggage &c (personal property) 780; means
&c 632; calico, cambric, cashmere.
Adj. raw &c (unprepared) 674; wooden &c n.; adobe.

636. Store -- N. stock, fund, mine, vein, lode, quarry; spring; fount,
fountain; well, wellspring; milch cow.
stock in trade, supply; heap &c (collection) 72; treasure;
reserve, corps de reserve, reserved fund, nest egg, savings, bonne
bouche [Fr.].
crop, harvest, mow, vintage.
store, accumulation, hoard, rick, stack; lumber; relay &c
(provision) 637.
storehouse, storeroom, storecloset^; depository, depot, cache,
repository, reservatory^, repertory; repertorium^; promptuary^,
warehouse, entrepot [Fr.], magazine; buttery, larder, spence^; garner,
granary; cannery, safe-deposit vault, stillroom^; thesaurus; bank &c
(treasury) 802; armory; arsenal; dock; gallery, museum, conservatory;
menagery^, menagerie.
reservoir, cistern, aljibar^, tank, pond, mill pond; gasometer^.
budget, quiver, bandolier, portfolio; coffer &c (receptacle) 191.
conservation; storing &c v.; storage.
V. store; put by, lay by, set by; stow away; set apart, lay apart;
store treasure, hoard treasure, lay up, heap up, put up, garner up,
save up; bank; cache; accumulate, amass, hoard, fund, garner, save.
reserve; keep back, hold back; husband, husband one's resources.
deposit; stow, stack, load; harvest; heap, collect &c 72; lay in
store &c Adj.; keep, file (papers); lay in &c (provide) 637; preserve
&c 670.
Adj. stored &c v.; in store, in reserve, in ordinary; spare,
Phr. adde parvum parvo magnus acervus erit [Lat.].

637. Provision -- N. provision, supply; grist, grist for the mill;
subvention &c (aid) 707; resources &c (means) 632; groceries, grocery.
providing &c v.; purveyance; reinforcement, reenforcement^;
provender &c (food) 298; ensilage; viaticum.
caterer, purveyor, commissary, quartermaster, manciple^, feeder,
batman, victualer, grocer, comprador [Sp.], restaurateur; jackal,
pelican; sutler &c (merchant) 797 [Obs.].
grocery shop, grocery store.
V. provide; make provision, make due provision for; lay in, lay in a
stock, lay in a store.
supply, suppeditate^; furnish; find, find one in; arm.
cater, victual, provision, purvey, forage; beat up for; stock,
stock with; make good, replenish; fill, fill up; recruit, feed.
have in store, have in reserve; keep, keep by one, keep on foot,
keep on hand; have to fall back upon; store &c 636; provide against a
rainy day &c (economy) 817.

638. Waste -- N. consumption, expenditure, exhaustion; dispersion &c
73; ebb; leakage &c (exudation) 295; loss &c 776; wear and tear; waste;
prodigality &c 818; misuse &c 679; wasting &c v.; rubbish &c (useless)
mountain in labor.
V. spend, expend, use, consume, swallow up, exhaust; impoverish; spill,
drain, empty; disperse &c 73.
cast away, fool away, muddle away, throw away, fling away, fritter
away; burn the candle at both ends, waste; squander &c 818.
waste its sweetness on the desert air [Gray]; cast one's bread
upon the waters, cast pearls before swine; employ a steam engine to
crack a nut, waste powder and shot, break a butterfly on a wheel; labor
in vain &c (useless) 645; cut blocks with a razor, pour water into a
leak &c (run out) 295; run to waste; ebb; melt away, run dry, dry
Adj. wasted &c v.; at a low ebb.
wasteful &c (prodigal) 818; penny wise and pound foolish.
Phr. magno conatu magnas nugas [Lat.]; le jeu ne vaut pas la chandelle
[Fr.]; idly busy rolls their world away [Goldsmith].

639. Sufficiency -- N. sufficiency, adequacy, enough, withal,
satisfaction, competence; no less; quantum sufficit [Lat.], Q.S.
mediocrity &c (average) 29.
fill; fullness &c (completeness) 52; plenitude, plenty; abundance;
copiousness &c adj.; amplitude, galore, lots, profusion; full measure;
good measure pressed down and running, over.
luxuriance &c (fertility) 168; affluence &c (wealth) 803; fat of
the land; a land flowing with milk and honey; cornucopia; horn of
plenty, horn of Amalthaea; mine &c (stock) 636.
outpouring; flood &c (great quantity) 31; tide &c (river) 348;
repletion &c (redundancy) 641; satiety &c 869.
V. be sufficient &c adj.; suffice, do, just do, satisfy, pass muster;
have enough &c n.; eat.
one's fill, drink one's fill, have one's fill; roll in, swim in;
wallow in &c (superabundance) 641; wanton.
abound, exuberate, teem, flow, stream, rain, shower down; pour,
pour in; swarm; bristle with; superabound.
render sufficient &c adj.; replenish &c (fill) 52.
Adj. sufficient, enough, adequate, up to the mark, commensurate,
competent, satisfactory, valid, tangible.
measured; moderate &c (temperate) 953.
full, &c (complete) 52; ample; plenty, plentiful, plenteous;
plenty as blackberries; copious, abundant; abounding &c v.; replete,
enough and to spare, flush; choke-full, chock-full; well-stocked, well-
provided; liberal; unstinted, unstinting; stintless^; without stint;
unsparing, unmeasured; lavish &c 641; wholesale.
rich; luxuriant &c (fertile) 168; affluent &c (wealthy) 803;
wantless^; big with &c (pregnant) 161.
unexhausted^, unwasted^; exhaustless, inexhaustible.
Adv. sufficiently, amply &c Adj.; full; in abundance &c n.. with no
sparing hand; to one's heart's content, ad libitum, without stint.
Phr. cut and come again [Crabbe]; das Beste ist gut genug [G.].

640. Insufficiency -- N. insufficiency; inadequacy, inadequateness;
incompetence &c (impotence) 158; deficiency &c (incompleteness) 53;
imperfection &c 651; shortcoming &c 304; paucity; stint; scantiness &c
(smallness) 32; none to spare, bare subsistence.
scarcity, dearth; want, need, lack, poverty, exigency; inanition,
starvation, famine, drought.
dole, mite, pittance; short allowance, short commons; half
rations; banyan day.
emptiness, poorness &c adj.; depletion, vacancy, flaccidity; ebb
tide; low water; a beggarly account of empty boxes [Romeo and Juliet];
indigence &c 804; insolvency &c (nonpayment) 808.
V. be insufficient &c adj.; not suffice &c 639; come short of &c 304;
run dry.
want, lack, need, require; caret; be in want &c (poor) 804, live
from hand to mouth.
render insufficient &c Adj.; drain of resources, impoverish &c
(waste) 638; stint &c (begrudge) 819; put on short allowance.
do insufficiently &c adv.; scotch the snake.
Adj. insufficient, inadequate; too little &c 32; not enough &c 639;
unequal to; incompetent &c (impotent) 158; weighed in the balance and
found wanting; perfunctory &c (neglect) 460; deficient &c (incomplete)
53; wanting, &c v.; imperfect &c 651; ill-furnished, ill-provided, ill-
stored, ill-off.
slack, at a low ebb; empty, vacant, bare; short of, out of,
destitute of, devoid of, bereft of &c 789; denuded of; dry, drained.
unprovided, unsupplied^, unfurnished; unreplenished, unfed^;
unstored^, untreasured^; empty-handed.
meager, poor, thin, scrimp, sparing, spare, stinted; starved,
starving; halfstarved, famine-stricken, famished; jejune.
scant &c (small) 32; scarce; not to be had, not to be had for love
or money, not to be had at any price; scurvy; stingy &c 819; at the end
of one's tether; without resources &c 632; in want &c (poor) 804; in
debt &c 806.
Adv. insufficiently &c adj.; in default of, for want of; failing.
Phr. semper avarus eget [Lat.] [Horace].

641. Redundancy -- N. redundancy, redundance^; too much, too many;
superabundance, superfluity, superfluence^, saturation; nimiety^,
transcendency, exuberance, profuseness; profusion &c (plenty) 639;
repletion, enough in all conscience, satis superque [Lat.], lion's
share; more than enough &c 639; plethora, engorgement, congestion,
load, surfeit, sickener^; turgescence &c (expansion) 194 [Obs.];
overdose, overmeasure^, oversupply, overflow; inundation &c (water) 348;
accumulation &c (store) 636; heap &c 72; drug, drug in the market;
glut; crowd; burden.
excess; surplus, overplus^; epact^; margin; remainder &c 40;
duplicate; surplusage^, expletive; work of supererogation; bonus,
luxury; intemperance &c 954; extravagance &c (prodigality) 818;
exorbitance, lavishment^.
pleonasm &c (diffuseness) 573; too many irons in the fire;
embarras de richesses [Fr.].
V. superabound, overabound^; know no bounds, swarm; meet one at every
turn; creep with, crawl with, bristle with; overflow; run over, flow
over, well over, brim over; run riot; overrun, overstock, overlay,
overcharge, overdose, overfeed, overburden, overload, overdo,
overwhelm, overshoot the mark &c (go beyond) 303; surcharge,
supersaturate, gorge, glut, load, drench, whelm, inundate, deluge,
flood; drug, drug the market; hepatize^.
choke, cloy, accloy^, suffocate; pile up, lay on thick; impregnate
with; lavish &c (squander) 818.
send coals to Newcastle, carry coals to Newcastle, carry owls to
Athens^; teach one's grandmother to suck eggs; pisces natare docere
[Lat.]; kill the slain, gild refined gold, gild the lily, butter one's
bread on both sides, put butter upon bacon; employ a steam engine to
crack a nut &c (waste) 638.
exaggerate &c 549; wallow in roll in &c (plenty) 639; remain on
one's hands, hang heavy on hand, go a begging.
Adj. redundant; too much, too many; exuberant, inordinate,
superabundant, excessive, overmuch, replete, profuse, lavish; prodigal
&c 818; exorbitant; overweening; extravagant; overcharged &c v.;
supersaturated, drenched, overflowing; running over, running to waste,
running down.
crammed to overflowing, filled to overflowing; gorged, ready to
burst; dropsical, turgid, plethoric; obese &c 194.
superfluous, unnecessary, needless, supervacaneous^, uncalled for,
to spare, in excess; over and above &c (remainder) 40; de trop [Fr.];
adscititious &c (additional) 37; supernumerary &c (reserve) 636; on
one's hands, spare, duplicate, supererogatory, expletive; un peu fort
Adv. over, too, over and above; overmuch, too much; too far; without
measure, beyond measure, out of measure; with a to spare; over head and
ears; up to one's eyes, up to one's ears; extra; beyond the mark &c
(transcursion) 303; acervatim [Lat.].
Phr. it never rains but it pours; fortuna multis dat nimium nulli satis
2. Degree of Subservience

642. Importance -- N. importance, consequence, moment, prominence,
consideration, mark, materialness.
import, significance, concern; emphasis, interest.
greatness &c 31; superiority &c 33; notability &c (repute) 873;
weight &c (influence) 175; value &c (goodness) 648; usefulness &c 644.
gravity, seriousness, solemnity; no joke, no laughing matter;
pressure, urgency, stress; matter of life and death.
memorabilia, notabilia^, great doings; red-letter day.
great thing, great point; main chance, the be all and the end all
[Macbeth]; cardinal point; substance, gist &c (essence) 5; sum and
substance, gravamen, head and front; important part, principal part,
prominent part, essential part; half the battle; sine qua non; breath
of one's nostrils &c (life) 359; cream, salt, core, kernel, heart,
nucleus; keynote, keystone; corner stone; trump card &c (device) 626;
salient points.
top sawyer, first fiddle, prima donna [Sp.], chief; triton among
the minnows; 'it' [U.S.].
V. be important &c adj., be somebody, be something; import, signify,
matter, boot, be an object; carry weight &c (influence) 175; make a
figure &c (repute) 873; be in the ascendant, come to the front, lead
the way, take the lead, play first fiddle, throw all else into the
shade; lie at the root of; deserve notice, merit notice, be worthy of
notice, be worthy of regard, be worthy of consideration.
attach importance to, ascribe importance to, give importance to &c
n.; value, care for, set store upon, set store by; mark &c 550; mark
with a white stone, underline; write in italics, put in italics, print
in italics, print in capitals, print in large letters, put in large
type, put in letters.
of gold; accentuate, emphasize, lay stress on.
make a fuss about, make a fuss over, make a stir about, make a
piece of work about [Fr.], make much ado about; make much ado of, make
much of.
Adj. important; of importance &c n.; momentous, material; to the point;
not to be overlooked, not to be despised, not to be sneezed at;
egregious; weighty &c (influential) 175; of note &c (repute) 873;
notable, prominent, salient, signal; memorable, remarkable;
unforgettable; worthy of remark, worthy of notice; never to be
forgotten; stirring, eventful.
grave, serious, earnest, noble, grand, solemn, impressive,
commanding, imposing.
urgent, pressing, critical, instant.
paramount, essential, vital, all-absorbing, radical, cardinal,
chief, main, prime, primary, principal, leading, capital, foremost,
overruling; of vital importance &c in the front rank, first-rate;
superior &c 33; considerable &c (great) 31; marked &c v.; rare &c 137.
significant, telling, trenchant, emphatic, pregnant; tanti [Lat.].
Adv. materially &c adj.; in the main; above all, kat' exochin [Gr.],
par excellence, to crown all, to beat all.
Phr. expende Hannibalem! [Lat.] [Juvenal].

643. Unimportance -- N. unimportance, insignificance, nothingness,
triviality, levity, frivolity; paltriness &c adj.; poverty;
smallness &c 32; vanity &c (uselessness) 645; matter of indifference &c
866; no object.
nothing, nothing to signify, nothing worth speaking of, nothing
particular, nothing to boast of, nothing to speak of; small matter, no
great matter, trifling matter &c adj.; mere joke, mere nothing; hardly
anything; scarcely anything; nonentity, small beer, cipher; no great
shakes, peu de chose [Fr.]; child's play, kinderspiel.
toy, plaything, popgun, paper pellet, gimcrack, gewgaw, bauble,
trinket, bagatelle, Rickshaw, knickknack, whim-wham, trifle, trifles
light as air; yankee notions [U.S.].
trumpery, trash, rubbish, stuff, fatras^, frippery; leather or
prunello; chaff, drug, froth bubble smoke, cobweb; weed; refuse &c
(inutility) 645; scum &c (dirt) 653.
joke, jest, snap of the fingers; fudge &c (unmeaning) 517;
fiddlestick^, fiddlestick end^; pack of nonsense, mere farce.
straw, pin, fig, button, rush; bulrush, feather, halfpenny,
farthing, brass farthing, doit^, peppercorn, jot, rap, pinch of snuff,
old son; cent, mill, picayune, pistareen^, red cent [U.S.].
minutiae, details, minor details, small fry; dust in the balance,
feather in the scale, drop in the ocean, flea-bite, molehill.
nine days' wonder, ridiculus mus [Lat.]; flash in the pan &c
(impotence) 158; much ado about nothing &c (overestimation) 482.
V. be unimportant &c adj.; not matter &c 642; go for nothing, matter
nothing, signify nothing, matter little, matter little or nothing; not
matter a straw &c n.. make light of &c (underestimate) 483; catch at
straws &c (overestimate) 482.
Adj. unimportant; of little account, of small account, of no account,
of little importance, of no importance &c 642; immaterial; unessential,
nonessential; indifferent.
subordinate &c (inferior) 34; mediocre &c (average) 29; passable,
fair, respectable, tolerable, commonplace; uneventful, mere, common;
ordinary &c (habitual) 613; inconsiderable, so-so, insignificant,
trifling, trivial; slight, slender, light, flimsy, frothy, idle;
puerile &c (foolish) 499; airy, shallow; weak &c 160; powerless &c 158;
frivolous, petty, niggling; piddling, peddling; fribble^, inane,
ridiculous, farcical; finical, finikin^; fiddle-faddle, fingle-fangle^,
namby-pamby, wishy-washy, milk and water.
poor, paltry, pitiful; contemptible &c (contempt) 930; sorry,
mean, meager, shabby, miserable, wretched, vile, scrubby, scrannel^,
weedy, niggardly, scurvy, putid^, beggarly, worthless,
twopennyhalfpenny, cheap, trashy, catchpenny, gimcrack, trumpery; one-
horse [U.S.].
not worth the pains, not worth while, not worth mentioning, not
worth speaking of, not worth a thought, not worth a curse, not worth a
straw &c n.; beneath notice, unworthy of notice, beneath regard,
unworthy of regard, beneath consideration, unworthy of consideration;
de lana caprina [It]; vain &c (useless) 645.
Adv. slightly &c adj.; rather, somewhat, pretty well, tolerably.
for aught one cares.
Int. no matter!, pish!, tush!, tut!, pshaw!^, pugh!, pooh, pooh-pooh!,
fudge!, bosh!, humbug!, fiddlestick^, fiddlestick end!^, fiddlededee!,
never mind!, n'importe! [Fr.], what signifies it, what boots it, what
of it, what of that, what matter, what's the odds, a fig for', stuff!,
nonsense!, stuff and nonsense,
Phr. magno conatu magnas nugas [Lat.]; le jeu ne vaut pas la chandelle
[Fr.]; it matters not, it does not signify; it is of no consequence, it
is of no importance; elephantus non capit murem [Lat.]; tempete dans un
verre d'eau [Fr.].

644. Utility -- N. utility; usefulness &c adj.; efficacy, efficiency,
adequacy; service, use, stead, avail; help &c (aid) 707; applicability
&c adj.; subservience &c (instrumentality) 631; function &c (business)
625; value; worth &c (goodness) 648; money's worth; productiveness &c
168; cui bono &c (intention) 620 [Lat.]; utilization &c (use) 677; step
in the right direction.
common weal; commonwealth public good, public interest;
utilitarianism &c (philanthropy) 910.
V. be useful &c adj.; avail, serve; subserve &c (be instrumental to)
631; conduce &c (tend) 176; answer, serve one's turn, answer a purpose,
serve a purpose.
act a part &c (action) 680; perform a function, discharge a
function &c; render a service, render good service, render yeoman's
service; bestead^, stand one in good stead be the making of; help &c
bear fruit &c (produce) 161; bring grist to the mill; profit,
remunerate; benefit &c (do good) 648.
find one's account in, find one's advantage in; reap the benefit
of &c (be better for) 658.
render useful &c (use) 677.
Adj. useful; of use &c n.; serviceable, proficuous^, good for;
subservient &c (instrumental) 631; conducive &c (tending) 176;
subsidiary &c (helping) 707.
advantageous &c (beneficial) 648; profitable, gainful,
remunerative, worth one's salt; valuable; prolific &c (productive) 168.
adequate; efficient, efficacious; effective, effectual; expedient
&c 646.
applicable, available, ready, handy, at hand, tangible;
commodious, adaptable; of all work.
Adv. usefully &c adj.; pro bono publico [Lat.].

645. Inutility -- N. inutility; uselessness &c adj.; inefficacy^,
futility; ineptitude, inaptitude; unsubservience^; inadequacy &c
(insufficiency) 640; inefficiency, &c (incompetence) 158;
unskillfulness &c 699; disservice; unfruitfulness &c
(unproductiveness).. 169; labor in vain, labor lost, labor of Sisyphus;
lost trouble, lost labor; work of Penelope; sleeveless errand, wild
goose chase, mere farce.
tautology &c (repetition) 104; supererogation &c (redundancy) 641.
vanitas vanitatum [Lat.], vanity, inanity, worthlessness,
nugacity^; triviality &c (unimportance) 643.
caput mortuum [Lat.], waste paper, dead letter; blunt tool.
litter, rubbish, junk, lumber, odds and ends, cast-off clothes;
button top; shoddy; rags, orts^, trash, refuse, sweepings, scourings,
offscourings^, waste, rubble, debris, detritus; stubble, leavings;
broken meat; dregs &c (dirt) 653; weeds, tares; rubbish heap, dust
hole; rudera^, deads^.
fruges consumere natus [Lat.] [Horace].
&c (drone) 683
V. be useless &c adj.; go a begging &c (redundant) 641; fail &c 732.
seek after impossibilities, strive after impossibilities; use vain
efforts, labor in vain, roll the stone of Sisyphus, beat the air, lash
the waves, battre l'eau avec un baton [Fr.], donner un coup d'epee dans
l'eau [Fr.], fish in the air, milk the ram, drop a bucket into an empty
well, sow the sand; bay the moon; preach to the winds, speak to the
winds; whistle jigs to a milestone; kick against the pricks, se battre
contre des moulins [Fr.]; lock the stable door when the steed is
stolen, lock the barn door after the horse is stolen &c (too late) 135;
hold a farthing candle to the sun; cast pearls before swine &c (waste)
638; carry coals to Newcastle &c (redundancy) 641; wash a blackamoor
white &c (impossible) 471.
render useless &c adj.; dismantle, dismast, dismount, disqualify,
disable; unrig; cripple, lame &c (injure) 659; spike guns, clip the
wings; put out of gear.
Adj. useless, inutile, inefficacious, futile, unavailing, bootless;
inoperative &c 158; inadequate &c (insufficient) 640; inservient^,
unsubservient; inept, inefficient &c (impotent) 158; of no avail &c
(use) 644; ineffectual &c (failure) 732; incompetent &c (unskillful)
699; stale, flat and unprofitable; superfluous &c (redundant) 641;
dispensable; thrown away &c (wasted) 638; abortive &c (immature) 674.
worthless, valueless, priceless; unsalable; not worth a straw &c
(trifling) 643, dear at any price.
vain, empty, inane; gainless^, profitless, fruitless;
unserviceable, unprofitable; ill-spent; unproductive &c 169; hors de
combat [Fr.]; effete, past work &c (impaired) 659; obsolete &c (old)
124; fit for the dust hole; good for nothing; of no earthly use; not
worth having, not worth powder and shot; leading to no end, uncalled
for; unnecessary, unneeded.
Adv. uselessly &c adj.; to little purpose, to no purpose, to little or
no purpose.
Int. cui bono? [Lat.]; what's the good!,
Phr. actum ne agas [Lat.]; chercher une aiguille dans une botte de foin
[Fr.]; tanto buon che val niente [It].

646. [Specific subservience.] Expedience -- N. expedience, expediency;
desirableness, desirability &c adj.; fitness &c (agreement) 23; utility
&c 644; propriety; opportunism; advantage.
high time &c (occasion) 134.
V. be expedient &c adj.; suit &c (agree) 23; befit; suit the time,
befit the time, suit the season, befit the season, suit the occasion,
befit the occasion.
conform &c 82.
Adj. expedient; desirable, advisable, acceptable; convenient; worth
while, meet; fit, fitting; due, proper, eligible, seemly, becoming;
befitting &c v.; opportune &c (in season) 134; in loco; suitable &c
(accordant) 23; applicable &c (useful) 644.
Adv. in the right place; conveniently &c adj..
Phr. operae pretium est [Lat.].

647. Inexpedience -- N. inexpedience, inexpediency; undesirableness,
undesirability &c adj.; discommodity^, impropriety; unfitness &c
(disagreement) 24; inutility &c 645; disadvantage.
V. be inexpedient &c adj.; come amiss &c (disagree) 24; embarrass &c
(hinder) 706; put to inconvenience; pay too dear for one's whistle.
Adj. inexpedient, undesirable; unadvisable, inadvisable; objectionable;
inapt, ineligible, inadmissible, inconvenient; incommodious,
discommodious^; disadvantageous; inappropriate, unfit &c (inconsonant)
ill-contrived, ill-advised; unsatisfactory; unprofitable &c;
unsubservient &c (useless) 645; inopportune &c (unseasonable) 135; out
of place, in the wrong place; improper, unseemly.
clumsy, awkward; cumbrous, cumbersome; lumbering, unwieldy, hulky^;
unmanageable &c (impracticable) 704; impedient &c (in the way) 706
unnecessary &c (redundant) 641.
Phr. it will never do.

648. [Capability of producing good. Good qualities.] Goodness -- N.
goodness &c adj.; excellence, merit; virtue &c 944; value, worth,
super-excellence, supereminence; superiority &c 33; perfection &c
650; coup de maitre [Fr.]; masterpiece, chef d'ouvre [Fr.], prime,
flower, cream, elite, pick, A 1, nonesuch, nonpareil, creme de la
creme, flower of the flock, cock of the roost, salt of the earth;
champion; prodigy.
tidbit; gem, gem of the first water; bijou, precious stone, jewel,
pearl, diamond, ruby, brilliant, treasure; good thing; rara avis

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