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Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases: Body by Roget

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idea &c 453; take into one's head; bear in mind; reconsider.
occur; present itself, suggest itself; come into one's head, get
into one's head; strike one, flit across the view, come uppermost, run
in one s head; enter the mind, pass in the mind, cross the mind, flash
on the mind, flash across the mind, float in the mind, fasten itself on
the mind, be uppermost in the mind, occupy the mind; have in one's
make an impression; sink into the mind, penetrate into the mind;
engross the thoughts.
Adj. thinking &c v.; thoughtful, pensive, meditative, reflective,
museful^, wistful, contemplative, speculative, deliberative, studious,
sedate, introspective, Platonic, philosophical.
lost in thought &c (inattentive) 458; deep musing &c (intent) 457.
in the mind, under consideration.
Adv. all things considered.
Phr. the mind being on the stretch; the mind turning upon, the head
turning upon, the mind running upon; divinely, bent to meditation
[Richard III]; en toute chose il faut considerer la fin [Fr.]; fresh-
pluckt from bowers of never-failing thought [O.
Meredith]; go speed the stars of Thought [Emerson]; in maiden
meditation fancy-free [M.N.D.]; so sweet is zealous contemplation
[Richard III]; the power of thought is the magic of the Mind [Byron];
those that think must govern those that toil [Goldsmith]; thought is
parent of the deed [Carlyle]; thoughts in attitudes imperious
[Longfellow]; thoughts that breathe and words that burn [Gray]; vivere
est cogitare [Lat.] [Cicero]; Volk der Dichter und Denker [G.].

452. [Absence or want of thought.] Incogitancy -- N. incogitancy^,
vacancy, inunderstanding^; fatuity &c 499; thoughtlessness &c
(inattention) 458; vacuity.
couch potato, vegetable.
V. not think &c 451; not think of; dismiss from the mind, dismiss from
the thoughts &c 451.
indulge in reverie &c (be inattentive) 458.
put away thought; unbend the mind, relax the mind, divert the
mind, veg out.
Adj. vacant, unintellectual, unideal^, unoccupied, unthinking,
inconsiderate, thoughtless, mindless, no-brain, vacuous; absent &c
(inattentive) 458; diverted; irrational &c 499; narrow-minded &c 481.
unthought of, undreamt 'of, unconsidered; off one's mind;
incogitable^, not to be thought of.
Phr. absence d'esprit; pabulum pictura pascit inani [Lat.].

453. [Object of thought.] Idea -- N. idea, notion, conception, thought,
apprehension, impression, perception, image, eidolon [Gr.], sentiment,
reflection, observation, consideration; abstract idea; archetype,
formative notion; guiding conception, organizing conception; image in
the mind, regulative principle.
view &c (opinion) 484; theory &c 514; conceit, fancy; phantasy &c
(imagination) 515.
point of view &c (aspect) 448; field of view.

454. [Subject of thought] Topic -- N. subject of thought, material for
thought; food for the mind, mental pabulum.
subject, subject matter; matter, theme, noemata [Gr.], topic, what
it is about, thesis, text, business, affair, matter in hand, argument;
motion, resolution; head, chapter; case, point; proposition, theorem;
field of inquiry; moot point, problem &c (question) 461.
V. float in the mind, pass in the mind &c 451.
Adj. thought of; uppermost in the mind; in petto.
Adv. under consideration; in question, in the mind; on foot, on the
carpet, on the docket, on the tapis^; relative to &c 9.


455. [The desire of knowledge.] Curiosity -- N. interest, thirst for
knowledge, thirst for truth; curiosity, curiousness; inquiring mind;
omnivorous intellect, devouring mind.
[person who desires knowledge] inquirer; sightseer; quidnunc
[Lat.], newsmonger, Paul Pry, eavesdropper; gossip &c (news) 532;
rubberneck; intellectual; seeker [inquirer after religious knowledge],
seeker after truth.
V. be curious &c adj.; take an interest in, stare, gape; prick up the
ears, see sights, lionize; pry; nose; rubberneck [U.S.].
Adj. curious, inquisitive, burning with curiosity, overcurious;
inquiring &c 461; prying, snoopy, nosy, peering; prurient;
inquisitorial, inquisitory^; curious as a cat; agape &c (expectant) 507.
Phr. what's the matter? what next? consumed with curiosity; curiosity
killed the cat, satisfaction brought it back.
curiouser and curiouser [Alice in Wonderland].

456. [Absence of curiosity.] Incuriosity -- N. incuriosity,
incuriousness &c adj.; insouciance &c 866; indifference, lack of
interest, disinterest.
boredom, ennui (weariness) 841; satiety &c 639; foreknowledge
(foresight) 510;
V. be incurious &c adj.; have no curiosity &c 455; take no interest in
&c 823; mind one's own business.
Adj. incurious, uninquisitive, indifferent; impassive &c 823;
uninterested, detached, aloof.

457. Attention -- N. attention; mindfulness, presence of mind &c adj.;
intentness, intentiveness^; alertness; thought &c 451; advertence,
advertency^; observance, observation; consideration, reflection,
perpension^; heed; heedfulness; particularity; notice, regard &c v.;
circumspection, diligence &c (care) 459; study, scrutiny inspection,
introspection; revision, revisal.
active application, diligent application, exclusive application,
minute application, close application, intense application, deep
application, profound application, abstract application, labored
application, deliberate application, active attention, diligent
attention, exclusive attention, minute attention, close attention,
intense attention, deep attention, profound attention, abstract
attention, labored attention, deliberate attention, active thought,
diligent thought, exclusive thought, minute thought, close thought,
intense thought, deep thought, profound thought, abstract thought,
labored thought, deliberate thought, active study, diligent study,
exclusive study, minute study, close study, intense study, deep study,
profound study, abstract study, labored study, deliberate study.
minuteness, attention to detail.
absorption of mind &c (abstraction) 458.
indication, calling attention to &c v..
V. be attentive &c adj.; attend, advert to, observe, look, see, view,
remark, notice, regard, take notice, mark; give attention to, pay
attention to, pay heed to, give heed to; incline an ear to, lend an ear
to; trouble one's head about; give a thought to, animadvert to; occupy
oneself with; contemplate &c (think of) 451; look at, look to, look
after, look into, look over; see to; turn the mind to, bend the mind
to, apply the mind to, direct the mind to, give the mind to, turn the
eye to, bend the eye to, apply the eye to, direct the eye to, give the
eye to, turn the attention to, bend the attention to, apply the
attention to, direct the attention to, give the attention to; have an
eye to, have in one's eye; bear in mind; take into account, take into
consideration; keep in sight, keep in view; have regard to, heed, mind,
take cognizance of entertain, recognize; make note of, take note of;
examine cursorily; glance at, glance upon, glance over; cast the
eyes over, pass the eyes over; run over, turn over the leaves, dip
into, perstringe^; skim &c (neglect) 460; take a cursory view of.
examine, examine closely, examine intently; scan, scrutinize,
consider; give one's mind to, bend one's mind to; overhaul, revise,
pore over; inspect, review, pass under review; take stock of; fix the
eye on, rivet attention on, fix attention on, devote the eye to, fix
the mind on, devote the thoughts to; hear out, think out; mind one's
revert to; watch &c (expect) 507, (take care of) 459; hearken to,
listen to; prick up the ears; have the eyes open, keep the eyes open;
come to the point.
meet with attention; fall under one's notice, fall under one's
observation; be under consideration &c (topic) 454.
catch the eye, strike the eye; attract notice; catch the
attention, awaken the attention, wake the attention, invite the
attention, solicit the attention, attract the attention, claim the
attention excite the attention, engage the attention, occupy the
attention, strike the attention, arrest the attention, fix the
attention, engross the attention, absorb the attention, rivet the
attention, catch the mind, awaken the mind, wake the mind, invite the
mind, solicit the mind, attract the mind, claim the mind excite the
mind, engage the mind, occupy the mind, strike the mind, arrest the
mind, fix the mind, engross the mind, absorb the mind, rivet the mind,
catch the thoughts, awaken the thoughts, wake the thoughts, invite the
thoughts, solicit the thoughts, attract the thoughts, claim the
thoughts excite the thoughts, engage the thoughts, occupy the thoughts,
strike the thoughts, arrest the thoughts, fix the thoughts, engross the
thoughts, absorb the thoughts, rivet the thoughts; be present to the
mind, be uppermost in the mind.
bring under one's notice; point out, point to, point at, point the
finger at; lay the finger on, indigitate^, indicate; direct attention
to, call attention to; show; put a mark upon &c (sign) 550; call
soldiers to 'attention'; bring forward &c (make manifest) 525.
Adj. attentive, mindful, observant, regardful; alive to, awake to;
observing &c v.; alert, open-eyed; intent on, taken up with, occupied
with, engaged in; engrossed in, wrapped in, absorbed, rapt, transfixed,
riveted, mesmerized, hypnotized; glued to (the TV, the window, a book);
breathless; preoccupied &c (inattentive) 458; watchful &c (careful)
459; breathless, undistracted, upon the stretch; on the watch &c
(expectant) 507.
[compelling attention] interesting, engrossing, mesmerizing,
Int. see!, look, look here, look you, look to it!, mark!, lo!, behold!,
soho!^, hark, hark ye!, mind!, halloo!, observe!, lo and behold!,
attention!, nota bene [Lat.], N.B., note well; I'd have you to know;
notice!, O yes!, Oyez!, dekko!^, ecco!^, yoho!,
Phr. this is to give notice, these are to give notice; dictum sapienti
sat est [Lat.], a word to the wise is sufficient; finem respice [Lat.].
Attention! Now hear this! Oyez!; Achtung [G.]; vnimanie [Rus.];
chui [Jap.].

458. Inattention -- N. inattention, inconsideration; inconsiderateness
&c adj.; oversight; inadvertence, inadvertency, nonobservance,
supineness &c (inactivity) 683; etourderie [Fr.], want of thought;
heedlessness &c (neglect) 460; insouciance &c (indifference) 866.
abstraction; absence of mind, absorption of mind; preoccupation,
distraction, reverie, brown study, deep musing, fit of abstraction.
V. be inattentive &c adj.; overlook, disregard; pass by &c (neglect)
460; not observe &c 457; think little of.
close one's eyes to, shut one's eyes to; pay no attention to;
dismiss from one's thoughts, discard from one's thoughts, discharge
from one's thoughts, dismiss from one's mind, discard from one's mind,
discharge from one's mind; drop the subject, think no more of; set
aside, turn aside, put aside; turn away from, turn one's attention
from, turn a deaf ear to, turn one's back upon.
abstract oneself, dream, indulge in reverie.
escape notice, escape attention; come in at one ear and go out at
the other; forget &c (have no remembrance) 506.
call off the attention, draw off the attention, call away the
attention, divert the attention, distract the mind; put out of one's
head; disconcert, discompose; put out, confuse, perplex, bewilder,
moider^, fluster, muddle, dazzle; throw a sop to Cerberus.
Adj. inattentive; unobservant, unmindful, heedless, unthinking,
unheeding, undiscerning^; inadvertent; mindless, regardless,
respectless^, listless &c (indifferent) 866; blind, deaf; bird-witted;
hand over head; cursory, percursory^; giddy-brained, scatter-brained,
hare-brained; unreflective, unreflecting^, ecervele [Fr.]; offhand;
dizzy, muzzy^, brainsick^; giddy, giddy as a goose; wild, harum-scarum,
rantipole^, highflying; heedless, careless &c (neglectful) 460.
inconsiderate, thoughtless.
absent, abstracted, distrait; absentminded, lost; lost in thought,
wrapped in thought; rapt, in the clouds, bemused; dreaming on other
things, musing on other things; preoccupied, engrossed &c (attentive)
457; daydreaming, in a reverie &c n.; off one's guard &c (inexpectant)
508 [Obs.]; napping; dreamy; caught napping.
disconcerted, distracted, put out &c v..
Adv. inattentively, inadvertently, absent-mindedly &c adj.^; per
incuriam [Lat.], sub silentio [Lat.].
Int. stand at ease, stand easy!,
Phr. the attention wanders; one's wits gone a woolgathering, one's wits
gone a bird's nesting; it never entered into one's head; the mind
running on other things; one's thoughts being elsewhere; had it been a
bear it would have bitten you.

459. Care [Vigilance.] -- N. care, solicitude, heed; heedfulness &c
adj.; scruple &c (conscientiousness) 939.
watchfulness &c adj.; vigilance, surveillance, eyes of Argus^,
watch, vigil, look out, watch and ward, loeil du maitre [Fr.].
alertness &c (activity) 682; attention &c 457; prudence &c,
circumspection &c (caution) 864; anxiety; forethought &c 510;
precaution &c (preparation) 673; tidiness &c (order) 58, (cleanliness)
652; accuracy &c (exactness) 494; minuteness, attention to detail.
V. be careful &c adj.; reck^; take care &c (be cautious) 864; pay
attention to &c 457; take care of; look to, look after, see to, see
after; keep an eye on, keep a sharp eye on; chaperon, matronize^, play
gooseberry; keep watch, keep watch and ward; mount guard, set watch,
watch; keep in sight, keep in view; mind, mind one's business.
look sharp, look about one; look with one's own eyes; keep a good
lookout, keep a sharp lookout; have all one's wits about one, have all
one's eyes about one; watch for &c (expect) 507; keep one's eyes open,
have the eyes open, sleep with one's eye open.
Adj. careful regardful, heedful; taking care &c v.; particular; prudent
&c (cautious) 864; considerate; thoughtful &c (deliberative) 451;
provident &c (prepared) 673; alert &c (active) 682; sure-footed.
guarded, on one's guard; on the qui vivre [Fr.], on the alert, on
watch, on the lookout; awake, broad awake, vigilant; watchful, wakeful,
wistful; Argus-eyed; wide awake &c (intelligent) 498; on the watch for
(expectant) 507.
tidy &c (orderly) 58, (clean) 652; accurate &c (exact) 494;
scrupulous &c (conscientious) 939; cavendo tutus &c (safe) 664 [Lat.].
Adv. carefully &c adj.; with care, gingerly.
Phr. quis custodiet istos custodes? [Lat.], who will watch the
watchers?; care will kill a cat [Wither]; ni bebas agua que no veas
[Sp.]; O polished perturbation! Golden care! [Henry IV]; the incessant
care and labor of his mind [Henry IV].

460. Neglect -- N. neglect; carelessness &c adj.; trifling &c v.;
negligence; omission, oversight, laches [Law], default; supineness &c
(inactivity) 683; inattention &c 458; nonchalance &c (insensibility)
823; imprudence, recklessness &c 863; slovenliness &c (disorder) 59,
(dirt) 653; improvidence &c 674; noncompletion &c 730; inexactness &c
(error) 495.
paralipsis, paralepsis, paraleipsis (in rhetoric).
trifler, waiter on Providence; Micawber.
V. be negligent &c adj.; take no care of &c (take care of) &c 459;
neglect; let slip, let go; lay aside, set aside, cst aside, put aside;
keep out of sight, put out of sight; lose sight of.
overlook, disregard; pass over, pas by; let pass; blink; wink at,
connive at; gloss over; take no note of, take no thought of, take no
account of, take no notice of; pay no regard to; laisser aller [Fr.].
scamp; trifle, fribble^; do by halves; cut; slight &c (despise)
930; play with, trifle with; slur, skim, skim the surface; effleurer
[Fr.]; take a cursory view of &c 457.
slur over, skip over, jump over, slip over; pretermit^, miss, skip,
jump, omit, give the go-by to, push aside, pigeonhole, shelve, sink;
table [Parl.]; ignore, shut one's eyes to, refuse to hear, turn a deaf
ear to; leave out of one's calculation; not attend to &c 457, not mind;
not trouble oneself about, not trouble one's head about, not trouble
oneself with; forget &c 506; be caught napping &c (not expect) 508;
leave a loose thread; let the grass grow under one's feet.
render neglectful &c adj.; put off one's guard, throw off one's
guard; distract, divert.
Adj. neglecting &c v.; unmindful, negligent, neglectful; heedless,
careless, thoughtless; perfunctory, remiss; feebleness &c 575.
inconsiderate; uncircumspect^, incircumspect^; off one's guard;
unwary, unwatchful^, unguarded; offhand.
supine &c (inactive) 683; inattentive &c 458; insouciant &c
(indifferent) 823; imprudent, reckless &c 863; slovenly &c (disorderly)
59, (dirty) 653; inexact &c (erroneous) 495; improvident &c 674.
neglected &c v.; unheeded, uncared-for, unperceived, unseen,
unobserved, unnoticed, unnoted^, unmarked, unattended to, unthought of,
unregarded^, unremarked, unmissed^; shunted, shelved.
unexamined, unstudied, unsearched^, unscanned^, unweighed^,
unsifted, unexplored.
abandoned; buried in a napkin, hid under a bushel.
Adv. negligently &c adj.; hand over head, anyhow; in an unguarded
moment &c (unexpectedly) 508; per incuriam [Lat.].
Int. never mind, no matter, let it pass.
Phr. out of sight, out of mind.

461. Inquiry [Subject of Inquiry. Question] -- N. inquiry; request &c
765; search, research, quest, pursuit &c 622.
examination, review, scrutiny, investigation, indagation^;
perquisition^, perscrutation^, pervestigation^; inquest, inquisition;
exploration; exploitation, ventilation.
sifting; calculation, analysis, dissection, resolution, induction;
Baconian method^.
strict inquiry, close inquiry, searching inquiry, exhaustive
inquiry; narrow search, strict search; study &c (consideration) 451.
scire facias [Lat.], ad referendum; trial.
questioning &c v.; interrogation, interrogatory; interpellation;
challenge, examination, cross-examination, catechism; feeler, Socratic
method, zetetic philosophy^; leading question; discussion &c (reasoning)
reconnoitering, reconnaissance; prying &c v.; espionage,
espionnage [Fr.]; domiciliary visit, peep behind the curtain; lantern
of Diogenes.
question, query, problem, desideratum, point to be solved, porism^;
subject of inquiry, field of inquiry, subject of controversy; point in
dispute, matter in dispute; moot point; issue, question at issue; bone
of contention &c (discord) 713; plain question, fair question, open
question; enigma &c (secret) 533; knotty point &c (difficulty) 704;
quodlibet; threshold of an inquiry.
[person who questions] inquirer, investigator, inquisitor,
inspector, querist^, examiner, catechist; scrutator scrutineer
scrutinizer^; analyst; quidnunc &c (curiosity) 455 [Lat.].
V. make inquiry &c n.; inquire, ask, seek, search.
look for, look about for, look out for; scan, reconnoiter,
explore, sound, rummage, ransack, pry, peer, look round; look over, go
over, look through, go through; spy, overhaul.
[object is a topic] ask about, inquire about.
scratch the head, slap the forehead.
look into every hole and corner, peer into every hole and corner,
pry into every hole and corner; nose; trace up; search out, hunt down,
hunt out, fish out, ferret out; unearth; leave no stone unturned.
seek a clue, seek a clew; hunt, track, trail, mouse, dodge, trace;
follow the trail, follow the scent; pursue &c 662; beat up one's
quarters; fish for; feel for &c (experiment) 463.
investigate; take up an inquiry, institute an inquiry, pursue an
inquiry, follow up an inquiry, conduct an inquiry, carry on an inquiry,
carry out an inquiry, prosecute an inquiry &c n.; look at, look into;
preexamine; discuss, canvass, agitate.
[inquire into a topic] examine, study, consider, calculate; dip
into, dive into, delve into, go deep into; make sure of, probe, sound,
fathom; probe to the bottom, probe to the quick; scrutinize, analyze,
anatomize, dissect, parse, resolve, sift, winnow; view in all its
phases, try in all its phases; thresh out.
bring in question, bring into question, subject to examination;
put to the proof &c (experiment) 463; audit, tax, pass in review; take
into consideration &c (think over) 451; take counsel &c 695.
question, demand; put the question, pop the question, propose the
question, propound the question, moot the question, start the question,
raise the question, stir the question, suggest the question, put forth
the question, ventilate the question, grapple with the question, go
into a question.
[human object], question, put to the question, interrogate, pump;
subject to interrogation, subject to examination; cross-question,
cross-examine; press for an answer; give the third degree; put to the
inquisition; dodge^.
require an answer; pick the brains of, suck the brains of; feel
the pulse.
get the lay of the land; see how the wind is blowing; put one's
ear to the ground.
be in question &c adj.; undergo examination.
Adj. inquiry &c v.; inquisitive &c (curious) 455; requisitive^,
requisitory^; catechetical^, inquisitorial, analytic; in search of, in
quest of; on the lookout for, interrogative, zetetic^; all searching.
undetermined, untried, undecided; in question, in dispute, in
issue, in course of inquiry; under discussion, under consideration,
under investigation &c n.; sub judice [Lat.], moot, proposed; doubtful
&c (uncertain) 475.
Adv. quaere? [Lat.], what?, why?, wherefore?, whence?, whither?,
where?, how comes it?, how happens it?, how is it?, what is the
reason?, what's the matter?, nicht wahr? [G.], what's in the wind?,
what on earth?, when?, who?.

462. Answer -- N. answer, response, reply, replication, riposte,
rejoinder, surrejoinder^, rebutter, surrebutter^, retort, repartee;
rescript, rescription^; antiphon^, antiphony; acknowledgment; password;
echo; counter statement.
discovery &c 480.1; solution &c (explanation) 522; rationale &c
(cause) 153; clue &c (indication) 550.
Oedipus; oracle &c 513; return &c (record) 551.
V. answer, respond, reply, rebut, retort, rejoin; give for answer,
return for answer; acknowledge, echo.
explain &c (interpret) 522; solve &c (unriddle) 522; discover &c
480.1; fathom, hunt out &c (inquire) 461; satisfy, set at rest,
Adj. answering &c v.; responsive, respondent; conclusive.
Adv. because &c (cause) 153; on the scent, on the right scent.
Int. eureka!,

463. Experiment -- N. experiment; essay &c (attempt) 675; analysis &c
(investigation) 461; screen; trial, tentative method, t=atonnement.
verification, probation, experimentum crucis [Lat.], proof,
(demonstration) 478; criterion, diagnostic, test, probe, crucial test,
acid test, litmus test.
crucible, reagent, check, touchstone, pix^; assay, ordeal; ring;
litmus paper, curcuma paper^, turmeric paper; test tube; analytical
instruments &c 633.
empiricism, rule of thumb.
feeler; trial balloon, pilot balloon, messenger balloon; pilot
engine; scout; straw to show the wind.
speculation, random shot, leap in the dark.
analyzer, analyst, assayist^; adventurer; experimenter,
experimentist^, experimentalist; scientist, engineer, technician.
subject, experimentee^, guinea pig, experimental animal.
[experimental method] protocol, experimental method, blind
experiment, double-blind experiment, controlled experiment.
poll, survey, opinion poll.
epidemiological survey [Med.], retrospective analysis,
retrospective survey, prospective survey, prospective analysis;
statistical analysis.
literature search, library research.
tryout, audition.
[results of experiment] discovery &c 480; measurement &c 466;
evidence &c 467.
[reasoning about an experiment] deduction, induction, abduction.
V. experiment; essay &c (endeavor) 675; try, try out, assay; make an
experiment, make a trial of; give a trial to; put on trial, subject to
trial; experiment upon; rehearse; put to the test, bring to the test,
submit to the test, submit to the proof; prove, verify, test, touch,
practice upon, try one's strength; road-test, test drive, take for a
spin; test fly.
grope; feel one's way, grope for one's way; fumble, t=atonner,
aller =a t=atons [Fr.], put out a feeler, throw out a feeler; send up a
trial balloon, send up a pilot balloon; see how the land lies, get the
lay of the land, test the waters, feel out, sound out, take the pulse,
see, check, check out [Coll.], see how the wind blows; consult the
barometer; feel the pulse; fish for, bob for; cast for, beat about for;
angle, trawl, cast one's net, beat the bushes.
try one's fortune &c (adventure) 675; explore &c (inquire) 461.
Adj. experimental, empirical.
probative, probatory^, probationary, provisional; analytic,
docimastic^; tentative; unverified, unproven, speculative, untested.
Adv. on trial, under examination, on probation, under probation, on
one's trial, on approval.
Phr. check it out, give it a try, see how it goes; Run it up the
flagpole and see who salutes

464. Comparison -- N. comparison, collation, contrast; identification;
comparative estimate, relative estimate, relativity.
simile, similitude, analogy (similarity) 17; allegory &c
(metaphor) 521.
matching, pattern-matching.
[quantitative comparison] ratio, proportion (number) 84.
[results of comparison] discrimination 465; indiscrimination 465.1
[Obs.]; identification 465.2.
V. compare to, compare with; collate, confront; place side by side,
juxtapose &c (near) 197; set against one another, pit against one
another; contrast, balance.
identify, draw a parallel, parallel.
compare notes; institute a comparison; parva componere magnis
Adj. comparative; metaphorical &c 521.
compared with &c v.; comparable; judged by comparison.
Adv. relatively &c (relation) 9; as compared with &c v..
Phr. comparisons are odious; comparisons are odorous [Much Ado about

464a. Incomparability [Lack of comparison] -- N. incomparability;
incommensurability; indistinguishablility &c 465.1.
Adj. incommensurable, incommensurate; incomparable; different &c 15.
Phr. like apples and oranges; no basis for comparison; no standard for

465. [results of comparison. 1] Discrimination -- N. discrimination,
distinction, differentiation, diagnosis, diorism^; nice perception;
perception of difference, appreciation of difference; estimation &c
466; nicety, refinement; taste &c 850; critique, judgment; tact;
discernment &c (intelligence) 498; acuteness, penetration; nuances.
dope [Slang], past performances.
V. discriminate, distinguish, severalize^; recognize, match, identify;
separate; draw the line, sift; separate the chaff from the wheat,
winnow the chaff from the wheat; separate the men from the boys; split
hairs, draw a fine line, nitpick, quibble.
estimate &c (measure) 466; know which is which, know what is what,
know 'a hawk from a handsaw' [Hamlet].
take into account, take into consideration; give due weight to,
allow due weight to; weigh carefully.
Adj. discriminating &c v.; dioristic^, discriminative, distinctive;
Phr. il y a fagots et fagots; rem acu tetigisti [Lat.]; la critique est
aisee et l'art est difficile [Fr.]; miles apart; a distinction without
a difference.

465a. [results of comparison. 2] Indiscrimination -- N.
indiscrimination^, indistinguishability; indistinctness, indistinction^;
uncertainty &c (doubt) 475; incomparability &c 464.1.
V. not discriminate &c 465; overlook a distinction &c (neglect) 460,
confound, confuse.
Adj. indiscriminate; undistinguished^, indistinguishable,
undistinguishable^; unmeasured; promiscuous, undiscriminating.
Phr. valeat quantum valere potest [Lat.].

465b. [results of comparison. 3] Identification -- N. identification,
recognition, diagnosis, match; apperception, assimilation;
dereplication; classification; memory &c 505; interpretation &c 522;
cognizance (knowledge) 490.
V. identify, recognize, match, match up; classify; recall, remember &c
(memory) 505; find similarity (similarity) 17; put in its proper place,
put in its proper niche, place in order (arrangement) 60.

466. Measurement -- N. measurement, admeasurement^, mensuration, survey,
valuation, appraisement, assessment, assize; estimate, estimation; dead
reckoning, reckoning &c (numeration) 85; gauging &c v.; horse power.
metrology, weights and measures, compound arithmetic.
measure, yard measure, standard, rule, foot rule, compass,
calipers; gage, gauge; meter, line, rod, check; dividers; velo^.
flood mark, high water mark; Plimsoll line; index &c 550.
scale; graduation, graduated scale; nonius^; vernier &c
(minuteness) 193.
[instruments for measuring] bathometer, galvanometer, heliometer,
interferometer, odometer, ombrometer^, pantometer^, pluviometer^,
pneumatometer^, pneumometer^, radiometer, refractometer, respirometer,
rheometer, spirometer^, telemeter, udometer^, vacuometer^, variometer^,
viameter^, thermometer, thermistor (heat) &c 382, barometer (air) &c
338, anemometer (wind) 349, dynamometer, goniometer, (angle) 244 meter;
landmark &c (limit) 233; balance, scale &c (weight) 319; marigraph^,
pneumatograph^, stethograph^; rain gauge, rain gage; voltmeter (volts),
ammeter (amps); spectrophotometer (light absorbance); mass
spectrophotometer (molecular mass); geiger counter, scintillation
counter (radioactivity); pycnometer (liquid density); graduated
cylinder, volumetric flask (volume); radar gun (velocity); radar
(distance); side-looking radar, (shape, topography); sonar (depth in
water); light meter (light intensity); clock, watch, stopwatch,
chronometer (time); anemometer (wind velocity); densitometer (color
measurability, computability, determinability^.
coordinates, ordinate and abscissa, polar coordinates, latitude
and longitude, declination and right ascension, altitude and azimuth.
geometry, stereometry^, hypsometry^; metage^; surveying, land
surveying; geodesy, geodetics^, geodesia^; orthometry^, altimetry^;
cadastre [Fr.].
astrolabe, armillary sphere^.
land surveyor; geometer.
V. measure, mete; determine, assay; evaluate, value, assess, rate,
appraise, estimate, form an estimate, set a value on; appreciate;
span, pace step; apply the compass &c n.; gauge, plumb, probe,
sound, fathom; heave the log, heave the lead; survey.
take an average &c 29; graduate.
Adj. measuring &c v.; metric, metrical; measurable, perceptible,
noticeable, detectable, appreciable, ponderable, determinable,
fathomable; geodetical, topographic, topographical, cartographic,

Evidence for, against, and in mitigation

467. Evidence [On one side.] -- N. evidence; facts, premises, data,
praecognita [Lat.], grounds.
indication &c 550; criterion &c (test) 463.
testimony, testification^, expert testimony; attestation;
deposition &c (affirmation) 535; examination.
admission &c (assent) 488; authority, warrant, credential,
diploma, voucher, certificate, doquet^, docket; testamur^; record &c
551; document; pi ce justificative^; deed, warranty &c (security) 771;
signature, seal &c (identification) 550; exhibit, material evidence,
objective evidence.
witness, indicator, hostile witness; eyewitness, earwitness,
material witness, state's evidence; deponent; sponsor; cojuror^.
oral evidence, documentary evidence, hearsay evidence, external
evidence, extrinsic evidence, internal evidence, intrinsic evidence,
circumstantial evidence, cumulative evidence, ex parte evidence [Lat.],
presumptive evidence, collateral evidence, constructive evidence; proof
&c (demonstration) 478; evidence in chief.
secondary evidence; confirmation, corroboration, support;
ratification &c (assent) 488; authentication; compurgation^, wager of
law, comprobation^.
citation, reference; legal research, literature search
(experiment) 463.
V. be evidence &c n.; evince, show, betoken, tell of; indicate &c
(denote) 550; imply, involve, argue, bespeak, breathe.
have weight, carry weight; tell, speak volumes; speak for itself
&c (manifest) 525.
rest upon, depend upon; repose on.
bear witness &c n.; give evidence &c n.; testify, depose, witness,
vouch for; sign, seal, undersign^, set one's hand and seal, sign and
seal, deliver as one's act and deed, certify, attest; acknowledge &c
(assent) 488.
[provide conclusive evidence] make absolute, confirm, prove
(demonstrate) 478.
[add further evidence] indorse, countersign, corroborate, support,
ratify, bear out, uphold, warrant.
adduce, attest, cite, quote; refer to, appeal to; call, call to
witness; bring forward, bring into court; allege, plead; produce
witnesses, confront witnesses.
place into evidence, mark into evidence.
[obtain evidence] collect evidence, bring together evidence, rake
up evidence; experiment &c 463.
have a case, make out a case; establish, authenticate,
substantiate, verify, make good, quote chapter and verse; bring home
to, bring to book.
Adj. showing &c v.; indicative, indicatory; deducible &c 478; grounded
on, founded on, based on; corroborative, confirmatory.
Adv. by inference; according to, witness, a fortiori; still more, still
less; raison de plus [Fr.]; in corroboration &c n.. of; valeat quantum
[Lat.]; under seal, under one's hand and seal.
Phr. dictum de dicto [Lat.]; mise en evidence [Fr.].

468. [Evidence on the other side, on the other hand.] Counter Evidence
-- N. counter evidence; evidence on the other side, evidence on the
other hand; conflicting evidence, contradictory evidence, opposing
evidence; disproof, refutation &c 479; negation &c 536.
plea &c 617; vindication &c 937; counter protest; 'tu quoque'
argument; other side of the shield, other side of the coin, reverse of
the shield.
V. countervail, oppose; mitigate against; rebut &c (refute) 479;
subvert &c (destroy) 162; cheek, weaken; contravene; contradict &c
(deny) 536; tell the other side of the story, tell another story, turn
the scale, alter the case; turn the tables; cut both ways; prove a
audire alteram partem [Lat.].
Adj. countervailing &c v.; contradictory.
unattested, unauthenticated, unsupported by evidence;
Adv. on the contrary, per contra.

469. Qualification -- N. qualification, limitation, modification,
allowance, grains of allowance, consideration, extenuating
circumstances; mitigation.
condition, proviso, prerequisite, contingency, stipulation,
provision, specification, sine qua non [Lat.]; catch, string, strings
attached; exemption; exception, escape clause, salvo, saving clause;
discount &c 813; restriction; fine print.
V. qualify, limit, modify, leaven, give a color to, introduce new
conditions, narrow, temper.
waffle, quibble, hem and haw (be uncertain) 475; equivocate
(sophistry) 477.
depend, depend on, be contingent on (effect) 154.
allow for, make allowance for; admit exceptions, take into
account; modulate.
moderate, temper, season, leaven.
take exception.
Adj. qualifying &c v.; qualified, conditioned, restricted, hedged;
conditional; exceptional &c (unconformable) 83.
hypothetical &c (supposed) 514; contingent &c (uncertain) 475.
Adv. provided, provided that, provided always; if, unless, but, yet;
according as; conditionally, admitting, supposing; on the supposition
of &c (theoretically) 514; with the understanding, even, although,
though, for all that, after all, at all events.
approximately &c 197, 17; in a limited degree (smallness) 32;
somewhat, sort of, something like that, to a certain extent, to a
degree, in a sense, so to speak.
with grains of allowance, cum grano salis [Lat.], with a grain of
salt; exceptis excipiendis [Lat.]; wind and weather permitting; if
possible &c 470.
subject to, conditioned upon; with this proviso &c n..
Phr. if the good lord is willing and the creeks don't rise; catch- 22.
Degrees of Evidence

470. Possibility -- N. possibility, potentiality; what may be, what is
possible &c adj.; compatibility &c (agreement) 23.
practicability, feasibility; practicableness &c adj.. contingency,
chance &c 156.
V. be possible &c adj.; stand a chance; admit of, bear.
render possible &c adj.; put in the way of.
Adj. possible; in the cards, on the dice; in posse, within the bounds
of possibility, conceivable, credible; compatible &c 23; likely.
practicable, feasible, performable, achievable; within reach,
within measurable distance; accessible, superable^, surmountable;
attainable, obtainable; contingent &c (doubtful) 475, (effect) 154.
barely possible, marginally possible, just possible; possible but
improbably, (improbable) 473; theoretically possible.
Adv. possibly, by possibility; perhaps, perchance, peradventure; maybe,
may be, haply, mayhap.
if possible, wind and weather permitting, God willing, Deo volente
[Lat.], D.V.; as luck may have it.
Phr. misericordia Domini inter pontem et fontent [Lat.]; the glories of
the Possible are ours [B.
Taylor]; anything is possible; in theory possible, but in practise

471. Impossibility -- N. impossibility &c adj.; what cannot, what can
never be; sour grapes; hopelessness &c 859.
V. be impossible &c adj.; have no chance whatever.
attempt impossibilities; square the circle, wash a blackamoor
white; skin a flint; make a silk purse out of a sow's ear, make bricks
without straw; have nothing to go upon; weave a rope of sand, build
castles in the air, prendre la lune avec les dents [Fr.], extract
sunbeams from cucumbers, set the Thames on fire, milk a he-goat into a
sieve, catch a weasel asleep, rompre l'anguille au genou [Fr.], be in
two places at once.
Adj. impossible; not possible &c 470; absurd, contrary to reason;
unlikely; unreasonable &c 477; incredible &c 485; beyond the bounds of
reason, beyond the bounds of possibility, beyond the realm of
possibility; from which reason recoils; visionary; inconceivable &c
(improbable) 473; prodigious &c (wonderful) 870; unimaginable,
inimaginable^; unthinkable.
impracticable unachievable; unfeasible, infeasible; insuperable;
unsurmountable^, insurmountable; unattainable, unobtainable; out of
reach, out of the question; not to be had, not to be thought of; beyond
control; desperate &c (hopeless) 859; incompatible &c 24; inaccessible,
uncomeatable^, impassable, impervious, innavigable^, inextricable; self-
out of one's power, beyond one's power, beyond one's depth, beyond
one's reach, beyond one's grasp; too much for; ultra crepidam [Lat.].
Phr. the grapes are sour; non possumus [Lat.]; non nostrum tantas
componere lites [Lat.] [Vergil]; look for a needle in a haystack,
chercher une aiguille dans une botte de foin [Fr.]; il a le mer +a

472. Probability -- N. probability, likelihood; credibleness^;
likeliness &c adj.; vraisemblance [Fr.], verisimilitude, plausibility;
color, semblance, show of; presumption; presumptive evidence,
circumstantial evidence; credibility.
reasonable chance, fair chance, good chance, favorable chance,
reasonable prospect, fair prospect, good prospect, favorable prospect;
prospect, wellgrounded hope; chance &c 156.
V. be probable &c adj.; give color to, lend color to; point to; imply
&c (evidence) 467; bid fair &c (promise) 511; stand fair for; stand a
good chance, run a good chance.
think likely, dare say, flatter oneself; expect &c 507; count upon
&c (believe) 484.
Adj. probable, likely, hopeful, to be expected, in a fair way.
plausible, specious, ostensible, colorable, ben trovato [It],
well-founded, reasonable, credible, easy of belief, presumable,
presumptive, apparent.
Adv. probably &c adj.; belike^; in all probability, in all likelihood;
very likely, most likely; like enough; odds on, odds in favor, ten to
one &c; apparently, seemingly, according to every reasonable
expectation; prim=a facie [Lat.]; to all appearance &c (to the eye)
Phr. the chances, the odds are; appearances are in favor of, chances
are in favor of; there is reason to believe, there is reason to think,
there is reason to expect; I dare say; all Lombard Street to a China

473. Improbability -- N. improbability, unlikelihood; unfavorable
chance, bad chance, ghost of a chance, little chance, small chance,
poor chance, scarcely any chance, no chance; bare possibility; long
odds; incredibility &c 485.
V. be improbable &c adj.; have a small chance &c n..
Adj. improbable, unlikely, contrary to all reasonable expectation; wild
[Coll.], far out [Coll.], out of sight [Coll.], outtasight [Coll.],
heavy [Coll.].
rare &c (infrequent) 137; unheard of, inconceivable; unimaginable,
inimaginable^; incredible &c 485; more than doubtful; strange, bizarre
(uncomformable) 83.
Phr. the chances are against; aquila non capit muscas [Lat.]; pedir
peras pal olmo [Lat.].

474. Certainty -- N. certainty; necessity &c 601; certitude, surety,
assurance; dead certainty, moral certainty; infallibleness &c adj.;
infallibility, reliability; indubitableness, inevitableness,
gospel, scripture, church, pope, court of final appeal; res
judicata [Lat.], ultimatum positiveness; dogmatism, dogmatist,
dogmatizer; doctrinaire, bigot, opinionist^, Sir Oracle; ipse dixit
fact; positive fact, matter of fact; fait accompli [Fr.].
V. be certain &c adj.; stand to reason.
render certain &c adj.; insure, ensure, assure; clinch, make sure;
determine, decide, set at rest, make assurance double sure [Macbeth];
know &c (believe) 484.
dogmatize, lay down the law.
Adj. certain, sure, assured &c v.; solid, well-founded.
unqualified, absolute, positive, determinate, definite, clear,
unequivocal, categorical, unmistakable, decisive, decided, ascertained.
inevitable, unavoidable, avoidless^; ineluctable.
unerring, infallible; unchangeable &c 150; to be depended on,
trustworthy, reliable, bound.
unimpeachable, undeniable, unquestionable; indisputable,
incontestable, incontrovertible, indubitable; irrefutable &c (proven)
478; conclusive, without power of appeal.
indubious^; without doubt, beyond a doubt, without a shade or
shadow of doubt, without question, beyond question; past dispute; clear
as day; beyond all question, beyond all dispute; undoubted,
uncontested, unquestioned, undisputed; questionless^, doubtless.
authoritative, authentic, official.
sure as fate, sure as death and taxes, sure as a gun.
evident, self-evident, axiomatic; clear, clear as day, clear as
the sun at noonday.
Adv. certainly &c adj.; for certain, certes [Lat.], sure, no doubt,
doubtless, and no mistake, flagrante delicto [Lat.], sure enough, to be
sure, of course, as a matter of course, a coup sur, to a certainty; in
truth &c (truly) 494; at any rate, at all events; without fail; coute
que coute [Fr.], coute qu'il coute [Fr.]; whatever may happen, if the
worst come to the worst; come what may, happen what may, come what
will; sink or swim; rain or shine.
Phr. cela va sans dire [Fr.]; there is no question, no question, not a
shadow of doubt, there is not a shadow of doubt; the die is cast &c
(necessity) 601; facts are stubborn things [Smollett].

475. Uncertainty -- N. uncertainty, incertitude, doubt; doubtfulness &c
adj.; dubiety, dubitation^, dubitancy^, dubitousness^.
hesitation, suspense; perplexity, embarrassment, dilemma,
bewilderment; timidity &c (fear) 860; vacillation &c 605; diaporesis^,
vagueness &c adj.; haze, fog; obscurity &c (darkness) 421;
ambiguity &c (double meaning) 520; contingency, dependence, dependency,
double contingency, possibility upon a possibility; open question &c
(question) 461; onus probandi [Lat.]; blind bargain, pig in a poke,
leap in the dark, something or other; needle in a haystack, needle in a
bottle of hay; roving commission.
precariousness &c adj.; fallibility.
V. be uncertain &c adj.; wonder whether.
lose the clue, lose the clew, scent; miss one's way.
not know what to make of &c (unintelligibility) 519, not know
which way to turn, not know whether one stands on one s head or one's
heels; float in a sea of doubt, hesitate, flounder; lose oneself, lose
one's head; muddle one's brains.
render uncertain &c adj.; put out, pose, puzzle, perplex,
embarrass; confuse, confound; bewilder, bother, molder, addle the wits,
throw off the scent, ambiguas in vulgus spargere voces [Lat.]; keep in
doubt &c (disbelieve) 485; hang in the balance, tremble in the
balance; depend.
Adj. uncertain; casual; random &c (aimless) 621; changeable &c 149.
doubtful, dubious; indecisive; unsettled, undecided, undetermined;
in suspense, open to discussion; controvertible; in question &c
(inquiry) 461.
vague; indeterminate, indefinite; ambiguous, equivocal; undefined,
undefinable; confused &c (indistinct) 447; mystic, oracular; dazed.
perplexing &c v.; enigmatic, paradoxical, apocryphal,
problematical, hypothetical; experimental &c 463.
unpredictable, unforeseeable (unknowable) 519.
fallible, questionable, precarious, slippery, ticklish, debatable,
disputable; unreliable, untrustworthy.
contingent, contingent on, dependent on; subject to; dependent on
circumstances; occasional; provisional.
unauthentic, unauthenticated, unauthoritative; unascertained,
unconfirmed; undemonstrated; untold, uncounted.
in a state of uncertainty, in a cloud, in a maze; bushed, off the
track; ignorant, &c 491; afraid to say; out of one's reckoning, astray,
adrift; at sea, at fault, at a loss, at one's wit's end, at a nonplus;
puzzled &c v.; lost, abroad, d_esorient_e; distracted, distraught.
Adv. pendente lite [Lat.]; sub spe rati [Lat.].
Phr. Heaven knows; who can tell? who shall decide when doctors
disagree? ambiguas in vulgum spargere voces [Lat.].


476. Reasoning, -- N. {ant.
477} reasoning ratiocination rationalism; dialectics, induction,
discussion, comment; ventilation; inquiry &c 461.
argumentation, controversy, debate; polemics, wrangling;
contention &c 720; logomachy^; disputation, disceptation^; paper war.
art of reasoning, logic.
process of reasoning, train of reasoning, chain of reasoning;
deduction, induction, abduction; synthesis, analysis.
argument; case, plaidoyer^, opening; lemma, proposition, terms,
premises, postulate, data, starting point, principle; inference &c
(judgment) 480.
prosyllogism^, syllogism; enthymeme^, sorites^, dilemma,
perilepsis^, a priori reasoning, reductio ad absurdum, horns of a
dilemma, argumentum ad hominem [Lat.], comprehensive argument;
empirema^, epagoge^.
[person who reasons] reasoner, logician, dialectician; disputant;
controversialist, controvertist^; wrangler, arguer, debater polemic,
casuist, rationalist; scientist; eristic^.
logical sequence; good case; correct just reasoning, sound
reasoning, valid reasoning, cogent reasoning, logical reasoning,
forcible reasoning, persuasive reasoning, persuasory reasoning^,
consectary reasoning^, conclusive &c 478; subtle reasoning; force of
argument, strong point, strong argument, persuasive argument.
arguments, reasons, pros and cons.
V. reason, argue, discuss, debate, dispute, wrangle^, argufy^, bandy
words, bandy arguments; chop logic; hold an argument, carry on an
argument; controvert &c (deny) 536; canvass; comment upon, moralize
upon; spiritualize; consider &c (examine) 461.
open a discussion, open a case; try conclusions; join issue, be at
issue; moot; come to the point; stir a question, agitate a question,
ventilate a question, torture a question; take up a side, take up a
contend, take one's stand upon, insist, lay stress on; infer &c
follow from &c (demonstration) 478.
Adj. reasoning &c v.; rationalistic; argumentative, controversial,
dialectic, polemical; discursory^, discursive; disputatious;
Aristotelian^, eristic^, eristical^.
debatable, controvertible.
logical; relevant &c 23.
Adv. for, because, hence, whence, seeing that, since, sith^, then thence
so; for that reason, for this reason, for which reason; for as,
inasmuch as; whereas, ex concesso [Lat.], considering, in consideration
of; therefore, wherefore; consequently, ergo, thus, accordingly; a
in conclusion, in fine; finally, after all, au bout du compt
[Fr.], on the whole, taking one thing with another.
Phr. ab actu ad posse valet consecutio [Lat.]; per troppo dibatter la
verita si perde [It]; troppo disputare la verita fa errare [It].

477. Intuition. & Sophistry [The absence of reasoning.] [False or
vicious reasoning; show of reason.] -- N. intuition, instinct,
association, hunch, gut feeling; presentiment, premonition; rule of
thumb; superstition; astrology^; faith (supposition) 514.
sophistry, paralogy^, perversion, casuistry, jesuitry,
equivocation, evasion; chicane, chicanery; quiddet^, quiddity;
mystification; special pleading; speciousness &c adj.; nonsense &c 497;
word sense, tongue sense.
false reasoning, vicious reasoning, circular reasoning; petitio
principii [Lat.], ignoratio elenchi [Lat.]; post hoc ergo propter hoc
[Lat.]; non sequitur, ignotum per ignotius [Lat.].
misjudgment &c 481; false teaching &c 538.
sophism, solecism, paralogism^; quibble, quirk, elenchus^, elench^,
fallacy, quodlibet, subterfuge, subtlety, quillet^; inconsistency,
antilogy^; a delusion, a mockery, and a snare [Denman]; claptrap, cant,
mere words; lame and impotent conclusion [Othello].
meshes of sophistry, cobwebs of sophistry; flaw in an argument;
weak point, bad case.
overrefinement^; hairsplitting &c v..
V. judge intuitively, judge by intuition; hazard a proposition, hazard
a guess, talk at random.
reason ill, falsely &c adj.; misjudge &c 481; paralogize^.
take on faith, take as a given; assume (supposition) 514.
pervert, quibble; equivocate, mystify, evade, elude; gloss over,
varnish; misteach &c 538 [Obs.]; mislead &c (error) 495; cavil, refine,
subtilize^, split hairs; misrepresent &c (lie) 544.
beg the question, reason in a circle, reason in circles, assume
the conclusion.
cut blocks with a razor, beat about the bush, play fast and loose,
play fast and loose with the facts, blow hot and cold, prove that black
is white and white black, travel out of the record, parler a tort et a
travers [Fr.], put oneself out of court, not have a leg to stand on.
judge hastily, shoot from the hip, jump to conclusions
(misjudgment) 481.
Adj. intuitive, instinctive, impulsive; independent of reason, anterior
to reason; gratuitous, hazarded; unconnected.
unreasonable, illogical, false, unsound, invalid; unwarranted, not
following; inconsequent, inconsequential; inconsistent; absonous^,
absonant^; unscientific; untenable, inconclusive, incorrect; fallacious,
fallible; groundless, unproved; non sequitur [Lat.], it does not
deceptive, sophistical, jesuitical; illusive, illusory; specious,
hollow, plausible, ad captandum [Lat.], evasive; irrelevant &c 10.
weak, feeble, poor, flimsy, loose, vague.
irrational; nonsensical &c (absurd) 497.
foolish &c (imbecile) 499; frivolous, pettifogging, quibbling;
finespun^, overrefined^.
at the end of one's tether, au bout de son latin.
Adv. intuitively &c adj.; by intuition; illogically &c adj..
Phr. non constat [Lat.]; that goes for nothing.

478. Demonstration -- N. {ant.
479} demonstration, proof, rigorous proof; conclusiveness &c adj.;
apodeixis^, apodixis^, probation, comprobation^.
logic of facts &c (evidence) 467; experimentum crucis &c (test)
463 [Lat.]; argument &c 476; rigorous establishment, absolute
conviction, cogency, (persuasion) 484.
V. demonstrate, prove, establish; make good; show, evince, manifest &c
(be evidence of) 467; confirm, corroborate, substantiate, verify &c
467, settle the question, reduce to demonstration, set the question at
make out, make out a case; prove one's point, have the best of the
argument; draw a conclusion &c (judge) 480.
follow, follow of course, follow as a matter of course, follow
necessarily; stand to reason; hold good, hold water.
convince, persuade (belief) 484.
Adj. demonstrating &c v., demonstrative, demonstrable; probative,
unanswerable, conclusive; apodictic^, apodeictic^, apodeictical^;
irresistible, irrefutable, irrefragable; necessary.
categorical, decisive, crucial.
demonstrated &c v.; proven; unconfuted^, unanswered, unrefuted^;
evident &c 474.
deducible, consequential, consectary^, inferential, following.
[demonstrated to one's satisfaction] convincing, cogent,
persuasive (believable) 484.
Adv. of course, in consequence, consequently, as a matter of course;
necessarily, of necessity.
Phr. probatum est [Lat.]; there is nothing more to be said; quod est
demonstrandum [Lat.], Q.E.D.; it must follow; exitus acta probat

479. Confutation -- N. {ant 478} confutation, refutation; answer,
complete answer; disproof, conviction, redargution^, invalidation;
exposure, exposition; clincher; retort; reductio ad absurdum; knock
down argument, tu quoque argument [Lat.]; sockdolager [U.S.],
correction &c 572.1; dissuasion &c 616.
V. confute, refute, disprove; parry, negative, controvert, rebut,
confound, disconfirm, redargue^, expose, show the fallacy of, defeat;
demolish, break &c (destroy) 162; overthrow, overturn scatter to the
winds, explode, invalidate; silence; put to silence, reduce to silence;
clinch an argument, clinch a question; give one a setdown^, stop the
mouth, shut up; have, have on the hip.
not leave a leg to stand on, cut the ground from under one's feet.
be confuted &c; fail; expose one's weak point, show one's weak
counter evidence &c 468.
Adj. confuting, confuted, &c v.; capable of refutation; refutable,
confutable^, defeasible.
contravene (counter evidence) 468.
condemned on one's own showing, condemned out of one's own mouth.
Phr. the argument falls to the ground, cadit quaestio [Lat.], it does
not hold water, suo sibi gladio hunc jugulo [Terence]; his argument was
demolished by new evidence.


480. Judgment [Conclusion.] -- N. result, conclusion, upshot;
deduction, inference, ergotism [Med.]; illation; corollary, porism^;
estimation, valuation, appreciation, judication^; dijudication^,
adjudication; arbitrament, arbitrement^, arbitration; assessment,
ponderation^; valorization.
award, estimate; review, criticism, critique, notice, report.
decision, determination, judgment, finding, verdict, sentence,
decree; findings of fact; findings of law; res judicata [Lat.].
plebiscite, voice, casting vote; vote &c (choice) 609; opinion &c
(belief) 484; good judgment &c (wisdom) 498.
judge, umpire; arbiter, arbitrator; asessor, referee.
censor, reviewer, critic; connoisseur; commentator &c 524;
inspector, inspecting officer.
twenty-twenty hindsight [judgment after the fact]; armchair
general, monday morning quarterback.
V. judge, conclude; come to a conclusion, draw a conclusion, arrive at
a conclusion; ascertain, determine, make up one's mind.
deduce, derive, gather, collect, draw an inference, make a
deduction, weet^, ween^.
form an estimate, estimate, appreciate, value, count, assess,
rate, rank, account; regard, consider, think of; look upon &c (believe)
484; review; size up [Slang].
settle; pass an opinion, give an opinion; decide, try, pronounce,
rule; pass judgment, pass sentence; sentence, doom; find; give
judgment, deliver judgment; adjudge, adjudicate; arbitrate, award,
report; bring in a verdict; make absolute, set a question at rest;
confirm &c (assent) 488.
comment, criticize, kibitz; pass under review &c (examine) 457;
investigate &c (inquire) 461.
hold the scales, sit in judgment; try judgment, hear a cause.
Adj. judging &c v.; judicious &c (wise) 498; determinate, conclusive.
Adv. on the whole, all things considered.
Phr. a Daniel come to judgment [Merchant of Venice]; and stand a
critic, hated yet caress'd [Byron]; it is much easier to be critical
than to be correct [Disraeli]; la critique est aisee et l'art est
difficile [Fr.]; nothing if not critical [Othello]; O most lame and
impotent conclusion [Othello].

480a. [Result of search or inquiry.] Discovery -- N. discovery,
detection, disenchantment; ascertainment^, disclosure, find, revelation.
trover [Law] &c (recovery) 775.
V. discover, find, determine, evolve, learn &c 539; fix upon; pick up;
find out, trace out, make out, hunt out, fish out, worm out, ferret
out, root out; fathom; bring out, draw out; educe, elicit, bring to
light; dig out, grub up, fish up; unearth, disinter.
solve, resolve, elucidate; unriddle, unravel, unlock, crack, crack
open; pick up, open the lock; find a clue, find clew a to, find the key
to the riddle; interpret &c 522; disclose &c 529.
trace, get at; hit it, have it; lay one's finger, lay one's hands
upon; spot; get at the truth, arrive at the truth &c 494; put the
saddle on the right horse, hit the right nail on the head.
be near the truth, be warm, get warmer, burn; smoke, scent, sniff,
catch a whiff of, smell a rat.
open the eyes to; see through, see daylight, see in its true
colors, see the cloven foot; detect; catch, catch tripping.
pitch upon, fall upon, light upon, hit upon, stumble upon, pop
upon; come across, come onto; meet with, meet up with, fall in with.
recognize, realize; verify, make certain of, identify.
Int. eureka!, aha!^, I've got it!,

481. Misjudgment -- N. misjudgment, obliquity of judgment;
miscalculation, miscomputation, misconception &c (error) 495; hasty
[causes of misjudgment. 1] prejudgment, prejudication^, prejudice;
foregone conclusion; prenotion^, prevention, preconception,
predilection, prepossession, preapprehension^, presumption, assumption,
presentiment; fixed idea, preconceived idea; id_ee fixe; mentis
gratissimus error [Lat.]; fool's paradise.
[causes of misjudgment. 2] esprit de corps, party spirit,
partisanship, clannishness, prestige.
[causes of misjudgment. 3] bias, bigotry, warp, twist; hobby, fad,
quirk, crotchet, partiality, infatuation, blind side, mote in the eye.
[causes of misjudgment. 4] one-sided views, one-track mind,
partial views, narrow views, confined views, superficial views, one-
sided ideas, partial ideas, narrow ideas, confined ideas, superficial
ideas, one-sided conceptions, partial conceptions, narrow conceptions,
confined conceptions, superficial conceptions, one-sided notions,
partial notions, narrow notions, confined notions, superficial notions;
narrow mind; bigotry &c (obstinacy) 606; odium theologicum [Lat.];
pedantry; hypercriticism.
doctrinaire &c (positive) 474.
[causes of misjudgment. 5] overestimation &c 482; underestimation
&c 483.
[causes of misjudgment. 6] ignorance &c 491.
erroneous assumptions, erroneous data, mistaken assumptions,
incorrect assumptions (error) 495.
V. misjudge, misestimate, misthink^, misconjecture^, misconceive &c
(error) 495; fly in the face of facts; miscalculate, misreckon,
overestimate &c 482; underestimate &c 483.
prejudge, forejudge; presuppose, presume, prejudicate^; dogmatize;
have a bias &c n.; have only one idea; jurare in verba magistri [Lat.],
run away with the notion; jump to a conclusion, rush to a conclusion,
leap to a conclusion, judge hastily, shoot from the hip, jump to
conclusions; look only at one side of the shield; view with jaundiced
eye, view through distorting spectacles; not see beyond one's nose;
dare pondus fumo [Lat.]; get the wrong sow by the ear &c (blunder) 699.
give a bias, give a twist; bias, warp, twist; prejudice,
Adj. misjudging &c v.; ill-judging, wrong-headed; prejudiced &c v.;
jaundiced; shortsighted, purblind; partial, one-sided, superficial.
narrow-minded, narrow-souled^; mean-spirited; confined, illiberal,
intolerant, besotted, infatuated, fanatical, entete [Fr.], positive,
dogmatic, conceited; opinative, opiniative^; opinioned, opinionate,
opinionative, opinionated; self-opinioned, wedded to an opinion,
opini=atre; bigoted &c (obstinate) 606; crotchety, fussy,
impracticable; unreasonable, stupid &c 499; credulous &c 486; warped.
misjudged &c v..
Adv. ex parte [Lat.].
Phr. nothing like leather; the wish the father to the thought; wishful
thinking; unshakable conviction; my mind is made up - don't bother me
with the facts.

482. Overestimation -- N. overestimation &c v.; exaggeration &c 549;
vanity &c 880; optimism, pessimism, pessimist.
much cry and little wool, much ado about nothing; storm in a
teacup, tempest in a teacup; fine talking.
V. overestimate, overrate, overvalue, overprize, overweigh, overreckon^,
overstrain, overpraise; eulogize; estimate too highly, attach too much
importance to, make mountains of molehills, catch at straws; strain,
magnify; exaggerate &c 549; set too high a value upon; think much of,
make much of, think too much of, make too much of; outreckon^;
extol, extol to the skies; make the most of, make the best of,
make the worst of; make two bites of a cherry.
have too high an opinion of oneself &c (vanity) 880.
Adj. overestimated &c v.; oversensitive &c (sensibility) 822.
Phr. all his geese are swans; parturiunt montes [Lat.].

483. Underestimation -- N. underestimation; depreciation &c
(detraction) 934; pessimism, pessimist; undervaluing &c v.; modesty &c
V. underrate, underestimate, undervalue, underreckon^; depreciate;
disparage &c (detract) 934; not do justice to; misprize, disprize;
ridicule &c 856; slight &c (despise) 930; neglect &c 460; slur over.
make light of, make little of, make nothing of, make no account
of; belittle; minimize, think nothing of; set no store by, set at
naught; shake off as dewdrops from the lion's mane.
Adj. depreciating, depreciated &c v.; unvalued, unprized^.

484. Belief -- N. belief; credence; credit; assurance; faith, trust,
troth, confidence, presumption, sanguine expectation &c (hope) 858;
dependence on, reliance on.
persuasion, conviction, convincement^, plerophory^, self-
conviction; certainty &c 474; opinion, mind, view; conception,
thinking; impression &c (idea) 453; surmise &c 514; conclusion &c
(judgment) 480.
tenet, dogma, principle, way of thinking; popular belief &c
(assent) 488.
firm belief, implicit belief, settled belief, fixed rooted deep-
rooted belief, staunch belief, unshaken belief, steadfast belief,
inveterate belief, calm belief, sober belief, dispassionate belief,
impartial belief, well-founded belief, firm opinion, implicit opinion,
settled opinion, fixed rooted deep-rooted opinion, staunch opinion,
unshaken opinion, steadfast opinion, inveterate opinion, calm opinion,
sober opinion, dispassionate opinion, impartial opinion, well-founded
opinion &c; uberrima fides [Lat.].
system of opinions, school, doctrine, articles, canons; article of
faith, declaration of faith, profession of faith; tenets, credenda^,
creed; thirty-nine articles &c (orthodoxy) 983.1; catechism; assent &c
488; propaganda &c (teaching) 537.
credibility &c (probability) 472.
V. believe, credit; give faith to, give credit to, credence to; see,
realize; assume, receive; set down for, take for; have it, take it;
consider, esteem, presume.
count upon, depend upon, calculate upon, pin one's faith upon,
reckon upon, lean upon, build upon, rely upon, rest upon; lay one's
account for; make sure of.
make oneself easy about, on that score; take on trust, take on
credit; take for granted, take for gospel; allow some weight to, attach
some weight to.
know, know for certain; have know, make no doubt; doubt not; be,
rest assured &c adj.; persuade oneself, assure oneself, satisfy
oneself; make up one's mind.
give one credit for; confide in, believe in, put one's trust in;
place in, repose in, implicit confidence in; take one's word for, at
one's word; place reliance on, rely upon, swear by, regard to.
think, hold; take, take it; opine, be of opinion, conceive, trow^,
ween^, fancy, apprehend; have it, hold a belief, possess, entertain a
belief, adopt a belief, imbibe a belief, embrace a belief, get hold of
a belief, hazard, foster, nurture a belief, cherish a belief, have an
opinion, hold an opinion, possess, entertain an opinion, adopt an
opinion, imbibe an opinion, embrace an opinion, get hold of an opinion,
hazard an opinion, foster an opinion, nurture an opinion, cherish an
opinion &c n.. view as, consider as, take as, hold as, conceive as,
regard as, esteem as, deem as, look upon as, account as, set down as;
surmise &c 514.
get it into one's head, take it into one's head; come round to an
opinion; swallow &c (credulity) 486.
cause to be believed &c v.; satisfy, persuade, have the ear of,
gain the confidence of, assure; convince, convict^, convert; wean, bring
round; bring over, win over; indoctrinate &c (teach) 537; cram down the
throat; produce conviction, carry conviction; bring home to, drive home
go down, find credence, pass current; be received &c v., be
current &c adj.; possess, take hold of, take possession of the mind.
Adj. believing &c v.; certain, sure, assured, positive, cocksure,
satisfied, confident, unhesitating, convinced, secure.
under the impression; impressed with, imbued with, penetrated
confiding, suspectless^; unsuspecting, unsuspicious; void of
suspicion; credulous &c 486; wedded to.
believed &c v.; accredited, putative; unsuspected.
worthy of, deserving of, commanding belief; credible, reliable,
trustworthy, to be depended on; satisfactory; probably &c 472;
fiducial^, fiduciary; persuasive, impressive.
relating to belief, doctrinal.
Adv. in the opinion of, in the eyes of; me judice [Lat.]; meseems^,
methinks; to the best of one's belief; I dare say, I doubt not, I have
no doubt, I am sure; sure enough &c (certainty) 474; depend upon, rely
upon it; be assured, rest assured; I'll warrant you &c (affirmation)
Phr. experto crede [Lat.] [Vergil]; fata viam invenient [Lat.];
Justitiae soror incorrupta Fides [Lat.]; live to explain thy doctrine
by thy life [Prior]; stands not within the prospect of belief
[Macbeth]; tarde quae credita laedunt credimus [Lat.] [Ovid]; vide et
crede [Lat.].

485. Unbelief. Doubt -- N. unbelief, disbelief, misbelief; discredit,
miscreance^; infidelity &c (irreligion) 989 [Obs.]; dissent &c 489;
change of opinion &c 484; retraction &c 607.
doubt &c (uncertainty) 475; skepticism, scepticism, misgiving,
demure; distrust, mistrust, cynicism; misdoubt^, suspicion, jealousy,
scruple, qualm; onus probandi [Lat.].
incredibility, incredibleness; incredulity.
[person who doubts] doubter, skeptic, cynic.; unbeliever &c 487.
V. disbelieve, discredit; not believe &c 484; misbelieve^; refuse to
admit &c (dissent) 489; refuse to believe &c (incredulity) 487.
doubt; be doubtful &c (uncertain) 475; doubt the truth of; be
skeptical as to &c adj.; diffide^; distrust, mistrust; suspect, smoke,
scent, smell a rat; have doubts, harbor doubts, entertain doubts,
suspicions; have one's doubts.
demure, stick at, pause, hesitate, scruple; stop to consider,
hang in suspense, hang in doubt.
throw doubt upon, raise a question; bring in, call in question;
question, challenge, dispute; deny &c 536; cavil; cause a doubt, raise
a doubt, start a doubt, suggest a doubt, awake a doubt, make suspicion;
startle, stagger; shake one's faith, shake one's belief, stagger
one's faith, stagger one's belief.
Adj. unbelieving; skeptical, sceptical.
incredulous as to, skeptical as to; distrustful as to, shy as to,
suspicious of; doubting &c v.. doubtful &c (uncertain) 475; disputable;
unworthy of, undeserving of belief &c 484; questionable; suspect,
suspicious; open to suspicion, open to doubt; staggering, hard to
believe, incredible, unbelievable, not to be believed, inconceivable;
impossible &c 471.
fallible &c (uncertain) 475; undemonstrable; controvertible &c
(untrue) 495.
Adv. cum grano salis [Lat.], with a grain of salt; with grains of
Phr. fronti nulla fides [Lat.]; nimium ne crede colori [Lat.] [Vergil];
timeo Danaos et dona ferentes [Vergil], I fear the Greeks even when
bearing gifts, beware of Greeks bearing gifts; credat Judaeus Apella
[Lat.] [Horace]; let those believe who may; ad tristem partem stenua
est suspicio [Lat.] [Syrus].

486. Credulity -- N. credulity, credulousness &c adj.; cullibility^,
gullibility; gross credulity, infatuation; self delusion, self
deception; superstition; one's blind side; bigotry &c (obstinacy) 606;
hyperorthodoxy &c 984 [Obs.]; misjudgment &c 481.
credulous person &c (dupe) 547.
V. be credulous &c adj.; jurare in verba magistri [Lat.]; follow
implicitly; swallow, gulp down; take on trust; take for granted, take
for gospel; run away with a notion, run away with an idea; jump to a
conclusion, rush to a conclusion; think the moon is made of green
cheese; take for granted, grasp the shadow for the substance; catch at
straws, grasp at straws.
impose upon &c (deceive) 545.
Adj. credulous, gullible; easily deceived &c 545; simple, green, soft,
childish, silly, stupid; easily convinced; over-credulous, over
confident, over trustful; infatuated, superstitious; confiding &c
(believing) 484.
Phr. the wish the father to the thought; credo quia impossibile [Lat.]
[Tertullian]; all is not gold that glitters; no es oro todo lo que
reluce [Sp.]; omne ignotum pro magnifico [Lat.].

487. Incredulity -- N. incredulousness^, incredulity; skepticism,
pyrrhonism^; want of faith &c (irreligion) 989 [Obs.].
suspiciousness &c adj.; scrupulosity; suspicion &c (unbelief) 485.
mistrust, cynicism.
unbeliever, skeptic, cynic; misbeliever.1, pyrrhonist; heretic &c
(heterodox) 984.
V. be incredulous &c adj.; distrust &c (disbelieve) 485; refuse to
believe; shut one's eyes to, shut one's ears to; turn a deaf ear to;
hold aloof, ignore, nullis jurare in verba magistri [Lat.].
Adj. incredulous, skeptical, unbelieving, inconvincible^; hard of
belief, shy of belief, disposed to doubt, indisposed to believe;
suspicious, scrupulous, distrustful, cynical;

488. Assent -- N. assent, assentment^; acquiescence, admission; nod;
accord, concord, concordance; agreement &c 23; affirmance, affirmation;
recognition, acknowledgment, avowal; confession of faith.
unanimity, common consent, consensus, acclamation, chorus, vox
populi; popular belief, current belief, current opinion; public
opinion; concurrence &c (of causes) 178; cooperation &c (voluntary)
ratification, confirmation, corroboration, approval, acceptance,
visa; indorsement &c (record) 551 [Obs.].
consent &c (compliance) 762.
pressure to conform, herd instinct, peer pressure.
V. assent; give assent, yield assent, nod assent; acquiesce; agree &c
23; receive, accept, accede, accord, concur, lend oneself to, consent,
coincide, reciprocate, go with; be at one with &c adj.; go along with,
chime in with, strike in with, close in with; echo, enter into one's
views, agree in opinion; vote, give one's voice for; recognize;
subscribe to, conform to, defer to; say yes to, say ditto, amen to, say
aye to.
acknowledge, own, admit, allow, avow, confess; concede &c (yield)
762; come round to; abide by; permit &c 760.
arrive at an understanding, come to an understanding, come to
terms, come to an agreement.
confirm, affirm; ratify, appprove, indorse, countersign;
corroborate &c 467.
go with the stream, swim with the stream, go with the flow, blow
with the wind; be in fashion, join in the chorus, join the crowd, be
one of the guys, be part of the group, go with the crowd, don't make
waves; be in every mouth.
Adj. assenting &c v.; of one accord, of one mind; of the same mind, at
one with, agreed, acquiescent, content; willing &c 602.
uncontradicted, unchallenged, unquestioned, uncontroverted.
carried, agreed, nem.
con. [Lat.], nemine contradicente [Lat.], &c adv.; unanimous;
agreed on all hands, carried by acclamation.
affirmative &c 535.
Adv. yes, yea, ay, aye, true; good; well; very well, very true; well
and good; granted; even so, just so; to be sure, 'thou hast said', you
said it, you said a mouthful; truly, exactly, precisely, that's just
it, indeed, certainly, you bet, certes [Lat.], ex concesso [Lat.]; of
course, unquestionably, assuredly, no doubt, doubtless; naturally,
be it so; so be it, so let it be; amen; willingly &c 602.
affirmatively, in the affirmative.
OK, all right, might as well, why not? with one consent, with one
voice, with one accord; unanimously, una voce, by common consent, in
chorus, to a man; nem.
con, nemine contradicente [Lat.]; nemine dissentiente [Lat.];
without a dissentient voice; as one man, one and all, on all hands.
Phr. avec plaisir [Fr.]; chi tace accousente [It]; the public mind is
the creation of the Master-Writers [Disraeli]; you bet your sweet ass
it is; what are we waiting for? whenever you're ready; anytime you're

489. Dissent -- N. dissent; discordance &c (disagreement) 24;
difference diversity of opinion.
nonconformity &c (heterodoxy) 984; protestantism, recusancy,
schism; disaffection; secession &c 624; recantation &c 607.
dissension &c (discord) 713; discontent &c 832; cavilling.
protest; contradiction &c (denial) 536; noncompliance &c
(rejection) 764.
dissentient, dissenter; non-juror, non-content, nonconformist;
sectary, separatist, recusant, schismatic, protestant, heretic.
refusal &c 764.
V. dissent, demur; call in question &c (doubt) 485; differ in opinion,
disagree; say no &c 536; refuse assent, refuse to admit; cavil,
protest, raise one's voice against, repudiate; contradict &c (deny)
have no notion of, differ toto caelo [Lat.]; revolt at, revolt
from the idea.
shake the head, shrug the shoulders; look askance, look askant^.
secede; recant &c 607.
Adj. dissenting &c v.; negative &c 536; dissident, dissentient;
unconsenting &c (refusing) 764; non-content, nonjuring^; protestant,
recusant; unconvinced, unconverted.
unavowed, unacknowledged; out of the question.
discontented &c 832; unwilling &c 603; extorted.
sectarian, denominational, schismatic; heterodox; intolerant.
Adv. no &c 536; at variance, at issue with; under protest.
Int. God forbid!, not for the world; I'll be hanged if; never tell me;
your humble servant, pardon me.
Phr. many men many minds; quot homines tot sententiae [Lat.] [Terence];
tant s'en faut [Fr.]; il s'en faut bien [Fr.]; no way; by no means;
count me out.

490. Knowledge -- N. knowledge; cognizance, cognition, cognoscence^;
acquaintance, experience, ken [Scot.], privity^, insight, familiarity;
comprehension, apprehension; recognition; appreciation &c (judgment)
480; intuition; conscience, consciousness; perception, precognition;
light, enlightenment; glimpse, inkling; glimmer, glimmering; dawn;
scent, suspicion; impression &c (idea) 453; discovery &c 480.1.
system of knowledge, body of knowledge; science, philosophy,
pansophy^; acroama^; theory, aetiology^, etiology; circle of the
sciences; pandect^, doctrine, body of doctrine; cyclopedia,
encyclopedia; school &c (system of opinions) 484.
tree of knowledge; republic of letters &c (language) 560.
erudition, learning, lore, scholarship, reading, letters;
literature; book madness; book learning, bookishness; bibliomania^,
bibliolatry^; information, general information; store of knowledge &c;
education &c (teaching) 537; culture, menticulture^, attainments;
acquirements, acquisitions; accomplishments; proficiency; practical
knowledge &c (skill) 698; liberal education; dilettantism; rudiments &c
(beginning) 66.
deep knowledge, profound knowledge, solid knowledge, accurate
knowledge, acroatic knowledge^, acroamatic knowledge^, vast knowledge,
extensive knowledge, encyclopedic knowledge, encyclopedic learning;
omniscience, pantology^.
march of intellect; progress of science, advance of science,
advance of learning; schoolmaster abroad.
[person who knows much] scholar &c 492.
V. know, ken [Scot.], scan, wot^; wot aware^, be aware of &c adj.; ween^,
weet^, trow^, have, possess.
conceive; apprehend, comprehend; take, realize, understand, savvy
[Slang], appreciate; fathom, make out; recognize, discern, perceive,
see, get a sight-of, experience.
know full well; have some knowledge of, possess some knowledge of;
be au courant &c adj.; have in one's head, have at one' fingers ends;
know by heart, know by rote; be master of; connaitre le dessous des
cartes [Fr.], know what's what &c 698.
see one's way; discover &c 480.1.
come to one's knowledge &c (information) 527.
Adj. knowing &c v.; cognitive; acroamatic^.
aware of, cognizant of, conscious of; acquainted with, made
acquainted with; privy to, no stranger to; au fait with, au courant; in
the secret; up to, alive to; behind the scenes, behind the curtain; let
into; apprized of, informed of; undeceived.
proficient with, versed with, read with, forward with, strong
with, at home in; conversant with, familiar with.
erudite, instructed, leaned, lettered, educated; well conned, well
informed, well read, well grounded, well educated; enlightened, shrewd,
savant, blue, bookish, scholastic, solid, profound, deep-read, book-
learned; accomplished &c (skillful) 698; omniscient; self-taught.
known &c v.; ascertained, well-known, recognized, received,
notorious, noted; proverbial; familiar, familiar as household words,
familiar to every schoolboy; hackneyed, trite, trivial, commonplace.
cognoscible^, cognizable.
Adv. to one's knowledge, to the best of one's knowledge.
Phr. one's eyes being opened &c (disclosure) 529; ompredre tout c'est
tout pardonner [Fr.], to know all is to pardon all; empta dolore docet
experientia [Lat.]; gnothi seauton [Gr.]; half our knowledge we must
snatch not take [Pope]; Jahre lehren mehr als Bucher [G.], years teach
more than books [G.]; knowledge comes but wisdom lingers [Tennyson];
knowledge is power [Bacon]; les affaires font les hommes [Fr.]; nec
scire fas est omnia [Lat.] [Horace]; the amassed thought and experience
of innumerable minds [Emerson]; was ich nicht weiss macht mich nicht
heiss [G.].

491. Ignorance -- N. ignorance, nescience, tabula rasa [Lat.], crass
ignorance, ignorance crasse [Fr.]; unfamiliarity, unacquaintance^;
unconsciousness &c adj.; darkness, blindness; incomprehension,
inexperience, simplicity.
unknown quantities, x, y, z.
sealed book, terra incognita, virgin soil, unexplored ground; dark
[Imperfect knowledge] smattering, sciolism^, glimmering,
dilettantism; bewilderment &c (uncertainty) 475; incapacity.
[Affectation of knowledge] pedantry; charlatanry, charlatism^;
Philister^, Philistine.
V. be ignorant &c adj.; not know &c 490; know not, know not what, know
nothing of; have no idea, have no notion, have no conception; not have
the remotest idea; not know chalk from cheese.
ignore, be blind to; keep in ignorance &c (conceal) 528.
see through a glass darkly; have a film over the eyes, have a
glimmering &c n.; wonder whether; not know what to make of &c
(unintelligibility) 519; not pretend to take upon, not take upon one
self to say.
Adj. ignorant; nescient; unknowing, unaware, unacquainted, unapprised,
unapprized^, unwitting, unweeting^, unconscious; witless, weetless^; a
stranger to; unconversant^.
uninformed, uncultivated, unversed, uninstructed, untaught,
uninitiated, untutored, unschooled, misguided, unenlightened;
Philistine; behind the age.
shallow, superficial, green, rude, empty, half-learned,
illiterate; unread, uninformed, uneducated, unlearned, unlettered,
unbookish; empty-headed, dizzy, wooly-headed; pedantic; in the dark;
benighted, belated; blinded, blindfolded; hoodwinked; misinformed; au
bout de son latin, at the end of his tether, at fault; at sea &c
(uncertain) 475; caught tripping.
unknown, unapprehended, unexplained, unascertained,
uninvestigated^, unexplored, unheard of, not perceived; concealed &c
528; novel.
Adv. ignorantly &c adj.; unawares; for anything, for aught one knows;
not that one knows.
Int. God knows, Heaven knows, the Lord knows, who knows, nobody knows.
Phr. ignorance never settles a question [Disraeli]; quantum animis
erroris inest! [Lat.] [Ovid]; small Latin and less Greek [B.
Jonson]; that unlettered small-knowing soul [Love's Labor's Lost];
there is no darkness but ignorance [Twelfth Night].

492. Scholar -- N. scholar, connoisseur, savant, pundit, schoolman^,
professor, graduate, wrangler; academician, academist^; master of arts,
doctor, licentitate, gownsman; philosopher, master of math; scientist,
clerk; sophist, sophister^; linguist; glossolinguist, philologist;
philologer^; lexicographer, glossographer; grammarian; litterateur
[Fr.], literati, dilettanti, illuminati, cogniscenti [It]; fellow,
Hebraist, lexicologist, mullah, munshi^, Sanskritish; sinologist,
sinologue^; Mezzofanti^, admirable Crichton, Mecaenas.
bookworm, helluo librorum [Lat.]; bibliophile, bibliomaniac^;
bluestocking, bas-bleu [Fr.]; bigwig, learned Theban, don; Artium
Baccalaureus [Lat.], Artium Magister [Lat.].
learned man, literary man; homo multarum literarum [Lat.]; man of
learning, man of letters, man of education, man of genius.
antiquarian, antiquary; archaeologist.
sage &c (wise man) 500.
pedant, doctrinaire; pedagogue, Dr.
Pangloss; pantologist^, criminologist.
schoolboy &c (learner) 541.
Adj. learned &c 490; brought up at the feet of Gamaliel.
Phr. he was a scholar and a ripe and good one [Henry VIII]; the
manifold linguist [All's Well That Ends Well].

493. Ignoramus -- N. ignoramus, dunce; wooden spoon; no scholar.
[insulting terms for ignorant person:] (imbecility) 499 (folly)
501 moron, imbecile, idiot; fool, jerk, nincompoop, asshole [Vulg.].
[person with superficial knowledge] dilettante, sciolist^,
smatterer, dabbler, half scholar; charlatan; wiseacre.
greenhorn, amateur &c (dupe) 547; novice, tyro &c (learner) 541;
lubber &c (bungler) 701; fool &c 501; pedant &c 492.
Adj. bookless^, shallow; ignorant &c 491.
Phr. a wit with dunces and a dunce with wits [Pope].

494. [Object of knowledge.] Truth -- N. fact, reality &c (existence) 1;
plain fact, plain matter of fact; nature &c (principle) 5; truth,
verity; gospel, gospel truth, God's honest truth; orthodoxy &c 983.1;
authenticity; veracity &c 543; correctness, correctitude^.
accuracy, exactitude; exactness, preciseness &c adj.; precision,
delicacy; rigor, mathematical precision, punctuality; clockwork
precision &c (regularity) 80; conformity to rule; nicety.
orthology^; ipsissima verba [Lat.]; realism.
plain truth, honest truth, sober truth, naked truth, unalloyed
truth, unqualified truth, stern truth, exact truth, intrinsic truth;
nuda veritas [Lat.]; the very thing; not an illusion &c 495; real Simon
Pure; unvarnished tale, unvarnished truth; the truth the whole truth
and nothing but the truth; just the thing.
V. be true &c adj., be the case; sand the test; have the true ring;
hold good, hold true, hold water.
render true, prove true &c adj.; substantiate &c (evidence) 467.
get at the truth &c (discover) 480.1.
Adj. real, actual &c (existing) 1; veritable, true; right, correct;
certain &c 474; substantially true, categorically true, definitively
true &c; true to the letter, true as gospel; unimpeachable; veracious
&c 543; unreconfuted^, unconfuted^; unideal^, unimagined; realistic.
exact, accurate, definite, precise, well-defined, just, just so,
so; strict, severe; close &c (similar) 17; literal; rigid, rigorous;
scrupulous &c (conscientious) 939; religiously exact, punctual,
mathematical, scientific; faithful, constant, unerring; curious,
particular, nice, delicate, fine; clean-cut, clear-cut.
verified, empirically true, experimentally verified,
substantiated, proven (demonstrated) 478.
rigorously true, unquestionably true.
true by definition.
genuine, authentic, legitimate; orthodox &c 983.1; official, ex
pure, natural, sound, sterling; unsophisticated, unadulterated,
unvarnished, unalloyed, uncolored; in its true colors; pukka^.
well-grounded, well founded; solid, substantial, tangible, valid;
undistorted, undisguised; unaffected, unexaggerated, unromantic,
Adv. truly &c adj.; verily, indeed, really, in reality; with truth &c
(veracity) 543; certainly &c (certain) 474; actually &c (existence) 1;
in effect &c (intrinsically) 5.
exactly &c adj.; ad amussim [Lat.]; verbatim, verbatim et
literatim [Lat.]; word for word, literally, literatim [Lat.], totidem
vervis [Lat.], sic, to the letter, chapter and verse, ipsissimis verbis
[Lat.]; ad unguem [Lat.]; to an inch; to a nicety, to a hair, to a
tittle, to a turn, to a T; au pied de la lettre [Fr.]; neither more nor
less; in every respect, in all respects; sous tous les rapports [Fr.];
at any rate, at all events; strictly speaking.
Phr. the truth is, the fact is; rem acu tetigisti [Lat.]; en suivant la
verite [Fr.]; ex facto jus oritur [Lat.]; la verita e figlia del empo
[It]; locos y ninos dicen la verdad [Sp.], crazy people and children
tell the truth; nihil est veritatis luce dulcius [Lat.] [Cicero];
veritas nunquam perit [Lat.] [Seneca]; veritatem dies aperit [Lat.]
[Seneca]; the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth; just
the facts, ma'am, just the facts [Dragnet].

495. Error -- N. error, fallacy; misconception, misapprehension,
misstanding^, misunderstanding; inexactness &c adj.; laxity;
misconstruction &c (misinterpretation) 523; miscomputation &c
(misjudgment) 481; non sequitur &c 477; mis-statement, mis-report;
mistake; miss, fault, blunder, quiproquo, cross purposes,
oversight, misprint, erratum, corrigendum, slip, blot, flaw, loose
thread; trip, stumble &c (failure) 732; botchery &c (want of skill) 699
[Obs.]; slip of the tongue, slip of the lip, Freudian slip; slip of the
pen; lapsus linguae [Lat.], clerical error; bull &c (absurdity) 497;
illusion, delusion; snare; false impression, false idea; bubble;
self-decit, self-deception; mists of error.
heresy &c (heterodoxy) 984; hallucination &c (insanity) 503; false
light &c (fallacy of vision) 443; dream &c (fancy) 515; fable &c
(untruth) 546; bias &c (misjudgment) 481; misleading &c v..
V. be erroneous &c adj.. cause error; mislead, misguide; lead astray,
lead into error; beguile, misinform &c (misteach) 538 [Obs.]; delude;
give a false impression, give a false idea; falsify, misstate; deceive
&c 545; lie &c 544.
err; be in error &c adj., be mistaken &c v.; be deceived &c
(duped) 547; mistake, receive a false impression, deceive oneself; fall
into error, lie under error, labor under an error &c n.; be in the
wrong, blunder; misapprehend, misconceive, misunderstand, misreckon,
miscount, miscalculate &c (misjudge) 481.
play at cross purposes, be at cross purposes &c (misinterpret)
trip, stumble; lose oneself &c (uncertainty) 475; go astray; fail
&c 732; be in the wrong box; take the wrong sow by the ear &c
(mismanage) 699; put the saddle on the wrong horse; reckon without
one's host; take the shadow for the substance &c (credulity) 486; dream
&c (imagine) 515.
Adj. erroneous, untrue, false, devoid of truth, fallacious, apocryphal,
unreal, ungrounded, groundless; unsubstantial &c 4; heretical &c
(heterodox) 984; unsound; illogical &c 477.
inexact, unexact inaccurate^, incorrect; indefinite &c (uncertain)
illusive, illusory; delusive; mock, ideal &c (imaginary) 515;
spurious &c 545; deceitful &c 544; perverted.
controvertible, unsustainable; unauthenticated, untrustworthy.
exploded, refuted; discarded.
in error, under an error &c n.; mistaken &c v.; tripping &c v.;
out, out in one's reckoning; aberrant; beside the mark, wide of the
mark, wide of the truth, way off, far off; astray &c (at fault) 475; on
a false scent, on the wrong scent; in the wrong box, outside the
ballpark; at cross purposes, all in the wrong; all out.
Adv. more or less.
Phr. errare est humanum [Lat.]; mentis gratissimus error [Lat.]
[Horace]; on the dubious waves of error tost [Cowper]; to err is human,
to forgive divine [Pope]; you lie -- under a mistake [Shelley].

496. Maxim -- N. maxim, aphorism; apothegm, apophthegm^; dictum, saying,
adage, saw, proverb; sentence, mot [Fr.], motto, word, byword, moral,
phylactery, protasis^.
axiom, theorem, scholium^, truism, postulate.
first principles, a priori fact, assumption (supposition) 514.
reflection &c (idea) 453; conclusion &c (judgment) 480; golden
rule &c (precept) 697; principle, principia [Lat.]; profession of faith
&c (belief) 484; settled principle, accepted principle, formula.
accepted fact.
received truth, wise maxim, sage maxim, received maxim, admitted
maxim, recognized maxim &c; true saying, common saying, hackneyed
saying, trite saying, commonplace saying &c
Adj. aphoristic, proverbial, phylacteric^; axiomatic, gnomic.
Adv. as the saying goes, as the saying is, as they say.

497. Absurdity -- N. absurdity, absurdness &c adj.; imbecility &c 499;
alogy^, nonsense, utter nonsense; paradox, inconsistency; stultiloquy^,
stultiloquence^; nugacity^.
blunder, muddle, bull; Irishism^, Hibernicism^; slipslop^;
anticlimax, bathos; sophism &c 477.
farce, galimathias^, amphigouri^, rhapsody; farrago &c (disorder)
59; betise [Fr.]; extravagance, romance; sciamachy^.
sell, pun, verbal quibble, macaronic^.
jargon, fustian, twaddle, gibberish &c (no meaning) 517;
exaggeration &c 549; moonshine, stuff; mare's nest, quibble, self-
vagary, tomfoolery, poppycock, mummery, monkey trick, boutade
[Fr.], escapade.
V. play the fool &c 499; talk nonsense, parler a tort et a travess
[Fr.]; battre la campagne [Fr.]; hanemolia bazein [Gr.]; be absurd &c
Adj. absurd, nonsensical, preposterous, egregious, senseless,
inconsistent, ridiculous, extravagant, quibbling; self-annulling, self-
contradictory; macaronic^, punning.
foolish &c 499; sophistical &c 477; unmeaning &c 517; without
rhyme or reason; fantastic.
Int. fiddlededee!, pish!, pho!^, in the name of the Prophet--figs!
[Horace Smith].
Phr. credat Judaeus Apella [Lat.] [Horace]; tell it to the marines.

498. Intelligence, Wisdom -- N. intelligence, capacity, comprehension,
understanding; cuteness, sabe [U.S.], savvy [U.S.]; intellect &c 450;
nous [Fr.], parts, sagacity, mother wit, wit, esprit, gumption, quick
parts, grasp of intellect; acuteness &c adj.; acumen, subtlety,
penetration, perspicacy^, perspicacity; discernment, due sense of, good
judgment; discrimination &c 465; cunning &c 702; refinement &c (taste)
head, brains, headpiece, upper story, long head; eagle eye, eagle-
glance; eye of a lynx, eye of a hawk.
wisdom, sapience, sense; good sense, common sense, horse sense
[U.S.], plain sense; rationality, reason; reasonableness &c adj.;
judgment; solidity, depth, profundity, caliber; enlarged views; reach
of thought, compass of thought; enlargement of mind.
genius, inspiration, geist [G.], fire of genius, heaven-born
genius, soul; talent &c (aptitude) 698.
[Wisdom in action] prudence &c 864; vigilance &c 459; tact &c 698;
foresight &c 510; sobriety, self-possession, aplomb, ballast.
a bright thought, not a bad idea.
Solomon-like wisdom.
V. be intelligent &c adj.; have all one's wits about one; understand &c
(intelligible) 518; catch an idea, take in an idea; take a joke, take a
see through, see at a glance, see with half an eye, see far into,
see through a millstone; penetrate; discern &c (descry) 441; foresee &c
discriminate &c 465; know what's what &c 698; listen to reason.
Adj. intelligent [Applied to persons], quick of apprehension, keen,
acute, alive, brainy, awake, bright, quick, sharp; quick witted, keen
witted, clear witted, sharp-eyed, sharp sighted, sharp witted; wide-
awake; canny, shrewd, astute; clear-headed; farsighted &c 510;
discerning, perspicacious, penetrating, piercing; argute^; quick-witted,
nimble-witted, needle-witted; sharp as a needle, sharp as a tack; alive
to &c (cognizant) 490; clever &c (apt) 698; arch &c (cunning) 702; pas
si bete [Fr.]; acute &c 682.
wise, sage, sapient, sagacious, reasonable, rational, sound, in
one's right mind, sensible, abnormis sapiens [Lat.], judicious, strong-
unprejudiced, unbiased, unbigoted^, unprepossessed^; undazzled^,
unperplexed^; unwarped judgment^, impartial, equitable, fair.
cool; cool-headed, long-headed, hardheaded, strong-headed; long-
sighted, calculating, thoughtful, reflecting; solid, deep, profound.
oracular; heaven-directed, heaven-born.
prudent &c (cautious) 864; sober, stand, solid; considerate,
politic, wise in one's generation; watchful &c 459; provident &c
(prepared) 673; in advance of one' age; wise as a serpent, wise as
Solomon, wise as Solon.
[Applied to actions] wise, sensible, reasonable, judicious; well-
thought-out, well-planned, well-judged, well-advised; prudent, politic;
expedient &c 646.
Phr. aut regem aut fatuum nasci oportet [Lat.]; but with the morning
cool reflection came [Scott]; flosculi sententiarum [Lat.]; les
affaires font les hommes [Fr.]; mas vale saber que haber [Sp.]; mas
vale ser necio que profiadol nemo solus sapit [Lat.] [Plautus]; nosce
te [Lat.]; gnothi seauton [Gr.]; nullum magnum ingenium sine mixtura
dementiae fuit [Lat.] [Seneca from Aristotle]; sapere aude [Lat.]
[Horace]; victrix fortunae sapientia [Lat.] [Juvenal].

499. Imbecility. Folly -- N. want of intelligence &c 498, want of
intellect &c 450; shadowness^, silliness, foolishness &c adj.;
imbecility, incapacity, vacancy of mind, poverty of intellect, weakness
of intellect, clouded perception, poor head, apartments to let;
stupidity, stolidity; hebetude^, dull understanding, meanest capacity,
shortsightedness; incompetence &c (unskillfulness) 699.
one's weak side, not one's strong point; bias &c 481; infatuation
&c (insanity) 503.
simplicity, puerility, babyhood; dotage, anility^, second
childishness, fatuity; idiocy, idiotism^; driveling.
folly, frivolity, irrationality, trifling, ineptitude, nugacity^,
inconsistency, lip wisdom, conceit; sophistry &c 477; giddiness &c
(inattention) 458; eccentricity &c 503; extravagance &c (absurdity)
497; rashness &c 863.
act of folly &c 699.
V. to be an imbecile &c adj.; have no brains, have no sense &c 498.
trifle, drivel, radoter^, dote; ramble &c (madness) 503; play the
fool, play the monkey, monkey around, fool around; take leave of one's
senses (insanity) 503; not see an inch beyond one's nose; stultify
oneself &c 699; talk nonsense &c 497.
Adj. unintelligent [Applied to persons], unintellectual, unreasoning;
mindless, witless, reasoningless^, brainless; halfbaked; having no head
&c 498; not bright &c 498; inapprehensible^.
weak headed, addle headed, puzzle headed, blunder headed, muddle
headed, muddy headed, pig headed, beetle headed, buffle headed^, chuckle
headed, mutton headed, maggoty headed, grossheaded^; beef headed, fat
witted, fat-headed.
weak-minded, feeble-minded; dull minded, shallow minded, lack-
brained; rattle-brained, rattle headed; half witted, lean witted, short
witted, dull witted, blunt-witted, shallow-pated^, clod-pated^, addle-
pated^, addle-brained^; dim-sighted, short-sighted; thick-skulled; weak
in the upper story.
shallow, borne, weak, wanting, soft, sappy, spoony; dull, dull as
a beetle; stupid, heavy, insulse^, obtuse, blunt, stolid, doltish;
asinine; inapt &c 699; prosaic &c 843; hebetudinous^.
childish, child-like; infantine^, infantile, babyish, babish^;
puerile, anile; simple &c (credulous) 486; old-womanish.
fatuous, idiotic, imbecile, driveling; blatant, babbling; vacant;
sottish; bewildered &c 475.
blockish^, unteachable Boeotian, Boeotic; bovine; ungifted,
undiscerning^, unenlightened, unwise, unphilosophical^; apish; simious^.
foolish, silly, senseless, irrational, insensate, nonsensical,
inept; maudlin.
narrow-minded &c 481; bigoted &c (obstinate) 606; giddy &c
(thoughtless) 458; rash &c 863; eccentric &c (crazed) 503.
[Applied to actions] foolish, unwise, injudicious, improper,
unreasonable, without reason, ridiculous, absurd, idiotic, silly,
stupid, asinine; ill-imagined, ill-advised, ill-judged, ill-devised;
mal entendu [Fr.]; inconsistent, irrational, unphilosophical^;
extravagant &c (nonsensical) 497; sleeveless, idle; pointless, useless
&c 645; inexpedient &c 647; frivolous &c (trivial) 643.
Phr. Davus sum non [Lat.] [Oedipus]; a fool's bolt is soon shot [Henry
V.] clitellae bovi sunt impositae [Lat.] [Cicero]; fools rush in where
angels fear to tread [Pope]; il n' a ni bouche ni eperon [Fr.]; the
bookful blockhead, ignorantly read [Pope]; to varnish nonsense with the
charms of sound [Churchill].

500. Sage -- N. sage, wise man; genius; master mind, master spirit of
the age; longhead^, thinker; intellectual, longhair.
authority, oracle, luminary, shining light, esprit fort, magnus
Apollo [Lat.], Solon, Solomon, Nestor, Magi, second Daniel.
man of learning &c 492; expert &c 700; wizard &c 994.
wiseacre [Iron.], bigwig, know-it-all; poor man's Einstein.
Adj. venerable, reverenced, emeritus.
Phr. barba tenus sapientes [Lat.].

501. Fool -- N. fool, idiot, tomfool, wiseacre, simpleton, witling^,
dizzard^, donkey, ass; ninny, ninnyhammer^; chowderhead^, chucklehead^;
dolt, booby, Tom Noddy, looby^, hoddy-doddy^, noddy, nonny, noodle,
nizy^, owl; goose, goosecap^; imbecile; gaby^; radoteur^, nincompoop,
badaud^, zany; trifler, babbler; pretty fellow; natural, niais^.
child, baby, infant, innocent, milksop, sop.
oaf, lout, loon, lown^, dullard, doodle, calf, colt, buzzard,
block, put, stick, stock, numps^, tony.
bull head, dunderhead, addlehead^, blockhead, dullhead^,
loggerhead, jolthead^, jolterhead^, beetlehead^, beetlebrain, grosshead^,
muttonhead, noodlehead, giddyhead^; numbskull, thickskull^; lackbrain^,
shallowbrain^; dimwit, halfwit, lackwit^; dunderpate^; lunkhead sawney
[U.S.], gowk^; clod, clod-hopper; clod-poll, clot-poll, clot-pate; bull
calf; gawk, Gothamite, lummox, rube [U.S.]; men of Boeotia, wise men of
un sot a triple etage [Fr.], sot; jobbernowl^, changeling,
mooncalf, gobemouche^.
dotard, driveler; old fogey, old woman, crock; crone, grandmother;
cotquean^, henhussy^.
incompetent (insanity) 503.
greenhorn &c (dupe) 547; dunce &c (ignoramus) 493; lubber &c
(bungler) 701; madman &c 504.
one who will not set the Thames on fire; one who did not invent
gunpowder, qui n'a pas invente' la poudre [Fr.]; no conjuror.
Phr. fortuna favet fatuis [Lat.]; les fous font les festinas et les
sages les mangent [Fr.]; nomina stultorum parietibus harrent [Lat.];
stultorum plena sunt omnia [Lat.] [Cicero].

502. Sanity -- N. sanity; soundness &c adj.; rationality, sobriety,
lucidity, lucid interval; senses, sober senses, right mind, sound mind,
mens sana [Lat.].
V. be sane &c adj.; retain one's senses, retain one's reason.
become sane &c adj.; come to one's senses, sober down.
render sane &c adj.; bring to one's senses, sober.
Adj. sane, rational, reasonable, compos mentis, of sound mind; sound,
sound-minded; lucid.
self-possessed; sober, sober-minded.
in one's sober senses, in one's right mind; in possession of one's
Adv. sanely &c adj..

503. Insanity -- N. disordered reason, disordered intellect; diseased
mind, unsound mind, abnormal mind; derangement, unsoundness; psychosis;
neurosis; cognitive disorder; affective disorder^.
insanity, lunacy; madness &c adj.; mania, rabies, furor, mental
alienation, aberration; paranoia, schizophrenia; dementation^, dementia,
demency^; phrenitis^, phrensy^, frenzy, raving, incoherence, wandering,
delirium, calenture of the brain^; delusion, hallucination;
lycanthropy^; brain storm^.
vertigo, dizziness, swimming; sunstroke, coup de soleil [Fr.],
fanaticism, infatuation, craze; oddity, eccentricity, twist,
monomania (caprice) 608; kleptodipsomania^; hypochondriasis [Med.] &c
(low spirits) 837; melancholia, depression, clinical depression, severe
depression; hysteria; amentia^.
screw loose, tile loose, slate loose; bee in one's bonnet, rats in
the upper story.
dotage &c (imbecility) 499.
V. be insane &c adj.. become insane &c adj.; lose one's senses, lose
one's reason, lose one's faculties, lose one's wits; go mad, run mad,
lose one's marbles [Coll.], go crazy, go bonkers [Coll.], flip one's
wig [Coll.], flip one's lid [Coll.], flip out [Coll.], flip one's bush
rave, dote, ramble, wander; drivel &c (be imbecile) 499; have a
screw loose &c n., have a devil; avoir le diable au corps [Fr.]; lose
one's head &c (be uncertain) 475.
render mad, drive mad &c adj.; madden, dementate^, addle the wits,
addle the brain, derange the head, infatuate, befool^; turn the brain,
turn one's head; drive one nuts [Coll.].
Adj. insane, mad, lunatic, loony [Coll.]; crazy, crazed, aliene^, non
compos mentis; not right, cracked, touched; bereft of reason; all
possessed, unhinged, unsettled in one's mind; insensate, reasonless,
beside oneself, demented, daft; phrenzied^, frenzied, frenetic;
possessed, possessed with a devil; deranged, maddened, moonstruck;
shatterpated^; mad-brained, scatter brained, shatter brained,
crackbrained; touched, tetched [Coll.]; off one's head.
[behavior suggesting insanity] maniacal; delirious, lightheaded,
incoherent, rambling, doting, wandering; frantic, raving, stark staring
mad, stark raving mad, wild-eyed, berserk; delusional, hallucinatory.
[behavior somewhat resembling insanity] corybantic^, dithyrambic;
rabid, giddy, vertiginous, wild; haggard, mazed; flighty; distracted,
distraught; depressed; agitated, hyped up; bewildered &c (uncertain)
mad as a March hare, mad as a hatter; of unsound mind &c n.;
touched in one's head, wrong in one's head, not right in one's head,
not in one's right mind, not right in one's wits, upper story; out of
one's mind, out of one's wits, out of one's skull [Coll.], far gone,
out of one's senses, out of one's wits; not in one's right mind.
fanatical, infatuated, odd, eccentric; hypped^, hyppish^; spaced
out [Coll.].
imbecile, silly, &c 499.
Adv. like one possessed.
Phr. the mind having lost its balance; the reason under a cloud; tet
exaltee [Fr.], tet montee [Fr.]; ira furor brevis est [Lat.]; omnes
stultos insanire [Lat.] [Horace].

504. Madman -- N. madman, lunatic, maniac, bedlamite^, candidate for
Bedlam, raver^, madcap, crazy; energumen^; automaniac^, monomaniac,
dipsomaniac, kleptomaniac; hypochondriac &c (low spirits);; crank, Tom
dreamer &c 515; rhapsodist, seer, highflier^, enthusiast, fanatic,
fanatico [Sp.]; exalte [Fr.]; knight errant, Don Quixote.
idiot &c 501.

1. To the Past

505. Memory -- N. memory, remembrance; retention, retentiveness;
tenacity; veteris vestigia flammae [Lat.]; tablets of the memory;
reminiscence, recognition, recollection, rememoration^; recurrence,
flashback; retrospect, retrospection.
afterthought, post script, PS.
suggestion &c (information) 527; prompting &c v.; hint, reminder;
remembrancer^, flapper; memorial &c (record) 551; commemoration &c
(celebration) 883.
[written reminder] note, memo, memorandum; things to be
remembered, token of remembrance, memento, souvenir, keepsake, relic,
art of memory, artificial memory; memoria technica [Lat.];
mnemonics, mnemotechnics^; phrenotypics^; Mnemosyne.
prompt-book; crib sheet, cheat sheet.
retentive memory, tenacious memory, photographic memory, green
memory^, trustworthy memory, capacious memory, faithful memory, correct
memory, exact memory, ready memory, prompt memory, accurate
recollection; perfect memory, total recall.
celebrity, fame, renown, reputation &c (repute) 873.
V. remember, mind; retain the memory of, retain the remembrance of;
keep in view.
recognize, recollect, bethink oneself, recall, call up, retrace;
look back, trace back, trace backwards; think back, look back upon;
review; call upon, recall upon, bring to mind, bring to remembrance;
carry one's thoughts back; rake up the past.
have in the thoughts, hold in the thoughts, bear in the thoughts,
carry in the thoughts, keep in the thoughts, retain in the thoughts,
have in the memory, hold in the memory, bear in the memory, carry in
the memory, keep in the memory, retain in the memory, have in the mind,
hold in the mind, bear in the mind, carry in the mind, keep in the
mind, retain in the mind, hold in remembrance; be in one's thoughts,
live in one's thoughts, remain in one's thoughts, dwell in one's
thoughts, haunt one's thoughts, impress one's thoughts, be in one's
mind, live in one's mind, remain in one's mind, dwell in one's mind,
haunt one's mind, impress one's mind, dwell in one's memory.
sink in the mind; run in the head; not be able to get out of one's
head; be deeply impressed with; rankle &c (revenge) 919.
recur to the mind; flash on the mind, flash across the memory.
[cause to remember] remind; suggest &c (inform ) 527; prompt; put
in mind, keep in mind, bring to mind; fan the embers; call up, summon
up, rip up; renew; infandum renovare dolorem [Lat.]; jog the memory,
flap the memory, refresh the memory, rub up the memory, awaken the
memory; pull by the sleeve; bring back to the memory, put in
remembrance, memorialize.
task the memory, tax the memory.
get at one's fingers' ends, have at one's fingers', learn at one's
fingers', know one's lesson, say one's lesson, repeat by heart, repeat
by rote; say one's lesson; repeat, repeat as a parrot; have at one's
fingers' ends, have at one's finger tips; commit to memory, memorize;
con over, con; fix in the memory, rivet in the memory, imprint in the
memory, impress in the memory, stamp in the memory, grave in the
memory, engrave in the memory, store in the memory, treasure up in the
memory, bottle up in the memory, embalm in the memory, enshrine in the
memory; load the memory with, store the memory with, stuff the memory
with, burden the memory with.
redeem from oblivion; keep the memory alive, keep the wound green,
pour salt in the wound, reopen old wounds'; tangere ulcus [Lat.]; keep
up the memory of; commemorate &c (celebrate) 883.
make a note of, jot a note, pen a memorandum &c (record) 551.
Adj. remembering, remembered &c v.; mindful, reminiscential^; retained
in the memory &c v.; pent up in one's memory; fresh; green, green in
remembrance; unforgotten, present to the mind; within one's memory &c
n.; indelible; uppermost in one's thoughts; memorable &c (important)
Adv. by heart, by rote; without book, memoriter^.
in memory of; in memoriam; memoria in aeterna [Lat.]; suggestive.
Phr. manet alta mente repostum [Lat.] [Vergil]; forsan et haec olim
meminisse juvabit [Lat.] [Vergil]; absens haeres non erit [Lat.];
beatae memoriae [Lat.]; briefly thyself remember [Lear]; mendacem
memorem esse oportet [Lat.] [Quintilian]; memory the warder of the
brain [Macbeth]; parsque est meminisse doloris [Lat.] [Ovid]; to live
in hearts we leave behind is not to die [Campbell]; vox audita peril
littera scripta manet [Lat.]; out of sight, out of mind.

506. Oblivion -- N. oblivion, obliviousness, lethe; forgetfulness &c
adj.; amnesia; obliteration of &c 552, insensibility to the past &c
short memory, treacherous memory, poor memory, loose memory,
slippery memory, failing memory; decay of memory, failure of memory,
lapse of memory; waters of Lethe, waters of oblivion.
amnesty, general pardon.
[deliberate or unconscious forgetting] repressed memory.
V. forget; be forgetful &c adj.; fall into oblivion, sink into
oblivion; have a short memory &c n., have no head.
forget one's own name, have on the tip of one's tongue, come in
one ear and go out the other.
slip memory, escape memory, fade from memory, die away from the
memory; lose, lose sight of.
fail to recall, not be able to recall.
[cause oneself to forget] unlearn; efface &c 552, discharge from
the memory; consign to oblivion, consign to the tomb of the Capulets;
think no more of &c (turn the attention from) 458; cast behind one's
back, wean one's thoughts from; let bygones be bygones &c (forgive)
Adj. forgotten &c v.; unremembered, past recollection, bygone, out of
mind; buried in oblivion, sunk in oblivion; clean forgotten; gone out
of one's head, gone out of one's recollection.
forgetful, oblivious, mindless, Lethean; insensible to the past &c
823; heedless.
Phr. non mi ricordo [It]; the memory failing, the memory deserting one,
being at fault, being in fault.
2. To the Future

507. Expectation -- N. expectation, expectance, expectancy;
anticipation, reckoning, calculation; foresight &c 510.
contemplation, prospection^, lookout; prospect, perspective,
horizon, vista; destiny &c 152.
suspense, waiting, abeyance; curiosity &c 455; anxious
expectation, ardent expectation, eager expectation, breathless

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