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Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases: Body by Roget

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fly, detonate, thunder, blow up, crump^, flash, flare, burst; shock,
strain; break open, force open, prize open.
render violent &c adj.; sharpen, stir up, quicken, excite, incite,
annoy, urge, lash, stimulate, turn on; irritate, inflame, kindle,
suscitate^, foment; accelerate, aggravate, exasperate, exacerbate,
convulse, infuriate, madden, lash into fury; fan the flame; add fuel to
the flame, pour oil on the fire, oleum addere camino [Lat.].
explode; let fly, fly off; discharge, detonate, set off, detonize^,
Adj. violent, vehement; warm; acute, sharp; rough, rude, ungentle,
bluff, boisterous, wild; brusque, abrupt, waspish; impetuous; rampant.
turbulent; disorderly; blustering, raging &c v.; troublous^,
riotous; tumultuary^, tumultuous; obstreperous, uproarious; extravagant;
unmitigated; ravening, inextinguishable, tameless; frenzied &c (insane)
desperate &c (rash) 863; infuriate, furious, outrageous, frantic,
hysteric, in hysterics.
fiery, flaming, scorching, hot, red-hot, ebullient.
savage, fierce, ferocious, fierce as a tiger.
excited &c v.; unquelled^, unquenched, unextinguished^,
unrepressed, unbridled, unruly; headstrong, ungovernable, unappeasable,
immitigable, unmitigable^; uncontrollable, incontrollable^;
insuppressible, irrepressible; orgastic, orgasmatic, orgasmic.
spasmodic, convulsive, explosive; detonating &c v.; volcanic,
meteoric; stormy &c (wind) 349.
Adv. violently &c adj.; amain^; by storm, by force, by main force; with
might and main; tooth and nail, vi et armis [Lat.], at the point of the
sword, at the point of the bayonet; at one fell swoop; with a high
hand, through thick and thin; in desperation, with a vengeance; a
outrance^, a toute outrance [Fr.]; headlong, head foremost.
Phr. furor arma ministrat [Lat.]; blown with restless violence round
about the pendent world [Measure for Measure].

174. Moderation -- N. moderation, lenity &c 740; temperateness,
gentleness &c adj.; sobriety; quiet; mental calmness &c
(inexcitability) 826 [Obs.].
moderating &c v.; anaphrodisia^; relaxation, remission, mitigation,
tranquilization^, assuagement, contemporation^, pacification.
measure, juste milieu [Fr.], golden mean, ariston metron [Gr.].
moderator; lullaby, sedative, lenitive, demulcent, antispasmodic,
carminative, laudanum; rose water, balm, poppy, opiate, anodyne, milk,
opium, poppy or mandragora; wet blanket; palliative.
V. be moderate &c adj.; keep within bounds, keep within compass; sober
down, settle down; keep the peace, remit, relent, take in sail.
moderate, soften, mitigate, temper, accoy^; attemper^, contemper^;
mollify, lenify^, dulcify^, dull, take off the edge, blunt, obtund^,
sheathe, subdue, chasten; sober down, tone down, smooth down; weaken &c
160; lessen &c (decrease) 36; check palliate.
tranquilize, pacify, assuage, appease, swag, lull, soothe,
compose, still, calm, calm down, cool, quiet, hush, quell, sober,
pacify, tame, damp, lay, allay, rebate, slacken, smooth, alleviate,
rock to sleep, deaden, smooth, throw cold water on, throw a wet blanket
over, turn off; slake; curb &c (restrain) 751; tame &c (subjugate) 749;
smooth over; pour oil on the waves, pour oil on the troubled waters;
pour balm into, mattre de l'eau dans son vin [Fr.].
go out like a lamb, roar you as gently as any sucking dove
[Midsummer-Night's Dream].
Adj. moderate; lenient &c 740; gentle, mild, mellow; cool, sober,
temperate, reasonable, measured; tempered &c v.; calm, unruffled,
quiet, tranquil, still; slow, smooth, untroubled; tame; peaceful,
peaceable; pacific, halcyon.
unexciting, unirritating^; soft, bland, oily, demulcent, lenitive,
anodyne; hypnotic &c 683; sedative; antiorgastic^, anaphrodisiac^.
mild as mother's milk; milk and water.
Adv. moderately &c adj.; gingerly; piano; under easy sail, at half
speed; within bounds, within compass; in reason.
Phr. est modue in rebus^; pour oil on troubled waters.


175. Influence -- N. influence; importance &c 642; weight, pressure,
preponderance, prevalence, sway; predominance, predominancy^;
ascendency^; dominance, reign; control, domination, pull [Slang];
authority &c 737; capability &c (power) 157; effect &c 154; interest.
synergy (cooperation) 709.
footing; purchase &c (support) 215; play, leverage, vantage
tower of strength, host in himself; protection, patronage,
V. have influence &c n.; be influential &c adj.; carry weight, weigh,
tell; have a hold upon, magnetize, bear upon, gain a footing, work
upon; take root, take hold; strike root in.
run through, pervade; prevail, dominate, predominate; out weigh,
over weigh; over-ride, over-bear; gain head; rage; be rife &c adj.;
spread like wildfire; have the upper hand, get the upper hand, gain the
upper hand, have full play, get full play, gain full play.
be recognized, be listened to; make one's voice heard, gain a
hearing; play a part, play a leading part, play a leading part in; take
the lead, pull the strings; turn the scale, throw one's weight into the
scale; set the fashion, lead the dance.
Adj. influential, effective; important &c 642; weighty; prevailing &c
v.; prevalent, rife, rampant, dominant, regnant, predominant, in the
ascendant, hegemonical^.
Adv. with telling effect.
Phr. tel maure tel valet [Fr.].

175a. Absence of Influence -- N. impotence &c 158; powerlessness;
inertness &c 172; irrelevancy &c 10.
V. have no influence &c 175.
Adj. uninfluential^, ineffective; inconsequential, nugatory;
unconducing, unconducive, unconducting to^; powerless &c 158; irrelevant
&c 10.

176. Tendency -- N. tendency; aptness, aptitude; proneness, proclivity,
bent, turn, tone, bias, set, leaning to, predisposition, inclination,
propensity, susceptibility; conatus [Lat.], nisus [Lat.]; liability &c
177; quality, nature, temperament; idiocrasy^, idiosyncrasy; cast, vein,
grain; humor, mood; drift &c (direction) 278; conduciveness,
conducement^; applicability &c (utility) 644; subservience &c
(instrumentality) 631.
V. tend, contribute, conduce, lead, dispose, incline, verge, bend to,
trend, affect, carry, redound to, bid fair to, gravitate towards;
promote &c (aid) 707.
Adj. tending &c v.; conducive, working towards, in a fair way to,
calculated to; liable &c 177; subservient &c (instrumental) 631; useful
&c 644; subsidiary &c (helping) 707.
Adv. for, whither.

177. Liability -- N. liability, liableness^; possibility, contingency;
susceptivity^, susceptibility, exposure.
V. be liable &c adj.; incur, lay oneself open to; run the chance, stand
a chance; lie under, expose oneself to, open a door to.
Adj. liable, subject; in danger &c 665; open to, exposed to, obnoxious
to; answerable; unexempt from^; apt to; dependent on; incident to.
contingent, incidental, possible, on the cards, within range of,
at the mercy of.


178. Concurrence -- N. concurrence, cooperation, coagency^; union;
agreement &c 23; consilience^; consent, coincidence &c (assent) 488;
alliance; concert, additivity, synergy &c 709; partnership &c 712.
common cause.
V. concur, conduce, conspire, contribute; agree, unite; hang together,
pull together, join forces, make common cause.
&c (cooperate) 709; help to &c (aid) 707.
keep pace with, run parallel; go with, go along with, go hand in
hand with, coincide.
Adj. concurring &c v.; concurrent, in alliance with, banded together,
of one mind, at one with, coinciding.
Adv. with one consent.

179. Counteraction -- N. counteraction, opposition; contrariety &c 14;
antagonism, polarity; clashing &c v.; collision, interference,
inhibition, resistance, renitency, friction; reaction; retroaction &c
(recoil) 277; counterblast^; neutralization &c (compensation) 30; vis
inertiae [Lat.]; check &c (hindrance) 706.
voluntary opposition &c 708, voluntary resistance &c 719;
repression &c (restraint) 751.
opposites, action and reaction, yang and yin, yang-yin
(contrariety) 14.
V. counteract; run counter, clash, cross; interfere with, conflict
with; contravene; jostle; go against, run against, beat against,
militate against; stultify; antagonize, block, oppose &c 708; traverse;
withstand &c (resist) 719; hinder &c 706; repress &c (restrain) 751;
react &c (recoil) 277.
undo, neutralize; counterpoise &c (compensate) 30; overpoise^.
Adj. counteracting &c v.; antagonistic, conflicting, retroactive,
renitent, reactionary; contrary &c 14.
Adv. although &c 30; in spite of &c 708; against.
Phr. for every action there is a reaction, equal in force and opposite
in direction [Newton].




180. [Indefinite space.] Space -- N. space, extension, extent,
superficial extent, expanse, stretch, hyperspace; room, scope, range,
field, way, expansion, compass, sweep, swing, spread.
dimension, length &c 200; distance &c 196; size &c 192; volume;
latitude, play, leeway, purchase, tolerance, room for maneuver.
spare room, elbow room, house room; stowage, roomage^, margin;
opening, sphere, arena.
open space, free space; void &c (absence) 187; waste; wildness,
wilderness; moor, moorland; campagna^.
abyss &c (interval) 198; unlimited space; infinity &c 105; world;
ubiquity &c (presence) 186; length and breadth of the land.
proportions, acreage; acres, acres and perches, roods and perches,
hectares, square miles; square inches, square yards, square
centimeters, square meters, yards (clothing) &c; ares, arpents^.
Adj. spacious, roomy, extensive, expansive, capacious, ample;
widespread, vast, world-wide, uncircumscribed; boundless &c (infinite)
105; shoreless^, trackless, pathless; extended.
Adv. extensively &c adj.; wherever; everywhere; far and near, far and
wide; right and left, all over, all the world over; throughout the
world, throughout the length and breadth of the land; under the sun, in
every quarter; in all quarters, in all lands; here there and
everywhere; from pole to pole, from China to Peru [Johnson], from Indus
to the pole [Pope], from Dan to Beersheba, from end to end; on the face
of the earth, in the wide world, from all points of the compass; to the
four winds, to the uttermost parts of the earth.

180a. Inextension -- N. inextension^, nonextension^, point; dot; atom &c
(smallness) 32.

181. [Definite space.] Region -- N. region, sphere, ground, soil, area,
field, realm, hemisphere, quarter, district, beat, orb, circuit,
circle; reservation, pale &c (limit) 233; compartment, department;
[political divisions: see] (property) &c 780 (Government) &c 737.1
arena, precincts, enceinte, walk, march; patch, plot, parcel,
inclosure, close, field, court; enclave, reserve, preserve; street &c
(abode) 189.
clime, climate, zone, meridian, latitude.
biosphere; lithosphere.
Adj. territorial, local, parochial, provincial, regional.

182. [Limited space.] Place -- N. place, lieu, spot, point, dot; niche,
nook &c (corner) 244; hole; pigeonhole &c (receptacle) 191;
compartment; premises, precinct, station; area, courtyard, square;
abode &c 189; locality &c (situation) 183.
ins and outs; every hole and corner.
Adv. somewhere, in some place, wherever it may be, here and there, in
various places, passim.


183. Situation -- N. situation, position, locality, locale, status,
latitude and longitude; footing, standing, standpoint, post; stage;
aspect, attitude, posture, pose.
environment, surroundings (location) 184; circumjacence &c 227
place, site, station, seat, venue, whereabouts; ground; bearings
&c (direction) 278; spot &c (limited space) 182.
topography, geography, chorography^; map &c 554.
V. be situated, be situate; lie, have its seat in.
Adj. situate, situated; local, topical, topographical &c n..
Adv. in situ, in loco; here and there, passim; hereabouts, thereabouts,
whereabouts; in place, here, there.
in such and such surroundings, in such and such environs, in such
and such entourage, amidst such and such surroundings, amidst such and
such environs, amidst such and such entourage.

184. Location -- N. location, localization; lodgment; deposition,
reposition; stowage, package; collocation; packing, lading;
establishment, settlement, installation; fixation; insertion &c 300.
habitat, environment, surroundings (situation) 183; circumjacence
&c 227 [Obs.].
anchorage, mooring, encampment.
plantation, colony, settlement, cantonment; colonization,
domestication, situation; habitation &c (abode) 189; cohabitation; a
local habitation and a name [Midsummer Night's Dream]; endenization^,
V. place, situate, locate, localize, make a place for, put, lay, set,
seat, station, lodge, quarter, post, install; house, stow; establish,
fix, pin, root; graft; plant &c (insert) 300; shelve, pitch, camp, lay
down, deposit, reposit^; cradle; moor, tether, picket; pack, tuck in;
embed, imbed; vest, invest in.
billet on, quarter upon, saddle with; load, lade, freight; pocket,
put up, bag.
inhabit &c (be present) 186; domesticate, colonize; take root,
strike root; anchor; cast anchor, come to an anchor; sit down, settle
down; settle; take up one's abode, take up one's quarters; plant
oneself, establish oneself, locate oneself; squat, perch, hive, se
nicher [Fr.], bivouac, burrow, get a footing; encamp, pitch one's tent;
put up at, put up one's horses at; keep house.
endenizen^, naturalize, adopt.
put back, replace &c (restore) 660.
Adj. placed &c v.; situate, posited, ensconced, imbedded, embosomed^,
rooted; domesticated; vested in, unremoved^.
moored &c v.; at anchor.

185. Displacement -- N. displacement, elocation^, transposition.
ejectment &c 297 [Obs.]; exile &c (banishment) 893; removal &c
(transference) 270.
misplacement, dislocation &c 61; fish out of water.
V. displace, misplace, displant^, dislodge, disestablish; exile &c
(seclude) 893; ablegate^, set aside, remove; take away, cart away; take
off, draft off; lade &c 184.
unload, empty &c (eject) 297; transfer &c 270; dispel.
vacate; depart &c 293.
Adj. displaced &c v.; unplaced, unhoused^, unharbored^, unestablished^,
unsettled; houseless^, homeless; out of place, out of a situation; in
the wrong place.
misplaced, out of its element.


186. Presence -- N. presence; occupancy, occupation; attendance;
permeation, pervasion; diffusion &c (dispersion) 73.
ubiety^, ubiquity, ubiquitariness^; omnipresence.
bystander &c (spectator) 444.
V. exist in space, be present &c adj.; assister^; make one of, make one
at; look on, attend, remain; find oneself, present oneself; show one's
face; fall in the way of, occur in a place; lie, stand; occupy; be
people; inhabit, dwell, reside, stay, sojourn, live, abide, lodge,
nestle, roost, perch; take up one's abode &c (be located) 184; tenant.
resort to, frequent, haunt; revisit.
fill, pervade, permeate; be diffused, be disseminated, be through;
over spread, overrun; run through; meet one at every turn.
Adj. present; occupying, inhabiting &c v.; moored &c 184; resiant^,
resident, residentiary^; domiciled.
ubiquitous, ubiquitary^; omnipresent; universally present.
peopled, populous, full of people, inhabited.
Adv. here, there, where, everywhere, aboard, on board, at home, afield;
here there and everywhere &c (space) 180; in presence of, before; under
the eyes of, under the nose of; in the face of; in propria persona
on the spot; in person, in the flesh.
Phr. nusquam est qui ubique est [Lat.] [Seneca].

187. [Nullibiety.1] Absence -- N. absence; inexistence &c 2 [Obs.];
nonresidence, absenteeism; nonattendance, alibi.
emptiness &c adj.; void, vacuum; vacuity, vacancy; tabula rasa
[Lat.]; exemption; hiatus &c (interval) 198; lipotype^.
truant, absentee.
nobody; nobody present, nobody on earth; not a soul; ame qui vive
V. be absent &c adj.; keep away, keep out of the way; play truant,
absent oneself, stay away; keep aloof, hold aloof.
withdraw, make oneself scarce, vacate; go away &c 293.
Adj. absent, not present, away, nonresident, gone, from home; missing;
lost; wanting; omitted; nowhere to be found; inexistence &c 2 [Obs.].
empty, void; vacant, vacuous; untenanted, unoccupied, uninhabited;
tenantless; barren, sterile; desert, deserted; devoid; uninhabitable.
Adv. without, minus, nowhere; elsewhere; neither here nor there; in
default of; sans; behind one's back.
Phr. the bird has flown, non est inventus [Lat.].
absence makes the heart grow fonder [Bayley]; absent in body but
present in spirit [1 Corinthians verse 3]; absento nemo ne nocuisse
velit [Lat.] [Propertius]; Achilles absent was Achilles still [Homer];
aux absents les os; briller par son absence [Fr.]; conspicuous by his
absence [Russell]; in the hope to meet shortly again and make our
absence sweet [B.

188. Inhabitant -- N. inhabitant; resident, residentiary^; dweller,
indweller^; addressee; occupier, occupant; householder, lodger, inmate,
tenant, incumbent, sojourner, locum tenens, commorant^; settler,
squatter, backwoodsman, colonist; islander; denizen, citizen; burgher,
oppidan^, cockney, cit, townsman, burgess; villager; cottager, cottier^,
cotter; compatriot; backsettler^, boarder; hotel keeper, innkeeper;
habitant; paying guest; planter.
native, indigene, aborigines, autochthones^; Englishman, John Bull;
newcomer &c (stranger) 57.
aboriginal, American^, Caledonian, Cambrian, Canadian, Canuck
[Slang], downeaster [U.S.], Scot, Scotchman, Hibernian, Irishman,
Welshman, Uncle Sam, Yankee, Brother Jonathan.
garrison, crew; population; people &c (mankind) 372; colony,
settlement; household; mir^.
V. inhabit &c (be present) 186; endenizen &c (locate oneself) 184
Adj. indigenous; native, natal; autochthonal^, autochthonous; British;
English; American^; Canadian, Irish, Scotch, Scottish, Welsh; domestic;
domiciliated^, domiciled; naturalized, vernacular, domesticated;
in the occupation of; garrisoned by, occupied by.

189. [Place of habitation, or resort.] Abode -- N. abode, dwelling,
lodging, domicile, residence, apartment, place, digs, pad, address,
habitation, where one's lot is cast, local habitation, berth, diggings,
seat, lap, sojourn, housing, quarters, headquarters, resiance^,
tabernacle, throne, ark.
home, fatherland; country; homestead, homestall^; fireside; hearth,
hearth stone; chimney corner, inglenook, ingle side; harem, seraglio,
zenana^; household gods, lares et penates [Lat.], roof, household,
housing, dulce domum [Lat.], paternal domicile; native soil, native
habitat, range, stamping ground; haunt, hangout; biosphere;
environment, ecological niche.
nest, nidus, snuggery^; arbor, bower, &c 191; lair, den, cave,
hole, hiding place, cell, sanctum sanctorum [Lat.], aerie, eyrie, eyry^,
rookery, hive; covert, resort, retreat, perch, roost; nidification;
kala jagah^.
bivouac, camp, encampment, cantonment, castrametation^; barrack,
casemate^, casern^.
tent &c (covering) 223; building &c (construction) 161; chamber &c
(receptacle) 191; xenodochium^.
tenement, messuage, farm, farmhouse, grange, hacienda, toft^.
cot, cabin, hut, chalet, croft, shed, booth, stall, hovel, bothy^,
shanty, dugout [U.S.], wigwam; pen &c (inclosure) 232; barn, bawn^;
kennel, sty, doghold^, cote, coop, hutch, byre; cow house, cow shed;
stable, dovecote, columbary^, columbarium; shippen^; igloo, iglu^,
jacal^; lacustrine dwelling^, lacuslake dwelling^, lacuspile dwelling^;
log cabin, log house; shack, shebang [Slang], tepee, topek^.
house, mansion, place, villa, cottage, box, lodge, hermitage, rus
in urbe [Lat.], folly, rotunda, tower, chateau, castle, pavilion,
hotel, court, manor-house, capital messuage, hall, palace; kiosk,
bungalow; casa [Sp.], country seat, apartment house, flat house, frame
house, shingle house, tenement house; temple &c 1000.
hamlet, village, thorp^, dorp^, ham, kraal; borough, burgh, town,
city, capital, metropolis; suburb; province, country; county town,
county seat; courthouse [U.S.]; ghetto.
street, place, terrace, parade, esplanade, alameda^, board walk,
embankment, road, row, lane, alley, court, quadrangle, quad, wynd
[Scot.], close [Scot.], yard, passage, rents, buildings, mews.
square, polygon, circus, crescent, mall, piazza, arcade,
colonnade, peristyle, cloister; gardens, grove, residences; block of
buildings, market place, place, plaza.
anchorage, roadstead, roads; dock, basin, wharf, quay, port,
quarter, parish &c (region) 181.
assembly room, meetinghouse, pump room, spa, watering place; inn;
hostel, hostelry; hotel, tavern, caravansary, dak bungalow^, khan,
hospice; public house, pub, pot house, mug house; gin mill, gin palace;
bar, bar room; barrel house [U.S.], cabaret, chophouse; club,
clubhouse; cookshop^, dive [U.S.], exchange [Euph.]; grill room, saloon
[U.S.], shebeen^; coffee house, eating house; canteen, restaurant,
buffet, cafe, estaminet^, posada^; almshouse^, poorhouse, townhouse
garden, park, pleasure ground, plaisance^, demesne.
[quarters for animals] cage, terrarium, doghouse; pen, aviary;
barn, stall; zoo.
V. take up one's abode &c (locate oneself) 184; inhabit &c (be present)
Adj. urban, metropolitan; suburban; provincial, rural, rustic;
domestic; cosmopolitan; palatial.
Phr. eigner Hert ist goldes Werth [G.]; even cities have their graves
[Longfellow]; ubi libertas ibi patria [Lat.]; home sweet home.

190. [Things contained.] Contents -- N. contents; cargo, lading,
freight, shipment, load, bale, burden, jag; cartload^, shipload; cup of,
basket of, &c (receptacle) 191 of; inside &c 221; stuffing, ullage.

191. Receptacle -- N. receptacle; inclosure &c 232; recipient,
receiver, reservatory.
compartment; cell, cellule; follicle; hole, corner, niche, recess,
nook; crypt, stall, pigeonhole, cove, oriel; cave &c (concavity) 252.
capsule, vesicle, cyst, pod, calyx, cancelli, utricle, bladder;
pericarp, udder.
stomach, paunch, venter, ventricle, crop, craw, maw, gizzard,
breadbasket; mouth.
pocket, pouch, fob, sheath, scabbard, socket, bag, sac, sack,
saccule, wallet, cardcase, scrip, poke, knit, knapsack, haversack,
sachel, satchel, reticule, budget, net; ditty bag, ditty box;
housewife, hussif; saddlebags; portfolio; quiver &c (magazine) 636.
chest, box, coffer, caddy, case, casket, pyx, pix, caisson, desk,
bureau, reliquary; trunk, portmanteau, band-box, valise; grip, grip
sack [U.S.]; skippet, vasculum; boot, imperial; vache; cage, manger,
vessel, vase, bushel, barrel; canister, jar; pottle, basket,
pannier, buck-basket, hopper, maund^, creel, cran, crate, cradle,
bassinet, wisket, whisket, jardiniere, corbeille, hamper, dosser,
dorser, tray, hod, scuttle, utensil; brazier; cuspidor, spittoon.
[For liquids] cistern &c (store) 636; vat, caldron, barrel, cask,
drum, puncheon, keg, rundlet, tun, butt, cag, firkin, kilderkin,
carboy, amphora, bottle, jar, decanter, ewer, cruse, caraffe, crock,
kit, canteen, flagon; demijohn; flask, flasket; stoup, noggin, vial,
phial, cruet, caster; urn, epergne, salver, patella, tazza, patera; pig
gin, big gin; tyg, nipperkin, pocket pistol; tub, bucket, pail, skeel,
pot, tankard, jug, pitcher, mug, pipkin; galipot, gallipot; matrass,
receiver, retort, alembic, bolthead, capsule, can, kettle; bowl, basin,
jorum, punch bowl, cup, goblet, chalice, tumbler, glass, rummer, horn,
saucepan, skillet, posnet^, tureen.
[laboratory vessels for liquids] beaker, flask, Erlenmeyer flask,
Florence flask, round-bottom flask, graduated cylinder, test tube,
culture tube, pipette, Pasteur pipette, disposable pipette, syringe,
vial, carboy, vacuum flask, Petri dish, microtiter tray, centrifuge
bail, beaker, billy, canakin; catch basin, catch drain; chatti,
lota, mussuk, schooner [U.S.], spider, terrine, toby, urceus.
plate, platter, dish, trencher, calabash, porringer, potager,
saucer, pan, crucible; glassware, tableware; vitrics.
compote, gravy boat, creamer, sugar bowl, butter dish, mug,
pitcher, punch bowl, chafing dish.
shovel, trowel, spoon, spatula, ladle, dipper, tablespoon, watch
glass, thimble.
closet, commode, cupboard, cellaret, chiffonniere, locker, bin,
bunker, buffet, press, clothespress, safe, sideboard, drawer, chest of
drawers, chest on chest, highboy, lowboy, till, scrutoire^, secretary,
secretaire, davenport, bookcase, cabinet, canterbury; escritoire,
etagere, vargueno, vitrine.
chamber, apartment, room, cabin; office, court, hall, atrium;
suite of rooms, apartment [U.S.], flat, story; saloon, salon, parlor;
by-room, cubicle; presence chamber; sitting room, best room, keeping
room, drawing room, reception room, state room; gallery, cabinet,
closet; pew, box; boudoir; adytum, sanctum; bedroom, dormitory;
refectory, dining room, salle-a-manger; nursery, schoolroom; library,
study; studio; billiard room, smoking room; den; stateroom, tablinum,
[room for defecation and urination] bath room, bathroom, toilet,
lavatory, powder room; john, jakes, necessary, loo; [in public places]
men's room, ladies' room, rest room; [fixtures] (uncleanness). 653
attic, loft, garret, cockloft, clerestory; cellar, vault, hold,
cockpit; cubbyhole; cook house; entre-sol; mezzanine floor; ground
floor, rez-de-chaussee; basement, kitchen, pantry, bawarchi-khana,
scullery, offices; storeroom &c (depository) 636; lumber room; dairy,
coach house; garage; hangar; outhouse; penthouse; lean-to.
portico, porch, stoop, stope, veranda, patio, lanai, terrace,
deck; lobby, court, courtyard, hall, vestibule, corridor, passage,
breezeway; ante room, ante chamber; lounge; piazza, veranda.
conservatory, greenhouse, bower, arbor, summerhouse, alcove,
grotto, hermitage.
lodging &c (abode) 189; bed &c (support) 215; carriage &c
(vehicle) 272.
Adj. capsular; saccular, sacculated; recipient; ventricular, cystic,
vascular, vesicular, cellular, camerated, locular, multilocular,
polygastric; marsupial; siliquose, siliquous.



192. Size -- N. size, magnitude, dimension, bulk, volume; largeness &c
adj.; greatness &c (of quantity) 31; expanse &c (space) 180; amplitude,
mass; proportions.
capacity, tonnage, tunnage; cordage; caliber, scantling.
turgidity &c (expansion) 194; corpulence, obesity; plumpness &c
adj.; embonpoint, corporation, flesh and blood, lustihood.
hugeness &c adj.; enormity, immensity, monstrosity.
giant, Brobdingnagian, Antaeus, Goliath, Gog and Magog, Gargantua,
monster, mammoth, Cyclops; cachalot, whale, porpoise, behemoth,
leviathan, elephant, hippopotamus; colossus; tun, cord, lump, bulk,
block, loaf, mass, swad, clod, nugget, bushel, thumper, whooper,
spanker, strapper; Triton among the minnows [Coriolanus].
mountain, mound; heap &c (assemblage) 72.
largest portion &c 50; full size, life size.
V. be large &c adj.; become large &c (expand) 194.
Adj. large, big; great &c (in quantity) 31; considerable, bulky,
voluminous, ample, massive, massy; capacious, comprehensive; spacious
&c 180; mighty, towering, fine, magnificent.
corpulent, stout, fat, obese, plump, squab, full, lusty,
strapping, bouncing; portly, burly, well-fed, full-grown; corn fed,
gram fed; stalwart, brawny, fleshy; goodly; in good case, in good
condition; in condition; chopping, jolly; chub faced, chubby faced.
lubberly, hulky, unwieldy, lumpish, gaunt, spanking, whacking,
whopping, walloping, thumping, thundering, hulking; overgrown; puffy &c
(swollen) 194.
huge, immense, enormous, mighty; vast, vasty; amplitudinous,
stupendous; monster, monstrous, humongous, monumental; elephantine,
jumbo, mammoth; gigantic, gigantean, giant, giant like, titanic;
prodigious, colossal, Cyclopean, Brobdingnagian, Bunyanesque,
Herculean, Gargantuan; infinite &c 105.
large as life; plump as a dumpling, plump as a partridge; fat as a
pig, fat as a quail, fat as butter, fat as brawn, fat as bacon.
immeasurable, unfathomable, unplumbed; inconceivable,
unimaginable, unheard-of.
of cosmic proportions; of epic proportions, the mother of all, teh
granddaddy of all.

193. Littleness -- N. littleness &c adj.; smallness &c (of quantity)
32; exiguity, inextension^; parvitude^, parvity^; duodecimo^; Elzevir
edition, epitome, microcosm; rudiment; vanishing point; thinness &c
dwarf, pygmy, pigmy^, Liliputian, chit, pigwidgeon^, urchin, elf;
atomy^, dandiprat^; doll, puppet; Tom Thumb, Hop-o'-my-thumb^; manikin,
mannikin; homunculus, dapperling^, cock-sparrow.
animalcule, monad, mite, insect, emmet^, fly, midge, gnat, shrimp,
minnow, worm, maggot, entozoon^; bacteria; infusoria^; microzoa
[Micro.]; phytozoaria^; microbe; grub; tit, tomtit, runt, mouse, small
fry; millet seed, mustard seed; barleycorn; pebble, grain of sand;
molehill, button, bubble.
point; atom &c (small quantity) 32; fragment &c (small part) 51;
powder &c 330; point of a pin, mathematical point; minutiae &c
(unimportance) 643.
micrometer; vernier; scale.
microphotography, photomicrography, micrography^; photomicrograph,
microphotograph; microscopy; microscope (optical instruments) 445.
V. be little &c adj.; lie in a nutshell; become small &c (decrease) 36,
(contract) 195.
Adj. little; small &c (in quantity) 32; minute, diminutive,
microscopic; microzoal; inconsiderable &c (unimportant) 643; exiguous,
puny, tiny, wee, petty, minikin^, miniature, pygmy, pigmy^, elfin;
undersized; dwarf, dwarfed, dwarfish; spare, stunted, limited; cramp,
cramped; pollard, Liliputian, dapper, pocket; portative^, portable;
duodecimo^; dumpy, squat; short &c 201.
impalpable, intangible, evanescent, imperceptible, invisible,
inappreciable, insignificant, inconsiderable, trivial; infinitesimal,
homoeopathic^; atomic, subatomic, corpuscular, molecular; rudimentary,
rudimental; embryonic, vestigial.
weazen^, scant, scraggy, scrubby; thin &c (narrow) 203; granular &c
(powdery) 330; shrunk &c 195; brevipennate^.
Adv. in a small compass, in a nutshell; on a small scale; minutely,

194. Expansion -- N. expansion; increase of size &c 35; enlargement,
extension, augmentation; amplification, ampliation^; aggrandizement,
spread, increment, growth, development, pullulation, swell, dilation,
rarefaction; turgescence^, turgidness, turgidity; dispansion^; obesity
&c (size) 192; hydrocephalus, hydrophthalmus [Med.]; dropsy,
tumefaction, intumescence, swelling, tumor, diastole, distension;
puffing, puffiness; inflation; pandiculation^.
dilatability, expansibility.
germination, growth, upgrowth^; accretion &c 35; budding,
overgrowth, overdistension^; hypertrophy, tympany^.
bulb &c (convexity) 250; plumper; superiority of size.
[expansion of the universe] big bang; Hubble constant.
V. become larger &c (large) &c 192; expand, widen, enlarge, extend,
grow, increase, incrassate^, swell, gather; fill out; deploy, take open
order, dilate, stretch, distend, spread; mantle, wax; grow up, spring
up; bud, bourgeon [Fr.], shoot, sprout, germinate, put forth, vegetate,
pullulate, open, burst forth; gain flesh, gather flesh; outgrow; spread
like wildfire, overrun.
be larger than; surpass &c (be superior) 33.
render larger &c (large) &c 192; expand, spread, extend,
aggrandize, distend, develop, amplify, spread out, widen, magnify,
rarefy, inflate, puff, blow up, stuff, pad, cram; exaggerate; fatten.
Adj. expanded, &c v.; larger, &c (large) &c 192; swollen; expansive;
wide open, wide spread; flabelliform^; overgrown, exaggerated, bloated,
fat, turgid, tumid, hypertrophied, dropsical; pot bellied, swag
bellied^; edematous, oedematous^, obese, puffy, pursy^, blowzy,
bigswoln^, distended; patulous; bulbous &c (convex) 250; full blown,
full grown, full formed; big &c 192; abdominous^, enchymatous^,
rhipidate^; tumefacient^, tumefying^.

195. Contraction -- N. contraction, reduction, diminution; decrease of
size &c 36; defalcation, decrement; lessening, shrinking &c v.;
compaction; tabes^, collapse, emaciation, attenuation, tabefaction^,
consumption, marasmus^, atrophy; systole, neck, hourglass.
condensation, compression, compactness; compendium &c 596;
squeezing &c v.; strangulation; corrugation; astringency; astringents,
sclerotics; contractility, compressibility; coarctation^.
inferiority in size.
V. become small, become smaller; lessen, decrease &c 36; grow less,
dwindle, shrink, contract, narrow, shrivel, collapse, wither, lose
flesh, wizen, fall away, waste, wane, ebb; decay &c (deteriorate) 659.
be smaller than, fall short of; not come up to &c (be inferior)
render smaller, lessen, diminish, contract, draw in, narrow,
coarctate^; boil down; constrict, constringe^; condense, compress,
squeeze, corrugate, crimp, crunch, crush, crumple up, warp, purse up,
pack, squeeze, stow; pinch, tighten, strangle; cramp; dwarf, bedwarf^;
shorten &c 201; circumscribe &c 229; restrain &c 751.
[reduce in size by abrasion or paring. ] (subtraction) 38 abrade,
pare, reduce, attenuate, rub down, scrape, file, file down, grind,
grind down, chip, shave, shear, wear down.
Adj. contracting &c v.; astringent; shrunk, contracted &c v.;
strangulated, tabid^, wizened, stunted; waning &c v.; neap, compact.
unexpanded &c (expand) &c 194 [Obs.]; contractile; compressible;
smaller &c (small) &c 193.

196. Distance -- N. distance; space &c 180; remoteness, farness^, far-
cry to; longinquity^, elongation; offing, background; remote region;
removedness^; parallax; reach, span, stride.
outpost, outskirt; horizon; aphelion; foreign parts, ultima Thule
[Lat.], ne plus ultra [Lat.], antipodes; long range, giant's stride.
dispersion &c 73.
[units of distance] length &c 200.
cosmic distance, light-years.
V. be distant &c adj.; extend to, stretch to, reach to, spread to, go
to, get to, stretch away to; range.
remain at a distance; keep away, keep off, keep aloof, keep clear
of, stand away, stand off, stand aloof, stand clear of, stay away, keep
one's distance.
distance; distance oneself from.
Adj. distant; far off, far away; remote, telescopic, distal, wide of;
stretching to &c v.; yon, yonder; ulterior; transmarine^, transpontine^,
transatlantic, transalpine; tramontane; ultramontane, ultramundane^;
hyperborean, antipodean; inaccessible, out of the way; unapproached^,
unapproachable; incontiguous^.
Adv. far off, far away; afar, afar off; off; away; a long way off, a
great way off, a good way off; wide away, aloof; wide of, clear of; out
of the way, out of reach; abroad, yonder, farther, further, beyond;
outre mer [Fr.], over the border, far and wide, over the hills and far
away [Gay]; from pole to pole &c (over great space) 180; to the
uttermost parts, to the ends of the earth; out of hearing, nobody knows
where, a perte de vue [Fr.], out of the sphere of, wide of the mark; a
far cry to.
apart, asunder; wide apart, wide asunder; longo intervallo [It];
at arm's length.
Phr. distance lends enchantment [Campbell]; it's a long long way to
Tipperary; out of sight, out of mind.

197. Nearness -- N. nearness &c adj.; proximity, propinquity; vicinity,
vicinage; neighborhood, adjacency; contiguity &c 199.
short distance, short step, short cut; earshot, close quarters,
stone's throw; bow shot, gun shot, pistol shot; hair's breadth, span.
purlieus, neighborhood, vicinage, environs, alentours [Fr.],
suburbs, confines, banlieue^, borderland; whereabouts.
bystander; neighbor, borderer^.
approach &c 286; convergence &c 290; perihelion.
V. be near &c adj.; adjoin, hang about, trench on; border upon, verge
upon; stand by, approximate, tread on the heels of, cling to, clasp,
hug; huddle; hang upon the skirts of, hover over; burn.
touch &c 199; bring near, draw near &c 286; converge &c 290; crowd
&c 72; place side by side &c adv..
Adj. near, nigh; close at hand, near at hand; close, neighboring;
bordering upon, contiguous, adjacent, adjoining; proximate, proximal;
at hand, handy; near the mark, near run; home, intimate.
Adv. near, nigh; hard by, fast by; close to, close upon; hard upon; at
the point of; next door to; within reach, within call, within hearing,
within earshot; within an ace of; but a step, not far from, at no great
distance; on the verge of, on the brink of, on the skirts of; in the
environs &c n.; at one's door, at one's feet, at one's elbow, at one's
finger's end, at one's side; on the tip of one's tongue; under one's
nose; within a stone's throw &c n.; in sight of, in presence of; at
close quarters; cheek by jole^, cheek by jowl; beside, alongside, side
by side, tete-a-tete; in juxtaposition &c (touching) 199; yardarm to
yardarm, at the heels of; on the confines of, at the threshold,
bordering upon, verging to; in the way.
about; hereabouts, thereabouts; roughly, in round numbers;
approximately, approximatively^; as good as, well-nigh.

198. Interval -- N. interval, interspace^; separation &c 44; break, gap,
opening; hole &c 260; chasm, hiatus, caesura; interruption,
interregnum; interstice, lacuna, cleft, mesh, crevice, chink, rime,
creek, cranny, crack, chap, slit, fissure, scissure^, rift, flaw,
breach, rent, gash, cut, leak, dike, ha-ha.
gorge, defile, ravine, canon, crevasse, abyss, abysm; gulf; inlet,
frith^, strait, gully; pass; furrow &c 259; abra^; barranca^, barranco^;
clove [U.S.], gulch [U.S.], notch [U.S.]; yawning gulf; hiatus maxime
[Lat.], hiatus valde deflendus [Lat.]; parenthesis &c (interjacence)
228 [Obs.]; void &c (absence) 187; incompleteness &c 53.
[interval of time] period &c 108; interim (time) 106.
V. gape &c (open) 260.
Adj. with an interval, far between; breachy^, rimose^, rimulose^.
Adv. at intervals &c (discontinuously) 70; longo intervallo [It].

199. Contiguity -- N. contiguity, contact, proximity, apposition,
abuttal^, juxtaposition; abutment, osculation; meeting, appulse^,
rencontre^, rencounter^, syzygy [Astr.], coincidence, coexistence;
adhesion &c 46; touching &c v.. (touch) 379.
borderland; frontier &c (limit) 233; tangent; abutter.
V. be contiguous &c adj.; join, adjoin, abut on, march with; graze,
touch, meet, osculate, come in contact, coincide; coexist; adhere &c
[cause to be contiguous] juxtapose; contact; join (unite) 43; link
(vinculum) 45.
Adj. contiguous; touching &c v.; in contact &c n.; conterminous, end to
end, osculatory; pertingent^; tangential.
hand to hand; close to &c (near) 197; with no interval &c 198.


200. Length -- N. length, longitude, span; mileage; distance &c 196.
line, bar, rule, stripe, streak, spoke, radius.
lengthening &c v.; prolongation, production, protraction; tension,
tensure^; extension.
[Measures of length] line, nail, inch, hand, palm, foot, cubit,
yard, ell, fathom, rood, pole, furlong, mile, league; chain, link;
arpent^, handbreadth^, jornada [U.S.], kos^, vara^.
[astronomical units of distance] astronomical unit, AU, light-
year, parsec.
[metric units of length] nanometer, nm, micron, micrometer,
millimicron, millimeter, mm, centimeter, cm, meter, kilometer, km.
pedometer, perambulator; scale &c (measurement) 466.
V. be long &c adj.; stretch out, sprawl; extend to, reach to, stretch
to; make a long arm, drag its slow length along.
render long &c adj.; lengthen, extend, elongate; stretch; prolong,
produce, protract; let out, draw out, spin out^; drawl.
enfilade, look along, view in perspective.
distend (expand) 194.
Adj. long, longsome^; lengthy, wiredrawn^, outstretched; lengthened &c
v.; sesquipedalian &c (words) 577; interminable, no end of;
linear, lineal; longitudinal, oblong.
as long as my arm, as long as today and tomorrow; unshortened &c
(shorten) &c 201 [Obs.].
Adv. lengthwise, at length, longitudinally, endlong^, along; tandem; in
a line &c (continuously) 69; in perspective.
from end to end, from stem to stern, from head to foot, from the
crown of the head to the sole of the foot, from top to toe; fore and

201. Shortness -- N. shortness &c adj.; brevity; littleness &c 193; a
shortening &c v.; abbreviation, abbreviature^; abridgment,
concision, retrenchment, curtailment, decurtation^; reduction &c
(contraction) 195; epitome &c (compendium) 596.
elision, ellipsis; conciseness &c (in style) 572.
abridger, epitomist^, epitomizer^.
V. be short &c adj.; render short &c adj.; shorten, curtail, abridge,
abbreviate, take in, reduce; compress &c (contract) 195; epitomize &c
retrench, cut short, obtruncate^; scrimp, cut, chop up, hack, hew;
cut down, pare down; clip, dock, lop, prune, shear, shave, mow, reap,
crop; snub; truncate, pollard, stunt, nip, check the growth of;
foreshorten (in drawing).
Adj. short, brief, curt; compendious, compact; stubby, scrimp; shorn,
stubbed; stumpy, thickset, pug; chunky [U.S.], decurtate^; retrousse^;
stocky; squab, squabby^; squat, dumpy; little &c 193; curtailed of its
fair proportions; short by; oblate; concise &c 572; summary.
Adv. shortly &c adj.; in short &c (concisely) 572.

202. Breadth, Thickness, -- N. breadth, width, latitude, amplitude;
diameter, bore, caliber, radius; superficial extent &c (space) 180.
thickness, crassitude^; corpulence &c (size) 192; dilation &c
(expansion) 194.
V. be broad &c adj.; become broad, render broad &c adj.; expand &c 194;
thicken, widen, calibrate.
Adj. broad, wide, ample, extended; discous^; fanlike; outspread,
outstretched; wide as a church-door [Romeo and Juliet]; latifoliate^,
thick, dumpy, squab, squat, thickset; thick as a rope.

203. Narrowness. Thinness -- N. narrowness &c adj.; closeness, exility^;
exiguity &c (little) 193.
line; hair's breadth, finger's breadth; strip, streak, vein.
monolayer; epitaxial deposition [Eng.].
thinness &c adj.; tenuity; emaciation, macilency^, marcor^.
shaving, slip &c (filament) 205; thread paper, skeleton, shadow,
anatomy, spindleshanks^, lantern jaws, mere skin and bone.
middle constriction, stricture, neck, waist, isthmus, wasp,
hourglass; ridge, ghaut^, ghat^, pass; ravine &c 198.
narrowing, coarctation^, angustation^, tapering; contraction &c
V. be narrow &c adj.; narrow, taper, contract &c 195; render narrow &c
adj.; waste away.
Adj. narrow, close; slender, thin, fine; thread-like &c (filament) 205;
finespun^, gossamer; paper-thin; taper, slim, slight-made; scant,
scanty; spare, delicate, incapacious^; contracted &c 195; unexpanded &c
(expand) &c 194 [Obs.]; slender as a thread.
[in reference to people or animals] emaciated, lean, meager,
gaunt, macilent^; lank, lanky; weedy, skinny; scrawny slinky [U.S.];
starved, starveling; herring gutted; worn to a shadow, lean as a rake
[Chaucer]; thin as a lath, thin as a whipping post, thin as a wafer;
hatchet-faced; lantern-jawed.
attenuated, shriveled, extenuated, tabid^, marcid^, barebone,

204. Layer -- N. layer, stratum, strata, course, bed, zone, substratum,
substrata, floor, flag, stage, story, tier, slab, escarpment; table,
tablet; dess^; flagstone; board, plank; trencher, platter.
plate; lamina, lamella; sheet, foil; wafer; scale, flake, peel;
coat, pellicle; membrane, film; leaf; slice, shive^, cut, rasher,
shaving, integument &c (covering) 223; eschar^.
stratification, scaliness, nest of boxes, coats of an onion.
monolayer; bilayer; trilayer [Bioch.].
V. slice, shave, pare, peel; delaminate; plate, coat, veneer; cover &c
Adj. lamellar, lamellated^, lamelliform^, layered; laminated,
laminiferous^; micaceous^; schistose, schistous^; scaly, filmy,
membranous, pellicular, flaky, squamous [Anat.]; foliated, foliaceous^;
stratified, stratiform; tabular, discoid; spathic^, spathose^.

205. Filament -- N. filament, line; fiber, fibril; funicle^, vein; hair,
capillament^, cilium, cilia, pilus, pili; tendril, gossamer; hair
stroke; veinlet^, venula^, venule^.
wire, string, thread, packthread, cotton, sewing silk, twine,
twist, whipcord, tape, ribbon, cord, rope, yarn, hemp, oakum, jute.
strip, shred, slip, spill, list, band, fillet, fascia, ribbon,
riband, roll, lath, splinter, shiver, shaving.
beard &c (roughness) 256; ramification; strand.
Adj. filamentous, filamentiferous^, filaceous^, filiform^; fibrous,
fibrillous^; thread-like, wiry, stringy, ropy; capillary, capilliform^;
funicular, wire-drawn; anguilliform^; flagelliform^; hairy &c (rough)
256; taeniate^, taeniform^, taenioid^; venose^, venous.

206. Height -- N. height, altitude, elevation; eminence, pitch;
loftiness &c adj.; sublimity.
tallness &c adj.; stature, procerity^; prominence &c 250.
colossus &c (size) 192; giant, grenadier, giraffe, camelopard.
mount, mountain; hill alto, butte [U.S.], monticle^, fell, knap^;
cape; headland, foreland^; promontory; ridge, hog's back, dune; rising
ground, vantage ground; down; moor, moorland; Alp; uplands, highlands;
heights &c (summit) 210; knob, loma^, pena [U.S.], picacho^, tump^;
knoll, hummock, hillock, barrow, mound, mole; steeps, bluff, cliff,
craig^, tor^, peak, pike, clough^; escarpment, edge, ledge, brae; dizzy
tower, pillar, column, obelisk, monument, steeple, spire, minaret,
campanile, turret, dome, cupola; skyscraper.
pole, pikestaff, maypole, flagstaff; top mast, topgallant mast.
ceiling &c (covering) 223.
high water; high tide, flood tide, spring tide.
altimetry &c (angel) 244 [Obs.]; batophobia^.
satellite, spy-in-the-sky.
V. be high &c adj.; tower, soar, command; hover, hover over, fly over;
orbit, be in orbit; cap, culminate; overhang, hang over, impend,
beetle, bestride, ride, mount; perch, surmount; cover &c 223; overtop
&c (be superior) 33; stand on tiptoe.
become high &c adj.; grow higher, grow taller; upgrow^; rise &c
(ascend) 305; send into orbit.
render high &c adj.; heighten &c (elevate) 307.
Adj. high, elevated, eminent, exalted, lofty, tall; gigantic &c (big)
192; Patagonian; towering, beetling, soaring, hanging (gardens);
elevated &c 307; upper; highest &c (topmost) 210; high reaching,
insessorial^, perching.
upland, moorland; hilly, knobby [U.S.]; mountainous, alpine,
subalpine, heaven kissing; cloudtopt^, cloudcapt^, cloudtouching^;
overhanging &c v.; incumbent, overlying, superincumbent^,
supernatant, superimposed; prominent &c v. 250.
tall as a maypole, tall as a poplar, tall as a steeple, lanky &c
(thin) 203.
Adv. on high, high up, aloft, up, above, aloof, overhead; airwind^;
upstairs, abovestairs^; in the clouds; on tiptoe, on stilts, on the
shoulders of; over head and ears; breast high.
over, upwards; from top to bottom &c (completely) 52.
Phr. e meglio cader dalle finistre che dal tetto [It].

207. Lowness -- N. lowness &c adj.; debasement, depression, prostration
&c (horizontal) 213; depression &c (concave) 252.
molehill; lowlands; basement floor, ground floor; rez de chaussee
[Fr.]; cellar; hold, bilge; feet, heels.
low water; low tide, ebb tide, neap tide, spring tide.
V. be low &c adj.; lie low, lie flat; underlie; crouch, slouch, wallow,
grovel; lower &c (depress) 308.
Adj. low, neap, debased; nether, nether most; flat, level with the
ground; lying low &c v.; crouched, subjacent, squat, prostrate &c
(horizontal) 213.
Adv. under; beneath, underneath; below; downwards; adown^, at the foot
of; under foot, under ground; down stairs, below stairs; at a low ebb;
below par.

208. Depth -- N. depth; deepness &c adj.; profundity, depression &c
(concavity) 252.
hollow, pit, shaft, well, crater; gulf &c 198; bowels of the
earth, botttomless pit^, hell.
soundings, depth of water, water, draught, submersion; plummet,
sound, probe; sounding rod, sounding line; lead.
[instrument to measure depth] sonar, side-looking sonar;
V. be deep &c adj.; render deep &c adj.; deepen.
plunge &c 310; sound, fathom, plumb, cast the lead, heave the
lead, take soundings, make soundings; dig &c (excavate) 252.
Adj. deep, deep seated; profound, sunk, buried; submerged &c 310;
subaqueous, submarine, subterranean, subterraneous, subterrene^;
bottomless, soundless, fathomless; unfathomed, unfathomable;
abysmal; deep as a well; bathycolpian^; benthal^, benthopelagic^;
downreaching^, yawning.
knee deep, ankle deep.
Adv. beyond one's depth, out of one's depth; over head and ears; mark
twine, mark twain.

209. Shallowness -- N. shallowness &c adj.; shoals; mere scratch.
Adj. shallow, slight, superficial; skin deep, ankle deep, knee deep;
just enough to wet one's feet; shoal, shoaly^.

210. Summit -- N. summit, summity^; top, peak, vertex, apex, zenith,
pinnacle, acme, culmination, meridian, utmost height, ne plus utra,
height, pitch, maximum, climax, culminating point, crowning point,
turning point; turn of the tide, fountain head; water shed, water
parting; sky, pole.
tip, tip top; crest, crow's nest, cap, truck, nib; end &c 67;
crown, brow; head, nob^, noddle^, pate; capsheaf^.
high places, heights.
topgallant mast, sky scraper; quarter deck, hurricane deck.
architrave, frieze, cornice, coping stone, zoophorus^, capital,
epistyle^, sconce, pediment, entablature^; tympanum; ceiling &c
(covering) 223.
attic, loft, garret, house top, upper story.
[metaphorical use] summit conference, summit; peak of achievement,
peak of performance; peaks and troughs, peaks and valleys (in graphs).
V. culminate, crown, top; overtop &c (be superior to) 33.
Adj. highest &c (high) &c 206; top; top most, upper most; tiptop;
culminating &c v.; meridian, meridional^; capital, head, polar, supreme,
supernal, topgallant.
Adv. atop, at the top of the tree.
Phr. en flute; fleur deau [Fr.].

211. Base -- N. base, basement; plinth, dado, wainscot; baseboard,
mopboard^; bedrock, hardpan [U.S.]; foundation &c (support) 215;
substructure, substratum, ground, earth, pavement, floor, paving, flag,
carped, ground floor, deck; footing, ground work, basis; hold, bilge.
bottom, nadir, foot, sole, toe, hoof, keel, root; centerboard.
Adj. bottom, undermost, nethermost; fundamental; founded on, based on,
grounded on, built on.

212. Verticality -- N. verticality; erectness &c adj.; perpendicularity
&c 216.1; right angle, normal; azimuth circle.
wall, precipice, cliff.
elevation, erection; square, plumb line, plummet.
V. be vertical &c adj.; stand up, stand on end, stand erect, stand
upright; stick up, cock up.
render vertical &c adj.; set up, stick up, raise up, cock up;
erect, rear, raise on its legs.
Adj. vertical, upright, erect, perpendicular, plumb, normal, straight,
bolt, upright; rampant; standing up &c v.; rectangular, orthogonal &c
Adv. vertically &c adj.; up, on end; up on end, right on end; a plomb
[Fr.], endwise; one one's legs; at right angles.

213. Horizontality -- N. horizontality^; flatness; level, plane; stratum
&c 204; dead level, dead flat; level plane.
recumbency, lying down &c v.; reclination^, decumbence^;
decumbency^, discumbency^; proneness &c adj.; accubation^, supination^,
resupination^, prostration; azimuth.
plain, floor, platform, bowling green; cricket ground; croquet
ground, croquet lawn; billiard table; terrace, estrade^, esplanade,
[flat land area] table land, plateau, ledge; butte; mesa (plain)
[instrument to measure horizontality] level, spirit level.
V. be horizontal &c adj.; lie, recline, couch; lie down, lie flat, lie
prostrate; sprawl, loll, sit down.
render horizontal &c adj.; lay down, lay out; level, flatten;
prostrate, knock down, floor, fell.
Adj. horizontal, level, even, plane; flat &c 251; flat as a billiard
table, flat as a bowling green; alluvial; calm, calm as a mill pond;
smooth, smooth as glass.
recumbent, decumbent, procumbent, accumbent^; lying &c v.; prone,
supine, couchant, jacent^, prostrate, recubant^.
Adv. horizontally &c adj.; on one's back, on all fours, on its beam

214. Pendency -- N. pendency^, dependency; suspension, hanging &c v.;
pedicel, pedicle, peduncle; tail, train, flap, skirt, pigtail, pony
tail, pendulum; hangnail peg, knob, button, hook, nail, stud, ring,
staple, tenterhook; fastening &c 45; spar, horse.
V. be pendent &c adj.; hang, depend, swing, dangle; swag; daggle^, flap,
trail, flow; beetle.
suspend, hang, sling, hook up, hitch, fasten to, append.
Adj. pendent, pendulous; pensile; hanging &c v.; beetling, jutting
over, overhanging, projecting; dependent; suspended &c v.; loose,
having a peduncle &c n.; pedunculate^, tailed, caudate.

215. Support -- N. support, ground, foundation, base, basis; terra
firma; bearing, fulcrum, bait [U.S.], caudex crib^; point d'appui [Fr.],
pou sto [Gr.], purchase footing, hold, locus standi [Lat.]; landing
place, landing stage; stage, platform; block; rest, resting place;
groundwork, substratum, riprap, sustentation, subvention; floor &c
(basement) 211.
supporter; aid &c 707; prop, stand, anvil, fulciment^; cue rest,
jigger; monkey; stay, shore, skid, rib, truss, bandage; sleeper;
stirrup, stilts, shoe, sole, heel, splint, lap, bar, rod, boom, sprit^,
outrigger; ratlings^.
staff, stick, crutch, alpenstock, baton, staddle^; bourdon^,
cowlstaff^, lathi^, mahlstick^.
post, pillar, shaft, thill^, column, pilaster; pediment, pedicle;
pedestal; plinth, shank, leg, socle^, zocle^; buttress, jamb, mullion,
abutment; baluster, banister, stanchion; balustrade; headstone;
upright; door post, jamb, door jamb.
frame, framework; scaffold, skeleton, beam, rafter, girder,
lintel, joist, travis^, trave^, corner stone, summer, transom; rung,
round, step, sill; angle rafter, hip rafter; cantilever, modillion^;
crown post, king post; vertebra.
columella^, backbone; keystone; axle, axletree; axis; arch,
trunnion, pivot, rowlock^; peg &c (pendency) 214 [Obs.]; tiebeam &c
(fastening) 45; thole pin^.
board, ledge, shelf, hob, bracket, trevet^, trivet, arbor, rack;
mantel, mantle piece [Fr.], mantleshelf^; slab, console; counter,
dresser; flange, corbel; table, trestle; shoulder; perch; horse; easel,
desk; clotheshorse, hatrack; retable; teapoy^.
seat, throne, dais; divan, musnud^; chair, bench, form, stool,
sofa, settee, stall; arm chair, easy chair, elbow chair, rocking chair;
couch, fauteuil [Fr.], woolsack^, ottoman, settle, squab, bench;
aparejo^, faldstool^, horn; long chair, long sleeve chair, morris chair;
lamba chauki^, lamba kursi^; saddle, pannel^, pillion; side saddle, pack
saddle; pommel.
bed, berth, pallet, tester, crib, cot, hammock, shakedown,
trucklebed^, cradle, litter, stretcher, bedstead; four poster, French
bed, bunk, kip, palang^; bedding, bichhona, mattress, paillasse^;
pillow, bolster; mat, rug, cushion.
footstool, hassock; tabouret^; tripod, monopod.
Atlas, Persides, Atlantes^, Caryatides, Hercules.
V. be supported &c; lie on, sit on, recline on, lean on, loll on, rest
on, stand on, step on, repose on, abut on, bear on, be based on &c;
have at one's back; bestride, bestraddle^.
support, bear, carry, hold, sustain, shoulder; hold up, back up,
bolster up, shore up; uphold, upbear^; prop; under prop, under pin,
under set; riprap; bandage &c 43.
give support, furnish support, afford support, supply support,
lend support, give foundations, furnish foundations, afford
foundations, supply foundations, lend foundations; bottom, found, base,
ground, imbed, embed.
maintain, keep on foot; aid &c 707.
Adj. supporting, supported &c v.; fundamental; dorsigerous^.
Adv. astride on, straddle.

216. Parallelism -- N. {ant.
216a} parallelism; coextension^; equidistance^; similarity &c 17.
Adj. parallel; coextensive; equidistant.
Adv. alongside &c (laterally) 236.

216a. Perpendicularity -- N. {ant.
216} perpendicularity, orthogonality; verticality, &c 212.
V. be perpendicular, be orthogonal; intersect at right angles, be
rectangular, be at right angles to, intersect at 90 degrees; have no
Adj. orthogonal, perpendicular; rectangular; uncorrelated.

217. Obliquity -- N. obliquity, inclination, slope, slant, crookedness
&c adj.; slopeness^; leaning &c v.; bevel, tilt; bias, list, twist,
swag, cant, lurch; distortion &c 243; bend &c (curve) 245; tower of
acclivity, rise, ascent, gradient, khudd^, rising ground, hill,
bank, declivity, downhill, dip, fall, devexity^; gentle slope, rapid
slope, easy ascent, easy descent; shelving beach; talus; monagne Russe
[Fr.]; facilis descensus averni [Lat.].
V. intersect; lack parallelism.

218. Inversion -- N. inversion, eversion, subversion, reversion,
retroversion, introversion; contraposition &c 237 [Obs.]; contrariety
&c 14; reversal; turn of the tide.
overturn; somersault, somerset; summerset^; culbute^; revulsion;
transposition, transposal^, anastrophy^, metastasis, hyperbaton^,
anastrophe^, hysteron proteron [Gr.], hypallage^, synchysis^, tmesis^,
parenthesis; metathesis; palindrome.
pronation and supination [Anat.].
V. be inverted &c; turn round, turn about, turn to the right about, go
round, go about, go to the right about, wheel round, wheel about, wheel
to the right about; turn over, go over, tilt over, topple over;
capsize, turn turtle.
invert, subvert, retrovert^, introvert; reverse; up turn, over
turn, up set, over set; turn topsy turvy &c adj.; culbuter^; transpose,
put the cart before the horse, turn the tables.
Adj. inverted &c v.; wrong side out, wrong side up; inside out, upside
down; bottom upwards, keel upwards; supine, on one's head, topsy-turvy,
sens dessus dessous [Fr.].
inverse; reverse &c (contrary) 14; opposite &c 237.
top heavy.
Adv. inversely &c adj.; hirdy-girdy^; heels over head, head over heels.

219. Crossing -- N. crossing &c v.; intersection, interdigitation;
decussation^, transversion^; convolution &c 248; level crossing.
reticulation, network; inosculation^, anastomosis, intertexture^,
net, plexus, web, mesh, twill, skein, sleeve, felt, lace; wicker;
mat, matting; plait, trellis, wattle, lattice, grating, grille,
gridiron, tracery, fretwork, filigree, reticle; tissue, netting, mokes^;
cross, chain, wreath, braid, cat's cradle, knot; entangle &c
(disorder) 59.
[woven fabrics] cloth, linen, muslin, cambric &c
V. cross, decussate^; intersect, interlace, intertwine, intertwist^,
interweave, interdigitate, interlink.
twine, entwine, weave, inweave^, twist, wreathe; anastomose [Med.],
inosculate^, dovetail, splice, link; lace, tat.
mat, plait, plat, braid, felt, twill; tangle, entangle, ravel;
net, knot; dishevel, raddle^.
Adj. crossing &c v.; crossed, matted &c, v.. transverse.
cross, cruciform, crucial; retiform^, reticular, reticulated;
areolar^, cancellated^, grated, barred, streaked; textile; crossbarred^,
cruciate^, palmiped^, secant; web-footed.
Adv. cross, thwart, athwart, transversely; at grade [U.S.]; crosswise.

1. General.

220. Exteriority -- N. exteriority^; outside, exterior; surface,
superficies; skin &c (covering) 223; superstratum^; disk, disc; face,
facet; extrados^.
excentricity^; eccentricity; circumjacence &c 227 [Obs.].
V. be exterior &c adj.; lie around &c 227.
place exteriorly, place outwardly, place outside; put out, turn
Adj. exterior, external; outer most; outward, outlying, outside,
outdoor; round about &c 227; extramural; extralimitary^, extramundane.
superficial, skin-deep; frontal, discoid.
extraregarding^; excentric^, eccentric; outstanding; extrinsic &c
6; ecdemic [Med.], exomorphic^.
Adv. externally &c adj.; out, with out, over, outwards, ab extra, out
of doors; extra muros [Lat.].
in the open air; sub Jove, sub dio [Lat.]; a la belle etoile
[Fr.], al fresco.

221. Interiority -- N. interiority; inside, interior; interspace^,
subsoil, substratum; intrados.
contents &c 190; substance, pith, marrow; backbone &c (center)
222; heart, bosom, breast; abdomen; vitals, viscera, entrails, bowels,
belly, intestines, guts, chitterings^, womb, lap; penetralia [Lat.],
recesses, innermost recesses; cave &c (concavity) 252.
V. be inside &c adj.; within &c adv.. place within, keep within;
inclose &c (circumscribe) 229; intern; imbed &c (insert) 300.
Adj. interior, internal; inner, inside, inward, intraregarding^; inmost,
innermost; deep seated, gut; intestine, intestinal; inland;
subcutaneous; abdominal, coeliac, endomorphic [Physio.]; interstitial
&c (interjacent) 228 [Obs.]; inwrought &c (intrinsic) 5; inclosed &c
v.. home, domestic, indoor, intramural, vernacular; endemic.
Adv. internally &c adj.; inwards, within, in, inly^; here in, there in,
where in; ab intra, withinside^; in doors, within doors; at home, in the
bosom of one's family.

222. Centrality -- N. centrality, centricalness^, center; middle &c 68;
focus &c 74.
core, kernel; nucleus, nucleolus; heart, pole axis, bull's eye;
nave, navel; umbilicus, backbone, marrow, pith; vertebra, vertebral
column; hotbed; concentration &c (convergence) 290; centralization;
center of gravity, center of pressure, center of percussion,
center of oscillation, center of buoyancy &c; metacenter^.
V. be central &c adj.; converge &c 290.
render central, centralize, concentrate; bring to a focus.
Adj. central, centrical^; middle &c 68; azygous, axial, focal,
umbilical, concentric; middlemost; rachidian^; spinal, vertebral.
Adv. middle; midst; centrally &c adj..

223. Covering -- N. covering, cover; baldachin, baldachino^, baldaquin^;
canopy, tilt, awning, tent, marquee, tente d'abri [Fr.], umbrella,
parasol, sunshade; veil (shade) 424; shield &c (defense) 717.
roof, ceiling, thatch, tile; pantile, pentile^; tiling, slates,
slating, leads; barrack [U.S.], plafond, planchment [U.S.], tiling,
shed &c (abode) 189.
top, lid, covercle^, door, operculum; bulkhead [U.S.].
bandage, plaster, lint, wrapping, dossil^, finger stall.
coverlet, counterpane, sheet, quilt, tarpaulin, blanket, rug,
drugget^; housing; antimacassar, eiderdown, numdah^, pillowcase,
pillowslip^; linoleum; saddle cloth, blanket cloth; tidy; tilpah [U.S.],
apishamore [U.S.].
integument, tegument; skin, pellicle, fleece, fell, fur, leather,
shagreen^, hide; pelt, peltry^; cordwain^; derm^; robe, buffalo robe
[U.S.]; cuticle, scarfskin, epidermis.
clothing &c 225; mask &c (concealment) 530.
peel, crust, bark, rind, cortex, husk, shell, coat; eggshell,
capsule; sheath, sheathing; pod, cod; casing, case, theca^;
elytron^; elytrum^; involucrum [Lat.]; wrapping, wrapper; envelope,
vesicle; corn husk, corn shuck [U.S.]; dermatology, conchology;
inunction^; incrustation, superimposition, superposition,
obduction^; scale &c (layer) 204.
[specific coverings] veneer, facing; overlay; plate, silver plate,
gold plate, copper plate; engobe^; ormolu; Sheffield plate; pavement;
coating, paint; varnish &c (resin) 216.1; plating, barrel plating,
anointing &c v.; enamel; epitaxial deposition [Eng.], vapor deposition;
ground, whitewash, plaster, spackel, stucco, compo; cerement; ointment
&c (grease) 356.
V. cover; superpose, superimpose; overlay, overspread; wrap &c 225;
encase, incase^; face, case, veneer, pave, paper; tip, cap, bind;
bulkhead, bulkhead in; clapboard [U.S.].
coat, paint, varnish, pay, incrust, stucco, dab, plaster, tar;
wash; besmear, bedaub; anoint, do over; gild, plate, japan, lacquer,
lacker^, enamel, whitewash; parget^; lay it on thick.
overlie, overarch^; endome^; conceal &c 528.
[of aluminum] anodize.
[of steel] galvanize.
Adj. covering &c v.; superimposed, overlaid, plated &c v.; cutaneous,
dermal, cortical, cuticular, tegumentary^, skinny, scaly, squamous
[Anat.]; covered &c v.; imbricated, loricated^, armor plated, ironclad;
under cover; cowled, cucullate^, dermatoid^, encuirassed^, hooded,
squamiferous^, tectiform^; vaginate^.

224. Lining -- N. lining, inner coating; coating &c (covering) 223;
stalactite, stalagmite.
filling, stuffing, wadding, padding.
wainscot, parietes [Lat.], wall.
V. line, stuff, incrust, wad, pad, fill.
Adj. lined &c v..

225. Clothing -- N. clothing, investment; covering &c 223; dress,
raiment, drapery, costume, attire, guise, toilet, toilette, trim;
habiliment; vesture, vestment; garment, garb, palliament^, apparel,
wardrobe, wearing apparel, clothes, things; underclothes.
array; tailoring, millinery; finery &c (ornament) 847; full dress
&c (show) 882; garniture; theatrical properties.
outfit, equipment, trousseau; uniform, regimentals; continentals
[U.S.]; canonicals &c 999; livery, gear, harness, turn-out,
accouterment, caparison, suit, rigging, trappings, traps, slops, togs,
toggery^; day wear, night wear, zoot suit; designer clothes; masquerade.
dishabille, morning dress, undress.
kimono; lungi^; shooting-coat; mufti; rags, tatters, old clothes;
mourning, weeds; duds; slippers.
robe, tunic, paletot^, habit, gown, coat, frock, blouse, toga,
smock frock, claw coat, hammer coat, Prince Albert coat^, sack coat,
tuxedo coat, frock coat, dress coat, tail coat.
cloak, pall, mantle, mantlet mantua^, shawl, pelisse, wrapper;
veil; cape, tippet, kirtle^, plaid, muffler, comforter, haik^, huke^,
chlamys^, mantilla, tabard, housing, horse cloth, burnoose, burnous,
roquelaure^; houppelande [Fr.]; surcoat, overcoat, great coat; surtout
[Fr.], spencer^; mackintosh, waterproof, raincoat; ulster, P-coat,
dreadnought, wraprascal^, poncho, cardinal, pelerine^; barbe^, chudder^,
jubbah^, oilskins, pajamas, pilot jacket, talma jacket^, vest, jerkin,
waistcoat, doublet, camisole, gabardine; farthingale, kilt, jupe^,
crinoline, bustle, panier, skirt, apron, pinafore; bloomer, bloomers;
chaqueta^, songtag [G.], tablier^.
pants, trousers, trowsers^; breeches, pantaloons, inexpressibles^,
overalls, smalls, small clothes; shintiyan^; shorts, jockey shorts,
boxer shorts; tights, drawers, panties, unmentionables; knickers,
knickerbockers; philibeg^, fillibeg^; pants suit; culottes; jeans, blue
jeans, dungarees, denims.
[brand names for jeans] Levis, Calvin Klein, Calvins, Bonjour,
Gloria Vanderbilt.
headdress, headgear; chapeau [Fr.], crush hat, opera hat;
kaffiyeh; sombrero, jam, tam-o-shanter, tarboosh^, topi, sola topi
[Lat.], pagri^, puggaree^; cap, hat, beaver hat, coonskin cap; castor,
bonnet, tile, wideawake, billycock^, wimple; nightcap, mobcap^,
skullcap; hood, coif; capote^, calash; kerchief, snood, babushka; head,
coiffure; crown &c (circle) 247; chignon, pelt, wig, front, peruke,
periwig, caftan, turban, fez, shako, csako^, busby; kepi^, forage cap,
bearskin; baseball cap; fishing hat; helmet &c 717; mask, domino.
body clothes; linen; hickory shirt [U.S.]; shirt, sark^, smock,
shift, chemise; night gown, negligee, dressing gown, night shirt;
bedgown^, sac de nuit [Fr.].
underclothes [underclothing], underpants, undershirt; slip [for
women], brassiere, corset, stays, corsage, corset, corselet, bodice,
girdle &c (circle) 247; stomacher; petticoat, panties; under waistcoat;
jock [for men], athletic supporter, jockstrap.
sweater, jersey; cardigan; turtleneck, pullover; sweater vest.
neckerchief, neckcloth^; tie, ruff, collar, cravat, stock,
handkerchief, scarf; bib, tucker; boa; cummerbund, rumal^, rabat^.
shoe, pump, boot, slipper, sandal, galoche^, galoshes, patten,
clog; sneakers, running shoes, hiking boots; high-low; Blucher boot,
wellington boot, Hessian boot, jack boot, top boot; Balmoral^; arctics,
bootee, bootikin^, brogan, chaparajos^; chavar^, chivarras^, chivarros^;
gums [U.S.], larrigan [U.S.], rubbers, showshoe, stogy^, veldtschoen
[G.], legging, buskin, greave^, galligaskin^, gamache^, gamashes^,
moccasin, gambado, gaiter, spatterdash^, brogue, antigropelos^;
stocking, hose, gaskins^, trunk hose, sock; hosiery.
glove, gauntlet, mitten, cuff, wristband, sleeve.
swaddling cloth, baby linen, layette; ice wool; taffeta.
pocket handkerchief, hanky^, hankie.
clothier, tailor, milliner, costumier, sempstress^, snip;
dressmaker, habitmaker^, breechesmaker^, shoemaker; Crispin; friseur
[Fr.]; cordwainer^, cobbler, hosier^, hatter; draper, linen draper,
haberdasher, mercer.
[underpants for babies] diaper, nappy [Brit.]; disposable diaper,
cloth diaper; [brand names for diapers], Luvs Huggies.
V. invest; cover &c 223; envelope, lap, involve; inwrap^, enwrap; wrap;
fold up, wrap up, lap up, muffle up; overlap; sheath, swathe, swaddle,
roll up in, circumvest.
vest, clothe, array, dress, dight^, drape, robe, enrobe, attire,
apparel, accounter^, rig, fit out; deck &c (ornament) 847; perk, equip,
harness, caparison.
wear; don; put on, huddle on, slip on; mantle.
Adj. invested &c v.; habited; dighted^; barbed, barded; clad, costume,
shod, chausse [Fr.]; en grande tenue &c (show) 882 [Fr.].
Phr. the soul of this man is his clothes [All's Well].

226. Divestment -- N. divestment; taking off &c v.. nudity; bareness &c
adj.; undress; dishabille &c 225; the altogether; nudation^, denudation;
decortication, depilation, excoriation, desquamation; molting;
exfoliation; trichosis [Med.].
V. divest; uncover &c (cover) &c 223; denude, bare, strip; disfurnish^;
undress, disrobe &c (dress, enrobe) &c 225; uncoif^; dismantle; put off,
take off, cast off; doff; peel, pare, decorticate, excoriate, skin,
scalp, flay; expose, lay open; exfoliate, molt, mew; cast the skin.
Adj. divested &c v.; bare, naked, nude; undressed, undraped; denuded;
exposed; in dishabille; bald, threadbare, ragged, callow, roofless.
in a state of nature, in nature's garb, in the buff, in native
buff, in birthday suit; in puris naturalibus [Lat.]; with nothing on,
stark naked, stark raving naked [Joc.]; bald as a coot, bare as the
back of one's hand; out at elbows; barefoot; bareback, barebacked;
leafless, napless^, hairless.

227. Circumjacence -- N. circumjacence^, circumambience^; environment,
encompassment; atmosphere, medium, surroundings.
outpost; border &c (edge) 231; girdle &c (circumference) 230;
outskirts, boulebards, suburbs, purlieus, precincts, faubourgs^,
environs, entourage, banlieue^; neighborhood, vicinage, vicinity.
V. lie around &c adv.; surround, beset, compass, encompass, environ,
inclose, enclose, encircle, embrace, circumvent, lap, gird; belt;
begird, engird^; skirt, twine round; hem in &c (circumscribe) 229.
Adj. circumjacent, circumambient^, circumfluent^; ambient; surrounding
&c v.; circumferential, suburban.
Adv. around, about; without; on every side; on all sides; right and
left, all round, round about.

228. Interposition -- N. interposition, interjacence^, intercurrence^,
intervenience^, interlocation^, interdigitation, interjection,
interpolation, interlineation, interspersion, intercalation.
[interposition at a fine-grained level] interpenetration;
permeation; infiltration.
[interposition by one person in another's affairs, at the
intervenor's initiative] intervention, interference; intrusion,
obtrusion; insinuation.
insertion &c 300; dovetailing; embolism.
intermediary, intermedium^; go between, bodkin^, intruder,
interloper; parenthesis, episode, flyleaf.
partition, septum, diaphragm; midriff; dissepiment^; party wall,
panel, room divider.
halfway house.
V. lie between, come between, get between; intervene, slide in,
interpenetrate, permeate.
put between, introduce, import, throw in, wedge in, edge in, jam
in, worm in, foist in, run in, plow in, work in; interpose, interject,
intercalate, interpolate, interline, interleave, intersperse,
interweave, interlard, interdigitate, sandwich in, fit in, squeeze in;
let in, dovetail, splice, mortise; insinuate, smuggle; infiltrate,
interfere, put in an oar, thrust one's nose in; intrude, obtrude;
have a finger in the pie; introduce the thin end of the wedge; thrust
in &c (insert) 300.
Adj. interjacent^, intercurrent^, intervenient^, intervening &c v.,
intermediate, intermediary, intercalary, interstitial; embolismal^.
parenthetical, episodic; mediterranean; intrusive; embosomed^;
Adv. between, betwixt; twixt; among, amongst; amid, amidst; mid, midst;
in the thick of; betwixt and between; sandwich-wise; parenthetically,
obiter dictum.

229. Circumscription -- N. circumscription, limitation, inclosure;
confinement &c (restraint) 751; circumvallation^; encincture; envelope
&c 232.
container (receptacle) 191.
V. circumscribe, limit, bound, confine, inclose; surround &c 227;
compass about; imprison &c (restrain) 751; hedge in, wall in, rail in;
fence round, fence in, hedge round; picket; corral.
enfold, bury, encase, incase^, pack up, enshrine, inclasp^; wrap up
&c (invest) 225; embay^, embosom^.
containment (inclusion) 76.
Adj. circumscribed &c v.; begirt^, lapt^; buried in, immersed in;
embosomed^, in the bosom of, imbedded, encysted, mewed up; imprisoned &c
751; landlocked, in a ring fence.

230. Outline -- N. outline, circumference; perimeter, periphery, ambit,
circuit, lines tournure^, contour, profile, silhouette; bounds; coast
zone, belt, girth, band, baldric, zodiac, girdle, tyre [Brit.],
cingle^, clasp, girt; cordon &c (inclosure) 232; circlet, &c 247.

231. Edge -- N. edge, verge, brink, brow, brim, margin, border,
confine, skirt, rim, flange, side, mouth; jaws, chops, chaps, fauces;
lip, muzzle.
threshold, door, porch; portal &c (opening) 260; coast, shore.
frame, fringe, flounce, frill, list, trimming, edging, skirting,
hem, selvedge, welt, furbelow, valance, gimp.
Adj. border, marginal, skirting; labial, labiated^, marginated^.

232. Inclosure -- N. inclosure, envelope; case &c (receptacle) 191;
wrapper; girdle &c 230.
pen, fold; pen fold, in fold, sheep fold; paddock, pound; corral;
yard; net, seine net.
wall, hedge, hedge row; espalier; fence &c (defense) 717; pale,
paling, balustrade, rail, railing, quickset hedge, park paling,
circumvallation^, enceinte, ring fence.
barrier, barricade; gate, gateway; bent, dingle [U.S.]; door,
hatch, cordon; prison &c 752.
dike, dyke, ditch, fosse^, moat.
V. inclose, circumscribe &c 229.

233. Limit -- N. limit, boundary, bounds, confine, enclave, term,
bourn, verge, curbstone^, but, pale, reservation; termination, terminus;
stint, frontier, precinct, marches; backwoods.
boundary line, landmark; line of demarcation, line of
circumvallation^; pillars of Hercules; Rubicon, turning point; ne plus
ultra [Lat.]; sluice, floodgate.
Adj. definite; conterminate^, conterminable^; terminal, frontier;
Adv. thus far, thus far and no further.
Phr. stick to the reservation; go beyond the pale.
2. Special

234. Front -- N. front; fore, forepart; foreground; face, disk, disc,
frontage; facade, proscenium, facia [Lat.], frontispiece; anteriority^;
obverse (of a medal or coin).
fore rank, front rank; van, vanguard; advanced guard; outpost;
first line; scout.
brow, forehead, visage, physiognomy, phiz^, countenance, mut
[Slang]; rostrum, beak, bow, stem, prow, prore^, jib.
pioneer &c (precursor) 64; metoposcopy^.
V. be in front, stand in front &c adj.; front, face, confront; bend
forwards; come to the front, come to the fore.
Adj. fore, anterior, front, frontal.
Adv. before; in front, in the van, in advance; ahead, right ahead;
forehead, foremost; in the foreground, in the lee of; before one's
face, before one's eyes; face to face, vis-a-vis; front a front.
Phr. formosa muta commendatio est [Lat.] [Syrus]; frons est animi janua
[Lat.] [Cicero]; Human face divine [Milton]; imago animi vultus est
indices oculi [Lat.] [Cicero]; sea of upturned faces [Scott].

235. Rear -- N. rear, back, posteriority; rear rank, rear guard;
background, hinterland.
occiput [Anat.], nape, chine; heels; tail, rump, croup, buttock,
posteriors, backside scut^, breech, dorsum, loin; dorsal region, lumbar
region; hind quarters; aitchbone^; natch, natch bone.
stern, poop, afterpart^, heelpiece^, crupper.
wake; train &c (sequence) 281.
reverse; other side of the shield.
V. be behind &c adv.; fall astern; bend backwards; bring up the rear.
Adj. back, rear; hind, hinder, hindmost, hindermost^; postern,
posterior; dorsal, after; caudal, lumbar; mizzen, tergal^.
Adv. behind; in the rear, in the background; behind one's back; at the
heels of, at the tail of, at the back of; back to back.
after, aft, abaft, astern, sternmost^, aback, rearward.
Phr. ogni medaglia ha il suo rovescio [It]; the other side of the coin.

236. Laterality -- N. laterality^; side, flank, quarter, lee; hand;
cheek, jowl, jole^, wing; profile; temple, parietes [Lat.], loin,
haunch, hip; beam.
gable, gable end; broadside; lee side.
points of the compass; East, Orient, Levant; West; orientation.
V. be on one side &c adv.; flank, outflank; sidle; skirt; orientate.
Adj. lateral, sidelong; collateral; parietal, flanking, skirting;
flanked; sideling.
many sided; multilateral, bilateral, trilateral, quadrilateral.
Eastern; orient, oriental; Levantine; Western, occidental,
Adv. sideways, sidelong; broadside on; on one side, abreast, alongside,
beside, aside; by the side of; side by side; cheek by jowl &c (near)
197; to windward, to leeward; laterally &c adj.; right and left; on her
beam ends.
Phr. his cheek the may of days outworn [Shakespeare].

237. Contraposition -- N. contraposition^, opposition; polarity;
inversion &c 218; opposite side; reverse, inverse; counterpart;
antipodes; opposite poles, North and South.
antonym, opposite (contrariety) 14.
V. be opposite &c adj.; subtend.
Adj. opposite; reverse, inverse; converse, antipodal, subcontrary^;
fronting, facing, diametrically opposite.
Northern, septentrional, Boreal, arctic; Southern, Austral,
Adv. over, over the way, over against; against; face to face, vis-a-
vis; as poles asunder.

238. Dextrality -- N. dextrality^; right, right hand; dexter, offside,
Adj. dextral, right-handed; dexter, dextrorsal^, dextrorse^;
ambidextral^, ambidextrous; dextro-.
Adv. dextrad^, dextrally^.

239. Sinistrality -- N. sinistrality^; left, left hand, a gauche;
sinister, nearside^, larboard, port.
Adj. left-handed; sinister; sinistral, sinistrorsal^, sinistrorse^,
sinistrous^; laevo- [Pref.].
Adv. sinistrally, sinistrously^.



240. Form -- N. form, figure, shape; conformation, configuration; make,
formation, frame, construction, cut, set, build, trim, cut of one's
jib; stamp, type, cast, mold; fashion; contour &c (outline) 230;
structure &c 329; plasmature^.
feature, lineament, turn; phase &c (aspect) 448; posture,
attitude, pose.
[Science of form] morphism.
[Similarity of form] isomorphism.
forming &c v.; formation, figuration, efformation^; sculpture;
V. form, shape, figure, fashion, efform^, carve, cut, chisel, hew, cast;
rough hew, rough cast; sketch; block out, hammer out; trim; lick into
shape, put into shape; model, knead, work up into, set, mold,
sculpture; cast, stamp; build &c (construct) 161.
Adj. formed &c v.. [Receiving form] plastic, fictile^; formative; fluid.
[Giving form] plasmic^.
[Similar in form] isomorphous.
[taking several forms] pleomorphic; protean; changeable, &c 149.

241. [Absence of form.] Amorphism -- N. amorphism^, informity^; unlicked
cub^; rudis indigestaque moles [Lat.]; disorder &c 59; deformity &c 243.
disfigurement, defacement; mutilation; deforming.
chaos, randomness (disorder) 59.
[taking form from surroundings] fluid &c 333.
V. deface [Destroy form], disfigure, deform, mutilate, truncate;
derange &c 61; blemish, mar.
Adj. shapeless, amorphous, formless; unformed, unhewn^, unfashioned^,
unshaped, unshapen; rough, rude, Gothic, barbarous, rugged.

242. [Regularity of form.] Symmetry -- N. symmetry, shapeliness,
finish; beauty &c 845; proportion, eurythmy^, uniformity, parallelism;
bilateral symmetry, trilateral symmetry, multilateral symmetry;
centrality &c 222.
arborescence^, branching, ramification; arbor vitae.
Adj. symmetrical, shapely, well set, finished; beautiful &c 845;
classic, chaste, severe.
regular, uniform, balanced; equal &c 27; parallel, coextensive.
arborescent^, arboriform^; dendriform^, dendroid^; branching;
ramous^, ramose; filiciform^, filicoid^; subarborescent^;
fuji-shaped, fujigata [Jap.].

243. [Irregularity of form.] Distortion -- N. distortion, detortion^,
contortion; twist, crookedness &c (obliquity) 217; grimace; deformity;
malformation, malconformation^; harelip; monstrosity, misproportion^,
want of symmetry, anamorphosis^; ugliness &c 846; talipes^; teratology.
asymmetry; irregularity.
V. distort, contort, twist, warp, wrest, writhe, make faces, deform,
Adj. distorted &c v.; out of shape, irregular, asymmetric, unsymmetric^,
awry, wry, askew, crooked; not true, not straight; on one side, crump^,
deformed; harelipped; misshapen, misbegotten; misproportioned^, ill
proportioned; ill-made; grotesque, monstrous, crooked as a ram's horn;
camel backed, hump backed, hunch backed, bunch backed, crook backed;
bandy; bandy legged, bow legged; bow kneed, knock kneed; splay footed,
club footed; round shouldered; snub nosed; curtailed of one's fair
proportions; stumpy &c (short) 201; gaunt &c (thin) 203; bloated &c
194; scalene; simous^; taliped^, talipedic^.
Adv. all manner of ways.
Phr. crooked as a Virginia fence [U.S.].


244. Angularity -- N. angularity, angularness^; aduncity^; angle, cusp,
bend; fold &c 258; notch &c 257; fork, bifurcation.
elbow, knee, knuckle, ankle, groin, crotch, crutch, crane, fluke,
scythe, sickle, zigzag, kimbo^, akimbo.
corner, nook, recess, niche, oriel [Arch.], coign^.
right angle &c (perpendicular) 216.1, 212; obliquity &c 217; angle
of 45 degrees, miter; acute angle, obtuse angle, salient angle,
reentering angle, spherical angle.
angular measurement, angular elevation, angular distance, angular
velocity; trigonometry, goniometry; altimetry^; clinometer,
graphometer^, goniometer; theodolite; sextant, quadrant; dichotomy.
triangle, trigon^, wedge; rectangle, square, lozenge, diamond;
rhomb, rhombus; quadrangle, quadrilateral; parallelogram; quadrature;
polygon, pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, oxygon^, decagon.
pyramid, cone.
Platonic bodies; cube, rhomboid; tetrahedron, pentahedron,
hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron, eicosahedron; prism,
pyramid; parallelopiped; curb roof, gambrel roof, mansard roof.
V. bend, fork, bifurcate, crinkle.
Adj. angular, bent, crooked, aduncous^, uncinated^, aquiline, jagged,
serrated; falciform^, falcated^; furcated^, forked, bifurcate, zigzag;
furcular^; hooked; dovetailed; knock kneed, crinkled, akimbo, kimbo^,
geniculated^; oblique &c 217.
fusiform [Micro.], wedge-shaped, cuneiform; cuneate^, multangular^,
oxygonal^; triangular, trigonal^, trilateral; quadrangular,
quadrilateral; foursquare; rectangular, square, multilateral; polygonal
&c n.; cubical, rhomboid, rhomboidal, pyramidal.

245. Curvature -- N. curvature, curvity^, curvation^; incurvature^,
incurvity^; incurvation^; bend; flexure, flexion, flection^; conflexure^;
crook, hook, bought, bending; deflection, deflexion^; inflection,
inflexion^; concameration^; arcuation^, devexity^, turn, deviation,
detour, sweep; curl, curling; bough; recurvity^, recurvation^; sinuosity
&c 248.
carve, arc, arch, arcade, vault, bow, crescent, half-moon, lunule^,
horseshoe, loop, crane neck; parabola, hyperbola; helix, spiral;
catenary^, festoon; conchoid^, cardioid; caustic; tracery; arched
ceiling, arched roof; bay window, bow window.
sine curve; spline, spline curve, spline function; obliquity &c
V. be curved, &c adj.; curve, sweep, sway, swag, sag; deviate &c 279;
curl, turn; reenter.
render curved &c adj.; flex, bend, curve, incurvate^; inflect;
deflect, scatter [Phys.]; refract (light) 420; crook; turn, round,
arch, arcuate, arch over, concamerate^; bow, curl, recurve, frizzle.
rotundity &c 249; convexity &c 250.
Adj. curved &c v.; curviform^, curvilineal^, curvilinear; devex^,
devious; recurved, recurvous^; crump^; bowed &c v.; vaulted, hooked;
falciform^, falcated^; semicircular, crescentic; sinusoid [Geom.],
parabolic, paraboloid; luniform^, lunular^; semilunar, conchoidal^;
helical, double helical, spiral; kinky; cordiform^, cordated^; cardioid;
heart shaped, bell shaped, boat shaped, crescent shaped, lens shaped,
moon shaped, oar shaped, shield shaped, sickle shaped, tongue shaped,
pear shaped, fig shaped; kidney-shaped, reniform; lentiform^,
lenticular; bow-legged &c (distorted) 243; oblique &c 217; circular &c
aduncated^, arclike^, arcuate, arched, beaked; bicorn^, bicornuous^,
bicornute^; clypeate^, clypeiform^; cymbiform^, embowed^, galeiform^;
hamate^, hamiform^, hamous^; hooked; linguiform^, lingulate^; lobiform^,
lunate, navicular^, peltate^, remiform^, rhamphoid^; rostrate^,
rostriferous^, rostroid^; scutate^, scaphoid^, uncate^; unguiculate^,

246. Straightness -- N. straightness, rectilinearity^, directness;
inflexibility &c (stiffness) 323; straight line, right line, direct
line; short cut.
V. be straight &c adj.; have no turning; not incline to either side,
not bend to either side, not turn to either side, not deviate to either
side; go straight; steer for &c (directions) 278.
render straight, straighten, rectify; set straight, put straight;
unbend, unfold, uncurl &c 248, unravel &c 219, unwrap.
Adj. straight; rectilinear, rectilineal^; direct, even, right, true, in
a line; unbent, virgate^ &c v.; undeviating, unturned, undistorted,
unswerving; straight as an arrow &c (direct) 278; inflexible &c 323.
laser-straight; ramrod-straight.

247. [Simple circularity.] Circularity -- N. circularity, roundness;
rotundity &c 249.
circle, circlet, ring, areola, hoop, roundlet^, annulus, annulet^,
bracelet, armlet; ringlet; eye, loop, wheel; cycle, orb, orbit, rundle,
zone, belt, cordon, band; contrate wheel^, crown wheel; hub; nave; sash,
girdle, cestus^, cincture, baldric, fillet, fascia, wreath, garland;
crown, corona, coronet, chaplet, snood, necklace, collar; noose, lasso,
ellipse, oval, ovule; ellipsoid, cycloid; epicycloid [Geom.],
epicycle; semicircle; quadrant, sextant, sector.
sphere &c 249.
V. make round &c adj.; round.
go round; encircle &c 227; describe a circle &c 311.
Adj. round, rounded, circular, annular, orbicular; oval, ovate;
elliptic, elliptical; egg-shaped; pear-shaped &c 245; cycloidal &c n.^;
spherical &c 249.
Phr. I watched the little circles die [Tennyson].

248. [Complex curvature.] Convolution -- N. winding &c v.; convolution,
involution, circumvolution; wave, undulation, tortuosity,
anfractuosity^; sinuosity, sinuation^; meandering, circuit,
circumbendibus^, twist, twirl, windings and turnings, ambages^; torsion;
inosculation^; reticulation &c (crossing) 219; rivulation^; roughness &c
coil, roll, curl; buckle, spiral, helix, corkscrew, worm, volute,
rundle; tendril; scollop^, scallop, escalop^; kink; ammonite,
serpent, eel, maze, labyrinth.
V. be convoluted &c adj.; wind, twine, turn and twist, twirl; wave,
undulate, meander; inosculate^; entwine, intwine^; twist, coil, roll;
wrinkle, curl, crisp, twill; frizzle; crimp, crape, indent, scollop^,
scallop, wring, intort^; contort; wreathe &c (cross) 219.
Adj. convoluted; winding, twisted &c v.; tortile^, tortive^; wavy;
undated, undulatory; circling, snaky, snake-like, serpentine; serpent,
anguill^, vermiform; vermicular; mazy, tortuous, sinuous, flexuous,
anfractuous^, reclivate^, rivulose^, scolecoid^; sigmoid, sigmoidal
[Geom.]; spiriferous^, spiroid^; involved, intricate, complicated,
perplexed; labyrinth, labyrinthic^, labyrinthian^, labyrinthine;
peristaltic; daedalian^; kinky, knotted.
wreathy^, frizzly, crepe, buckled; raveled &c (in disorder) 59.
spiral, coiled, helical; cochleate, cochleous; screw-shaped;
turbinated, turbiniform^.
Adv. in and out, round and round; a can of worms; Gordian knot.

249. Rotundity -- N. rotundity; roundness &c adj.; cylindricity^;
sphericity, spheroidity^; globosity^.
cylinder, cylindroid^, cylindrical; barrel, drum; roll, roller;
rouleau^, column, rolling-pin, rundle.
cone, conoid^; pear shape, egg shape, bell shape.
sphere, globe, ball, boulder, bowlder^; spheroid, ellipsoid; oblong
spheroid; oblate spheroid, prolate spheroid; drop, spherule, globule,
vesicle, bulb, bullet, pellet, pelote^, clew, pill, marble, pea, knob,
pommel, horn; knot (convolution) 248.
curved surface, hypersphere; hyperdimensional surface.
V. render spherical &c adj.; form into a sphere, sphere, roll into a
ball; give rotundity &c n.; round.
Adj. rotund; round &c (circular) 247; cylindric, cylindrical,
cylindroid^; columnar, lumbriciform^; conic, conical; spherical,
spheroidal; globular, globated^, globous^, globose; egg shaped, bell
shaped, pear shaped; ovoid, oviform; gibbous; rixiform^; campaniform^,
campanulate^, campaniliform^; fungiform^, bead-like, moniliform^,
pyriform^, bulbous; tres atque rotundus [Lat.]; round as an orange,
round as an apple, round as a ball, round as a billiard ball, round as
a cannon ball.


250. Convexity -- N. convexity, prominence, projection, swelling,
gibbosity^, bilge, bulge, protuberance, protrusion; camber, cahot
thank-ye-ma'am [U.S.].
intumescence; tumour [Brit.], tumor; tubercle, tuberosity [Anat.];
excrescence; hump, hunch, bunch.
boss, embossment, hub, hubble; [convex body parts] tooth [U.S.],
knob, elbow, process, apophysis^, condyle, bulb, node, nodule,
nodosity^, tongue, dorsum, bump, clump; sugar loaf &c (sharpness) 253;
bow; mamelon^; molar; belly, corporation^, pot belly, gut [Coll.];
withers, back, shoulder, lip, flange.
[convexities on skin] pimple, zit [Slang]; wen, wheel, papula
[Med.], pustule, pock, proud flesh, growth, sarcoma, caruncle^, corn,
wart, pappiloma, furuncle, polypus^, fungus, fungosity^, exostosis^,
bleb, blister, blain^; boil &c (disease) 655; airbubble^, blob, papule,
[convex body parts on chest] papilla, nipple, teat, tit [Vulg.],
titty [Vulg.], boob [Vulg.], knocker [Vulg.], pap, breast, dug,
[prominent convexity on the face] proboscis, nose, neb, beak,
snout, nozzle, schnoz [Coll.].
peg, button, stud, ridge, rib, jutty, trunnion, snag.
cupola, dome, arch, balcony, eaves; pilaster.
relief, relievo [It], cameo; bassorilievo^, mezzorilevo^,
altorivievo; low relief, bas relief [Fr.], high relief.
hill &c (height) 206; cape, promontory, mull; forehead, foreland^;
point of land, mole, jetty, hummock, ledge, spur; naze^, ness.
V. be prominent &c adj.; project, bulge, protrude, pout, bouge [Fr.],
bunch; jut out, stand out, stick out, poke out; stick up, bristle up,
start up, cock up, shoot up; swell over, hang over, bend over; beetle.
render prominent &c adj.; raise 307; emboss, chase.
[become convex] belly out.
Adj. convex, prominent, protuberant, projecting &c v.; bossed,
embossed, bossy, nodular, bunchy; clavate, clavated^, claviform;
hummocky^, moutonne^, mammiliform^; papulous^, papilose^; hemispheric,
bulbous; bowed, arched; bold; bellied; tuberous, tuberculous; tumous^;
cornute^, odontoid^; lentiform^, lenticular; gibbous; club shaped, hubby
[U.S.], hubbly [U.S.], knobby, papillose, saddle-shaped, selliform^,
subclavate^, torose^, ventricose^, verrucose^.
salient, in relief, raised, repousse; bloated &c, (expanded) 194.

251. Flatness -- N. flatness &c adj.; smoothness &c 255.
plane; level &c 213; plate, platter, table, tablet, slab.
V. render flat, flatten; level &c 213.
Adj. flat, plane, even, flush, scutiform^, discoid; level &c
(horizontal) 213; flat as a pancake, flat as a fluke, flat as a
flounder, flat as a board, flat as my hand.

252. Concavity -- N. concavity, depression, dip; hollow, hollowness;
indentation, intaglio, cavity, dent, dint, dimple, follicle, pit,
sinus, alveolus^, lacuna; excavation, strip mine; trough &c (furrow)
259; honeycomb.
cup, basin, crater, punch bowl; cell &c (receptacle) 191; socket.
valley, vale, dale, dell, dingle, combe^, bottom, slade^, strath^,
glade, grove, glen, cave, cavern, cove; grot^, grotto; alcove, cul-de-
sac; gully &c 198; arch &c (curve) 245; bay &c (of the sea) 343.
excavator, sapper, miner.
honeycomb (sponge) 252.1.
V. be concave &c adj.; retire, cave in.
render concave &c adj.; depress, hollow; scoop, scoop out; gouge,
gouge out, dig, delve, excavate, dent, dint, mine, sap, undermine,
burrow, tunnel, stave in.
Adj. depressed &c v.; alveolate^, calathiform^, cup-shaped, dishing;
favaginous^, faveolate^, favose^; scyphiform^, scyphose^; concave,
hollow, stove in; retiring; retreating; cavernous; porous &c (with
holes) 260; infundibul^, infundibular^, infundibuliform^; funnel shaped,
bell shaped; campaniform^, capsular; vaulted, arched.

252a Sponge -- N. sponge, honeycomb, network; frit [Chem], filter.
sieve, net, screen (opening) 260.
Adj. cellular, spongy, spongious^; honeycombed, alveolar; sintered;
porous (opening) 260.

253. Sharpness -- N. sharpness &c adj.; acuity, acumination^;
point, spike, spine, spicule [Biol.], spiculum^; needle, hypodermic
needle, tack, nail, pin; prick, prickle; spur, rowel, barb; spit, cusp;
horn, antler; snag; tag thorn, bristle; Adam's needle^, bear grass
[U.S.], tine, yucca.
nib, tooth, tusk; spoke, cog, ratchet.
crag, crest, arete [Fr.], cone peak, sugar loaf, pike, aiguille^;
spire, pyramid, steeple.
beard, chevaux de frise [Fr.], porcupine, hedgehog, brier,
bramble, thistle; comb; awn, beggar's lice, bur, burr, catchweed^,
cleavers, clivers^, goose, grass, hairif^, hariff, flax comb, hackle,
hatchel^, heckle.
wedge; knife edge, cutting edge; blade, edge tool, cutlery, knife,
penknife, whittle, razor, razor blade, safety razor, straight razor,
electric razor; scalpel; bistoury^, lancet; plowshare, coulter, colter^;
hatchet, ax, pickax, mattock, pick, adze, gill; billhook, cleaver,
cutter; scythe, sickle; scissors, shears, pruning shears, cutters, wire
cutters, nail clipper, paper cutter; sword &c (arms) 727; bodkin &c
(perforator) 262; belduque^, bowie knife^, paring knife; bushwhacker
[U.S.]; drawing knife, drawing shave; microtome [Micro.]; chisel,
screwdriver blade; flint blade; guillotine.
sharpener, hone, strop; grindstone, whetstone; novaculite^; steel,
V. be sharp &c adj.; taper to a point; bristle with.
render sharp &c adj.; sharpen, point, aculeate, whet, barb,
spiculate^, set, strop, grind; chip (flint).
cut &c (sunder) 44.
Adj. sharp, keen; acute; acicular, aciform^; aculeated^, acuminated^;
pointed; tapering; conical, pyramidal; mucronate^, mucronated^; spindle
shaped, needle shaped; spiked, spiky, ensiform^, peaked, salient;
cusped, cuspidate, cuspidated^; cornute^, cornuted^, cornicultate^;
prickly; spiny, spinous^, spicular; thorny, bristling, muricated^,
pectinated^, studded, thistly, briary^; craggy &c (rough) 256; snaggy,
digitated^, two-edged, fusiform [Micro.]; dentiform^, denticulated;
toothed; odontoid^; starlike; stellated^, stelliform^; sagittate^,
sagittiform^; arrowheaded^; arrowy^, barbed, spurred.
acinaciform; apiculate^, apiculated^; aristate^, awned, awny^,
bearded, calamiform^, cone-shaped, coniform^, crestate^, echinate^,
gladiate^; lanceolate^, lanciform; awl, awl-shaped, lance-shaped, awl-
shaped, scimitar-shaped, sword-shaped; setarious^, spinuliferous^,
subulate^, tetrahedral, xiphoid^.
cutting; sharp edged, knife edged; sharp as a razor, keen as a
razor; sharp as a needle, sharp as a tack; sharpened &c v.; set

254. Bluntness -- N. bluntness &c adj..
V. be blunt, render blunt &c adj.; obtund^, dull; take off the point,
take off the edge; turn.
Adj. blunt, obtuse, dull, bluff; edentate, toothless.

255. Smoothness -- N. smoothness &c adj.; polish, gloss; lubricity,
[smooth materials] down, velvet, velure, silk, satin; velveteen,
velour, velours, velumen^; glass, ice.
slide; bowling green &c (level) 213; asphalt, wood pavement,
flagstone, flags.
[objects used to smooth other objects] roller, steam roller, lawn
roller, rolling pin, rolling mill; sand paper, emery paper, emery
cloth, sander; flat iron, sad iron; burnisher, turpentine and beeswax;
polish, shoe polish.
[art of cutting and polishing gemstones] lapidary.
[person who polishes gemstones] lapidary, lapidarian.
V. smooth, smoothen^; plane; file; mow, shave; level, roll; macadamize;
polish, burnish, calender^, glaze; iron, hot-press, mangle; lubricate &c
(oil) 332.
Adj. smooth; polished &c v.; leiodermatous^, slick, velutinous^; even;
level &c 213; plane &c (flat) 251; sleek, glossy; silken, silky;
lanate^, downy, velvety; glabrous, slippery, glassy, lubricous, oily,
soft, unwrinkled^; smooth as glass, smooth as ice, smooth as monumental
alabaster, smooth as velvet, smooth as oil; slippery as an eel; woolly
&c (feathery) 256.
Phr. smooth as silk; slippery as coonshit on a pump handle; slippery as
a greased pig.

256. Roughness -- N. roughness &c adj.; tooth, grain, texture, ripple;
asperity, rugosity^, salebrosity^, corrugation, nodosity^; arborescence^
&c 242; pilosity^.
brush, hair, beard, shag, mane, whisker, moustache, imperial,
tress, lock, curl, ringlet; fimbriae, pili, cilia, villi; lovelock;
beaucatcher^; curl paper; goatee; papillote, scalp lock.
plumage, plumosity^; plume, panache, crest; feather, tuft, fringe,
wool, velvet, plush, nap, pile, floss, fur, down; byssus^, moss,
bur; fluff.
knot (convolution) 248.
V. be rough &c adj.; go against the grain.
render-rough &c adj.; roughen, ruffle, crisp, crumple, corrugate,
set on edge, stroke the wrong way, rumple.
Adj. rough, uneven, scabrous, scaly, knotted; rugged, rugose^, rugous^;
knurly^; asperous^, crisp, salebrous^, gnarled, unpolished, unsmooth^,
roughhewn^; craggy, cragged; crankling^, scraggy; prickly &c (sharp)
253; arborescent &c 242 [Obs.]; leafy, well-wooded; feathery; plumose,
plumigerous^; laciniate^, laciniform^, laciniose^; pappose^; pileous^,
pilose^; trichogenous^, trichoid [Med.]; tufted, fimbriated, hairy,
ciliated, filamentous, hirsute; crinose^, crinite^; bushy, hispid,
villous, pappous^, bearded, pilous^, shaggy, shagged; fringed,
befringed^; setous^, setose^, setaceous; like quills upon the fretful
porcupine [Hamlet]; rough as a nutmeg grater, rough as a bear.
downy, velvety, flocculent, woolly; lanate^, lanated^; lanuginous^,
lanuginose^; tomentose^; fluffy.
Adv. against the grain.
Phr. cabello luengo y corto el seso [Sp.].

257. Notch -- N. notch, dent, nick, cut; indent, indentation; dimple.
embrasure, battlement, machicolation^; saw, tooth, crenelle^,
scallop, scollop^, vandyke; depression; jag.
V. notch, nick, cut, dent, indent, jag, scarify, scotch, crimp,
scallop, scollop^, crenulate^, vandyke.
Adj. notched &c v.; crenate^, crenated^; dentate, dentated; denticulate,
denticulated; toothed, palmated^, serrated.

258. Fold -- N. fold, plicature^, plait, pleat, ply, crease; tuck,
gather; flexion, flexure, joint, elbow, double, doubling, duplicature^,
gather, wrinkle, rimple^, crinkle, crankle^, crumple, rumple, rivel^,
ruck^, ruffle, dog's ear, corrugation, frounce^, flounce, lapel; pucker,
crow's feet; plication^.
V. fold, double, plicate^, plait, crease, wrinkle, crinkle, crankle^,
curl, cockle up, cocker, rimple^, rumple, flute, frizzle, frounce^,
rivel^, twill, corrugate, ruffle, crimple^, crumple, pucker; turn down,
double down, down under; tuck, ruck^, hem, gather.
Adj. folded, fluted, pleated &c v..

259. Furrow -- N. furrow, groove, rut, sulcus [Anat.], scratch, streak,
striae, crack, score, incision, slit; chamfer, fluting; corduroy road,
cradle hole.
channel, gutter, trench, ditch, dike, dyke; moat, fosse^, trough,
kennel; ravine &c (interval) 198; tajo [U.S.], thank-ye-ma'am [U.S.].
V. furrow &c n.; flute, plow; incise, engrave, etch, bite in.
Adj. furrowed &c v.; ribbed, striated, sulcated [Anat.], fluted,
canaliculated^; bisulcous^, bisulcate^, bisulcated^; canaliferous^;
trisulcate^; corduroy; unisulcate^; costate^, rimiform^.

260. Opening -- N. hole, foramen; puncture, perforation; fontanel^;
transforation^; pinhole, keyhole, loophole, porthole, peephole,
mousehole, pigeonhole; eye of a needle; eyelet; slot.
opening; aperture, apertness^; hiation^, yawning, oscitancy^,
dehiscence, patefaction^, pandiculation^; chasm &c (interval) 198.
embrasure, window, casement; abatjour^; light; sky light, fan
light; lattice; bay window, bow window; oriel [Arch.]; dormer, lantern.
outlet, inlet; vent, vomitory; embouchure; orifice, mouth, sucker,
muzzle, throat, gullet, weasand^, wizen, nozzle; placket.
portal, porch, gate, ostiary^, postern, wicket, trapdoor, hatch,
door; arcade; cellarway^, driveway, gateway, doorway, hatchway, gangway;
lich gate^.
way, path &c 627; thoroughfare; channel; passage, passageway;
tube, pipe; water pipe &c 350; air pipe &c 351; vessel, tubule, canal,
gut, fistula; adjutage^, ajutage^; ostium^; smokestack; chimney, flue,
tap, funnel, gully, tunnel, main; mine, pit, adit^, shaft; gallery.
alley, aisle, glade, vista.
bore, caliber; pore; blind orifice; fulgurite^, thundertube^.
porousness, porosity.
sieve, cullender^, colander; cribble^, riddle, screen; honeycomb.
apertion^, perforation; piercing &c v.; terebration^, empalement^,
pertusion^, puncture, acupuncture, penetration.
key &c 631, opener, master key, password, combination, passe-
V. open, ope^, gape, yawn, bilge; fly open.
perforate, pierce, empierce^, tap, bore, drill; mine &c (scoop out)
252; tunnel; transpierce^, transfix; enfilade, impale, spike, spear,
gore, spit, stab, pink, puncture, lance, stick, prick, riddle, punch;
stave in.
cut a passage through; make way for, make room for.
uncover, unclose, unrip^; lay open, cut open, rip open, throw open,
pop open, blow open, pry open, tear open, pull open.
Adj. open; perforated &c v.; perforate; wide open, ajar, unclosed,
unstopped; oscitant^, gaping, yawning; patent.
tubular, cannular^, fistulous; pervious, permeable; foraminous^;
vesicular, vasicular^; porous, follicular, cribriform^, honeycombed,
infundibular^, riddled; tubulous^, tubulated^; piped, tubate^.
opening &c v.; aperient^.
Int. open sesame!,

261. Closure -- N. closure, occlusion, blockade; shutting up &c v.;
obstruction &c (hindrance) 706; embolus; contraction &c 195;
infarction; constipation, obstipation^; blind alley, blind corner;
keddah^; cul-de-sac, caecum; imperforation^, imperviousness &c adj.;
impermeability; stopper &c 263.
V. close, occlude, plug; block up, stop up, fill up, bung up, cork up,
button up, stuff up, shut up, dam up; blockade, obstruct &c (hinder)
706; bar, bolt, stop, seal, plumb; choke, throttle; ram down, dam,
cram; trap, clinch; put to the door, shut the door.
Adj. closed &c v.; shut, operculated^; unopened.
unpierced^, imporous^, caecal [Med.]; closable; imperforate,
impervious, impermeable; impenetrable; impassable, unpassable^;
invious^; pathless, wayless^; untrodden, untrod.
unventilated; air tight, water tight; hermetically sealed; tight,

262. Perforator -- N. perforator, piercer, borer, auger, chisel,
gimlet, stylet^, drill, wimble^, awl, bradawl, scoop, terrier,
corkscrew, dibble, trocar [Med.], trepan, probe, bodkin, needle,
stiletto, rimer, warder, lancet; punch, puncheon; spikebit^, gouge;
spear &c (weapon) 727; puncher; punching machine, punching press; punch

263. Stopper -- N. stopper, stopple; plug, cork, bung, spike, spill,
stopcock, tap; rammer^; ram, ramrod; piston; stop-gap; wadding,
stuffing, padding, stopping, dossil^, pledget^, tompion^, tourniquet.
cover &c 223; valve, vent peg, spigot, slide valve.
janitor, doorkeeper, porter, warder, beadle, cerberus, ostiary^.



264. [Successive change of place.] Motion -- N. motion, movement, move;
going &c v.; unrest.
stream, flow, flux, run, course, stir; evolution; kinematics;
step, rate, pace, tread, stride, gait, port, footfall, cadence,
carriage, velocity, angular velocity; clip, progress, locomotion;
journey &c 266; voyage &c 267; transit &c 270.
restlessness &c (changeableness) 149; mobility; movableness,
motive power; laws of motion; mobilization.
V. be in motion &c adj.; move, go, hie, gang, budge, stir, pass, flit;

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