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Putnam's Word Book by Louis A. Flemming

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canteen carrier. (female) cantiniere, vivandiere.

canvas, n. tarpaulin; coutil.

canyon, n. gorge, ravine, gulch.

cap, n. biggin, biggon, biggonnet, busby, coif, berretta, biretta,
barret, caul, callot, head-gear, turban, fez, calotte, toque, mortarboard,
mitre, tarboosh, Tam-o-Shanter, zuchetto, wimple, shako, morion, mozetta,
casque, helmet, mutch, montero, domino, beaver, glengarry, calpac, thrum
cap, beret, keffieh, mortier, mobcap. Associated Word: visor.

cap, v. crown, complete, consummate, surpass, exceed.

capability, n. ability, capacity, competency, qualification,
efficiency, proficiency.

capable, a. able, qualified, susceptible, competent, efficient,
proficient. Antonyms: See incapable.

cape, n. promontory, headland.

caper, n. dido, trick, prank, leap, gambol, curlycue.

caper, v. gambol, frisk, cavort, leap, skip, prance, capriole.

capital, a. principal, leading, chief, cardinal, foremost;
(Colloq.) excellent, first-rate.

capital letter, n. majuscule (ancient manuscripts). Associated
word: cyriologic.

capitation, n. poll-tax.

caprice, n. fancy, whim, notion, freak, vagary, crotchet, quirk,
whimsey, fickleness.

capricious, a. fanciful, whimsical, vagarious, inconstant, fickle,
crotchety, volatile.

cap-shaped, a. pileate, pileated.

capsize, v. upset, overturn.

captain, n. commander, chieftain, leader, chief: skipper; colonel;
master, foreman.

captious, a. critical, carping, censorious, caviling.

captivate, v. enchant, subdue, bewitch, fascinate, entrance, enamor,

captivating, a. bewitching, fascinating, enchanting. See

captivation, n. fascination, infatuation, charming.

captivity, n. bondage, servitude, thralldom, vassalage, slavery.

capture, v. seize, catch, apprehend, arrest, corral, deprehend.

capture, n. prey, prize; apprehension, arrest, seizure, catching.

car, n. cart, vehicle, chariot, caboose, tender, cage, coach, tram,

carbolic acid. phenol, phenic acid.

cardinal, a. principal, chief, superior, preëminent.

cardinal virtues. prudence, temperance, justice, fortitude.

cardinals, n. pl. Associated Words: propaganda, conclave,

care, n. concern, anxiety, worry, apprehension; oversight, charge,
management, tutelage, custody; ward, charge, protégé, responsibility;
attention, heed, caution, regard, circumspection, carefulness. Antonyms:
See carelessness.

careful, a. cautious, watchful, provident, chary, attentive,
circumspect, considerate, heedful, prudent, discreet, wary, mindful,
choice, sparing, observant.

carefulness, n. caution, wariness, circumspection, chariness,
forethought, precaution, watchfulness, discretion, concern, cautiousness.

careless, a. negligent, unconcerned, indifferent, heedless,
inattentive, regardless, lax, incautious, remiss, inconsiderate,
nonchalant, neglectful, unwary, imprudent, indiscreet, improvident,
reckless, desultory, perfunctory, devil-may-care, slovenly, slack, supine.

carelessness, n. unconcern, indifference, negligence, heedlessness,
remissness, incaution, nonchalance, inadvertence, laxity, improvidence,
inattention, dereliction, indiscretion, recklessness.

cargo, n. freight, load, burden, lading, last.

caricature, n. exaggeration, burlesque, take-off, travesty, parody.

carking, a. harassing, worrying, distressing, vexatious.

carnal, a. sensual, fleshly, bodily; lustful, salacious;

carousal, n. revel, wassail, orgies, bacchanals, saturnalia, jamboree

carouser, n. reveler, roysterer, debauchee, bacchanalian.

carp, v. cavil, censure.

carpenter, n. joiner.

carpet covering. drugget, bocking.

carping, a. caviling, censorious, captious, hypercritical,

carriage, n. carrying, transportation; bearing, behavior, deportment;
air, mien, demeanor.

carriage, n. vehicle, conveyance, coach, gig, buggy, sulky,
diligence, perambulator, cabriolet, brougham, surrey, chaise, stanhope,
sedan, jumpseat, tally-ho, victoria, tumbrel, chariot, jingle, rockaway,
hack, calash, cab, coupe, hansom cab, volante, cart, equipage, turnout,
jaunting car, landau, phaeton, wagonette, jinrikisha, vandy, dogcart,
kibitka, britzska, barouche, fly, whisky, post-chaise, droshki, trap,
dos-à-dos, litter, palanquin, curricle.

carriage dog. Dalmatian dog.

carrier, n. messenger, conveyer; porter, bearer, teamster.

carrion, n. Associated Words: necrophagan, necrophagous,
saprophagan, necrophilous, saprophagous, saprophytic, saprophyte.

carry, v. convey, transport, bear, waft, portage; carry out,
complete, effectuate, consummate, accomplish.

carrying, n. transportation, conveyance, portage, transmission,
conduction, delivery. Associated Words: portable, portability,
unportable, palanquin, litter, sedan chair.

cart, n. vehicle, wagon, carriage; lorrie, truck, tumbril, carreta.

carte, n. menu, bill of fare.

Carthaginian, a. Punic.

cartilage, n. gristle. Associated Words: chondrology, chondrotomy,
chondritis, chondroid, chondrification, chondrify, cartilaginous, gristly.

cart maker. cartwright.

carve, v. sculpture, chisel, engrave, fashion, mould.

carving, n. sculpture (in wood or ivory); anaglyptics, anaglyphy.

case, a. sheath, covering, capsule, receptacle, quiver, chest; event,
happening, instance, circumstances, condition, affair, plight,
predicament, dilemma, contingency.

case-hardened, a. seared, obdurate.

cash, n. coin, specie, currency.

cashier, n. cash-keeper; bursar, treasurer, purser.

cask, n. tierce, hogshead, pipe, puncheon, butt, tun.

casket, n. gemmary; coffin.

cassock, n. soutane.

cast, v. fling, hurl, throw, impel, pitch, sling; direct, turn, drop,
deposit, place; exuviate, shed, molt, discard, shed, reflect, throw;
compute, reckon, add, enumerate.

cast, n. throw, fling; exuviæ, ejection, secretion.

castaway, n. outcast, reprobate, pariah, derelict.

castigate, v. chastise.

castigation, n. chastisement.

castiron, a. unyielding, indomitable, hardy.

castle, n. fortress, citadel, stronghold, fastness, donjon, keep;
mansion, château.

castling, n. abortion.

cast off. discard, reject, slough.

cast-off, a. discarded, rejected.

castor oil. Associated Words: ricinoleic, ricinolein, ricinus,
Palma Christi.

castrate, v. geld, alter; emasculate.

castrated person. eunich, spade.

castration, n. orchotomy, emasculation, gelding.

casual, a. chance, accidental, fortuitous, contingent.

casualty, n. accident, calamity, contingency, fortuity.

cat, n. feline, _Felis_, tabby, puss, pussy; kitten, kitty; grimalkin
(an old she cat). Associated Words: purr, mew, miaul, caterwaul,
feline, _Felidæ_ (cat family).

catacomb, n. grotto, crypt, cave.

catalogue, n. list, register, schedule, index, inventory, Associated
word: raisonné.

cataract, n. waterfall, cascade, fall, lin.

catastrophe, n. disaster, calamity.

catch, v. seize, grasp, clutch, snatch, gripe, nab; apprehend;
arrest; deprehend; overtake; insnare, entangle, entrap.

catch, n. capture, seizure, arrest, apprehension; hasp, hook, clasp.

catching, a. contagious, infectious, communicable, pestilential.
Antonyms: noncontagious, incommunicable.

catching, n. seizure, apprehension, arrest.

catchword, n. cue.

category, n. class, state, condition, division, predicament.

cater, v. purvey.

cater-cornered, a. (Colloq.) diagonal.

caterer, n. purveyor.

cathartic, n. purgative, physic, purge, evacuant.

catholic, a. universal, general, world-wide; liberal, tolerant,
unsectarian, broad-minded; Roman Catholic, Romish. Antonyms: uncatholic,
sectarian, local, narrow, noncatholic.

catholicity, n. universality, catholicism; liberality.

catkin, n. ament.

cat's-eye, n. chatoyant, chrysoberyl. Associated Words: chatoyant,

cat's-paw, n. dupe, tool, cully, gull.

cattle, n. kine; Bos; Bovine quadrupeds; Taurus.

cattle-plague, n. rinderpest, murrain.

cattle-stealing, n. abigeat (Civil Law).

cause, n. origin, source; motive, incitement, inducement, incentive.
Associated Words: ætiology, etiology, teleology, etiological, causation,
causative, causality.

cause, v. occasion, induce, effect, originate.

caustic, a. burning, virulent, acrid, catheretic, mordacious,
cutting, satirical.

caution, n. wariness, forethought, circumspection; advice, warning,

caution, v. forewarn, admonish, warn, counsel, advise, dissuade.

cautious, a. circumspect, prudent, wary. Antonyms: incautious,

cave, n. cavern, grotto, grot, den, catacomb, crypt. Associated
words: speleology, spelean, stalactite, stalagmite, cavernicolous,
troglodytic, caverned, cavernous.

cave-dweller, n. troglodyte.

cavil, v. carp, criticize.--n. objection, criticism (specious
or frivolous).

caviling, a. carping, captious, cavilous, hypercritical.

Cayenne pepper. capsicum.

cease, v. discontinue, stop, desist, refrain.

ceaseless, a. incessant, unceasing, constant, uninterrupted,

cedar tree. Associated Words: cedrine, cedrene.

cede, v. surrender, relinquish, grant.

ceding, n. cession.

celebrate, v. commemorate, solemnize, observe.

celebrated, a. famous, illustrious, noted, renowned, eminent,
far-famed. Antonyms: obscure, inglorious, unrenowned.

celebration, n. commemoration, observance, solemnization.

celebrity, n. fame, renown, eminence.

cellar, n. basement.

celluloid, n. xylonite.

cement, n. adhesive, glue; lute, luting.

cement, v. cohere, join, glue, glutinate.

cemetery, n. necropolis, God's acre, graveyard, mortuary.

censer, n. thurible, incensory.

censor, n. inspector, reviewer, critic; caviler, censurer.

censorious, a. carping, captious, caviling, critical.

censurable, a. reprehensible, culpable, blamable, reproachable,

censure, n. reproof, reprehension, blame, reprimand, objurgation.

censure, v. reprove, rebuke, reprehend, upbraid, objurgate, chide,
inveigh against.

censuring, a. reprehensory, reproachful, reproving, objurgatory,

centenary, n. centennial, century.

centennial, n. centenary.

center, n. middle, midst. Antonyms: circumference, perimeter, rim,
boundary. Associated Words: centrifugal, centrifugence, centricity,
centripetal, centripetence, centrality, centralize, centralization,

centerpiece, n. épergne.

central, a. middle, centric, centrical, equidistant.

century, n. centenary. Associated Words: centennial, secular.

ceremonious, a. formal, precise, punctilious. Antonyms: informal,

ceremony, n. rite, form, ceremonial, solemnity; formality.

certain, a. assured, confident, convinced, satisfied, undoubting;
undeniable, irrefutable, indubitable, incontrovertible, incontestable,
sure; inevitable, unavoidable; unfailing, infallible, inerrable; fixed,
stated, specified. Antonyms: indefinite, uncertain, doubtful. See

certainty, n. sureness, confidence, assurance, surety; fact, truth.
Antonyms: See uncertainty.

certificate, n. testimonial, credential, voucher.

certify, v. assure, attest, testify to, vouch for.

chafe, v. rub, gall, irritate; fret, fume, rage.

chaff, n. glumes, hulls, refuse.

chaff, n. banter, raillery, pleasantry, jesting, badinage.

chaff, v. jest, banter.

chaffy, a. acerose, palaceous, stramineous.

chagrin, a. mortification, abashment, vexation, confusion,
discomposure, humiliation.

chagrin, v. mortify, abash, vex, confuse, humiliate.

chain, n. concatenation, catenation, series, congeries, carcanet,
catena, chatelaine, necklace, gorget, links, torque; bond, shackle,
fetter, tether.

chain, v. fetter, restrain, shackle, enslave, trammel, catenate.

chain wheel. sprocket wheel.

chair, n. seat; professorship; chairman.

chalice, n. grail.

chalk, n. Associated Words: calcography, calcographer,
calcographic, chalkiness, crayon.

chalkstone, n. tophus. (Med.)

chalky, a. cretaceous.

challenge, v. defy, dare, brave.--n. defiance; exception,

champion, n. defender, vindicator, protector, paladin; winner, hero,

champion, v. defend, maintain, advocate, vindicate.

chance, v. befall; risk, venture.

chance, n. fate, fortune, luck, fortuity, hap, casualty, accident;
possibility, likelihood, contingency; opportunity; hazard, jeopardy, risk,

chance, a. casual, fortuitous, accidental, contingent, random.

chancery, n. equity.

change, n. variation, alteration, transition, mutation,
transposition, conversion, metamorphosis, innovation, transfiguration,
permutation, transference, reversion, reaction, transmutation;
substitution, commutation; variety, novelty, vicissitude. Associated
word: mutanda. Antonyms: continuation, stability, conservatism,
permanence, inertia, monotony, perpetuation, continuance, fixity,
invariability, uniformity.

change, v. alter, transmute, shift, modulate, reverse, reform, vary,
modify, convert, transform, transpose, transfer, exchange, substitute,
commute. Antonyms: continue, persist, remain, abide.

changeable, a. mutable, variable, inconstant, unstable, unsteadfast,
reversible, alterable, revocable, mobile, convertible, transmutable,
commutable, kaleidoscopic, transformable, impermanent; volatile, fickle,
mercurial, protean, irresolute, capricious, vacillating, fitful,
inconstant, erratic, eccentric, crotchety; iridescent; chatoyant.

changeableness, n. mutability, variability, inconstancy, instability,
vacillation, convertibility, transmutability, mobility, impermanence;
volatility, irresolution, fickleness, capriciousness; iridescence;

changeless, a. permanent, immutable, inexorable, invariable,
undeviating, unalterable, unvarying, constant, unconvertible.

changelessness, n. immutability, inalterability, permanence,
conservatism, invariability, monotony, inconvertibility.

changeling, n. oaf; waverer, whiffler.

change of life. climacteric; menopause.

channel, n. water-course, canal, aqueduct, gutter, runway, alveus,
conduit, duct; strait; furrow, chamfer, chamfret, groove, fluting; avenue,
route, artery.

chant, v. intone, intonate, cantillate.

chant, n. intonation; introit; cantillation.

chaos, n. confusion, disorder, disorganization.

chap, n. crack, chink; boy, lad, youth; kibe.

chapel, n. oratory, chantry, bethel.

chapped, a. kibed.

chaps, n. pl. jaws, chops, flews.

chapter, n. branch. Associated Words: capitular, capitulary.

character, n. personality, nature, individuality. Associated Words:
ethology, ethologist.

characteristic, n. trait, peculiarity, feature, attribute,
attribution, idiosyncrasy.

characterize, v. distinguish.

charge, n. accusation, complaint, allegation, indictment, imputation,
crimination, impeachment, arraignment, gravamen (burden of a charge);
trust, ward; custody, care, responsibility, oversight, obligation,
commission, management; onset, attack, assault, onslaught, fusillade;

charge, v. impose, load, encumber; exhort, enjoin, adjure, instruct;
commit, intrust; debit; accuse, indict, tax, impute, criminate, arraign;
attack, assault.

chargeable, a. imputable, attributable, referrible.

charitable, a. benevolent, benign, beneficent, magnanimous; liberal,
tolerant, lenient. Antonyms: uncharitable, illiberal, intolerant.

charity, n. benevolence, good will, love, benignity, philanthropy,
beneficence, bounty, liberality, tolerance. Associated Words:
eleemosynary, alms, dependent.

charlatan, n. pretender, quack, impostor, fraud, cheat, mountebank,

charlatanic, a. pretentious, empirical, quackish.

charlatanry, n. quackery, pretension, empiricism, charlatanism.

charm, n. spell, incantation, enchantment, conjuration; periapt,
amulet, phylactery, talisman, fetich, abraxas; fascination, glamour,
witchery, attraction, illusion, rhetoric; breloque (jewel);
countercharm. Antonyms: disenchantment, repellence, disillusionment.

charm, v. enchant, fascinate, enamor, infatuate, enrapture, bewitch,
captivate; allay, soothe, subdue. Antonyms: decharm, disillusionize,
disenchant, repel.

charmer, n. enchanter, magician, sorcerer; siren, enchantress.

charming, a. bewitching, captivating, enchanting, enrapturing,
entrancing, magical, fascinating, winning, ecstatic, siren, delightful,
winsome, seductive, ravishing. Antonyms: charmless, unattractive,
repellent, repulsive.

charnel house. ossuary, ossuarium, tomb, carnary.

chart, n. map. Associated Words: cartography, cartographer.

chary, a. frugal, careful, saving, cautious, circumspect.

chase, v. track, hunt, pursue; scatter, expel, drive, disperse,

chase n. hunting, field-sport, hunt, venery, chevy; pursuit.

chasm, n. abyss, gap.

chaste, a. virtuous, continent, undefiled, pure, inviolated, modest,
innocent; classic, refined, pure, correct. Antonyms: See unchaste.

chasten, v. discipline, correct, punish; refine, purify, subdue.

chastise, v. castigate, chasten, punish, whip.

chastisement, n. castigation, chastening, punishment, whipping.

chastity, n. purity, virtue, continence.

chat, n. confabulation, talk, conversation, _causerie_, confab

cheap, a. inexpensive, low-priced; inferior, mean, mediocre, of small

cheapen, v. depreciate; belittle, lower.

cheat, n. fraud, trick, hoax, finesse, imposition, imposture,
swindle, humbug, bubble, wile, deception, stratagem, bunko, blind,
thimblerigging; impostor, deceiver, quack, mountebank, thimblerigger,
charlatan, empiric, trickster, swindler, blackleg, bamboozler, sharper;
delusion, chicanery, mockery, counterfeit, fetch.

cheat, v. swindle, defraud, overreach, trick, bamboozle, hoodwink,
dupe, hoax, bilk, thimblerig, hocus, bunko, beguile, cozen.

check, n. obstacle, restraint, curb, bridle, damper, barrier,
restriction, rebuff, repulse, delay, interruption; bank check, cheque.

check, v. restrain, impede, curb, repress, bridle, checkmate.

checker, v. variegate, diversify, tessellate.

checkered, a. diversified, variegated, plaid, mosaic, tessellated.

checkers, n. draughts.

checking, a. repressive, restraining, curbing.

checkmate, v. defeat, vanquish, conquer, baffle.

cheek, n. jowl. Associated Words: zygoma, zygomatic, buccate,
buccal, malar, buccinator, meloncus, meloplasty, melitis, dimple, jugal.

cheek, n. (Slang) effrontery, temerity, assurance, impudence,

cheeky, a. (Slang) audacious, bold, impudent, presumptuous,

cheer, v. inspirit, elate, exhilarate, encourage, console, revive,
gladden; applaud.

cheerful, a. cheery, buoyant, sunny, vivacious, optimistic, sanguine,
elated, jubilant, lightsome, airy, exhilarating, exhilarated, jocund,

cheerfulness, n. cheeriness, buoyancy, elation, exhilaration,
alacrity, jocundity, light-heartedness, optimism.

cheering, n. applause, plaudit; ovation.

cheerless, a. dismal, sombre, drear, dreary, gloomy, desolate,
forlorn, sad, hopeless, despairing, joyless.

cheery, a. cheerful, pleasant, sunny, blithe, jovial, affable.

cheese-paring, a. scrimping, niggardly.

cheesy, a. caseous.

chemise, n. shirt, smock, shift, chemisette.

cherish, v. treasure.

cherry-colored, a. cerise.

chest, n. box, case, coffer, trunk, hutch, receplacle, bahut.

chest, n. thorax, breast. Associated Words: pectoral, pectorally,
diaphragm, midriff.

chestnut, n. Associated Words: esculic, esculin, castanea, burr.

chestnut-colored, a. castaneous.

chew, v. masticate, munch; crunch, craunch, champ.

chewing, n. mastication; rumination, remastication.

chew the cud. ruminate.

chic, a. (Colloq.) in good taste, neat.--n. good form, style.

chicanery, n. trickery, chicane.

chicken, n. fowl; hen; rooster; pullet; poult; capon; pl.
poultry, brood.

chicken-hearted, a. timid, fearful, cowardly.

chicken pox. varicella.

chide, v. admonish, censure, upbraid, scold.

chief, n. head, leader, commander, chieftain, captain.

chief, a. leading, supreme, main, head, principal, paramount, prime,
cardinal, major, foremost.

child, n. progeny, offspring, issue; infant, babe, baby, tot, bairn,
brat; bastard (illegitimate); orphan; foundling, waif; cockney (spoilt
child); minor. Associated Words: pediatrics, prolicide, infanticide,
puberty, philoprogenitive, philoprogenitiveness, misopedia, filicide,
putti, filial, filiation, affiliation, affiliate.

childbirth, n. parturition, accouchement, childbed, lying-in,
travail, labor, childbearing. Associated Words: tocology, midwife,
midwifery, parturient, maieutic, layette, obstetrics, obstetrician,
celation, puerperal, accoucheur, accoucheuse, fetus, post-partum.

childhood, n. nonage, infancy, minority, impuberty, pupilage.

childish, a. puerile, juvenile, infantile, immature.

childishness, n. juvenility, puerility, immaturity.

children, n. offspring, progeny, issue, descendants, posterity.

chill, n. chilliness, shiver, rigor.

chilly, a. cool, chill, raw, bleak.

chime, v. accord, agree, harmonize, be in unison.

chime, n. unison, harmony; carillon.

chimera, n. delusion, phantom, hallucination, illusion.

chimney, n. Associated Words: cowl, flue, hoveling, smoke jack,
chimney-breast, tewel.

chimney corner. ingle nook, ingleside.

chin: n. Associated Words: genian, mental, gill, wattle, chuck,

China, n. Celestial Empire, Cathay (Old name).

China clay. kaolin.

Chinaman, n. Chinese, Celestial, Mongol, Mongolian; mandarin; coolie.

china ware. china, porcelain.

Chinese, n. Associated Words: sinology, sinologue, sinicism, sinic,
yamen, haikwan, hong, canque, sinological, Taoism, Confucianism, Manchu,
kotow, li, abacus, chinoiserie, taotai.

Chinese idol. joss. Associated Word: ting.

chink, n. crack, cranny, crevice; (Colloq.) money, cash, coin.

chin whelk. sycosis.

chipper, a. lively, vivacious, cheerful, talkative.

chirp, v. chirrup, cherup, cheep, pue.

chivalrous, a. gallant, knightly, magnanimous, valiant.

chivalry, n. knighthood, gallantry, knight-errantry.

choice, n. selection, election, alternative, option, preference,
discrimination, preferment, volition. Antonyms: coercion, compulsion,

choice, a. select, rare, _recherché_; careful, sparing, chary
Antonyms: indiscriminate, promiscuous, common.

choir-leader, n. chorister, precentor, choir-master.

choir vestments. cotta; cassock.

choke, v. strangle, throttle, stifle, suffocate, suppress.

choleric, a. irascible, irritable, petulant, testy.

choose, v. select, elect, prefer, cull, pick out.

chop, v. hack, mince, hash, haggle.

chop, n. stroke, chopping; jaw, chap; pl. flews.

chorus, n. (Greek.) Associated Words: strophe, antistrophe,

chosen, a. selected.

Christmas, n. Yule, Yuletide, Christmastide.

Christmas mummer. guiser.

chronic, a. habitual, lingering, inveterate.

chronicle, n. record, account, narrative, diary, history.

chrysalis, n. aurelia, nympha, cocoon, kell.

chum, n. roommate; companion, intimate, associate, friend, crony.

church, n. temple, sanctuary, house of God, meeting house, fane;
cathedral; chapel, oratory, minster, bethel, tabernacle, chantry; kirk
(Scotch); synagogue (Jewish); denomination, sect; basilica.
Associated Words: ecclesiastical, ecclesiology, ecclesiolatry,
ecclesiasticism, parish, hierarch, hierarchy, hierocracy, hierolatry,
hierology, hierarchism, irenics, curé, evangelical, verger, beadle,
chancel, clearstory, nave, transept, vestry, presbytery, prebend,
prebendary, lectern, apse, irenicon, living, benefice, sinecure, glebe,
see, prelacy, convocation, synod, conference, conclave, consistory, crypt,
schism, orthodoxy, heterodoxy, unchurch, sacristan, sacristy, Dorcastry,
Sarum use.

church and state. Associated Words: Erastian, Erastianism.

church dignitary. prelate, primate, elder, deacon, dean, hierarch,

church fathers. Associated Words: patristic, patristics, patrology,

churchly, a. ecclesiastical.

church officer. vestryman, warden, presbyter, trustee.

churl, n. rustic, hind, bumpkin, lout, boor.

churlish, a. boorish, rude, morose, unamiable.

chyle, n. Associated Words: chylification, chylifaction, chylify,
achylous, chylaceous, chylous, chyliferous, chylocyst, lacteal,
chylopoiesis, chylopoietic.

chyme, n. Associated Words: chymification, chymiferous, chymify,
chymous, achymous.

cigar, n. (small) stogie; tobie; cheroot.

cinch, n. (Colloq.) tight grip.

cipher, n. zero, naught, nothing; nonentity, nobody; device,

cipher writing. cryptography, crytograph, steganography, cryptogram.

circle, n. ring; circumference, periphery; circuit; clique, coterie,
set, class; annulation, annulus.

circle, v. encircle.

circuitous, a. roundabout, devious, indirect.

circulate, v. disseminate, promulgate, diffuse.

circulation, n. dissemination, diffusion, promulgation, propagation.

circumference, n. periphery, circumscription, girth.

cistern, n. reservoir; impluvium.

cite, v. quote; specify, mention, name, refer to.

citizen, n. resident.

city, n. municipality.--a. municipal, urban.

civil, a. civic, political, municipal; courteous, obliging, polite.
Antonyms: See uncivil.

civility, n. courtesy, politeness. Antonyms: incivility,

claim, v. demand, pretend; (Colloq.) assert, maintain.

claim, n. pretension, demand, requisition; title, right.

claimant, n. claimer, pretender, pretendant.

clamor, n. uproar, tumult, hubbub, racket, din.

clamorous, a. noisy, uproarious, bawling, obstreperous.

clandestine, a. hidden, stealthy, surreptitious, furtive, secret.

clannish, a. narrow, exclusive.

clap, n. gonorrhea.

clapboards, n. pl. siding, weatherboarding.

claptrap, a. humbug, stage trick, _coupe de theatre_.

clarity, n. clearness.

clash, v. collide, hurtle, crash together; contend, disagree;
clatter, clang.

clash, n. collision, crash; opposition, interference, contrariety;
clangor, clang.

clasp, v. grasp, grapple, clutch, seize; embrace, hug.

clasp, n. hook, hasp, fibula, morse, catch; embrace.

class, n. rank, order, category, species, variety.

class, v. classify, dispose, categorize.

classification, n. disposition, grouping; taxonomy.

clause, n. article, stipulation, proviso, provision.

claw, n. talon; dewclaw. Associated Words: ungual, unguicular,
retract, retractile, unguiculate, pounced, unguiform.

claw, v. scratch, laniate, lacerate.

clay, n. argillaceous earth; pug, argil, hole, marl, kaolin.
Associated Words: potter, pottery, figuline, fictile, pug, puddle.

clayey, a. argillaceous, argillous, argilliferous, luteous, cledgy.

clean, a. unsoiled, unsullied, immaculate, cleanly, neat; chaste,
pure, virtuous, undefiled, incorrupt, uncontaminated; shapely,
well-proportioned; kosher (Jewish).

clean, adv. wholly, perfectly, completely, quite, entirely,

clean, v. cleanse.

cleanse, v. purify, deterge, absterge, wash, disinfect, fumigate,

cleanser, n. abstergent, detergent, purifier, detersive.

cleansing, a. detergent, abstergent, abstersive, detersive,

cleansing, n. purification, detersion, purgation, abstersion,
lustration, expurgation.

clear, a. transparent, diaphanous, pellucid, limpid, relucent,
crystalline, lucid, crystal; unmistakable, plain, evident, obvious,
unambiguous, distinct, explicit, manifest, palpable, patent, decipherable,
express, comprehensible, graphic; serene, cloudless, unclouded, undimmed;
clarion, sonorous, resonant, canorous, audible, piercing; pure, unmixed,
unadulterated, unalloyed; in full, net; passable, unimpeded, unobstructed,
open; acquitted; unburdened, exempt; clarified. Antonyms: opaque,
obscure, indecipherable, ambiguous, equivocal, vague, cryptic, abstruse,
inexplicable, roily, turbid, enigmatical, inexplicit, inaudible,
adulterated, cloudy, befogged, unintelligible, doubtful.

clear, v. clarify; explain, interpret, elucidate, eclaircise; acquit,
absolve, exonerate, vindicate; disengage, extricate, disentangle,

clearer, n. clarifier.

clearing, n. clarification, clearance, dispersion; interpretation,
explanation, eclaircissement, dénouement; exoneration, acquittal; assart.

clearness, n. clarity, distinctness; transparency, limpidity,
lucidity, perspicuity, translucency; serenity. Antonyms: opacity,
ambiguity, vagueness, intransparency.

cleave, v. adhere, cling, be loyal; split, rive, separate.

cleft, a. riven, split, divided.

clergy, n. ministers, the cloth, ecclesiastics, clergymen, clerisy.
Antonym: laity.

clergyman, n. minister, divine, ecclesiastic, priest, pastor, parson,
churchman, preacher, rector, curate, dominie, vicar, missionary,
evangelist, patriarch, dean, bishop, chaplain, cleric, deacon, presbyter,
imparsonee, kirkman, _padre_, _curé_, _abbé_. Antonym: layman.

clergyman's residence. parsonage, rectory, manse.

clerk, n. salesman, saleslady; accountant, recorder, registrar,
prothonotary, amanuensis, bookkeeper. Associated Words: clerical,

clever, a. adroit, skillful, expert, ingenious, deft, dexterous.

clients, n. pl. clientele.

cliff, n. crag, bluff, precipice; pl. palisades (line of bold

climate, n. Associated Words: meteorology, phenology, climatology,
acclimatable, acclimate, acclimation, acclimatize, acclimatization,
climatic, climatize, climatography.

climax, n. culmination.

climb, v. clamber, scale.

climbing, a. scandent, scansorial.

cling, v. adhere, cleave, hold fast.

clip, v. shear, snip, nip, trim, prune, curtail.

clip, n. (Colloq.) blow, knock, thump, rap.

clique, n. coterie, circle.

cloak, n. mantle, coat, capuchin, dolman, palladium, pelisse;
pretext, blind, mask.

cloak, v. conceal, mask, hide, veil, disguise.

clock, n. timepiece, timekeeper, horologe, horometer: clepsydra,
isochronon; scarab, scarabee, beetle. Associated Words: horology,
horography, horologiography., pendulum, strike, dial, tick.

clockmaker, n. horologist, horologer.

clodhopper, n. bumpkin, boor, hind, lout, clown, yokel.

clog, v. impede, hamper, encumber, restrain, obstruct.

clog, n. shackle, dragweight, deadweight, encumbrance; sabot,

cloister, n. monastery, nunnery, convent, abbey, priory, cenoby.

cloisterer, n. cenobite, recluse.

cloistral, a. monastic, cloistered, recluse.

close, a. oppressive, uncomfortable, muggy, unventilated; narrow,
cramped; close-mouthed, secretive, reticent, reserved, uncommunicative,
taciturn; dense, solid, compact, imporous; near, adjacent, adjoining;
intimate, confidential; parsimonious, stingy, penurious niggardly,
miserly, illiberal, close-fisted; exact, literal, faithful; intent,
assiduous, fixed, intense.

close, v. shut, stop, occlude; conclude, finish, end, terminate;
inclose, encompass, confine, environ; grapple, clinch; lute, calk.

close, n. conclusion, end; peroration; grapple; court, area,
enclosure, inclosure, yard.

close-mouthed, a. wary, cautious, secretive, uncommunicative,

closeness, n. nearness, proximity, adjacency; density, compactness;
intimacy; reticence, secretiveness; parsimony, stinginess, illiberality,

closet, n. private room; clothespress, ambry.

closing, a. concluding, final.

closing, n. stopping up, obstruction, blockade, occlusion;

clot, n. coagulation, coagulum.--v. coagulate.

cloth, n. fabric, material, drapery, textile, texture, woof, weft.
Associated Words: draper, drapery, drape.

clothe, v. dress, attire, array, gird, drape.

clothes, n. pl. dress, clothing, garments, vesture, attire, apparel,
drapery, costume, raiment, garb, vestment, habiliments, regalia, uniform,
livery, guise, wardrobe, rig, toggery, frippery, regimentals,
paraphernalia; (clerical) vestments, canonicals; trousseau (bride's).

clothing, n. clothes, raiment. Associated Words: frippery,
wardrobe, habilatory.

cloud, n. nebulosity, rack; cirrus, cat's-tail, mare's-tail; cumulus,
stratus, nimbus; cirro-cumulus, cirro-stratus, cumulo-stratus; storm scud,
wane cloud; tarnish, blemish; eclipse, obscurity. Associated Words:
nephology, meteorology, nubiferous, nephelodometer, nephelometer,
nephoscope, nepheloid, nephograph.

cloud, v. overcast, becloud, obscure, shade, obfuscate; tarnish,
sully, blacken.

cloudy, a. overcast, lowering, murky, overclouded, obscure, sullen,
nebulous, hazy, dim; tarnished, indistinct, blurred; variegated, mottled.

cloven, a. bisulcate.

clover, n. trifolium, trefoil; alsike.

cloves, n. pl. Associated Words: eugenic, eugenin, clove, camphor,
eugenol, caryophyllin.

clown, n. buffoon, jester, merry-andrew, zany, harlequin, droll,
punch, mime, _farceur_, scaramouch, _grimacier_ jackpudding; boor, lout,
gawk, gawky, lubber, put, bumpkin, churl, carl, tike; rustic, hind,
clodhopper, yokel, yahoo.

clownish, a. boorish, ungainly, awkward, loutish, churlish, gawky.

cloy, v. satiate, glut, surfeit, pall, sate.

club, n. cudgel, bludgeon, truncheon, bat, mace, staff, shillalah,
waddy, bandy, knobkerry; society, coterie, association, sorosis (woman's

club, v. cudgel, beat, pommel; club together, combine, coöperate.

club-bearer, n. claviger. Associated Word: clavigerous.

clubfoot, n. talipes.

clubfooted, a. taliped, talipedic.

club-shaped, a. clavate, clavated.

clue, n. intimation, hint, key.

clump, n. cluster, tuft, bunch, collection, thicket.

clumsy, a. ungraceful, lumbering, uncouth, unwieldy, unhandy, inapt,

cluster, n. bunch, clump, tuft; racematiofl, fascicle, raceme,
panicle; bevy, crowd.

clustered, a. aciniform, racemed, fascicled.

clutch, v. seize, grasp, grip, grapple, clench, grab, snatch.

clutch, n. grasp, seizure, hold; crampoons.

clutter, n. litter, disorder, jumble, confusion, disarray.

cluttered, a. disordered, littered, jumbled, disarranged.

coach, n. stage coach, tallyho, diligence; trainer.

coach dog. Dalmatian dog.

coachman, n. jehu, postilion, coach-driver, coachee (Slang).

coal, n. anthracite; bituminous; charcoal; culm, scoria, slack;
ember. Associated Words: carbon, carboniferous, gobbing, strata,
carbonize, carbonization, briquette, coke, brat, brattice, brettice.

coal-dealer, n. collier.

coalhod. scuttle.

coal-mine, n. colliery, coalpit.

coal-miner, n. collier.

coal-miner's consumption. anthracosis.

coal oil. kerosene, petroleum.

coals, n. pl. Associated Words: brasier, brazier, brasero.

coarse, a. crass, gross, unrefined, rude, unpolished, indelicate,
ribald, homespun, vulgar, inelegant; unbolted, unpurified.

coast, n. seashore, seaboard, seaside, shore, strand, beach.

coat, n. sack, jacket, frock, tuxedo, cutaway, paletot, dreadnaught,
ulster, capote, blouse, redingote, toga, cloak, surtout, duster,
mackintosh, joseph, cardinal, pelerine, temiak (Eskimo).

coat of arms. armorial bearings, escutcheon, arms, crest.

coat of mail. hauberk, cuirass, habergeon, armor, mail.

coax, v. wheedle, cajole, persuade, entice, cog, tweedle.

cob, n. spike, axis; sea mew, gull.

cocoanut, n. Associated Word: copra.

cochineal, n. Associated Words: nopal, nopalry, carminic acid.

cock, n. rooster, chanticleer; capon (castrated); weather-cock,
vane; chief, leader, dominator; faucet, stop-cock.

cockade, n. rosette.

cockahoop, a. boastful, defiant, vainglorious, blustering.

cock and bull story. canard.

cockatrice, n. basilisk.

cocker, v. fondle, indulge, pamper, pet, humor, coddle.

cockfighting, n. cockmatch, alectoromachy, alectryomachy.

cocky, a. (Slang) pert, saucy.

cocoa, n. Associated Word: theobromine.

coddle, v. parboil; pamper, fondle, cocker, humor, indulge.

coequal, a. coördinate.

coerce, v. constrain, compel, intimidate, restrain.

coercion, n. compulsion, restraint, force, repression, constraint.

coffee, n. Associated Words: caffeine, chiccory, biggin, pulp,

coffee-chaser, n. _chasse_.

coffee-house, n. café.

coffin, n. casket.

cog, n. cam, catch; trick, deception, fraud.

cogent, a. convincing, conclusive, forcible, influential.

coheir, n. parcener.

coheirship, n. parcenary.

coherent, n. consistent, logical.

coil, n. convolution, intervolution; entanglement, toil, mesh,
perplexity; querl.

coil, v. convolve, intervolve.

coin, n. quoin, corner, coigne, wedge, plug, key.

coin, n. specie, cash; medallion. Associated Words: numismatic,
numismatics, numismatist, numismatology, jugata, engrailment, nurling,
milling, brockage, numismatography, numismatologist, nummary, rouleau,
nummular, nummulary.

coin, v. mint; neoterize, neologize; fabricate, invent, originate.

coinage, n. minting; neologism, neology, neoterism.

coincide, v. concur, correspond, agree, harmonize, tally.

coincidence, n. concurrence, correspondence, agreement.

coincident, a. concurrent, contemporaneous;--followed by _with_.

coiner, n. minter; neologist, neoterist.

cold, a. cool, chilly; frigid, gelid, icy; nipping, bleak, raw,
frosty, freezing; unresponsive, phlegmatic, passionless, chilling,
stoical, apathetic, reserved.

cold, n. coldness, frigidity, gelidity, chilliness, algidity:

cold-blooded, a. poikilothermal; deliberate.

colic, n. gripe, enteralgia, tormina.

collar, n. neckband, carcanet, ruff, ruche, collet, rabat,
piccadilly, dickey, collarette.

collar-bone, n. clavicle.

collect, v. assemble, accumulate.

collection, n. assemblage, accumulation, aggregation, heap; offering,
offertory; anthology, symposium, collectanea, miscellany, rosary,

college, n. Associated Words: collegiate, Alma Mater.

college dress. academicals.

college grounds. campus.

college student. collegian.

collision, n. clashing, concussion, interference, brunt, impact.

colloquial, a. conversational, familiar, informal.

colony, n. settlement, dependency. Associated Words: colonial,
colonist, planter, colonize, colonization, colonizationist.

color, n. hue, shade, tinge, tincture, tint; pigment, paint, dye,
stain. Associated Words: chromatics, colorific, colorist, chromatism,
chromatology, lake, decolorant, mordant, intinctivity, iridescent,
iridescence, prismatic, pigmentation, fugacious, fugitive, fugacity,
monochromatic, monochrome, polychromy, polychromatic, suffuse, suffusion,
imbuement, chromatic, achromatic.

color, n. ruddiness, redness, flush, blush, rosiness; semblance,
pretext; variety, shade, kind, species; pl. flag. Antonyms:
decoloration, colorlessness.

color, v. dye, tinge, stain, imbue, tint, tincture, variegate;
falsify, pervert, garble, palliate, gloss, distort; blush, flush.
Antonyms: decolor, bleach, decolorize.

colorable, a. specious, plausible, palliated.

color-blindness, n. Daltonism, achromatopsy, acritochromacy.

colored, a. tinged, dyed, tinted, stained, discolored; specious,

colorific, a. tinctorial.

coloring, n. dyeing, staining, intinction, tinting, tinction,
imbuement, variegation.

colorless, a. uncolored, faded; pale, pallid; neutral, characterless.

colossal, a. enormous, gigantic, monstrous, huge, prodigious,

colt, n. filly (female); foal (male); hogget.

coltish, a. frisky, sportive, wanton, playful.

column, n. pillar, post, shaft, obelisk; file, line, row; pilaster;
pl. peristyle, portico, colonnade. Associated Words: entablature,
frieze, architrave, triglyph, cornice, base, shaft, capital, plinth.

comb, n. crest, caruncle, head-tuft.

combat, n. contest bout, struggle, contention, fight, joust, battle.

combatant, n. contestant, fighter.

combative, a. pugnacious, contentious, bellicose, belligerent.

combination, n. union, alliance, federation, confederacy, syndicate,
league, cabal, merger, coalition, conspiracy, coöperation, collusion;
amalgamation, synthesis, incorporation.

combine, v. unite, incorporate, merge, amalgamate, blend, coalesce,

combine, n. (Colloq.) combination.

combined, a. united, confederated, federated, amalgamated,

combing, n. pectination.

comblike, a. pectinal, pectinate, pectinated, pectiniform.

come, v. arrive, approach; come from, issue, proceed, ensue, flow,
emanate, originate.

come after. follow, succeed. Antonyms: precede, antecede.

come again. return, recur.

come and go. alternate.

come between. intervene, interpose, interfere, contravene; cause
estrangement, disaffect.

come down. descend, alight.

comely, a. good-looking, handsome, personable. Antonyms: uncomely,
homely, plain.

come near. approach, approximate.

come round. recur; change, relent; circumvent, wheedle.

come short. be deficient.

come to. revive, recover; consent, yield, accede; arrive at, reach;
amount to.

come to a head. suppurate, mature; culminate.

come under. subvene.

comfort, n. ease, consolation, solace, nepenthe, encouragement.

comfort, v. console, solace.

comforter, n. consoler, cheerer; comfortable.

comfortless, a. disconsolate, inconsolable, desolate, distressed.

comical, a. See funny.

coming, n. approach, arrival, advent.

coming between. intervention, interposition, interference,

comity, n. politeness, courtesy, civility, graciousness, urbanity.

command, v. order, direct, enjoin, require, bid.

command, n. order, mandate, injunction, charge, behest, requisition,
bidding, direction, dictation, precept; authority, leadership, control.

commanding, a. authoritative, mandatory, imperative, dictatorial,

commandments, n. pl. The Decalogue. Associated Words: Kyrie

commence, v. begin.

commend, v. commit, consign, intrust; praise, extol recommend.

commendable, a. praiseworthy, laudable. Antonyms: unpraiseworthy,

commendatory, a. laudatory, eulogistic.

comment, v. remark, descant, annotate.

comment, n. remark, observation; annotation, commentary, explanation.

commentator, n. annotator, expositor, scholiast, glossarist,

commerce, n. traffic, barter, business, trading; intercourse,

commercial, a. mercantile.

commit, v. intrust, consign; perpetrate, do.

common, a. public, general; customary, usual, ordinary,
unexceptional, commonplace, inconspicuous, average, mediocre; plebeian,

commonalty, n. populace, proletariate, proletariat, varletry,
_bourgeoisie_, ruck, rank and file, the common people.

commonly, adv. ordinarily, generally, customarily.

common man. commoner, proletary, plebeian.

commonplace, a. ordinary, banal, hackneyed, trite, platitudinous,

commonplace, n. platitude, banality.

commotion, n. agitation, tumult, disturbance, turmoil, riot,
perturbation, flurry, furore.

communion, n. participation, sharing, communication: association,

communion, n. eucharist, Lord's Supper, sacrament: viaticum.
Associated Words: elements, host, wafer, chalice, paten, credence,
corporal, eucharistic, ciborium, ostension, purificator, impanation,
transubstantiation, consubstantiation, concomitance, post-communion,
ante-communion, volipresence, ostensorium, monstrance, _sursum corda_,
dominicale, celebrant, communicant, consistentes, intinction.

communism, n. socialism, humanitarianism, Fourierism, Saint
Simonianism, phalansterism.

compact, a. close, solid, dense, crowded, impenetrable, serried.

compact, n. covenant, agreement, pact, treaty, contract.

companion, n. associate, comrade, intimate, consort, partner, fellow,
mate, chum, compeer, confederate, accomplice, ally, colleague, crony,
confrère, concomitant, accessory.

companionable, a. affable, congenial, genial.

companionship, n. association, intimacy, fellowship, society,

company, n. guest, visitor; fellowship, companionship, association,
society; companion, escort; assembly, group, concourse, crowd;
corporation, syndicate, firm, house; troupe; band, guild. See
society. Antonyms: seclusion, loneliness, retirement, host.

compare, v. collate, liken.

comparison, n. collation; illustration, similitude, simile.

compass, n. Associated Words: binnacle, gimbal.

compass, n. extent, reach, sweep.

compassion, n. pity, sympathy, commiseration, condolence mercy.

compel, v. force, make, constrain, oblige, necessitate, coerce,
drive, dragoon, overpower.

compelling, a. forcible, coercive, constraining, imperative,
compulsory. Antonyms: elective, optional, discretional.

compelling, n. compulsion, coercion, constraint, duress, force.

compendium, n. epitome, summary, digest.

competency, n. fitness, ability, qualification, efficiency,
proficiency, capability.

competent, a. qualified, capable, efficient, proficient, able.
Antonym: incompetent.

competition, n. emulation, rivalry, contention, strife.

competitor, n. rival, contestant, opponent, antagonist.

complain, v. murmur, repine, grumble, whine, croak.

complaining, a. murmuring, repining, querimonious, querulous,
discontented, grumbling.

complaint, n. murmur, plaint, lamentation; malady, ailment, disease;
accusation, allegation, information.

complete, v. finish, consummate, perfect.

complete, a. entire, consummate, whole, integral, plenary,
unabridged, intact.

completion, n. consummation, integration, elaboration, finishing,
realization, effectuation.

complex, a. composite, compound, mixed; complicated, intricate,
involved. Antonyms: incomplex, simple, obvious.

complexity, n. intricacy, entanglement, complication.

compliance, n. yielding, concession, submission, obedience,

compliant, a. yielding, obedient, tractable, submissive, flexible.

complicated, a. complex, intricate, involved, entangled, complicate.

complication, n. intricacy, entanglement, involution, complexity,
snarl, confusion, imbroglio. Antonyms: disentanglement, simplicity.

composure, n. self-possession, calmness, sedateness, equanimity.

compound, n. combination, mixture, concoction, amalgamation,
intermixture, conglomeration, farrago, medley, synthesis, salmagundi,
jumble, olio, hodgepodge, olla podrida.

comprehend, v. understand, fathom, grasp; embrace, comprise, embody,

comprehension, n. understanding, apprehension. Antonyms:
incomprehension, inapprehension.

comprise, v. comprehend, include, embrace, involve, contain, embody.

compulsion, n. constraint, coercion, obligation, coaction.
Antonyms: discretion, spontaneity, volition, election, free-will.

compulsory, a. constraining, coercive, obligatory, unavoidable.
Antonyms: optional, discretional, elective.

compunction, n. qualm, contrition, remorse, regret, sting of

compute, v. reckon, calculate, enumerate, rate, estimate.

comrade, n. associate, companion, mate, compeer.

comradeship, n. association, _camaraderie_.

concave, a. rounded, vaulted. Antonym: convex.

concealed, a. hidden, latent, secreted, clandestine, disguised.

concealment, n. secretion, hiding; secrecy, latency, privacy,
seclusion, retirement; suppression.

conceit, n. idea, conception, fancy; whim, caprice, vagary, freak;
priggery, vanity, egotism, self-conceit, inflation, self-glorification,
overweening, conceitedness.

conceited, a. egotistical, priggish, bombastic, bumptious, vain,
overweening, self-conceited.

concentrate, v. centralize, focus, consolidate; condense, rectify.

concentration, n. centralization, consolidation; condensation.

concept, n. conception, notion, idea.

conception, n. ideation, imagination; idea, concept, notion,

concern, n. business, affair; moment, importance, interest, weight,
consequence; solicitude, anxiety, uneasiness care; firm, house, company,
partnership. Antonyms: unconcern, inconsequence.

concerned, a. solicitous, worried, anxious, apprehensive, troubled,
uneasy. Antonyms: unconcerned, indifferent.

concerning, prep. regarding, about, respecting, touching, with
reference to.

concert, n. accordance, concurrence, harmony; musicale.

concise, a. epigrammatic, sententious, succinct, laconic, pithy.
Antonyms: diffuse, prolix.

conclude, v. decide, determine, resolve; end, close; infer, deduce;
effect, arrange.

conclusion, n. decision, determination; inference, deduction,
corollary, illation; close, end, peroration, finale, completion,
dénouement, l'envoy.

concoct, v. compound, mix; devise, contrive, invent, excogitate.

concrete, a. solidified, consolidated; specific, special, particular.

concretion, n. solidification, lapidescence, stone; clot,

concubine, n. paramour, odalisque; pl. harem, seraglio.

condemn, v. denounce, anathematize, curse, execrate, reprobate, doom,
ban. Antonyms: exonerate, exculpate, vindicate, absolve, justify,

condemnation, n. denunciation, reprobation, execration, ban.

condemnatory, a. denunciatory, condemning.

condense, v. abridge, epitomize, reduce; compress, concentrate.

condescend, v. deign, vouchsafe.

condition, n. state, plight, category, predicament, situation,
stipulation, provision, proviso, term, prerequisite.

conditional, a. contingent, subject, provisory.

conduce, v. lead, tend, contribute, redound, subserve, advance.

conduct, v. lead, pilot, escort, guide, attend, convoy; administer,

conduct, n. guidance, management, leadership, administration,
behavior, deportment.

confederate, a. confederated, federated, allied, leagued.

confederation, n. coalition, federation, league, confederacy, union.

confess, v. acknowledge, own, admit, avow; divulge, disclose, reveal.

confession, n. acknowledgment, avowal, admission; confiteor; shrift;
exomologesis. Associated Words: shrive, shrift, confessional, shriven,
shriver, shrift, father.

confidence, n. reliance, trust, faith, dependence; assurance,
certainty. Antonyms: See doubt.

confidence game. swindle.

confident, a. sure, undoubting, sanguine, reliant, undaunted.

confine, n. boundary, border, frontier, limit.

confine, v. restrain, restrict, limit, circumscribe, pinion, inclose,
bound; immure, imprison, incarcerate.

confinement, n. restraint, imprisonment, durance, duress,
incarceration, immurement, limbo; limitation, circumscription; lying-in,

confines, n. pl. boundaries, borders, precincts, outskirts, purlieus,
marches, frontiers.

confirm, v. ratify, verify, corroborate, substantiate. Antonyms:
See abrogate.

confirmation, n. ratification, corroboration, substantiation,

conflict, n. clashing, antagonism, encounter, opposition, battle,
struggle, strife, skirmish, contest, combat, affray, fray, scrimmage.

conflict, v. clash, interfere, collide, be contradictory.

conflicting, a. contending, contradictory, contrary, opposing.

confound, v. confuse, disconcert, abash, nonplus, bewilder.

confounded, a. confused, disconcerted, abashed; (Colloq.) extreme,
excessive, odious, detestable.

confuse, v. disconcert, perplex, abash, fluster, embarrass, chagrin,
pose, nonplus, bewilder, obfuscate, discompose, addle, obscure, confound,

confusion, n. disorder, tumult, turmoil, disarray, jumble, chaos;
babel, pandemonium, commotion; abashment, chagrin, agitation,
disconcertion, mortification, consternation fluster, perturbation,
discomposure, flustration, obfuscation, distraction, flurry.

confutation, n. disproof, refutation.

Confute, v. refute, disprove.

congenial, a. kindred, sympathetic; suited, suitable, agreeable,

congratulate, v. felicitate, gratulate. Antonyms: commiserate,
condole with.

congratulation, n. felicitation, gratulation.

conjecture, n. surmise, supposition.--v. surmise, guess,

conjuration, n. incantation, enchantment, spell, sorcery, magic art.

conjurer, n. sorcerer, magician, wizard, diviner, exorcist,

connect, v. join, link, couple, attach, unite, affiliate; implicate.

connected, a. joined, coupled, linked, affiliated, related, akin,

connection, n. union, alliance, relationship, junction, conjunction,
affiliation, association, filiation; implication, relative, relation,
kinsman; bond, tie, link, coupling vinculum. Antonyms: disconnection,
detachment, isolation, incoherence.

conquer, v. defeat, overpower, down, vanquish, triumph, overthrow,
subdue, subjugate.

conqueror, n. subjugator, subduer, vanquisher, victor; conquistador.

conquest, n. subjection, subjugation, victory, mastery, triumph,
reduction, overthrow, rout.

conscience, n. Associated Words: casuistry, Erinys, compunction,

conscientious, a. scrupulous, just, upright, high- minded.

conscionable, a. reasonable, just.

conscious, a. cognizant, aware, sensible, apprised; sentient,
percipient, knowing. Antonyms: See unconscious.

consecrate, v. dedicate, sanctify, hallow.

consent, v. agree, accord, concur, accede, yield, assent, acquiesce,
comply, permit. Antonyms: dissent, disagree, refuse.

consent, n. concurrence, acquiescence, compliance, approval,
permission, agreement.

consequence, n. result, effect, issue, event, sequence, sequel,
outcome, upshot, eventuality; pursuance; importance, moment, weight.
Antonym: inconsequence.

conservation, n. preservation, maintenance, keeping.

conserve, v. save, preserve.

consider, v. meditate on, ponder, contemplate, think about; regard,

considerate, a. thoughtful, circumspect, heedful, mindful Antonyms:
See inconsiderate.

consideration, n. deliberation, advisement, contemplation, deference;
motive, reason.

console, v. comfort, cheer, condole with, solace, sympathize with.

consolidate, v. solidify, compress, concrete; unify, merge,
incorporate, combine.

consolidation, n. unification, union, combination, incorporation.

consonant, n. Associated Words: spirant, fricative, surd, sibilant.

conspicuous, a. salient, noticeable, prominent, manifest. Antonym:

conspiracy, n. plot, complot, machination, cabal, intrigue,

conspirator, n. conspirer, plotter, intriguer, caballer, machinator.

conspire, v. plot, complot, cabal, machinate, intrigue, collude.

constancy, n. steadfastness, stability, unchangeableness, resolution,
loyalty, devotion, fidelity.

constant, a. permanent, unchanging; unwavering, unshaken, steadfast,
stanch, unswerving, loyal, faithful; continuous, incessant, continual,
perpetual, uninterrupted. Antonyms: See inconstant.

consternation, n. dismay, terror, alarm, panic, distraction.

constipated, a. costive, bound.

constipation, n. costiveness, stegnosis.

constitution, n. structure, physique, temperament.

constitutional, a. inborn, innate, organic, inbred, natural,

constrained, a. involuntary, forced, unnatural, embarrassed.

constraint, n. compulsion, coercion, force, pressure; restraint,

constrictor, n. sphincter.

consultation, n. conference, council, convocation, advisement.

consummate, a. perfect, supreme, complete, finished.

consummation, n. fulfillment, perfection, realization, attainment.

consumption, n. phthisis; consuming.

contact, n. touching, tangency, contingency, impact, juxtaposition,
osculation, contiguity, apposition, syzygy.

contagion, n. virus, infection, _contagium_.

contagious, a. communicable, infectious, pestilential, pestiferous.
Antonym: incommunicable.

contain, v. comprise, embody, include, comprehend, hold, restrain.

container, n. receptacle.

contaminate, v. corrupt, pollute, defile, infect, taint, vitiate,
sully, debase.

contamination, n. corruption, pollution, defilement, vitiation,
taint, infection.

contemporaneous, a. contemporary, synchionous, synchronal,

contemporary, a. contemporaneous, coeval.

contempt, n. disdain, scorn, contumely, derision, detestation,
disgrace, reproach.

contemptible, a. despicable, abject.

contemptuous, a. disdainful, supercilious, scornful, insolent,
flouting, cynical, contumelious, haughty.

contend, v. struggle, vie, wrestle, combat, compete; dispute,
maintain, argue.

content, v. satisfy, appease, gratify.

contented, a. content, satisfied.

contention, n. controversy, dissension, altercation, quarrel,

contentious, a. disputatious, litigious, quarrelsome; dissentious,

contest, n. rivalry, match, tournament, tourney, competition,
emulation; dispute, controversy, dissension, contention.

continual, a. ceaseless, incessant, constant, uninterrupted,

continuance, n. endurance, persistence, constancy, continuation.

continuation, n. protraction, prolongation, continuance,

continued, a. prolonged, protracted, extended; serial.

continuous, a. ceaseless, uninterrupted, unceasing, continual,
constant, running. Antonyms: intermittent, occasional, inconstant.

contraband, a. prohibited, forbidden, unlawful, illegal.

contract, v. reduce, narrow, condense; incur, acquire; covenant,
agree; shrivel, shrink; syncopate.

contract, n. agreement, compact, covenant, pact, protocol, treaty,
concordat, convention, stipulation.

contracting, a. astringent, puckering, contractile.

contraction, n. astriction, constriction, stricture, syncopation,

contradict, v. gainsay, controvert, impugn, dispute, contravene.

contradiction, n. gainsaying, opposition, contrariety, antagonism,
paradox, inconsistency.

contradictory, a. inconsistent, irreconcilable, paradoxical,
opposing, contradicting.

contrariety, n. antagonism, repugnance, disagreement, inconsistency,

contrary, a. opposite, adverse, counter, opposed; repugnant,
incompatible, contradictory, retroactive, antagonistic, conflicting,
abhorrent, inconsistent; perverse, wayward, refractory, headstrong,

contrast, n. comparison; opposition, antithesis, dissimilitude,

contravene, v. thwart, oppose, counteract countervail; violate,

contravention, n. thwarting, opposition, counteraction, violation,

contrite, a. penitent, repentant, sorrowful. Antonyms: impenitent,

contrite person. penitent, repentant.

contrition, n. penitence, compunction, remorse, attrition,

contrivance, n. contriving, devising; device, expedient, scheme,

contrive, v. devise, concoct, invent, excogitate, scheme, plan.

control, v. restrain, regulate, govern, manage, repress, direct,
bridle, dominate.

control, n. restraint, repression, check, hindrance; domination,
ascendency, dominion, regulation, superintendence governance, command,
mastery. Antonyms: unrestraint, abandon, subjection.

controller, n. governor, regulator, ruler; comptroller.

controversial, a. disputatious, polemical.

controversy, n. dispute, contention, disoutation, altercation
polemics, logomachy.

convalescence, n. revalescence.

convene, v. assemble, convoke, congregate.

convenient, a. handy, advantageous; seasonable, timely, opportune,
suitable; accessible.

convent, n. nunnery, monastery, cloister, abbey, priory. Associated
words: conventual, conventical, monastic.

convention, n. custom, usage, conventionality; assembly, convocation,
congress, diet, synod, council.

conversation, n. converse, colloquy, parlance, parley, interlocution,
chat, _causerie_, conference, confabulation, interview.

conversational, a. colloquial, interlocutory.

converse, v. talk, chat, commune, confabulate, parley.

converse, n. intercourse, communion, conversation, parley.

conversion, n. transmutation, transformation; proselytism;
regeneration; appropriation, application, employment.

convert, v. transform, transmute; proselyte; regenerate; appropriate,

convert, n. proselyte.

convex, a. protuberant, bulging, gibbous. Antonym: concave.

convexity, n. protuberance, gibbosity. Antonym: concavity.

conveyance, n. carriage, transmission; transfer, demise, alienation,

convict, n. felon, prisoner, criminal, culprit, malefactor.

convincing, a. cogent, persuasive, conclusive.

convivial, a. festive, festal, social, jolly, gay.

convocation, n. convention, congress, synod, diet, council,

convoy, n. protection, escort, attendance; guard, escort.

convulsion, n. spasm, paroxysm; agitation, commotion, disturbance,

cook, n. chef (chief cook).

cook, v. stew, seethe, gratinate; (Colloq.) tamper with, garble,

cookable, a. coctible.

cooking, n. cuisine.

cook-room, n. kitchen, cuisine; galley, cuddy.

cool, v. chill, refrigerate; moderate, allay, calm, quiet.

cool, a. deliberate, self-possessed, unexcited, dispassionate,
indifferent, nonchalant, unconcerned, composed; chilling, apathetic,
repellent, distant, unfriendly, ceremonious; audacious,
impudent, shameless, presumptuous, flippant, presuming.

cooler, n. refrigerator.

cooling, n. refrigeration; gelation (Astron.)--a. refrigerant,

cooling room of Roman baths. frigidarium.

coolness, n. dispassion, nonchalance, indifference; (Colloq.)
impudence, audacity.

coon, n. raccoon, mapach.

coop, n. pen, cote, mew, hutch, poultry-house.

coop, v. confine, shut up, imprison, incage, mew.

coöperate, v. concur, unite, work together; collude.

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