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Putnam's Word Book by Louis A. Flemming

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skill, n. adroitness, ingenuity, cleverness, technic, dexterity,
proficiency, expertness, facility, deftness, knack. Antonyms:
maladroitness, empiricism, quackery, inexpertness, clumsiness.

skillful, a. skilled, expert, adroit, dexterous, adept, masterly,
proficient, deft, able, efficient, competent, accomplished. Antonyms:
unskillful, empirical, maladroit.

skimp, v. (Colloq.) scamp, slight, scrimp, save.

skimpy, a. (Colloq.) scant, skimp.

skin, n. integument, tegument, derm; epidermis, cuticle, scarfskin;
true skin, dermis, derma, cutis; membrane, epithelium, ecteron, enderon,
ecderon; pelt, pell, pelage, peltry; hide, kip; husk, hull, glume; (of
fruit) peel, peeling, rind, paring, epicarp; pellicle, film; episperm,
testa, tegmen; slough, exuviae (cast-off-skin); parchment, vellum.
Antonyms: pulp, flesh. Associated Words: dermatology, dermatologist,
dermic, dermatic, dermal, cutaneous, dermatitis, dermatography, dermatoid,
smegma, caul, dermatopathic, dermoplastic, dermoplasty, hypodermic,
subcutaneous, dermatopathy, exuviate, exuviation, desquamate,
desquamation, slough, dermatophyte, dermostosis, cuticular, epidermal,
apellous, abrasion, emphractic, excoriation.

skin, v. flay, excoriate; pare, peel; (Slang) cheat, defraud,

skin-deep, a. superficial.

skinflint, n. miser, niggard, curmudgeon, scrimp, screw.

skinny, a. emaciated, gaunt, rawboned, poor.

skip, v. omit, pass, disregard; caper, gambol, jump, leap; ricochet.

skip, n. omission; gambol, caper, hop, leap; ricochet.

skipper, n. sea-captain; cheese maggot.

skirt, n. petticoat (underskirt); kilt; fustanella; kirtle; margin,
border, edge, rim.

skirt opening. placket.

skit, n. reflection, jeer, gibe, satire, squib.

skittish, a. timorous, shy; volatile, restless, wanton.

skulk, v. sneak, slink, lurk.

skull, n. cranium; death's-head. Associated Words: cranial,
acrania, acranial, craniology, phrenology, trepan, trephine, fontanel,
sphenoid, cephalism, parietes, parietal, crossbones, occiput, frontal,

skullcap, a. calotte.

sky, n. firmament, welkin, empyrean, azure, the heavens. Associated
words: meridian, zenith, nadir, horizon, uranology, uranography, zodiac.

sky-blue, a. azure, cerulean.

skyey, a. ethereal.

slack, a. lax, loose, relaxed; remiss, negligent, careless,
shiftless; inactive, slow.

slacken, v. moderate, retard, slack, reduce; loosen, relax; diminish,
abate, mitigate; slake; relax, flag.

slackness, n. looseness, laxity, negligence, remissness,
carelessness, shiftlessness; relaxation, diminution.

slag, n. scoria, cinders, recrement, dross, refuse.

slake, v. quench; slack; abate, decrease, allay.

slam-bang, adv. (Collog.) violently, forcibly, noisily, loudly.

slander, v. malign, defame, traduce, asperse, vilify, calumniate,
backbite, scandalize, libel.

slander, n. defamation, calumny, aspersion, libel, vilification,
scandal, abuse, traducement, backbiting, roorback, vituperation.

slanderous, a. defamatory, malicious, vituperative, calumnious,

slant, n. slope, incline, inclination, obliquity.--v. slope,

slanting, a. sloping, oblique, slant.--n. obliquity,
inclination, tilt.

slap, n. cuff, buffet.--v. box, cuff, buffet.

slap, adv. (Colloq.) suddenly, violently, unceremoniously,

slap-dash, adv. (Colloq.) carelessly, at random, all at once.

slash, n. incision, gash, cut, slit.

slate, n. argillite, argillaceous schist; grapholite.--v.
enroll, register.

slated, a. registered, enrolled (for an appointment).

slattern, n. draggle-tail, drab, trollop, niopsy, malkin,

slatternly, a. slattern, untidy, draggle-tailed.

slaughter, n. butchery. See killing.

slaughter-house, n. abattoir, shambles.

slave, n. vassal, bond servant, bondslave, bondman, thrall, serf,
captive, helot; drudge. Associated Words: abolitionism, abolitionist,
blackbird, maroon.

slave, v. drudge, toil, moil.

slavery, n. bondage, enslavement, servitude, inthrallment, captivity,
bond service, vassalage, thralldom, subjection, helotism; drudgery.

slave warehouse. barracoon.

slavish, a. servile, menial, abject, groveling.

sleazy, a. flimsy, thin, gauzy.

sled, n. sleigh, sledge, toboggan.

sleek, a. smooth, glossy.

sleek, adv. (Low) easily, dexterously.

sleep, v. slumber, repose; doze, drowse; lie dormant; hibernate;

sleep, n. slumber, repose; nap, doze, drowse, snooze, dozing; siesta;
dormancy, lethargy; trance; sopor, coma, carus; somnipathy, somnolism;
dogsleep. Associated Words: hypnology, hypnotic, agrypnotic, hypnosis,
hypnotism, narcotic, opiate, dwale, somniloquence, somniloquism, somnial,
somniferous, hypnophobia, hypnogogic, stupefacient, mesmeric, soporific,
dormitive, soporiferous, soporous, somnific, somnolent, somniloquous,
antihypnotic, morphean, oversleep, morphine, narcosis, lullaby,
incubation, hypnogenic, Mara, Morpheus, Hypnos, Somnus, dormitory,
diurnation, cubicle, insomniac, hibernation, somnipathist, somniloquist,
agrypnia, wake, awaken.

sleeper, n. slumberer; drone, sluggard; tie; joist.

sleepiness, n. drowsiness, somnolence.

sleeping, a. asleep, slumbering, dormant.

sleepless, a. wakeful, insomnious, insomnolent.

sleeplessness, n. wakefulness, insomnia, insomnolence.

sleep of plants. nyctitropism. Associated Word: nyctitropic.

sleepwalker, n. somnambulist, noctambulist, somnambulator,

sleepwalking, n. somnambulism, somnambulation, somnambulance,
noctambulism, noctambulation. Associated Words: somnambulate,
somnambulistic, somnambular, somnambulic.

sleepy, a. drowsy, somnolent, dozy; soporiferous, somniferous,
soporific, dormitive, narcotic, somnific, hypnotic; dormant, sluggish,
lethargic, torpid, dull.

sleeve, n. Associated Word: chevron.

sleigh, n. cutter, sled, sledge, bobsled, toboggan, jumper, pung.

sleight of hand. prestidigitation, jugglery, legerdemain, magic,
conjury. Associated Words: prestidigitator, juggler, conjurer, magician,

slender, a. slim, slight, thin, spare, lank, spindling; delicate,
feeble, fragile, frail, tenuous; trivial, inconsiderable; abstemious,
frugal, spare, plain.

slice, n. chop, collop; rasher, flitch.

slick, a. sleek, sleeky, smooth.

slide, n. slip; flume, shoot, chute.

slide, v. slip, glide, lapse, elapse, skid.

slight, a. inconsiderable, trivial, insignificant, trifling, petty,
paltry; desultory, cursory, superficial, indifferent.

slight, n. neglect, inattention, disregard, snub.

slight, v. overlook, neglect, disregard, ignore.

slightly, adv. somewhat; superficially, cursorily, hastily.

slim, a. thin, gaunt, poor, lank, spare, spindling, meager; slight,
insufficient, inconsiderable, paltry.

slime, n. mud, mire, ooze, liman.

slimsy, a. (Colloq.) flimsy, frail, poor.

slip, v. slide, glide; err, trip; omit, lose; foist; elapse.

slip, n. lapse, error, indiscretion, transgression, peccadillo,
mistake; twig, cutting, scion, shoot; escape, riddance, desertion;
wrapper, covering.

slipper, n. slipshoe; (Oriental) baboosh, babouche.

slipperiness, n. smoothness, glibness, lubricity.

slippery, a. smooth, glib; inconstant, unstable; loose, incontinent,

slipshod, a. slovenly, careless, negligent.

slit, n. gash, incision.

sliver, n. splinter.

slobber, v. drivel, drool, slabber, slaver; smear, daub, defile.

slogan, n. war cry, rallying cry.

slope, v. slant, incline.

slope, n. inclination, slant, obliquity, acclivity; declivity.

sloping, a. oblique, slanting; acclivous; declivous.

slosh, n. slush, sludge.

sloth, n. sluggishness, indolence, laziness.

slothful, a. dronish, lazy, indolent, supine, sluggish, idle,

slouchy, a. slouching, ungainly, awkward.

slough, n. quagmire, bog, morass; swale; exuviae.

sloughing, n. ecdysis, exuviation.

slovenly, a. untidy, disorderly, frowzy, careless.

slow, a. deliberate, moderate, gradual; dilatory, languid, unready,
phlegmatic, lingering, torpid, sluggish, slack, leisurely; (Colloq.)
wearisome, dull, prosaic, uninteresting, tiresome.

slow, v. slacken, relax, moderate, delay, retard.

sluggish, a. idle, lazy, slothful; inactive, slow, inert.

slump, n. (Colloq.) depreciation.

slur, v. soil, sully; disparage, traduce, asperse; blur, mackle.

slur, n. stain, mark; innuendo, reproach, brand.

slush, n. slosh, sludge.

slut, n. bitch (femaledog); slattern, quean, malkin.

sly, a. cautious, nimble, skillful, arch, wary, knowing, shrewd,
cunning, wily, artful; subtle, stealthy, clandestine, covert,
surreptitious, furtive.

smack, n. taste; kiss, buss; crack, snap.

smacking, a. brisk, smart, resounding.

small, a. little, minute, diminutive, petty, slight, inconsiderable,
puny, tiny, weazened, undeveloped, dwarfish, runty, wee, stunted,
inappreciable, undersized, atrophied; miniature; trivial, insignificant,
trifling, frivolous; mean, narrow-minded, illiberal, sordid, ungenerous,
contracted; short, limited; piping, feeble, weak; microscopic,
infinitesimal, molecular, corpuscular, atomic, fine; homeopathic.

smallpox, n. variola; varioloid (modified smallpox after
vaccination). Associated words: vaccination, vaccine, virus, variolation,
vaccinate, pock, pockmark, pockmarked, antivariolus, variolus, pocky,
papule, pustule.

smart, v. sting, prick, suffer.

smart, a. acute, bright, clever, apt, brilliant, gifted, talented;
precocious; vigorous, energetic, forcible; fashionable, pretentious, trim,
elegant; fresh, smacking, brisk; agile, nimble, lively; pungent, poignant,
intense, keen. Antonyms: dull, inapt, dowdy, tawdry.

smash, v. shiver, crush.--n. destruction, ruin, wreck;

smatterer, n. sciolist, superficialist.

smattering, n. sciolism, superficial knowledge.

smear, v. besmear, daub.--n. smooch, smutch, blotch, daub.

smeary, a. dauby, sticky, viscous.

smell, n. olfaction; odor, savor, scent; (sweet smell) fragrance,
aroma, perfume, redolence; (offensive smell) stink, fetor, stench.
Antonyms: inodorousness, scentlessness, anosmia. Associated Words:
olfactory, reek, fume, perfume, inodorous, malodorous, odoriferous,
odorous, osphresiology, osphretic, odorless, deodorize, deodorization,
emanation, effluvium, sniff, whiff, disinfect, disinfection, unsavory,

smell, v. scent; savor; stink.

smelling, n. olfaction, osmesis (Med.).

smelling salts. sal-volatile, carbonate of ammonia. Associated
word: vinaigrette.

smile, n. smiling; propitiousness, favor.

smirch, n. smutch, discoloration, smooch.

smirk, n. simper, sneer.

smite, v. strike, buffet; blast, destroy; afflict, chasten, visit.

smithereens, n. pl. (Colloq.) atoms, fragments, smithers,

smitten, p.p. of smite. stricken; blasted; afflicted, chastened;
enamored, fascinated, infatuated, captivated.

smock, n. shift, chemise, shirt, blouse.

smockfaced, a. smoothfaced, girlish, beardless.

smoke, n. fume, reek, effluvium; smudge (dense smoke). Associated
words: capnomancy, flue, chimney, soot, tewel.

smoke, v. reek; fume; infumate; fumigate; suffumigate; smolder.

smoking, n. smoldering; fuming; fumigation; infumation suffumigation.

smoky, a. fumid, fumy, sooty, reeky, fumacious, fuliginous.

smooch, n. smutch, stain, smudge.

smooth, v. level, plane, sleek, flatten, planish, levigate;
facilitate, pave.

smooth, a. even, plain, flat, level, abraded, levigated, slippery,
sleek, glary; unruffled, placid; voluble, fluent; suave, oily, bland,
insinuating, flattering, smooth-tongued. Antonyms: rough, abrupt.

smoothfaced, a. beardless, smockfaced.

smoothness, n. evenness, levelness, sleekness; volubility, fluency;

smooth over. palliate, gloze, extenuate, mitigate.

smooth-spoken, a. smooth-tongued, adulatory, plausible, glib.
Antonyms: brusque, abrupt.

smother, v. suffocate, stifle; extinguish, repress, suppress;

smuggler, n. contrabandist.

smut, n. scot, dirt, smutch; mildew, blight; obscenity, lewdness,

smut, v. stain, blacken, sully, tarnish; crock.

smutty, a. obscene, lewd, ribald, indecent, gross.

snail, n. sluggard, drone; slug.

snake, n. serpent, reptile. See serpent.

snakestone, n. madstone; ammonite.

snaky, a. serpentine, winding; insinuating, subtle, deceitful.

snap, n. spell, period, season, interval; catch, clasp; fillip,
crack, smack, fico; (Collog.) energy, briskness, vigor; (Slang)

snappish, a. captious, irascible, testy, petulant, splenetic, cross.

snare, n. catch, wile, trap, gin, lure, decoy, trapan, toils.

snarl, v. entangle, complicate, involve, knot; confuse, enmesh,
insnare; growl, gnarl. Antonyms: disentangle, unravel, extricate.

snarl, n. complication, entanglement, intricacy, knot; confusion;

snarler, n. growler, grumbler, fault-finder, cynic.

snatch, v. seize, grasp, gripe, wrest, pluck, grab, twitch.

sneak, v. skulk, slink, lurk, snoop.

sneaking, a. lurking, skulking, slavish, underhand, covert, stealthy.

sneer, v. mock, gibe, scoff, flout, jeer, deride, ridicule, scout.

sneer, n. gibe, scoff, jeer, gird, derision.

sneezing, n. sternutation. Associated Words: sternutative,

snicker, n. giggle, titter, snigger.

snide, a. (Slang) tricky, deceptive, dishonest, fraudulent.

sniff, v. snuff; scent, smell.--n. snuff, breath.

snivel, n. mucus, snot.

snob, n. upstart, pretender, parvenu; rat, knobstick.

snobbish, a. pretentious, assuming, overbearing, uppish.

snoring, n. Associated Word: stertorous.

snot, n. snivel, mucus (from the nose).

snotty, a. snively, mean, despicable.

snout, n. nose (of a beast), muzzle, proboscis; nozzle.

snow, n. Associated Words: pluviography, flurry, sleet, spoondrift,
drift, flake, igloo, slush, avalanche, hyetology, meteorology, blizzard.

snowy, a. niveous, snowlike.

snub, v. slight, ignore, disregard.

snub, n. slight, check, rebuke.

snuff, n. maccaboy, rappee; sniff.

snug, a. cozy; concealed, close; comfortable, compact.

snuggle, v. nestle, cuddle.

soak, v. drench, saturate; absorb, imbibe; macerate imbrue, steep.

soaked, a. drenched, saturated, sodden.

soaking, a. drenching, saturating.

soap, n. Associated Words: saponify, saponification, saponifiable,
saponin, lather, suds.

soapiness, n. saponacity.

soap liniment. opodeldoc.

soapstone, n. steatite.

soapy, a. saponaceous.

sob, v. weep.

sober, a. temperate, abstinent, abstemious; unintoxicated; solemn,
grave, demure, sedate; dispassionate, unimpassioned, calm, rational.

sobriety, n. soberness; gravity.

sociable, a. affable, friendly, companionable, genial, social,
unreserved. Antonyms: unsociable, inaffable.

social, a. civil, civic; sociable; festive, convivial.

social evil. prostitution.

socialism, n. Communism, Fourierism, Saint Simonianism,

society, n. sodality, association, fraternity, club, confraternity,
guild; _verein_ (Ger.); companionship, association, fellowship, company.

sockdologer, n. (Slang) poser, facer, settler, conclusive answer.

sod, n. sward, turf; peat.

sodden, a. boiled, seethed; soaked, saturated.

sofa, n. tête-à-tête, divan, causeuse.

soft, a. mellow; yielding, impressible, impressionable, malleable,
fictile, plastic, pliable; bland, emollient, grateful, delicate, subdued;
flexible, flaccid, facile, compliant, irresolute; conciliatory, mild;
effeminate, unmanly silly, foolish; queachy.

soft coal. bituminous coal.

soften, v. intenerate, mollify; palliate, extenuate, qualify,
modify, relax, mitigate, emolliate, appease, temper, abate; subdue, tone

softening, a. demulcent, lenient, assuasive, emollient, relaxing,
mollient, mollifying.

softness, n. mellowness, impressibility, plasticity, flaccidity,
fictility, emollescence.

soft parts of the body. Associated Word: sarcology.

soft soap. (Colloq.) blandishment, blarney, palaver, buncombe,
wheedling, cajolery, flattery.

soil, n. ground, earth, dirt, humus, land, loam, mold; dirt,
pollution, defilement; manure, dung, fæces, excrement.

soil, v. dirty, defile, pollute, besmear, contaminate, taint,
besmirch, sully, tarnish, begrime.

soldier, n. warrior; private; cadet; recruit; veteran; cavalry;
infantry; cohort; sepoy; chasseur; zouave; volunteer; conscript; myrmidon;
cossack; guerrilla; trooper; skirmisher; grenadier; uhlan; dragoon.

soldierly, a. martial, military.

soldier's dress. uniform, regimentals.

solecism, n. blunder, impropriety, barbarism.

solemn, a. serious, sober, grave; impressive, awe-inspiring, august,

solemness, n. solemnity, gravity, impressiveness, seriousness.

solicit, v. ask, seek, request.

solicitation, n. request, instance, entreaty, invitation.

solid, a. dense, compact, hard, impenetrable, firm, unyielding,
imporous, concrete, substantial; unanimous, united, undivided. Antonyms:
porous, incompact, hollow, spongy, soft, plastic, unstable, fallacious.

solidness, n. solidity, firmness, compactness, stability, imporosity;

soliloquy, n. monologue.

solitary, a. unfrequented, secluded, lonely; single, individual;
eremetic, hermitical.

solitary, n. recluse, anchoret, hermit, eremite.

solitude, n. loneliness, isolation, seclusion, eremitism, retirement;
wilderness. Associated Words: apanthropy, monophobia, eremophobia.

solution, n. dissolution, melting, liquefaction, resolution,
disintegration; disentanglement, explanation, elucidation, explication.

solvent, n. menstruum, dissolvent, resolvent.

somersault, n. somerset.

sometimes, adv. at intervals, now and then, occasionally.

son, n. Associated Words: filial, filiation, unfilial, filicide,
mulier, mulierty.

song, n. hymn, chant, lay, ditty, ballad, onody, chansonnette, lyric,
lilt, lied, pæan, cantata, aria, sonnet, strain, round, rhapsody, dirge,

songcraft, n. versification, poesy, poetry.

song of Solomon. canticle.

song of triumph. pæan.

sonorous, a. resonant, resounding; high-sounding, stentorian,

sonship, n. filiation.

soot, n. crock, smut.

soothe, v. compose, tranquilize, pacify, assuage, mollify, calm.

soothing, a. bland, emollient, demulcent, gratifying, quieting,

soothsayer, n. seer, prophet, diviner, haruspice, foreteller.

soothsaying, n. prophecy, augury, divination, prediction,

sooty, a. fuliginous, soot-covered.

sophism, n. fallacy, paralogy, fallacious reasoning.

sophistical, a. fallacious, unsound.

sophistry, n. fallacy, paralogy, paralogism.

sophomoric, a. inflated, bombastic, pretentious.

soprano, n. descant, treble.

sorcerer, n. conjurer, necromancer, magician, enchanter, juggler,

sorcery, n. necromancy, magic, enchantment, witchcraft, black art.

sordid, a. low, degraded, abject, base.

sore, a. ulcerated, cankered, ulcerous, raw, inflamed, irritated;
distressing, grievous, severe; grieved, pained, hurt, sensitive.

sore, n. ulcer, ulceration, imposthume, pustule, boil, abscess,
canker, fester, blain, gathering; (venereal sore) chancre, chancroid.
Associated Words: antiseptic, slough, proud flesh, poultice, salve,
ointment, pledget, spleget.

sore, adv. grievously, sorely, severely, greatly.

sorrow, n. grief, regret, remorse, misery, heaviness, rue,
unhappiness, contrition, dolor, agony, distress, compunction, bereavement.

sorrow, v. grieve, mourn, regret, deplore, bewail, lament.

sorrowful, a. See sad.

sorry, a. melancholy, mournful, dismal, depressing, sad; abject,
despicable, miserable, mean, paltry, contemptible, pitiful; contrite,
penitent, chagrined, pained.

sort, n. kind, species, character, description, strain, class.

sort, v. assort, classify; conjoin; choose, select, cull; consort,
associate, fraternize; harmonize, agree, accord, conform.

so-so, a. middling, passable, tolerable, mediocre, ordinary, average.

sot, n. toper, drunkard, bibber.

soul, n. spirit, Psyche. Associated Words: psychology, psychic,
psychological, psychomachy, transmigration, metempsychosis, psychogenesis,
psychopannychism, theodicy, monopsychism.

sound, a. whole, intact, perfect, flawless, unimpaired; healthy;
logical; severe, hard, heavy; sane, rational; profound, undisturbed,
unbroken; valid, legal, lawful: seaworthy; sensible, irrefutable,

sound, n. strait, narrows, channel.

sound, v. fathom, gauge; examine, try, test, probe, explore;
proclaim, publish, herald; resound.

sound, n. noise, report. Associated Words: acoustic, acoustics,
acoustician, catacoustics, cataphonics, phonetic, phonetics, polycoustic,
phonetism, phonology, polycoustics, diacoustics, diaphonics, phonic,
soniferous, sonification, megaphone, sonorescence, diacritical, harmonics,
phonation, polyphone, polyphonic, polyphonist, polyphony, monophonic,
monophthong, homophone, homophonic, homophony, modulate, modulation.

sounding, n. bathymetry; examination; proclamation; resonance,

sounding, a. sonorous, resonant, sonant.

soundless, a. unfathomable, abysmal; silent, noiseless, aphonic,

sound-producing, a. sonorific.

soup, n. broth, bouillon, consommé, pottage, purée, bisk, bisque,

soup dish. tureen.

sour, a. acid, tart, acetose, acerbitous, acrid; rancid, musty;
curdled, loppered; imbittered, morose, misanthropic, unamiable, dour,
cynical, surly, grum, austere, crabbed, cross.

sour, v. curdle, acidify, lopper, spoil, acidulate; imbitter,

source, n. origin, spring, fountain, rise.

sourness, n. acidity, tartness, acerbity, sharpness; rancidity,
mustiness; asperity, acrimony, moroseness, cynicism, crossness.

souse, v. pickle; douse, immerse, plunge, submerge.

soutane, n. cassock.

southerner, n. southron.

southern lights. aurora australis.

south wind. Auster, Notus.

souvenir, n. keepsake, reminder, memento; trophy.

sovereign, a. supreme, chief, paramount, predominant; controlling,
effectual, efficacious.

sovereign, n. ruler, monarch.

sovereignty, n. dominion, supremacy, sway, empire, scepter, dynasty.

sow, v. propagate, disseminate, scatter, plant.

space, n. extension, vacancy; vacuum; distance, interval; interspace
(intervening space); interstice; abyss. Associated Words: plenum,
plenist, vacuist, spacial.

spacious, a. capacious, roomy, vast.

spade, n. spud (narrow_, _with long handle).

Spain, n. Iberia. Associated Words: Hispanicism, Hispanic, Spanish,
Spaniard, Iberian.

span, n. nine inches; team, yoke, pair.

spare, v. forbear, refrain, be merciful.

spare, a. thin, lean, poor, gaunt, meager, lank; superfluous.

sparing, a. economical, frugal, saving, parsimonious, chary; scanty,
scarce, meager; compassionate, indulgent, forbearing, merciful, lenient.

spark, v. court, woo, philander.

sparkle, v. glitter, coruscate, glisten, scintillate, twinkle, gleam.

sparkle, n. scintillation, glitter, gleaming, brilliancy.

sparkling, a. glittering, flashing, brilliant, twinkling, coruscant,
glistening, lambent, scintillant, glistering; spirited, vigorous,
impassioned, bright; mantling, gleaming, bubbling.

sparse, a. scattered, thin, innumerous, meager.

Spartan, a. hardy, undaunted, courageous, doughty.

spasm, n. convulsion, paroxysm, fit, throe.

spasmodic, a. intermittent, fitful, convulsive.

spat, n. tiff, quarrel, dispute, dissension.

spats, n. pl. gaiters, spatterdashes.

spawn, n. roe, ova, eggs (of fishes_, _frogs, etc.); mycelium.

speak, v. utter, pronounce, say, articulate, enunciate, express,
talk; discourse, address, declaim, harangue, preach, lecture, rant,
descant, expatiate; accost, address; declare, publish, proclaim, announce,
bruit. Antonyms: repress, suppress, refrain.

speaker, n. orator, discourser, spokesman, prolocutor, mouthpiece,
interlocutor, chairman.

speaking alone. monologue, soliloquy.

speaking together. conference, collocution.

spear, n. lance, javelin, harpoon, assagai, trident, jireed; shoot,
spire, blade.

special, a. particular, especial, specific, exceptional.

specialty, n. particularity; speciality.

specie, n. coin, cash, metallic money.

species, n. group, class, kind, brood, sort, variety.

specific, a. definite, precise, specified; characteristic,
particular, special.

specify, v. designate, particularize, individualize, name.

specimen, n. example, sample, model, copy, pattern.

specious, a. plausible; obvious, manifest.

speck, n. spot, stain; atom, mite, particle, bit.

speckle, v. speck, spot, dot.

speckled, a. spotted, mottled.

spectacle, n. scene, sight, show, exhibition, pageant.

spectator, n. beholder, witness, bystander, onlooker, observer.

specter, n. phantom, apparition, shade, ghost, manes, spirit, wraith,

spectral, a. phantomlike, ghostly.

speculate, v. theorize, meditate, conjecture, guess, think.

speculation, n. theory, supposition, conjecture; contemplation,

speculative, a. contemplative, meditative; theoretical,

speech, a. utterance, speaking; language, talk, conversation,
parlance, words; tongue, dialect; patois; discourse, oration, address,
plea, declamation, dissertation, epilogue, allocution, exhortation,
disquisition, effusion, descant; harangue, diatribe, tirade, screed,
rhapsody, philippic, invective, rant; soliloquy, monologue; dialogue;
colloquy; trialogue; interlocution; improvisation; toast; equivocation,
prevarication, quibbling; ambages, pseudology, amphibology, amphiboly,
dilogy. Associated Words: extempore, extemporaneous, extemporize,
extemporization, impromptu, improvise, improvisation, brogue, aphasia,
amnesia, oratory, elocution, rhetoric, oratorical, rhetorical,
rhetorician, elocutionary, peroration, voluble, volubility, fluent,

speechless, a. dumb, mute, aphasic, inarticulate.

speechlessness, n. dumbness, muteness, obmutescence, taciturnity,

speed, n. velocity, swiftness, rapidity, celerity, haste, expedition,
dispatch, posthaste; impetuosity. Associated Words: tachymeter,
tachometer, trechometer, stathmograph, momentum, impetus.

speed, v. hurry, hasten; accelerate, expedite, quicken, dispatch,
facilitate; prosper, favor.

speedy, a. swift, quick, fast, rapid, fleet, hasty, hurried,

spell, n. charm, incantation, exorcism; period, season, interval.

spell, v. orthographize; decipher, read, unravel, unfold; charm,

spellbound, a. fascinated, charmed, enchanted, bewitched.

speller, n. orthographist, orthographer.

spelling, n. orthography. Associated Words: orthographic, phonetic,
glossic, nomic, homographic, homography, homograph, heterographic,
heterography, cacographic, cacography.

spend, v. expend, disburse.

spender, n. prodigal, spendthrift.

spending, n. expenditure, disbursement.

spendthrift, n. waster, spender, prodigal, squanderer

spent, a. exhausted, tired, consumed, worn out.

sperm-whale, n. cachelot, spermaceti whale.

sphere, n. globe, orb, ball; province, circuit, beat, purview,
compass, circle; station, position, rank; region, domain, realm; orbit.

spice, n. condiment; piquancy, pungency.

spicy, a. aromatic, fragrant; piquant, pungent, sharp.

spider, n. araneidan; scorpion, tarantula; pl. Araneina,
Arachnida. Associated Words: arachnology, arachnologist, araneidan,
araneiform, web, arachnoid, arachnophagous, spinneret, arachnean, falcer,
cobweb, cocoon, retiary, arachnidium.

spigot, n. stopper, plug, stopple.

spin, v. whirl, twirl, revolve, gyrate; protract, prolong, extend.

spinach, n. Associated Word: spinaceous.

spinal, a. vertebral, rachidian.

spinal cord. myelon, myel.

spindle-shaped, a. fusoid, fusiform.

spindling, a. tall and slender.

spine, n. backbone, spinal column, rachis, chine. Associated Words:
Vertebrata, Invertebrata, vertebra, vertebrate, cyrtosis, chiropractic,
chiropractor, spondyle, coccyx, rickets, ependyma, ependymis.

spineless, a. invertebrate.

spinet, n. virginal, clarichord.

spinning, n. whirling, twirling.

spiral, a. winding, cochleate, helical, turbinated, helicoid.

spire, n. steeple; shoot, stalk, blade, spear; top, peak, summit.

spirit, n. soul; shade, apparition, specter, ghost, phantom,
revenant; animus; vivacity, energy, life, ardor, enthusiasm, zeal, force,
intensity; temper, mood; meaning, intent, significance; pl. manes.

spirit, v. inspirit, animate, encourage; spirit away, carry off,
kidnap, abduct.

spirited, a. animated, lively, ardent, mettlesome, fervent,

spit, v. expectorate; spawl, sputter; eject.

spit, n. spittle, sputum, saliva. Associated Words: salivary,
salivous, salivant, salivate, salivation, ptyalin.

spite, n. malignity, malice, rancor, hate, resentment, defiance,

spiteful, a. malicious, malign, malignant, rancorous, hateful.

spitting, n. expectoration.

spittoon, n. cuspidor, spitbox.

splash, v. plash, dash, spatter, dabble.-- n. daub, splotch,

spleen, n. milt; anger, spite, malice, choler; melancholy,
depression. Associated Words: splenic, splenetic, splenography,
splenology, splenotomy, splenitis, lienal, lienitis, splenalgia,
splenocele, splenoid.

spleeny, a. irritable, petulant, choleric, irascible; melancholy.

splendid, a. bright, brilliant; magnificent, grand, superb, imposing,
sumptuous; illustrious, glorious, distinguished, celebrated, famous.

splendor, n. brilliancy, brightness; magnificence, pageantry, pomp,
grandeur; renown, glory, eminence, sublimity, fame.

splice, v. interweave, unite, braid together.

splinter, n. sliver, flinder.

split, v. rive, cleave, sunder, rend, divide, separate, rift, burst,
rupture, disunite, disrupt.

split, n. crack, rent, fissure, rift; (Colloq.) breach, separation,
disunion, rupture.

split, a. cleft, riven, divided, sundered, rent, disunited cloven.

splitting, n. fission, cleavage, riving, sundering, rupture
disruption. Associated Words: fissile, fissility.

splotch, n. smear, smudge, smutch, daub, spot, stain.

spoil, v. plunder, rob, pillage, ravage, depredate, despoil
devastate, sack; corrupt, vitiate, debase, mar, demoralize, deprave,
sophisticate, infect, defile, contaminate; disfigure, deface, damage;
decay, addle, putrefy, rot.

spoil, n. plunder, pillage, booty, prize, gain, loot; waste, robbery,
devastation, sacking, rapine, spoliation; corruption, decay, vitiation.

spoke, n. radius, ray; rung, round.

spoken, a. oral, nuncupative, parole.

spokesman, n. speaker, mouthpiece, prolocutor.

sponge, v. imbibe, absorb; expunge, efface, erase, obliterate.

sponger, n. parasite, hanger-on, trencher friend.

spongy, a. porous, spongoid, spongiform, incompact; absorbent,

sponsor, n. godparent; surety. Associated Words: sponsorial,
sponsorship, sponsion, ward, protégé.

spontaneous, a. instinctive, voluntary, impulsive, unforced

spontaneous generation. abiogenesis.

spook, n. ghost, spirit, specter, apparition, phantom, hobgoblin.

spooney, a. (Colloq.) silly, sentimental, foolishly fond.

spoor, n. track, trail (of a wild animal).

sporadic, a. separate, single, isolated.

sport, n. amusement, game, recreation, fun, play, diversion, pastime,
jollity, pleasantry, hilarity, gayety, merriment; derision, mockery,
ridicule, jeer; plaything, toy; monstrosity; (Slang) sportsman.

sport, v. frolic, play, caper, disport; (Colloq.) exhibit wear,

sportive, a. frolicsome, merry, boon, frisky, sprightly, prankish,

spot, n. speck, speckle, mark, blot, discoloration, fleck, dapple,
blotch, smutch; stain, reproach, blemish, flaw; place, locality; areola,
areolet, areolation, ocellus.

spot, v. dapple, variegate, mottle, speckle, blot, sully, stain,

spotless, a. immaculate, unspotted, stainless, unsullied,
irreproachable, blameless.

spotted, a. speckled, dappled, dotted, discolored, variegated,
bespeckled, flecked, freckled, spotty, soiled, piebald, mottled, blotched,
pinto, pied, pintado, party-colored, specked, plashy, finchbacked,
rubican, ocellated.

spotted fever. cerebro-spinal meningitis, typhus fever.

spotted sickness. pint.

spout, v. spurt, squirt, gush; rant, harangue; (Cant) pawn.

spout, h. nozzle; conduit, trough, adjutage; waterspout; gargoyle;

spouter, n. declaimer, ranter, haranguer.

spout hole. blowhole, spiracle.

spouting, n. harangue, declamation, magniloquence, ranting.

spray, n. twig, sprig, branch.

spray, n. Associated Words: atomize, atomization, atomizer,
spoondrift, nebulize, nebulizer, nebulization.

spread, v. extend, stretch, expand, dilate; unfurl, unroll, open;
disseminate, bruit, circulate, propagate, promulgate, diffuse, emit;
suffuse; cover, overspread, mantle; expatiate.

spread, n. extent, compass, reach; (Colloq.) feast; cover.

spreadeagle, a. bombastic, boastful, magniloquent, grandiloquent.

spreading, n. extension, expansion, dilation; dissemination,
propagation, promulgation, diffusion, circulation; suffusion,
circumfusion; radiation.

spree, n. (Colloq.) carousal, debauch, revelry, orgies,
bacchanals, wassail, saturnalia.

sprig, n. shoot, slip, twig, spray.

sprightliness, n. animation, liveliness, vivacity, activity,
briskness, lilt.

sprightly, a. lively, brisk, animated, debonair, vivacious, sportive,

spring, v. dart, shoot; bound, leap, jump, hop, vault; emerge, rise,
arise; rebound, recoil, fly back; bend, warp; issue, emanate, originate,
flow, arise.

spring, n. leap, bound, saltation, vault, jump; resilience,
elasticity, springiness; fount, fountain, source; cause, origin, motive,
source; springtime, vernal season.

spring, n. Associated Word: pegology.

springboard, n. batule, batule board.

springy, a. elastic, resilient, rebounding, recoiling; spongy,
yielding, queachy.

sprinkle, v. scatter, strew; besprinkle, bedew, asperse.

sprinkling, n. aspersion, besprinkling.

sprinter, n. runner.

sprite, n. elf, goblin, pixy, fay, specter, phantom, ghost.

sprout, v. germinate, pullulate, bourgeon, grow, vegetate; branch,
ramify; tiller.

sprout, n. shoot, tiller, chit, sucker, scion; aerospire, plumule;

sprouting, n. germination.

spruce, a. natty, jaunty, neat, finical, trim.

spry, a. agile, nimble, quick, brisk, sprightly, alert.

spunk, n. touchwood, punk, amadou.

spunk, n. (Colloq.) spirit, mettle, pluck.

spunky, a. (Colloq.) mettlesome, plucky, spirited.

spur, n. rowel, goad, prick; snag, projection; incitement, stimulus,
goad, incentive, instigation, impetus, provocation; spine (on a cock's

spur, v. goad, incite, urge, stimulate, instigate, impel.

spurious, a. counterfeit, sham, false, mock, adulterine,

spurn, v. reject, scorn, contemn, despise, scout.

spurn, n. rejection, disdain, scorning.

spurt, n. gushing, spouting, jet, ejection.-- v. gush, spout,

spy, n. scout; emissary (disguised).-- v. espy, see.

spying, n. espionage, espial.

squab, a. plump, stout, fat; unfledged, unfeathered.

squabble, n. wrangle, dispute, altercation. See quarrel.

squad, n. band, gang, knot, bevy, company.

squalid, a. filthy, foul, nasty, dirty.

squalidness, n. squalor.

square, n. quadrate, quadrature; block, area; equality, level,

square, a. equitable, true, just, honest, impartial; even, balanced,
adjusted; quadrate, quadratic.

square, v. adjust, fit, suit; balance, settle; conform, agree, accord.

squares, n. pl. Associated Words: tessellate, tessellated,
tessellation, mosaic, checkered.

squat, v. crouch, cower.

squeak, v. creak; (Colloq.) betray, tell, confess.

squeal, v. cry, yell; (Slang) tell, betray, confess.

squeeze, v. compress, gripe, pinch; oppress, extort; crowd, elbow,

squeeze, n. compression, pressure; (Colloq.) exaction, extortion.

squelch, v. (Colloq.) crush, silence, quell, stifle, abash.

squib, n. satire, lampoon, pasquinade.

squint-eyed, a. cross-eyed, cock-eyed, gimlet-eyed.

squinting, n. strabismus; cross-eye.

squirm, v. wriggle, writhe, twist.

squirrel skin. vair.

s-shaped, a. sigmoid, sigmoidal, sigmate.

stab, v. pierce, thrust, gore, transfix; backbite, malign.

stab, n. thrust, wound, stoccado.

stability, n. fixedness, firmness, permanence, constancy, steadiness.
Antonyms: instability, unsteadiness.

stable, a. steady, firm, immovable, unwavering, constant, permanent.

stable, n. barn; mews. Associated Words: paddock, equerry.

stableman, n. groom, hostler.

stack, n. pile, rick.

staff, n. rod, stick, cane; truncheon; mace; crozier; support;

stag, n. hart.

stage, n. platform, rostrum; scaffold, staging; theater, playhouse,
arena, boards; degree, step, point; drama. Associated Words: histrionic,
histrionism, histrionicism, proscenium, postscenium, parascenium,
coulisse, wing.

stagecoach, n. stage, omnibus, diligence (France).

stagger, v. reel, totter, sway; shock, astound, dumfound.

stagnant, a. motionless, standing, quiet; inactive, dull, sluggish.

stagy, a. theatrical, assumed, bombastic.

staid, a. sedate, demure, serious, settled.

stain, v. soil, sully, defile, taint.

stain, n. blot, taint, discoloration, tarnish.

stainless, a. immaculate, spotless.

stairway, n. stairs, staircase, flight of stairs; escalator (moving
stairway); caracole (spiral staircase). Associated Words: baluster,
balustrade, newel, landing, riser, tread, banister, nosing, dog-legged.

stake, n. picket, pale, post; pledge, wager, bet; venture, risk,

stake, v. venture, risk, hazard, wager, bet, pledge.

stale, a. vapid, musty, fusty, flat, insipid, mawkish; trite, common,
banal, hackneyed, commonplace.

staleness, n. vapidity, mustiness, insipidity; triteness, banality.

stalk, n. stem, axis, petiole, pedicel, peduncle, spire, stipe,
culm, kecksy.

stall, n. stable; booth, stand; seat. Associated Words: manger,

stalwart, a. strapping, brawny, muscular, redoubted, athletic,

stamina, n. vigor, strength, sturdiness, backbone.

stamp, v. impress, imprint; stomp (Colloq.).

stamp, n. impression, imprint, die; hallmark; pestle.

stamp out. extinguish, crush, quell.

stamps, n. pl. Associated Words: philately, philatelist,
philatelic, timbrology, frank, grill, surcharge.

stanch, a. loyal, steadfast, constant, true, unwavering; sound.

stand, v. endure, bear, weather, brook, suffer, tolerate, yield to,
abide, submit; agree, accord, be consistent; stagnate.

stand, n. halt, stop, pause, stay; tripod, trivet; situation,
location, position, post; stall, booth; quandary, perplexity; resistance,
opposition, withstanding; stillion.

standard, n. criterion, model, type, pattern, norm; gauge, measure;
flag, colors; labarum, vexillum.

standard-bearer, n. color-bearer, color-sergeant, ensign, vexillary;

stand by. befriend, vindicate, advocate, defend, maintain.

standing, a. erect; stagnant; lasting, permanent, persistent.

standing, n. status.

standing out. prominent, projecting, protuberant, jutting out;
conspicuous, salient.

standing out. prominence, projection, protuberance, bulge,
protrusion; conspicuousness, salience; persistence, incompliance,

standing up for. defense, justification, support, advocacy.

stand in hand. behoove, be advantageous, conduce to one's interest.

stand it. endure, tolerate, bear, brook.

stand off. keep aloof, refrain; refuse, resist, withstand.

stand out. project, overhang, jut out, beetle; resist, withstand.

standpoint, n. point of view, viewpoint.

stand up for. defend, support, espouse, champion, advocate, justify,

star, n. luminary, planet; asterisk, asterism; pentalpha; pentacle;
meteor. Associated Words: astronomy, astronomer, astronomical,
astrolatry, astrolater, astrogeny, astrology, astrologer, astrological,
astrometry, astromancy, sidereal, astral, horoscope, constellation,
zodiac, observatory, galaxy, acronycal, cosmical, astrophotography,
astrophysics, periastral, stellar, interstellar, intersidereal, orbit.

star, v. bespangle.

starched, a. stiff, ceremonious, prim, formal, punctilious, precise.

starchy, a. amylaceous, amyloid, starched.

starry, a. bespangled; astral, stellar, stellary, radiated,

start, v. set out, go, initiate, launch, institute, embark.

startle, v. scare, surprise, affright.

starvation, n. famishment.

starve, v. famish.

state, n. condition, plight, category, situation, pass, predicament,
circumstances; rank, quality; pomp, grandeur, magnificence; commonwealth;
canton. Associated Words: federal, federalist, federalism, federalize,
confederate, confederation, gerrymander, secession.

state, v. assert, affirm, aver, allege, say, specify, declare.

statehouse, n. capitol.

stately, a. imposing, dignified, august, pompous, majestic, formal.

statement, n. assertion, affirmation, specification, avowal,
averment, narration, dictum.

station, n. standing, rank, status; depot; situation, place.

statue, n. image; acrolith, caryatid; xoanon. Associated Words:
sculpture, statuary, sculptor, statuesque, figurine, esquisse.

status, n. standing, rank, station, condition.

statute, n. law. Associated Words: statutable, statutory, purview.

stay, v. sojourn, tarry, lodge, remain, continue, abide; support,
prop, buttress, brace, uphold, strengthen; delay, obstruct, hinder,
restrain, appease, withhold, forbear, withstand, impede, retard.

stay, n. sojourn, abidance, stop; dependence, support, upholder;
impediment, hindrance, obstruction, restraint.

steadfast, a. firm, fixed; constant, unswerving, unwavering, stanch,

steady, a. steadfast, constant; stable, firm, fixed; unremitted,
constant, uniform, undeviating. Antonyms: intermittent, infrequent,
occasional, inconstant, unsteady.

steal, v. pilfer, filch, peculate, purloin, poach, abstract, rob,
defraud, pirate, plunder, crib, pillage, rapine loot, thieve, embezzle,
peculate, plagiarize; insinuate, creep furtively, go stealthily, sneak,
slink, skulk; ratten.

stealer, n. See thief.

stealing, n. theft, larceny, robbery, pilfering, peculation,
thievery, abstraction, looting, cribbing, rapine, depredation, surreption,
piracy, plundering, pillage, embezzlement, peculation, shop lifting,
plagiarism. Associated Words: light-fingered, booty, spoil, plunder,
loot, swag, spoils, predatory, fence, kleptomania.

stealthy, a. clandestine, sly, secret, furtive, skulking, underhand.

steam, n. vapor, reek, fume, emanation, effluvium, exhalation, stufa.

steam organ. calliope.

steel, n. Associated Words: siderotechny, siderurgy, bessemerize,
Bessemer, damaskeen, damask.

steel, v. fortify, brace, nerve.

steel-engraving, n. siderography.

steep, a. precipitous, abrupt, sheer, perpendicular: (Slang)
excessive, immoderate.

steep, n. precipice, cliff, abrupt declivity; escarpment, scarp.

steep, v. soak, macerate, imbrue, infuse.

steeple, n. spire, tower, turret; minaret.

steer, v. guide, pilot, control, govern.

steerable, a. dirigible.

steering, n. guiding. Associated Words: tiller, rudder, helm.

steersman, n. helmsman, pilot, cockswain.

stem, n. trunk, body; peduncle, pedicel, petiole, stalk, culm; root,
etymon, radical, radix, theme.

stem, v. oppose, withstand, breast, resist, check.

stench, n. fetor, stink.

stenography, n. phonography, shorthand.

step, n. pace; stair, round; footstep, footprint, footmark, track;
grade, degree, gradation; measure, action, procedure, expedient; stride
(a long step).

step, v. pace, stride.

stepmother, n. Associated Word: novercal.

steps, n. pl. stairs; stile; perron.

sterile, a. barren, infecund, unproductive, unfruitful, unprolific.

sterility, v. barrenness, infecundity, unproductiveness. Associated
words: sterilize, sterilization.

stern, a. austere, rigorous, exacting, strict, hard-hearted.

sternness, n. austerity, severity, rigor, strictness.

stew, n. (Colloq.) confusion, agitation; ragout.

steward, n. purveyor; major-domo; seneschal, dapifer; manciple.

stewpan, n. skillet.

stick, n. switch, rod, birch; billet; fagot; wand; cane, staff,
walking-stick; club, cudgel; goad, gad; gambrel, garrot, ferule, skewer,
batlet; stake; boomerang, woomerah; stab, thrust; maul-stick; sprag;
pl. chatwood.

stick, v. pierce, stab, penetrate, impale, transfix, gore; insert,
thrust, push, infix; paste, cement, glue, attach, affix; cleave, cling,
adhere, remain, abide; stall; hesitate, scruple; adhere, agglutinate,
glutinate, cohere; pose, puzzle, disconcert; stick out, project, jut,
protrude. (Slang) impose upon, cheat.

sticker, n. poster; label; adhesive, glue, cement, mucilage, paste,
agglutinant; (Colloq.) puzzle, poser.

stickiness, n. adhesiveness, viscosity, tenacity, cohesiveness,

sticking, n. adhesion, adherence, coherence, cleaving, cohesion,

sticking out. projecting, protruding, prominent.--n. projection,
protrusion, prominence.

stickle, v. contend, altercate, dispute, quibble, scruple, haggle,
higgle, chaffer; trim, prevaricate, shift, palter, play fast and loose.

stickler, n. haggler, higgler, contender.

sticktoitiveness, n. (Colloq.) pertinacity, persistence,
perseverance, diligence, tenacity.

stick up for. (Colloq.) assert and defend, vindicate.

sticky, a. adhesive, viscous, viscid, mucilaginous, glutinous,
clammy, tenacious.

stiff, a. inflexible, rigid, firm, unbending, inelastic, stark,
impliable, rigorous, unyielding, inductile; strong, violent, forcible,
inopposable; pertinacious, obstinate, tenacious, uncompromising,
incompliant; constrained, formal, starched, affected, unnatural, precise,
prim, ceremonious, prudish, punctilious; cramped, graceless, inelegant;
(Slang) high, immoderate, large. Antonyms: limber, flaccid, limp,
flexible, lithe.

stiff joint. anchylosis.

stiff neck. obstinacy, contumacy, intractability, incompliance,

stiff-necked, a. obstinate, intractable, perverse, contumacious,
stubborn, obdurate.

stiffness, n. inflexibility, rigidity, firmness; prudery, constraint,
precision, formality; tension. Antonyms: pliability, limpness,
flexibility, flaccidity, ease, relaxation, informality.

stifling, a. close, oppressive, suffocating.

still, a. motionless, unruffled, stagnant, quiescent, inert,
stationary, placid, tranquil; noiseless, inaudible, silent, mum.

still, v. calm, compose, quiet, silence, hush.

still-hunt, n. stalking.

stilted, a. bombastic, pompous, grandiose, highflown, grandiloquent.

stimulant, n. excitant; provocation, stimulus, spur, goad.

stimulate, v. excite, incite, instigate, arouse, provoke, goad, spur.

stimulus, n. incentive; pl. stimuli.

sting, n. aculeus, prick; goad, incitement.

stinginess, n. parsimony, illiberality, penuriousness, closeness,
avarice. Antonyms: liberality, generosity.

stingy, a. parsimonious, illiberal, close, penurious, miserly,
avaricious, close-fisted, sordid, niggardly. Antonyms: liberal,

stink, n. stench, fetor.

stinking, a. fetid, malodorous, offensive, noisome, ill-smelling.

stinkstone, n. anthraconite, swinestone.

stint, n. limit, restraint, restriction; assignment, allotment.

stint, v. limit, restrict, restrain, confine, stent, straiten.

stipend, n. Associated Words: stipendiary, stipendiate,

stir, v. move, budge.

stir, n. agitation, tumult, bustle, commotion, flutter, ado,
activity, confusion, flurry, disturbance, fuss.

stirring, a. animated, lively, strenuous, active, enterprising.

stock, n. goods, merchandise, wares, reserve.

stock, v. replenish, supply, furnish.

stockjobbing, n. agiotage.

stockings, n. pl. hosiery, hose.

stocky, a. (Colloq.) stout, plump.

stodgy, a. stuffed, distended, lumpish.

stogy, a. heavy, coarse, clumsy.

stolen goods. booty, loot, spoil, plunder, pillage. Associated
word: fence.

stolid, a. dull, impassive, stupid, obtuse.

stomach, v. resent, dislike; (Colloq.) bear, brook, tolerate,
stand, endure.

stomach, n. (of ruminants) fardingbag, paunch, rumen, reticulum,
psalterium, manyplies, abomasum, omasum; (of birds) gizzard, crop, maw.

stomach, n. Associated Words: gastric, gastrology, gastronomy,
gastritis, agastric, rennet, tripe, stomachal, stomachic, alvine,
gastrectomy, pylorous, gastroscope, gastroscopy, stomacher, paunchy,
paunch, anticardium, gastralgia, abdomen, abdominous.

stomach-ache, n. (Colloq.) colic.

stone, n. rock, bowlder; pebble; calculus, concretion; flint,
granite, marble, quartz, adamant, shale, flag, flagstone, cobblestone,
rubble, brash, shingle; monolith, polyolith; cairn, muller, merestone;
cromlech; madstone, snakestone; aërolite, meteorite; (of fruit)
endocarp, pit, nut, putamen. Associated Words: petrify, petrifaction,
lithology, lithography, lithic, lapidary, lithoglypher, lithoglyptic,
litholatry, lapidescence, lapidescent, lapidify, lapillation,
lapidification, lapidific, lapilli, catapult, quarry, petrography,
lapidist, petrology, geology, lithogenesis, lithification, wimble, Niobe,
petrescence, petrescent, petrifactive, petrologist, concrete, lapidarian,
lapidarious, fossil, schist, scapple, lichen, regolith, monadnock,
saxatile, saxicoline, saxicavous, saxifrage, saxifragous.

stone, n. (precious and semi-precious) gem, jewel, diamond,
brilliant, beryl, emerald, chalcedony, bloodstone, agate, heliotrope
girasole, onyx, sardonyx, garnet, sardine stone, jade, opal, peridot,
chrysolite, sapphire, ruby, topaz, turquoise, turquoise matrix, zircon,
hyacinth, carbuncle, amethyst, pearl, coral, bijou, doublet, carnelian,
briolette, cabochon, chatoyant, rhinestone, amphibole, aquamarine,
tourmaline, rhodolite, spinel, bufonite. Antonyms: paste, strass,
gewgaw, gimcrack, tinsel, pinchbeck, gaud, bauble, foil stone. Associated
words: lapidary, lapidist, lapidarian, cameo, intaglio, facet, naif,
anaglyph, briquet, collet, platinum, bizet, caret, anaglyphic, diaglyptic,
anaglyphies, glyptography, table, bezel, girdle, pavilion, cadrans, mound,
mount, dichroiscope, dichroism, dichroscope.

stone pit. quarry.

stone coffin. sarcophagus.

stonecutting, n. stereotomy.

stonecutter's consumption. chalicosis.

stony, a. rocky, flinty, adamantine, petrous; unrelenting, pitiless.

stool, n. footstool, cricket, hassock, ottoman, tabouret, buffet;
tripod, trivet; faldstool; excrement, fæces.

stoop, v. bend; condescend, deign, descend.

stoop, n. condescension, descent; porch, veranda, piazza.

stop, v. obstruct, close up; stanch; arrest, hinder, impede, block,
stay, check; repress, restrain, suppress, deter, interrupt, suspend,
thwart, preclude, intercept, impede; halt, pause, stagnate, stand; refrain
from, discontinue, cease, desist, suspend, intermit; break off, forbear:
lodge, tarry. Antonyms: continue, persist.

stop, n. cessation, discontinuation, surcease, pause, suspension,
intermission, interception, interruption, obstruction, obstacle,

stoppage, n. arrest, stopping, detention, stop.

stopper, n. stopple, cork, bung.

store, n. shop; accumulation, stock, abundance, plenty, hoard,

store, v. stock, replenish, save, hoard, garner, husband, treasure

storehouse, n. warehouse, repository, depot, store, magazine,

storm, n. tempest. Antonyms: calm, subsidence, serenity,

storm, v. assault, attack, besiege, expugn; rage, fume, rant.

storminess, n. inclemency, tempestuousness, boisterousness, violence.

stormy, a. tempestuous, boisterous, inclement, rugged, impetuous;
violent, furious, wild; agitated, disturbed. Antonyms: calm, pacific,

story, n. fiction, tale, anecdote, romance, novel, fable, legend,
myth, parable, apologue, chronicle, record, history, narrative, narration,
yarn, rehearsal, recital, tradition, jeremiad; falsehood, canard; floor,
loft; mezzanine, entresol.

story-teller, n. _raconteur_.

stout, a. strong, powerful, vigorous, enduring, durable, tough;
portly, fleshy, corpulent, thickset, obese, burly, chubby, fat.

straddle, v. bestride.

straight, a. perpendicular, vertical, plumb, erect, upright; direct,
rectilinear, undeviating, unswerving; square, honest, equitable,
honorable; (Slang) unmixed, clear, undiluted. Antonyms: indirect,
oblique, crooked, devious, circuitous. See crooked.

straight-out, a. (Colloq.) unqualified, thoroughgoing, artless,

straightway, n. immediately, at once, directly, forthwith.

strain, v. stretch, tighten; sprain, wrench; percolate, filter,
defecate, filtrate; overtask, overwork.

strain, n. pedigree, race, lineage, extraction; sort, kind;
overexertion, effort; tension, intension; tune, melody; style, manner.

strained, a. tense, unnatural, forced, artificial, agonistic,

strainer, n. colander, filter, sieve.

strait, n. narrows, channel; dilemma, difficulty, pinch, exigency,

straiten, v. limit, restrict, narrow, confine, constrain, tighten,

straitened, a. restricted, embarrassing, distressing.

strait-laced, a. uncompromising, rigorous, strict, prudish, prim,

stranded, a. wrecked, aground, beached.

strange, a. foreign, unfamiliar, exotic, outlandish; novel, odd,
unusual, queer, unique, nondescript, exceptional, singular, peculiar,
rare, erratic, unique, bizarre, eccentric, inexplicable; unaccustomed,
unfamiliar; reserved, distant, unfriendly; unknown. Antonyms: familiar,
accustomed, wonted, commonplace, conventional.

strangle, v. choke, throttle, suffocate; stifle, suppress; garrote.

strangling, n. strangulation, choking, suffocation, suppression,

strap, n. thong, strop, leash.

strapping, a. (Colloq.) stalwart, able-bodied, large, muscular,

stratagem, n. artifice, device, machination, maneuver, intrigue,
ruse, finesse.

straw, n. stalk, culm; litter, mulch; sennet, platting.

straw roof. thatch, thatching.

strawy, a. stramineous.

stray, v. wander, rove, roam, swerve, deviate; err, sin.

stray, n. estray, waif.

streak, n. stripe, wale, whelk, ridge, vein.

streaked, a. striped, streaky, whelky, striated, whelked, brindled,
barred, veined.

stream, n. current, river, creek, brook, race, run, rivulet, rill,
runnel; drift, course, tendency; torrent; arroyo; flume.

stream, v. pour, gush, run; radiate, shed.

streamer, n. ensign, pennon, banner, banderole, flag.

street, n. highway, avenue, thoroughfare, boulevard.

street car. trolley car; tram (England).

street cleaner. scavenger.

street railway. tramway (England).

strength, n. force, vigor, power, might, hardihood, potency,
puissance, stamina; tenacity, toughness, durability; impregnability,
invincibility; security, validity, conclusiveness, cogency, efficacy;
support, stay; intensity, vividness; virility; vehemence, violence, force,
impetuosity; fortitude; robustness, lustiness, stoutness, brawniness,
muscularity, thew, sturdiness. Antonyms: debility, delicacy, fragility,
weakness, impotency, frailty, infirmity.

strengthen, v. invigorate, brace, nerve, steel, fortify, harden;
intensify, heighten; confirm, corroborate, sustain.

strengthening, a. invigorating, roborant, tonic, fortifying.

strenuous, a. zealous, ardent, valiant, intrepid, vigorous, active,

strenuousness, n. zeal, ardor, intrepidity, earnestness, strenuosity,
activity, energy.

stress, n. urgency, pressure; emphasis, accent; severity, inclemency;
significance, importance.

stretch, v. extend, elongate, lengthen, spread; overstate,
exaggerate; distend.

stretcher, n. litter.

stretching, n. tension, distension, extension, porrection,
pandiculation, intension.

strict, a. rigorous, stringent, exacting, rigid. Antonyms: lax,
remiss, indulgent.

stricture, n. animadversion, criticism; contraction.

strife, n. conflict, struggle, contention, emulation, competition,

strike, v. hit, smite, buffet, knock, beat, thump, whack, cuff, slap;
deal, inflict; impress, affect.

striking, a. impressive, noticeable, astonishing, surprising,

string, n. cord, line, twine, warp; fillet, ribbon; series, chain,
concatenation, row; chord; leash, learn; thong. Associated Words:
polychord, monochord.

stringent, a. binding, restrictive, rigid, severe, rigorous, exact.

stringer, n. sleeper, tie; joist.

stringy, a. fibrous, filamentous; ropy, viscid, tenacious, viscous.

strip, n. shred, fillet, batten, cleat, list.

strip, v. deprive, divest, dispossess, dismantle; plunder, desolate,
devastate, pillage, sack, fleece, rifle, despoil; undress, disrobe,
denude, uncover.

stripe, n. streak, band, wale, wheal, whelk, ridge, striation, stria.

stripe, n. (Colloq.) sort, likeness, color, kind.

striped, a. streaked, striate, striated.

stripping, n. deprivation, divestiture, divestment, dispossession,
dismantling; plunder, desolation, devastation, depredation, despoliation,
fleecing, sacking, rapine; denudation, undressing, denuding, disrobing.

strive, v. struggle, try, endeavor, contend, vie, cope.

stroll, v. ramble, rove, range, stray, straggle, wander.

strolling, a. wandering, nomadic, itinerant, roving, vagrant,

strong, a. firm, tough, enduring, hale, sound, robust, hardy,
durable, puissant; powerful, mighty, invincible, impregnable,
irresistible, fortified; virile, athletic, muscular, brawny, vigorous,
stout, strapping, lusty, sturdy, sinewy, stalwart, thewy, able-bodied;
violent, forcible, impetuous, vehement; potent, cogent, influential,
urgent, convincing, conclusive; ardent, eager, zealous, strenuous, stanch,
unwavering, determined; spirituous, intoxicating, alcoholic; vivid,
dazzling, intense, glaring; effective, drastic, potent; racy, pungent,
piquant; tough, tenacious; rank, strong-smelling; valid. Antonyms: weak,
vulnerable, frail, fragile, delicate, faint, mild, frangible.

stronghold, n. fastness, fort, fortress, muniment, donjon, citadel,
keep, bulwark.

strong-smelling, a. fetid, rank, frowzy, rancid, malodorous,
offensive, musty.

struggle, n. conflict, contest, strife.

struggle, v. strive, cope, grapple, labor.

stub, n. stump, counterfoil.

stubble, n. eddish, rowen, arrish.

stubborn, a. unyielding, obstinate, obdurate, mulish, refractory,
indocile, headstrong, inflexible, intractable, perverse, contumacious,
impersuadable, recalcitrant, stiff-necked, rugged, persistent,

stuck-up, a. (Colloq.) proud, arrogant, haughty, vain, overbearing,
cavalier, supercilious, uppish.

studio, n. atelier.

study, n. research, excogitation, lucubration, cogitation; étude
(Mus.); curriculum (course of study).

study, v. muse, pore, con over, lucubrate, excogitate; dig, grind.

stuff, n. material, fabric, cloth; trash, refuse, rubbish; goods,
things; nonsense, balderdash.

stuff, v. cram, press, stow, crowd, fill.

stuffing, n. filling, forcemeat, dressing, farce.

stumbling-block, n. difficulty, obstruction, hindrance, barrier,

stump, v. (Colloq.) dare, challenge, nonplus.

stun, v. overcome, stupefy, dumfound, bewilder.

stunning, a. overpowering, stupefying; astonishing, striking, fine.

stunt, v. dwarf, atrophy.

stunted, a. dwarfed, atrophied, undeveloped, scrubby, undersized.

stupefier, n. stupefacient, narcotic, opiate.

stupefy, v. dull, benumb, hebetate, blunt, besot.

stupid, a. dull, stolid, obtuse, sluggish, inept, bovine,
beef-witted, beetle-headed, besotted, fat-witted, doltish, undiscerning;
prosaic, vapid, prosy, humdrum, uninspiring tame; lethargic, comatose,
stupefied, torpid, insensible. Antonyms: shrewd, sharp, apt, spirited,
lively, exciting, interesting.

stupor, a. lethargy, insensibility, unconsciousness, narcoma, torpor,

sturdy, a. obstinate, stubborn, pertinacious; strong, hardy, robust.

sty, n. hordeolum.

style, n. mode, vogue, fashion; manner, way, method.

stylish, a. modish, fashionable, in vogue, _á la mode_, genteel,

Styx, n. Associated Words: Stygian, Charon.

suasion, n. persuasion, inducement.

suave, a. urbane, courteous, debonair, bland, affable.

suavity, n. urbanity, courtesy, affability.

subdue, v. conquer, vanquish, subject, overpower, subjugate, crush,
master, quell; tone down, soften.

subdued, a. vanquished, conquered, submissive, tame.

subject, a. exposed, liable, prone; answerable, amenable;
subservient, subordinate. Antonyms: exempt, immune, independent, free.

subject, v. subordinate, expose.

subject, n. dependant, subordinate; topic, subject matter, theme.

subjection, n. subjugation, conquest, subordination, subserviency.

sublime, a. exalted, grand, magnificent, glorious, majestic.

submerge, v. plunge, immerse, sink, submerse; overflow, flood,
deluge, inundate.

submerging, n. submergence, submersion, immersion, inundation.

submission, n. compliance, acquiescence, surrender, resignation,
obedience; meekness, submissiveness, fortitude, forbearance,

submissive, a. yielding, obedient, tractable, meek, resigned,
passive. Antonyms: insubmissive, defiant, intractable, rebellious,

submit, v. yield, surrender, succumb, acquiesce, comply, tolerate,
stand. Antonyms: resist, rebel, disobey, revolt.

subservient, a. subordinate, subject, inferior; serviceable,

subside, v. decrease, sink, abate, fall.

subsidence, n. decrease, abatement.

substantiate, v. verify, corroborate, confirm, prove.

substantiation, n. corroboration, confirmation, verification.

substitute, v. exchange, commute.

substitute, n. deputy, proxy, representative, agent, lieutenant,
delegate, vicar, envoy, _locum tenens_; makeshift, expedient, shift,
resource. Associated Word: vicarious.

substitution, n. exchange, commutation.

subterfuge, n. artifice, evasion, shift, sophistry, excuse.

subtile, a. rare, fine, ethereal, delicate; crafty, artful.

subtilty, n. rarity, fineness, ethereality; refinement; artifice,
craft, guile, cunning.

subtle, a. artful, cunning, sly, designing, crafty; refined,

subtlety, n. cunning, artfulness, guile, craftiness; discernment,

suburbs, n. pl. environs, purlieus, outskirts, confines.

succeeding, a. subsequent, following.

success, n. prosperity, triumph, victory, good fortune.

successful, a. prosperous, victorious, triumphant, fortunate.

succession, n. sequence, consecution; chain, line, series.

successive, a. consecutive.

successor, n. Antonym: predecessor.

succor, n. assistance, help, relief.

suck, v. imbibe, absorb; engulf.

sucker, n. shoot, tiller, scion, sprout; embolus, piston, valve.

sucker, n. (Slang) dupe, gull, cully, greenhorn; parasite, sponger,

suckling, n. lactation.--a. unweaned.

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