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Practical Exercises in English by Huber Gray Buehler

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secrecy to notice," "to leak out;" it should not be used in the sense of
_to happen._

[94] "Foundations," pp. 110-114.
[95] Murray's Dictionary.
[96] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 18.
[97] Newspaper report.
[98] See the Century Dictionary.
[99] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.


_Tell the difference in meaning between--_

1. Please _bring (fetch)_ a chair from the next room.
2. You had better _carry (bring)_ an umbrella with you.
3. He _asserts (alleges, maintains, declares, affirms, says)_ that he has
been robbed.
4. Mr. A. _stated (declared)_ his opinion.
5. He _admits (confesses)_ the fault.
6. The grocer _asks for (demands)_ his money.
7. He has _let (hired)_ the boat for the afternoon.
8. We have _leased (taken a lease of)_ the cottage.
9. He is _learning (teaching)_ the alphabet.
10. Dorothy _likes (loves)_ Helen.
11. Washington _stayed (stopped)_ at this house on his way to Philadelphia.
12. It _transpired (happened)_ that we disagreed.


_Insert the proper word in each blank, and give the reason for your

1. Ex-Secretary Windom ----d ex-Secretary Sherman's bill.
2. The body is balanced by an incessant shifting of the muscles, one
group ----ing the other.
3. I am too weak to ---- your cunning.

4. To-morrow he ----s to hunt the boar.
5. Bradley was able to ---- the velocity of light.
6. He ----s to go.

7. Farmers ---- their potatoes to market.
8. What shall I ---- you from Paris?
9. Harry, please ---- a chair from the hall.
10. Go to the flock and ---- me two young lambs.
11. The Spartan was to ---- his shield home, or to be borne home on it.
12. When he dieth, he shall ---- nothing away.

13. The Republican party ----ed this measure.
14. He ----ed the policy of the administration.
15. Gareth ----ed the cause of Lynette in the combats with the craven

16. The heavens ---- the glory of God.
17. Rhoda constantly ----d that it was even so.
18. I have endeavored to ---- nothing but what I have good authority for.
19. Nay, if my Lord ----d that black was white,
My word was this, your honour's in the right.
20. She ----s her innocence in the strongest terms.
21. I will ---- what He hath done for my soul.
22. What if Nemesis ---- repayment?
23. It is not directly ----d, but it seems to be implied.
24. That such a report existed in Claudian's time cannot now be ----d.
25. Geologists ---- that before there were men on earth this immense gulf
was a forest.
26. He fared on in haste to ---- his kingdom.
27. Will Mr. L. ---- his reasons for disagreeing with the rest of the
28. He ----s that he will not come.
29. Both sides ---- the victory.
30. There is another point which ----s our attention.
31. He ----d that he had been robbed by A., but he showed no proofs.
32. He ----s that the thief attacked him on Third Street.
33. Please ---- all the particulars of the disaster.
34. The woman ----s that she left Bangor Thursday night, and was put off
the train at Hermon for not paying her fare.

35. He ----s that his opponent is a good man.
36. I ---- that I spoke too hastily.
37. I ---- that John was a thief.
38. Every man must ---- that he has occasional fits of bad temper.
39. The problem, I ----, is difficult.

40. He ----s why I will not go with him.
41. The highwayman ----ed their purses.
42. The pound of flesh which I---- of him
I dearly bought; 'tis mine, and I will have it.
43. He ----ed the way to Chester.

44. Boats to ----; twenty-five cents an hour.
45. We will ---- our country-house during the winter.
46. ---- us some fair chamber for the night.
47. Bathing suits to ----.

48. I ---- to go rowing.
49. He ----s to talk of the days before the war.
50. All children ---- their mothers.
51. She ----s her blue gown.
52. Don't you ----strawberry short-cake?
53. A maid whom there were none to praise
And very few to ----.

54. The representatives of the other colleges did not ----.
55. His hopes have not ----ed.

56. The King of Denmark ----s there during the summer.
57. ---- a few moments longer.
58. She is very kind to ask me to ---- overnight.
59. I am very tired; let us ---- here and rest.
60. I've been ----ing with my mother for a week.

61. After a considerable time had ----d, he returned to the office. 62.
Silas takes an interest in everything that ----s.
63. Presently it ----d that Henry Roscoe was the obstinate juryman.
64. Many things have ----d since the war was ended.


ACCEPT, EXCEPT.--_To accept_ means "to take something offered;" _to
except_ means "to make an exception of."

ADVERTISE, ADVISE.--_To advertise_ is "to announce to the public" _to
advise_ is "to give counsel or information to a person."

AFFECT, EFFECT.--_To affect_ is "to act upon," "to influence;" _to
effect_ is "to bring about."

ALLEVIATE, RELIEVE.--_To alleviate_ pain is "to lighten" it; _to
relieve_ it is to go further, and "to remove it in a large measure or

ALLOW, ADMIT, THINK.--_Allow_ properly means to "grant" or "permit,"
not to "admit," "think" or "intend."

ALLUDE TO, REFER TO, MENTION.--We _mention_ a thing when we name it
directly. We _refer_ to it when we speak of it less directly. We
_allude_ to it when we refer to it in a delicate or slight way.

ARGUE, AUGUR.--_To argue_ is "to bring forward reasons;" _to augur_
is "to foretell," "to forebode."

COMPARE WITH, COMPARE TO, CONTRAST.--"Two things are _compared_ in
order to note the points of resemblance and difference between them; they
are _contrasted_ in order to note the points of difference only. When one
thing is _compared to_ another, it is to show that the first is like the
second; when one thing is _compared with_ another, it is to show either
difference or similarity, especially difference."[102]

CONSTRUE, CONSTRUCT.--"_To construe_ means 'to interpret,' 'to show
the meaning;' _to construct_ means 'to build;' we may _construe_ a
sentence as in translation, or _construct_ it as in composition."[103]

CONVINCE, CONVICT.--"_To convince_ is 'to satisfy the understanding;'
_to convict_, 'to pronounce guilty.' 'The jury having been _convinced_ of
the prisoner's guilt, he was _convicted_.'"

DETECT, DISCRIMINATE.--_To detect_ is "to find out;" _to
discriminate_ is "to distinguish between."

DISCLOSE, DISCOVER.--To _disclose_ is "to uncover," "to reveal;" _to
discover_ is, in modern usage, "to find."

DOMINATE, DOMINEER.--_To dominate_ is "to rule;" _to domineer_ is "to
rule in an overbearing manner."

DRIVE, RIDE.--We go _driving_ in carriages, _riding_ in saddles. We
_drive_ behind horses, we _ride_ on them.

ELIMINATE, ELICIT.--_To eliminate_ is "to remove," "to get rid of;"
_to elicit_ is "to draw out."

ESTIMATE, ESTEEM.--_To estimate_ is "to judge the value of;" _to
esteem_ is "to set a high value on," especially of persons.

EXPOSE, EXPOUND.--_To expose_ is "to lay bare to view;" _to expound_
is "to explain the meaning of."

FRIGHTEN.--_Frighten_ is a transitive verb, and is used correctly in
"The locomotive _frightened_ the horse;" "The horse _was frightened_ by
the locomotive;" "The horse became _frightened_." It should not be used
intransitively, as in the sentence "The _horse frightened_ at the

INQUIRE, INVESTIGATE.--To _inquire_ is "to ask for information;" _to
investigate_ is "to make a thorough examination."

INSURE, SECURE.--_Secure_, in the sense of "to guard from danger,"
"to make safe," is preferable to _insure_, since _insure_ also means "to
guarantee indemnity for future loss or damage."

LET, LEAVE.--_Let_ means "to permit;" _leave_, "to let remain," or
"to go away from."

LOCATE, FIND.--_Locate_ properly means "to place in a particular
position," or "to designate the site of," as of a new building or
purchased lands; it does not mean _to find_.

PERSUADE, ADVISE.--_To persuade_ is "to induce," "to convince;" _to
advise_ is "to give counsel or information."

PREDICATE, PREDICT.--_To predicate_ is "to affirm as an attribute or
quality;" _to predict_ is "to foretell."

PRESCRIBE, PROSCRIBE.--_To prescribe_ is "to lay down as a rule or a
remedy;" _to proscribe_ is "to condemn to death or to loss of rights."

PURPOSE, PROPOSE.--"The verb _purpose_, in the sense of 'intend,' is
preferable to _propose_, since _to propose_ also means 'to offer for
consideration:' the noun answering to the former is _purpose_; to the
latter, _proposal_ or _proposition_."[104]

REPULSE, REPEL.--_Repulse_ usually implies hostility; _repel_ is a
milder term. We _repulse_ an enemy or an assailant; we _repel_ an
officious person or the unwelcome advances of a lover.

START, BEGIN, COMMENCE.--To _start_ is "to set out" or "to set
going," and is not followed by an infinitive. Before an infinitive,
"begin" or "commence" is used. "_Begin_ is preferred in ordinary use;
_commence_ has more formal associations with law and procedure, combat,
divine service, and ceremonial."[105]

SUSPECT, EXPECT, ANTICIPATE.--_To suspect_ is "to mistrust," "to
surmise." _Expect_, in the sense of "look forward to," is preferable to
_anticipate_, since _anticipate_ also means "take up, perform, or realize
beforehand;" as, "Some real lives do actually _anticipate_ the happiness
of heaven."

[100] In some of the sentences one verb or another is allowable, according
to the meaning intended.
[101] "Foundations," p. 115.
[102] The Century Dictionary.
[103] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 38.
[104] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.
[105] Murray's Dictionary.


_Tell the difference in meaning between_--

1. I _accept_ (_except_) him.
2. Telegraphic communication was _affected_ (_effected_).
3. The medicine _alleviated_ (_relieved_) her suffering.
4. He _alluded to_ (_referred to, mentioned_) the battle of Gettysburg.
5. The first sentence was not well _construed_ (_constructed_).
6. Mr. Fox was _convinced_ (_convicted_).
7. Blanche of Devon _disclosed_ (_discovered_) the treachery of Murdock.
8. We are going _riding_ (_driving_) this afternoon.
9. He _rides_ (_drives_) well.
10. I will _inquire about_ (_investigate_) the business methods of the
building association.
11. The furniture has been _secured_ (_insured_).
12. _Let_ (_leave_) me alone.
13. He _advised_ (_persuaded_) me to have my life insured.
14. He _purposed_ (_proposed_) to divide the class.
15. Did you _suspect_ (_expect_) us?


_Insert the proper word in each blank, and give the reason for your

1. Let us ---- the terms which they propose.
2. In saying that the Alexandrians have a bad character, I ---- a few
3. Why did you not ---- the gift?
4. He was ----ed from the general condemnation.
5. It gives me pleasure to ---- your invitation.

6. The procession was ----d to start at half-past two o'clock.
7. Under these circumstances we ---- total abstinence.
8. The merchants were ----d of the risk.
9. When I return, I shall ---- you.

10. She was greatly ----ed by the news.
11. When a man is hardened in crime, no fear can ---- him.
12. They sailed away without ----ing their purpose.
13. What he planned, he ----ed.
14. Bodily exercise indirectly ----s all the organs of the body.
15. The loud crash ----ed my hearing for a while.
16. Severe cold will ---- peach-trees.
17. The invention of the telephone was not ----ed without great labor.

18. Some fruits are excellent to ---- thirst.
19. He gave me an opiate to ---- my pain.
20. His charity went far to ---- the wants of the poor.
21. My cares were ----ed by his friendship.

22. He ----(ed) it would rain to-day.
23. He would not ---- her to come.
24. I ---- she will come.
25. He at last ----s that I was right.

26. A Latin inscription ----ing (to) the name of the road is cut on
the rock.
27. The people of the country, ----ing (to) the whiteness of its foam,
call the cascade "Sour-milk Falls."
28. I proceed to another affection of our nature which bears strong
testimony to our being born for religion. I ---- (to) the emotion which
leads us to revere what is higher than we.
29. He ----s (to) enterprises which he cannot reveal but with the hazard
of his life.

30. It ----s ill for an army when there are dissensions at headquarters.
31. Not to know me ----s yourself unknown.
32. E'en though vanquished he could ---- still.

33. The generosity of one person is most strongly felt when ----d to
(with) the meanness of another.
34. In Luke xv. the sinner is ----d to (with) a sheep.
35. Solon ----d the people to (with) the sea, and orators to (with) the
winds; because the sea would be quiet if the winds did not trouble it.
36. It appears no unjust simile to ---- the affairs of this great continent
to (with) the mechanism of a clock.
37. Goethe ----s translators to (with) carriers who convey good wine to
market, though it gets unaccountably watered by the way.
38. To ---- the goodness of God to (with) our rebellion will tend to make
us humble and thankful.
39. He who ----s his own condition to (with) that of others will see that
he has many reasons to consider himself fortunate.
40. The treatment of the Indians by Penn may be ----d to (with)
the treatment of them by other colonists.
41. Burke ----s the parks of a city to (with) the lungs of the body.

42. We might ---- his words in a bad sense.
43. How is this passage in Virgil to be ----d?
44. That sentence is obscure; it is not well ----ed.

45. The jury, having been ----d of the prisoner's guilt, ----d him.
46. I hope you may succeed in ----ing him of his error.

47. I cannot ---- the error in the account.
48. The chemist ----d the presence of arsenic in the coffee.

49. Events have ----d the designs of the government.
50. We often ---- our mistakes when it is too late.

51. Three powers there are that ---- the world: Fraud, Force, and Right.
52. No true gentleman ----s his servants.

53. While Mrs. A. and her children were ----ing in the park the horses ran
away and overturned the carriage.
54. Will you go ----ing with me in my new pony-cart.
55. While ----ing in the park Mr. C. was thrown from his horse.

56. Discussion is a good way to ---- truth.
57. His bearing under the trying circumstances ----d the approval of all
high-minded men.
58. It is the duty of a statesman to try to ---- the worst elements of
society and to retain the best.
59. Let us try to ---- the true facts from this mass of evidence.

60. I ---- him for his own sake.
61. Men do not ---- highly the virtues of their enemies.
62. The shell of the hawksbill turtle is much ----d for making combs.
63. At what amount do you ---- the cost of the journey.

64. Daniel Webster ----d the Constitution of the United States.
65. Daniel Webster ----d the villany of the Knapps.
66. The text was well ----d in the sermon.
67. It is the business of the police to ---- vice.

68. Will you ---- my factory against fire?
69. For woods before and hills behind
--it both from rain and wind.
70. The cargoes of ocean steamers are generally fully ----d.
71. The city is ----d by strong fortifications.
72. How are we to ---- to labor its due honor?
73. To enjoy the benefits which the liberty of the press ----s, we must
submit to the evils which it creates.

74. A committee was appointed to ---- the needs of the laboring classes.
75. I will ---- his name and rank.
76. Edison has been busy ---- ing the nature of electricity.
77. A commission was appointed to ---- the causes of the strike.

78. Please ---- me take you to town.
79. We ---- that to the judgment of the umpire.
80. Pharaoh said, "I will ---- you go."
81. Why do you--- your house go to ruin?
82. Peace I ---- with you.
83. I will ---- you know my decision to-morrow.
84. Please ---- me out at the corner of Twenty-third Street.
85. ---- us free to act.
86. ---- go!
87. ---- the beggar in.
88. ---- us ---- him to himself.
89. He ---- the cat out of the bag.

90. The missing man has at last been ----d by the police in Kansas City.
91. The part of the city in which the mint is ----d.

92. Almost thou ----st me to be a Christian.
93. I ----d him to take a walk every day, but I could not ---- him to
do it.
94. Columbus was ----d to give up the thought of sailing westward in
search of the Indies.
95. When in mid-ocean, Columbus was ----d to alter his course.

96. This very result was ----d two years ago.
97. Ambition may be ----d us the predominant trait in Napoleon's character.
98. He ----s that the month of July will be rainy.
99. Disaster to the voyage was ----d by the enemies of Columbus.

100. Sylla and Marius ----d each other's adherents.
101. The doctor ----d quinine in doses of four grains each.
102. It is easier to ---- principles of conduct than to follow them.
103. The Puritans ----d theatres.
104. The number of electors is ----d by law.

105. I don't ---- to let you escape so easily.
106. I ---- that we go boating.
107. We ---- d to go to-morrow, but I fear the rain will prevent us.
108. I ---- to work hard this year.
109. Bassanio ----d to pay the bond thrice over, but Shylock declined the
offer, for he ----d, if possible, to lake Antonio's life.

110. He gently ---- their entreaties.
111. The charge of Pickett's troops at Gettysburg was ----d.

112. Rosalind tells Orlando to ---- his courtship, and he wishes to ----
with a kiss.
113. The _Spectator_ was ----(d) by Steele.
114. We have ----(d) Homer's "Iliad."
115. We have ----(d) to find out our ignorance.
116. We ----d to feel that perhaps Darcy is not very bad, after all.
117. We ----(d) in an omnibus at seven o'clock.
118. She has ----(d) to study French.
119. Franklin's voyage was ----(d) under unpleasant circumstances.
120. It ----(d) to rain in torrents.
121. The play has ----(d).
122. Hostilities have ----(d).
123. The people of Philadelphia were so much pleased with Franklin's
pavement that they ----(d) paving all the streets.

124. I ---- that my grandfather was a wild lad.
125. I ---- great pleasure from our association in this work.
126. The burglars ---- that detectives are on their tracks, but they ----
to elude the officers by hiding in the country.
127. I was determined to ---- their fury by first falling into a passion
128. I ---- that my father will come on a late train to-night.
129. I ---- that the rogue thinks himself safe from detection.
130. The death of the general is hourly ----ed.

[106] In some of the sentences one verb or another is allowable, according
to the meaning intended.


_Tell why the italicized words in the following sentences are misused, and
substitute for them better expressions_:--

1. The death of his son greatly _effected_ him.
2. The Prince of Wales does not _propose_ to send a challenge to the owner
of the yacht Puritan.
3. He is _learning_ me to ride a bicycle.
4. I cannot _predicate_ what may hereafter happen.
5. Will you _loan_ me your sled for this afternoon?
6. It is even _stated_ on the best of authority that the Minneapolis is
capable of attaining a speed of twenty-four knots an hour, and of
keeping it up.
7. Miss Duhe _claims_ that the clairvoyant divulged many things that were
known to her only.
8. It is evident that whatever _transpired_ during the interview was
informal and private.
9. There is little in the "Elegy" to _locate_ the church-yard which is
referred to.
10. He says he cannot _except_ the invitation.
11. Is the Governor's wife _stopping_ at the Springs Hotel?
12. Dr. H.'s well-known views have led him to _champion_ the cause
of Dr. B.
13. I do not propose to _disrespect_[1] the Sabbath.
14. Macaulay says Voltaire _gestured_[1] like a monkey.
15. I _love_ to see kittens play.
16. I _expect_ he must have arrived last night.
17. I _calculate_ it will rain soon.
18. This dry weather _argues_ ill for the corn crop.
19. Mrs. Dennett broke open the door, and found a startling state of
affairs. In the hallway her daughter Grace was lying prostrate, and
seemed to be in an unconscious state. She _awoke_ her daughter, who,
after she had regained her senses, related what had _transpired_.
20. Elizabeth _allowed_ that he had given a very rational account of it.
21. He _calculates_ to go to-morrow morning.
22. The Abbe was beheaded, not _hung_.
23. I am looking for a fault which I cannot exactly _locate_.
24. James W. Reed, who mysteriously disappeared several weeks ago, has
been _located_ in England.
25. I _expect_ you feel tired after your long walk.
26. The strike of the tailors, which it was _claimed_ would _transpire_
yesterday, failed to _materialize_.
27. Do you _allow_ to go to town to-day?
28. She tried to _locate_ the places whence the sounds came.
29. Floods in all directions. Middle and New England States _enjoy_ their
annual freshets.[107]
30. I had hard work to _restrain_[108] from taking some.

[107] Heading in a newspaper.
[108] Consult a dictionary.


_Illustrate by original sentences the proper use of each of these verbs_:--

Allow, learn, leave, let, loan, locate, accede, accredit, credit, arise,
rise, captivate, depreciate, deprecate, impugn, impute, like, love,
antagonize, champion, calculate, bring, carry, fetch, claim, assert,
allege, maintain, admit, confess, demand, hire, let, lease, materialize,
plead, argue, state, stop, transpire, accept, except, advertise, advise,
affect, effect, alleviate, relieve, augur, compare to, compare with,
contrast, construe, construct, convince, convict, detect, discriminate,
disclose, discover, dominate, domineer, drive, ride, eliminate, elicit,
insure, secure, esteem, estimate, expose, expound, investigate, persuade,
convince, predicate, predict, prescribe, proscribe, purpose, propose,
repulse, start, suspect, expect, anticipate.

[109] See Note to Teacher, p. 41.



AN ADJECTIVE is a word joined by way of description or
limitation to a noun or a pronoun.

An ADVERB is a word joined by way of limitation or emphasis
to a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

VULGARISMS.[110]--Every educated person is expected to
know the correct use of the following words:--

GOOD, WELL.--_Good_ is an adjective: the adverb corresponding to it
is _well_. We say, "He had a _good_ sleep;" "He slept _well_." _Well_ is
sometimes an adjective, as in "You look _well_."

LIKELY, PROBABLY, LIKE.--_Likely_ is now used as an adjective only,
except in the phrase "As _likely_ as not;" ad the corresponding adverb is
_probably_. We say, "He is _likely_ to come;" "He will _probably_ come."
_Like_ as an adjective means "similar," as, "Men of _like_ excellence;"
"He looks _like_ his grandfather;" "He was a man of _like_ passions as we
are." In the sense of "in the same manner as" _like_ is followed by a noun
or a pronoun in the objective case, and is called by some an adverb, by
others a preposition: as, "He talks _like_ her."

LESS, FEWER, SMALLER.--_Less_ refers to quantity, _fewer_ to number,
_smaller_ to size.

MOST, ALMOST.--_Most_ denotes "the greatest number, quantity, or
degree." It is always superlative and never means "nearly," which is the
proper meaning of _almost_. We say, "_Most_ of the boys are here; the time
has _almost_ come."

NEAR, NEARLY.--_Near_ is an adjective; the corresponding adverb is

PLENTY is now in good use as a noun only, as "_Plenty_ of corn and
wine."[111] Shakespeare used the word as an adjective in "Reasons as
_plenty_ as blackberries," but this use is obsolete. The use of _plenty_
as an adverb, as "The food is _plenty_ good enough," is a vulgarism.

SOME, SOMEWHAT, SOMETHING.--_Some_ is an adjective, as, "_Some_
water;" "_Some_ brighter clime." _Somewhat_ is an adverb, as, "He is
_somewhat_ better." "Somewhat" is occasionally used as a noun, as,
"_Somewhat_ of doubt remains," but in this sense _something_ is more

THIS, THESE; THAT, THOSE.--_This_ (plural _these_) and _that_ (plural
_those_) are the only adjectives in English that have distinct forms for
the plural. A common mistake is to use the plural forms with singular
collective nouns, as "kind," "class," "sort."

FIRST, SECOND, SECONDLY, etc.--_First_ is both adjective and adverb.
_Second, third_ etc., are adjectives only; the corresponding adverbs are
_secondly, thirdly_, etc. _Firstly_ is a vulgarism.

_Everywheres, illy, lesser, light-complected, muchly, nowhere near,
unbeknown_ are not in reputable use.

[110] "Foundations," pp. 118-120.
[111] See page 32.


_Insert the proper word in each blank, and give the reason for your

1. George played ---- in the football game this afternoon; he is a
---- runner.
2. She embroiders very ----.
3. The draperies do not hang as ---- as I thought they would.
4. Your coat fits you very ----.
5. He always behaves ----.
6. This pen will not write ----.
7. He did the work as ---- as I could expect.
8. This is a ---- picture; the artist paints ----.
9. Mr. A. is a ---- workman. See how ---- he has laid this hearth.
10. George writes ----.
11. Charles does not look ---- to-day.
12. He says he does not feel ----.

Likely, probably, like.
13. It became evident that the duke was not ---- to have his own way in the
14. There is a difference between what may possibly and what may ---- be
15. Just as ---- as not you will meet him on the road.
16. He is ---- to die of hunger.
17. He will ---- die of hunger.
18. It seems ---- that he will be elected.
19. ---- he will be elected.
20. Japan will ---- defeat China..
21. If a man does not care for himself, it is not ---- that he will care
much for others.
22. They are as ---- as two peas.
23. Tell me who is married, and who is ---- to be.
24. This is a ---- story.
25. As ---- as not you love her yourself.

26. A proper fraction is ---- than a unit, because it expresses ---- parts
than a unit contains.
27. I caught seven fish; Carl caught a ---- number.
28. Look for no ---- punishment than death.
29. I saw not ---- than twenty beggars to-day.
30. Rebellion is sometimes a ---- evil than endurance.
31. Not ---- than twelve banks in New York failed to-day.
32. We have ---- than a half a ton of coal left.
33. People who live in the country have ---- things to talk about than city
34. He received ---- good than he conferred.
35. I have ---- books than you.
36. There were ---- people there than I expected.

37. I have ---- finished my lesson.
38. You will find me in my office ---- any day.
39. ---- men dread death.
40. We come here ---- every summer.
41. We have ---- done.
42. This wheat is ---- too thick.
43. Though I saw ---- everything else, I failed to see Hagenbeck's trained
44. ---- everybody has imperfect eyes.
45. The old man's strength is ---- gone.
46. ---- boys like play.
47. It rains in some places ---- every day.
48. ---- all flowers are beautiful.

49. It isn't ---- finished yet.
50. We are ---- the end of the lesson.
51. I am ---- suffocated.
52. We are not ---- through our work.
53. He is not ---- so young as I.
54. I will answer you as ---- as I can remember.
55. We are ---- the end of the term; our school-days are ---- over.
56. Mr. Patterson came very ---- breaking the greatest record ever made in

57. Thank you, I feel ---- better this morning.
58. ---- attempted, ---- done, has earned a night's repose.
59. He resembles his father ----.
60. She felt ---- encouraged by this (these) news.
61. ---- evil beast hath devoured him.
62. He knows ---- of Arabic.
63. We came back ---- sooner than we intended.
64. If a man thinketh himself to be ---- when he is nothing, he deceiveth
65. Dorothy looks ---- like her mother.
66. Yes, I'm ---- frightened, I admit.
67. It provoked me ----.
68. A widow, ---- old, and very poor.

69. You will always see ---- kind of man lounging in front of taverns.
70. Take up ---- ashes.
71. ---- pile of clothes is (are) to be carried to the laundry.
72. ---- kind of tree is (are) common in Pennsylvania.
73. ---- brass tongs cost three dollars.
74. ---- class will be graduated in June.
75. In New England there is not one country-house in fifty which has not
its walls ornamented with half a score of poems of ---- sort.
76. How do you like ---- style of shoe?
77. Do you like ---- sort of pen?
78. ---- sort of person is always entertaining.
79. Look at ---- assortment of knives.
80. Beware of ---- kind of dog.
81. Problems of ---- sort are very easy to solve.
82. Young ladies should let ---- sort of thing alone.

83. I shall ---- show why we should worship God, and ---- explain how we
should worship him.
84. Adam was formed ----, then Eve.
85. Let us consider ---- what the young ruler desired; ---- what he had;
---- what he lacked.
86. My ---- proposition is that the measure is unnecessary; my ---- that it
is unjust; my ---- that it is unconstitutional.
87. I will not lie; I will die ----.
88. I like the old English ballads because, ----, they are very quaint;
----, they show the derivations of many of our words; and, ----, they
show different steps which our language has taken in becoming what
it is.

ADJECTIVE or ADVERB.[112]--Illiterate persons often forget that
adjectives go with nouns and pronouns, but adverbs with verbs, adjectives,
and adverbs. Even cultivated persons are sometimes in doubt whether to use
an adjective or an adverb after certain verbs, as "grow," "look," "sound,"
"smell," "taste." If the added word applies to the subject of the verb, it
should be an adjective; if to the verb, it should be an adverb. We say "We
feel _warm_" when we mean that we are warm; we say "We feel _warmly_ on
this subject," when we mean that our feeling is warm. "As a rule, it is
proper to use an adjective whenever some form of the verb 'to be' or 'to
seem' may be substituted for the verb, an adverb when no such substitution
can be made."[113] Thus, "He looked _angry_; he spoke _angrily_." Sometimes
we may use either adjective or adverb with no difference in meaning: as,
"We were sitting _quiet_ (_quietly_) round the fire."

Regarding the _form_ of adverbs, ill-taught pupils often suppose that all
words ending in "-ly" are adverbs, and that all adverbs end in "-ly." A
glance at the italicized words in the following expressions will remove
this delusion: "Come _here_;" "_very_ pretty;" "he _then_ rose;" "lay it
_lengthwise_;" "he fell _backward_;" "run _fast_;" "_now_ it is done;" "a
_friendly_ Indian;" "a buzzing _fly_." Though no comprehensive rule can be
given for the form of adverbs, which must be learned for the most part by
observation, it may be helpful to know that most "adjectives of quality,"
like _gentle, true,_ take the suffix "-ly" to make a corresponding adverb;
and that the comparative and superlative degrees of adverbs ending in
"-ly" usually prefix _more_ and _most_.

[112] "Foundations," pp. 120-128.
[113] Ibid., p. 121.


1. Write _careful (carefully)_.
2. His teacher spoke _cold (coldly)_ to him after she found he had acted
_dishonorable (dishonorably)_.
3. Speak _slow (slowly)_ and _distinct (distinctly)_.
4. He behaved _bad (badly)_.
5. He is a _remarkable (remarkably)_ good shot.
6. They were in a _terrible (terribly)_ dangerous position.
7. I am only _tolerable (tolerably)_ well, sir.
8. He acted very _different (differently)_ from his brother.
9. It is discouraging to see how _bad (badly)_ the affairs of our nation
are sometimes managed.
10. He writes _plainer (more plainly)_ than he once did.
11. You are _exceeding (exceedingly)_ kind.
12. He struggled _manful (manfully)_ against the waves.
13. You have been _wrong (wrongly)_ informed.
14. _Sure (surely)_ he is a fine gentleman.
15. She dresses _suitable (suitably)_ to her station.
16. That part of the work was managed _easy (easily)_ enough.
17. You behaved very _proper (properly)_.
18. I can read _easier (more easily)_ than I can write.
19. She knew her lesson _perfect (perfectly)_ to-day.
20. I live _free (freely)_ from care.
21. Lessons are _easiest (most easily)_ learned in the morning.
22. Walk as _quiet (quietly)_ as you can.
23. He acted _independent (independently)_.
24. He spoke quite _decided (decidedly)_.
25. We ought to value our privileges _higher (more highly)_.
26. He was _ill (illy)_ equipped for the journey.[114]
27. _Relative (relatively)_ to its size, an ant is ten times stronger than
a man.
28. That will _ill (illy)_ accord with my notions.[114]
29. He is an _exceeding (exceedingly)_ good boy.
30. One can _scarce (scarcely)_ help smiling at the blindness of this
31. I had studied grammar _previous (previously)_ to his instructing me,
but to no purpose.

[114] See page 110.


_Distinguish between--_
1. We found the way easy (easily).
2. The prunes are boiling soft (softly).
3. He appeared prompt (promptly).
4. It looks good (well).
5. We arrived safe (safely).


_Which of the italicized words is preferable? Give the reason:--_
1. Velvet feels _smooth (smoothly)_.
2. Clouds sail _slow (slowly)_ through the air.
3. This carriage rides _easy (easily)_.
4. How _sweet (sweetly)_ these roses smell!
5. They felt very _bad (badly)_ at being beaten.[115]
6. Your piano sounds _different (differently)_ from ours.
7. The storm is raging _furious (furiously)_.
8. This milk tastes _sour (sourly)_.
9. The soldiers fought _gallant (gallantly)_.
10. She looked _cold (coldly)_ on his offer of marriage.
11. Ethel looks _sweet (sweetly)_ in a white gown.
12. How _beautiful (beautifully)_ the stars appear to-night!
13. This coat goes on _easy (easily)_.
14. How _beautiful (beautifully)_ Katharine looks this morning.
15. Luther stood _firm (firmly)_ in spite of abuse.
16. It looks _strange (strangely)_ to see you here.
17. Deal _gentle (gently)_ with them.
18. The cry sounded _shrill (shrilly)_.
19. Larks sing _sweet (sweetly)_.
20. He felt _awkward (awkwardly)_ in the presence of ladies.
21. He has acted _strange (strangely)_.
22. The water feels _warm (warmly)_.
23. We feel _warm (warmly)_ on that subject.
24. The dead warrior looked _fierce (fiercely)_.
25. The wind blows very _cold (coldly)_ to-day.
26. War clouds rolling _dim (dimly)_.
27. The shutters are painted _green (greenly)_.
28. She works _good (well)_ and _neat (neatly)_.
29. Protestants believe that the bread of the Lord's supper is not _real
(really)_ changed, but remains _real (really)_ bread.
30. Homer says the blood of the gods is not _real (really)_ blood, but
only something like it.
31. _Real (really)_ kings hide away their crowns in their wardrobes, and
affect a plain and poor exterior.

ALONE, ONLY.--"In the Bible and earlier English _alone_ is often used
for the adverb _only_, but it is now becoming restricted to its own sense
of 'solitary,' 'unaccompanied by other persons or things';"[116] as, "He
rode all unarmed, and he rode all _alone." Only_ is both adjective and

[115] See "Foundations," p. 121.
[116] The Century Dictionary.


_Fill each blank with the proper word ("only," "alone"):--_

1. She ---- of all the family had courage to go ---- into that darkened
2. These books are sold in sets ----.
3. Man cannot live on bread ----.
4. This fault ---- is enough to make her disagreeable.
5. By chance ---- did he escape the gallows.
6. Not ---- at Ephesus, but throughout all Asia, Paul persuaded many
7. To be successful a school paper must be supported, not ---- with
subscriptions, but also with contributions.

OMITTED ADVERBS.[117]--Adverbs necessary to the sense should not be
omitted. This fault is especially common after _so, too,_ and
_very_--words which, as they express degree, properly qualify adjectives
or adverbs, and not verbs or participles; also after _behave_, which, like
the noun "behavior," requires a qualifying word to determine the meaning.

[117] "Foundations," p. 123.


_Supply the omitted adverbs:--_

1. He was very struck by what she said.
2. I wish you would behave.
3. The king was very dissatisfied with his wife.
4. I have too trusted to my own wild wants.
5. If you cannot behave yourself, you had better stay at home.
6. We are very pleased to see you.

REDUNDANT ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS.[118]--A word that is not needed is
said to be "redundant." Redundant expressions should be carefully avoided.

[118] Ibid., pp. 123-125.


_Strike out the useless adjectives and adverbs:--_

1. From thence they marched twenty miles.
2. Which do you prefer most, apples or oranges?
3. Whenever I meet him he always stops me.
4. Celia wished to accompany Rosalind; therefore they both set out
5. The view from the top is simply beautiful.
6. Finally Rosalind disclosed her true identity.
7. The exercises are appointed for 2 P.M. to-morrow afternoon.
8. There are numerous mountain streams all throughout this region which
abound in brook trout.
9. The central pith of the report is as follows.
10. Secluded and alone, he now partook of his solitary repast, which he
entirely consumed.
11. Out of the second term I took out the factor _x_.
12. Right in behind East Rock we have a beautiful lake.
13. When everything was all ready they started off.
14. He was a boy of eighteen years old.
15. If the ground is uneven they just level it off with a shovel.
16. Once the two twins were shipwrecked while on a sailing voyage.
17. The purple bird was once a royal king named Picus.
18. A large search-light will show a sail at a distance of three or four
miles away.
19. Each of the provinces was ruled over by a duke.
20. When he returned he entered into the printing business.
21. He had a good chance to shift off the sky to the shoulders of
22. The mud falls off from the wheels and makes the street dirty.
23. An old merchant of Syracuse, named A†geon, had two twin sons.
24. He was almost universally admired and respected by all who knew him.
25. Pretty soon the man's hands began to get all blistered.
26. Before you go you must first finish your work.
27. He did it equally as well as his friends.
28. It must be ten years ago since he left town.
29. Collect together all the fragments.
30. The play opens up with a scene in a forest.
31. He has the universal good-will of everybody.
32. Please raise up the window.
33. The story ends up happily.
34. They always entered school together every morning.
35. Out of the entire pack only two dogs remained.
36. He went away, but soon reappeared again.
37. A monstrous large snake crawled out from under the identical stone on
which you are this very minute sitting.
38. I was deceived by false misrepresentations.
39. This question opened up the whole subject.
40. Let us, however, endeavor to trace up some of this hearsay evidence
as far towards its source as we are able.
41. I will see you later on.

MISUSED ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS.[119]--See the remarks under
"Misused Nouns." An amusing illustration of misused adjectives was
furnished by an illiterate man who introduced his second wife to a friend
as "My _late_ wife."


AGGRAVATING, IRRITATING.--In good use _aggravating_ means "making
heavier, more grave, worse in some way." It is often misused for
_irritating, exasperating,_ or _provoking_.

ALL, THE WHOLE.--See page 120.

APT, LIKELY, LIABLE.--_Apt_ implies a natural predisposition, an
habitual tendency. "_Likely_ implies a probability of whatever character;
_liable_, an unpleasant probability."[120] One is _apt_ to speak quickly,
_likely_ to hear good news, _liable_ to be hurt.

BOTH, EACH, EVERY.--_Both_, meaning "the two, and not merely one of
them," groups objects, as, "_Both_ were men of hot temper." _Each_ means
"all of any number, considered one by one," as, "_Each_ boy recited in his
turn." _Every_ means "all of any number, considered as composing a group
or class," as, "_Every_ pupil should have a dictionary and use it freely."
"_Every_ directs attention chiefly to the totality, _each_ chiefly to the
individuals composing it. It may also be observed that _each_ usually
refers to a numerically definite group.... Thus, 'Each theory is open to
objection' relates to an understood enumeration of theories, but 'Every
theory is open to objection' refers to all theories that may exist."[121]

MANY, MUCH.--_Many_ refers to number, _much_ to quantity.

MUTUAL, COMMON.--_Mutual_ properly means "reciprocal,"
"interchanged." It is often misused for _common_ in the sense of
"belonging equally to both or all," especially in the phrase, "A _mutual_

PARTLY, PARTIALLY.--"_Partly_, in the sense of 'in part,' is preferable
to _partially_, since _partially_ also means 'with partiality.'"[122]

QUITE, VERY.--_Quite_ properly means "entirely"; in the sense of
"very" or "to a considerable degree" it is not in good use.

SO-AS, AS-AS.--Both _so_ and _as_ are used as adverbs of degree
correlative with the conjunction "as": unless there is a negative in the
clause _as_ is generally used; with a negative _so_ is preferable to
_as_. We say "It is _as_ cold as ice," "It is not _so_ good as it looks."

[119] "Foundations," p. 125.
[120] Ibid., p. 128.
[121] Murray's Dictionary.
[122] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.


_Tell the difference in meaning between_--

1. The circumstances of the offense are aggravating (exasperating).
2. She gave an orange to both (each) of them.
3. Each (every) man has his faults.
4. I had a call from both (each) of the boys.
5. He is apt (likely) to win the race.
6. A mutual (common) friendship.
7. The weekly reports are partially (partly) made out.


_Insert the proper word in each blank:_--

1. Some of his remarks were ----.
2. The prisoner said his wife's conduct had been very ----.
3. He has an ---- manner.
4. He was too ---- by half.
5. The murder was committed under ---- circumstances.

6. ---- (of) the boys were sent off at a day's notice to their homes.

[For additional exercises, see page 125].

7. An industrious man is ---- to succeed.
8. The ship was ---- to founder at any moment.
9. Bad books are ---- to corrupt the reader,
10. If a man does not care for himself, he is not ---- to care much for
other people.
11. Youth is ---- to err.
12. Any kind of taxation is ---- to be looked on as a grievance.
13. We are constantly ---- to accidents.
14. Men are ---- to think well of themselves, their nation, their courage,
and their strength.

15. ---- of them has (have) taken a different course.
16. ---- went his way.
17. He told me to invite ---- brother and sister.
18. He gave his hand to ---- of them.
19. In ---- cheek (cheeks) appears a pretty dimple.
20. I am feeling better in ---- way.
21. The oak and the elm have ---- a distinct character.
22. He'll be hanged yet, though ---- drop of water swear against it.
23. ---- soldier has a musket, and ---- one fires as fast as he can.
24. ---- inhabitant, male or female, young or old, was there.
25. In ---- ten women that the gods make, the devils mar five.
26. There is a row of beautiful elm-trees on ---- side(s) of the road.

27. We saw as ---- as twenty tramps.
28. He blames his uncle for ---- of his misfortune.
29. I found that ---- of the accidents on this railroad are caused by
30. How ---- of your peaches have you sold?

31. Charles and his wife were happy in their ---- love.
32. They parted with ---- good feeling.
33. We have a ---- friend in Mr. Phelps.
34. I find, Miss Vernon, that we have some ---- friends.

35. Beware of acting ----.
36. All men are ---- buried in the grave of custom.
37. This is ---- true.
38. The city of York is ---- surrounded by a wall.

39. The country is ---- open.
40. The snow has ---- covered the ground.
41. Books ---- worthless are ---- harmless.
42. The island is ---- close to the mainland.
43. He was ---- dead when they found him.
44. You are ---- mistaken.
45. He is ---- ill.

46. She is ---- amiable as she is beautiful.
47. He is ---- tall as his brother, but not ---- tall as I.
48. You have never ---- much as answered my letter.
49. Come ---- quickly as you can.
50. No other country suffered ---- much as England.


APPARENTLY, EVIDENTLY, MANIFESTLY.--"_Apparently_ is properly used of
that which seems, but may not be, real; _evidently_, of that which both
seems and is real."[123] _Manifestly_ is stronger than _evidently_.

AVERAGE, ORDINARY.--_Average_ implies an arithmetical computation; if
four persons lose respectively $10, $20, $30, and $40, the _average_ loss
is $25. The word is used figuratively by Dr. O.W. Holmes in "The _average_
intellect of five hundred persons, taken as they come, is not very high."
In the sense of "usual," "common in occurrence," "of the usual standard,"
_ordinary_ is preferable to _average_.

BOUND, DETERMINED.--_Bound_ properly means "obliged," "fated," or
"under necessity": as, "A man is _bound_ by his word;" "We hold ourselves
in gratitude _bound_ to receive ... all such persons." In the sense of
"determined" _hound_ is not in good use. In the sense of "sure" it is in
colloquial, but not in literary, use.

CONTINUAL, CONTINUOUS.--"_Continual_ is used of frequently repeated
acts, as, 'Continual dropping wears away a stone;' _continuous_, of
uninterrupted action, as, 'the continuous flowing of a river.'"[125]

DEADLY, DEATHLY.--"_Deathly_, in the sense of 'resembling death,' as,
'She was deathly pale,' is preferable to _deadly_, since _deadly_ also
means 'inflicting death.'"[124]

DECIDED, DECISIVE.--"A _decided_ opinion is a strong opinion, which
perhaps decides nothing; a _decisive_ opinion settles the question at
issue. A lawyer may have _decided_ views on a case; the judgment of a
court is _decisive_."[125]

DUMB, STUPID.--_Dumb_ properly means "mute," "silent." Its misuse for
_stupid_ is partly due, especially in Pennsylvania, to its resemblance to
the German _dumm_.

EXISTING, EXTANT.--That is _extant_ which has escaped the ravages of
time (used chiefly of books, manuscripts, etc.); that is _existing_ which
has existence.

FUNNY, ODD.--_Funny_ means "comical;" in the sense of "strange" or
"odd" it is not in good use.

HEALTHY, HEALTHFUL, WHOLESOME.--That is _healthy_ which is in good
health; that is _healthful_ or _wholesome_ which produces health.
_Wholesome_ commonly applies to food.

HUMAN, HUMANE.--_Human_ denotes what pertains to man as man;
as, "_human_ nature," "_human_ sacrifices." _Humane_ means "compassionate."

LATEST, LAST.--_Latest_, like the word "late," contains a distinct
reference to time; that is _latest_ which comes after all others in time:
as, "The _latest_ news;" "The _latest_ fashion." _Last_, which was
originally a contraction of "latest," is now used without any distinct
reference to time, and denotes that which comes after all others in space
or in a series: as, "The _last_ house on the street;" "The _Last_ of the

LENGTHY, LONG.--_Lengthy_ is said to have originated in the United
States, but the earliest quotations found are from British authors. In the
introduction to the second series of The Biglow Papers, Mr. Lowell wrote:
"We have given back to England the excellent adjective _lengthy_ ... thus
enabling their journalists to characterize our President's messages by a
word civilly compromising between _long_ and _tedious_, so as not to
endanger the peace of the two countries by wounding our national
sensitiveness to British criticism." _Lengthy_ is used chiefly of
discourses or writings, and implies tediousness. _Long_ is used of
anything that has length.

MAD, ANGRY.--_Mad_ means "insane;" in the sense of "angry" it is not
in good use.

NEW, NOVEL.--That is _new_ which is not old; that is _novel_ which is
both new and strange.

ORAL, VERBAL.--"_Oral_, in the sense of 'in spoken words,' is
preferable to _verbal_, since _verbal_ means 'in words' whether spoken or

PITIABLE, PITIFUL.--"_Pitiable,_ in the sense of 'deserving pity,' is
preferable to _pitiful,_ since _pitiful_ also means 'compassionate,' as,
'The Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy.'"[126]

PRACTICABLE, PRACTICAL.--That is _practicable_ which can be done;
that is _practical_ which is not theoretical only: as, "a _practicable_
plan," "a _practical_ electrician."

PROMINENT, EMINENT.--_Prominent_ means "conspicuous," "standing out
so as to be easily seen;" _eminent_ means "distinguished in character or

REAL, REALLY, VERY.--_Real_ is properly an adjective, meaning "not
imaginary or counterfeit," as, "_real_ diamonds." Its misuse for the
adverbs _really_ and _very_, as, "This is _real_ pretty," is a vulgarism.

SCARED, AFRAID.--The participle _scared_ means "frightened;" _afraid_
is an adjective meaning "in fear." Before "of," the proper word is
_afraid_: as, "She is _afraid_ of horses." _Scared of_ is not in good use.

MAGNIFICENT.--_Grand_ properly implies "grandeur;" _gorgeous_,
"splendid colors;" _awful_, "awe;" _elegant_, "elegance;" _splendid_,
"splendor;" _lovely,_ "surpassing loveliness;" _magnificent_,

"We talk, sometimes, with people whose conversation would lead you to
suppose that they had lived in a museum, where all the objects were
monsters and extremes.... They use the superlative of grammar: 'most
perfect,' 'most exquisite,' 'most horrible.' Like the French, they are
enchanted, they are desolate, because you have got or have not got a
shoestring or a wafer you happen to want--not perceiving that superlatives
are diminutives and weaken.... All this comes of poverty. We are unskilful
definers. From want of skill to convey quality, we hope to move admiration
by quantity. Language should aim to describe the fact.... 'Tis very
wearisome, this straining talk, these experiences all exquisite, intense,
and tremendous."[127]

[123] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 39.
[124] Ibid., p. 18.
[125] Ibid., p. 38.
[126] A.S. Hill: Principles of Rhetoric, revised edition, p. 19.
[127] R.W. Emerson; The Superlative.


_Tell the difference in meaning between_--

1. The average (ordinary) yield of wheat.
2. He is bound (determined) to come.
3. There was continual (continuous) fighting for three days.
4. It was deadly (deathly) cold in the cave.
5. A decided (decisive) victory.
6. The boy is dumb (stupid).
7. His story is apparently (evidently, manifestly) true.
8. The existing (extant) portraits of Milton.
9. His actions were very funny (odd).
10. This is a healthy (wholesome) plant.
11. A human (humane) being.
12. His latest (last) attempt.
13. Long (lengthy) explanations.
14. She became mad (angry).
15. A new (novel) style.
16. An oral (verbal) message.
17. A pitiable (pitiful) man.
18. Your purpose seems practical (practicable).
19. A prominent (an eminent) man.
20. He was really (very) glad to see us.


_Insert the proper word in each blank:--_

1. The motion which--- belongs to the sun, really belongs to the earth.
2. The stranger was--- in the prime of manhood.
3. The _apparent (evident)_ discrepancy between the two narratives is not
4. Our country is--- growing in wealth.
5. A straight line is--- the shortest distance between two points.

6. To be excited is not the--- state of the mind.
7. This picture has only--- merit.
8.--- conversation is not instructive.
9. The--- American is not wealthy.
10. The--- expenses per man of the Yale class of '95 during Freshman year
were $912.
11. The life of the--- man is safer and more comfortable than it was a
century ago.
12. The--- age of the signers of the Declaration of Independence was
nearly forty-four.
13. Their--- duties were easy.

14. He worked hard at his piece, for he was--- to speak it well.
15. We have promised, therefore we are--- to go.
16. I am--- to win, if I can.
17. They were--- that they would see the end of the play, even though they
should miss their train.

18. He was exposed to--- interruptions.
19. A--- line in space.
20. ---- victory makes leaders insolent.
21. A ---- siege of six months.
22. The power of abstract study or of ---- thought is rare.

23. A ---- stillness.
24. The ---- bite of the rattlesnake.
25. My wound is ----.
26. Her hands were ---- cold.
27. She, poor thing, was looking ---- pale.
28. Many savages have seen a musket kill small animals and yet have not
known how ---- an instrument it is.

29. He felt a ---- aversion to company.
30. Smith spoke out boldly in a ---- tone.
31. Creasy's "Fifteen ---- Battles of the World."
32. The nature of lightning was not known until Franklin made his ----

33. A man who cannot write with wit on a proper subject is dull and ----.
34. A deaf and ---- person.
35. I was struck ---- with astonishment.
36. Judging from his recitations, I should say that John is either lazy
or ----.

37. God created all ---- things.
38. Only two authentic portraits of Shakespeare are ----.
39. There are ---- seven hundred and sixty-five of Cicero's letters.
40. Every citizen should exert himself to remove ---- evils.

41. It is ---- he never told me of his marriage.
42. He made the boys laugh by drawing ---- pictures on his slate.
43. You must have thought it ---- we didn't send for you.
44. He amused us with ---- stories.

45. Tomatoes are said to be a very ---- food.
46. If a ---- body contributes to the health of the mind, so also a ----
mind keeps the body well.
47. Gardening is a ---- recreation for a man of study or business.
48. ---- food in a ---- climate makes a ---- man.
49. A ---- situation. A ---- constitution.- ----diet.

50. A--- disposition is not cruel.
51. To err is---; to forgive, divine.
52. In the time of Abraham--- sacrifices were common among his heathen
53. The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is
a ---- organization.

54. The--- men in the procession.
55. The--- news.
56. The--- of the Incas.
57. Have you read the--- novel?
58. The--- foot-ball game of the season will be played with the
Yale Freshmen.

59. Cotton Mather wrote many--- dissertations.
60. It is a--- ride from Ellen's Isle to Stirling.
61. A--- line of ancestors.
63. We were wearied by his--- explanations.

63. His sarcastic manner makes me---.
64. That is nothing to get--- at.
65. I have heard my grandsire say full oft,
Extremity of griefs would make men ---.

66. We have a--- horse.
67. A--- feature of the entertainment was the "Broom Drill."
68. At the World's Fair we saw many--- sights, especially in the Midway
69. Alice had many--- experiences in Wonder Land.

70. Some slight--- changes have been made in the new edition of this book.
71. Were your instructions--- or written.

72. The condition of the poor in our great cities is---.
73. Be gentle unto griefs and needs,
Be --- as woman should.
74. The wretched girl was in a--- plight.
75. A--- sight.

76. We have hired a ---- gardener.
77. This plan of campaign is not ----.
78. We found the road not ---- because of the heavy rains.
79. A victory may be a ---- defeat.

80. Censure is the tax a man pays to the public for being ----.
81. The figure of a man is ---- in the picture.
82. Frogs have ---- eyes.
83. Washington was a (an) ---- man.
84. John Quincy Adams was the ---- son of a (an) ---- father.

85. She came home looking ---- well after her long visit.
86. Protestants believe that the bread of the Lord's supper is not ----
changed, but remains ---- bread.
87. Homer tells us that the blood of the gods is not ---- blood, but only
something like it.
88. I am ---- glad you have come.
89. He is ---- dead.
90. It was ---- kind in you to send me flowers.
91. Yes, I am ---- old; I am sixty.
92. He speaks ---- well, doesn't he?
93. ---- kings hide away their crowns in their wardrobes, and affect a
plain and poor exterior.
94. This is ---- pretty.
95. We came on a ---- fast train.
96. She seemed ---- glad to see us.
97. The hotel is situated ---- near the sea.

98. She was badly ---- when her horse ran away.
99. Harry is ---- of tramps.
100. Helen was ---- of the cows in the meadow.


_Illustrate by original sentences the correct use of each of these words:_
--Both, each, every, aggravating, liable, likely, apt, mutual, partially,
quite, average, bound, continual, continuous, deadly, deathly, decided,
decisive, dumb, apparently, evidently, extant, funny, healthy, healthful,
wholesome, human, humane, latest, last, lengthy, mad, novel, verbal,
pitiable, pitiful, practicable, practical, prominent, eminent, real,
really, scared, grand, gorgeous, awful, splendid, elegant, lovely,

USE of the COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE.--The comparative degree
is preferable when two things or sets of things are compared, the
superlative when three or more are compared.

To say "Iron is more useful than _any_ metal" is clearly incorrect,
because iron is included in "any metal," and of course iron is not more
useful than itself. We must in thought set iron off in a class by itself,
which we can do by inserting "other" after "any." "Iron is more useful
than _any other_ metal" is correct. After comparatives accompanied by
"than," the words "any" and "all" should be followed by "other."

To say "Iron is the most useful of _any_ (or, _any other_) metal" is also
clearly incorrect, because we mean that iron is the most useful, not of
"one metal (no matter which)" or of "some metals (no matter which)," but
of all metals. We should therefore omit the word "any," saying simply
"Iron is the most useful of (all) metals." It is also incorrect to say
"Iron is the most useful of all _other_ metals," for iron is not one of
the "other metals." Beware of using "any" or "other" with superlatives
followed by "of."

[128] See note To the Teacher, p. 41.


_Which of the italicized forms is preferable?_--
1. Of London and Paris, London is the _wealthier (wealthiest)._
2. Of two evils, choose the _less (least)._
3. The _older (oldest)_ of the three boys was sent to college.
4. Which can run the _faster (fastest),_ your horse or mine?
5. Of the two Latin poets, Virgil and Horace, the _first (former)_ is the
_better (best)_ known.
6. Which is the _better (best)_ of the two?
7. Which is the _farther (farthest)_ east, Boston New York, or
8. There is no doubt about _him (his)_ being the _better (best)_ in the
little group of friends.
9. Which is the _larger (largest)_ number, the minuend or the subtrahend?


_Explain and correct the errors in the following sentences:_--

1. This picture is, of all others, the one I like best.
2. This engraving of mine I like better than any picture I have.
3. London is more crowded than any city in Great Britain.
4. London is the most crowded of any city in Great Britain.
5. She of all other girls ought to be the last to complain.
6. Our grammar lessons are the hardest of any we have.
7. St. Peter's is larger than any church in the world.
8. St. Peter's is the largest of any church in the world.
9. Noah and his family outlived all the people who lived before the flood.
10. Solomon was wiser than all men.
11. This State exports more cotton than all the states.
12. A cowboy is the most picturesque of any men.
13. Tabby has the worst temper of any cat I know.
14. He thinks Gettysburg has the prettiest girls of any town of its size.
15. The proposed method of Mr. F.G. Jackson, the English arctic explorer,
appears to be the most practical and business-like of any yet
undertaken for exploring the polar regions.


_Construct sentences comparing the following things, using first a
comparative, then a superlative form:_--

1. The large population of China; the smaller populations of other
EXAMPLE.--China has a larger population than any other country. Of all
countries, China has the largest population in the world.
2. John, who is very mischievous; other boys, who are less mischievous.
3. Eve, who was exceedingly fair; her daughters (female descendants), who
are less fair.
4. Smith, the best athlete; the other boys in the school.
5. Mary's recitations; the poorer recitations of her classmates.
6. The population of London; the population of the other cities in the
7. The circulation of the "Star;" the smaller circulation of other
newspapers in the county.
8. Ethel's eyes; the eyes of her playmates, which are not so bright.
9. The examination papers of Professor A.; the easier papers set by other
10. Philip; his classmates, who are less bright.
11. Solomon, the wisest king; other kings.
12. Samson, the strongest man; other men.
13. Jacob's love for Joseph; his love for his other children.
14. Youth; the other periods of life, which are less important.
15. Demosthenes; the other and inferior orators of Greece.
16. The books read by Fannie; the fewer books read by her classmates.
17. This shady grove; other groves I know, which are less shady.
18. The reign of Louis XIV.; the shorter reigns of other French kings.
19. Shakespeare; other English poets, all of whom are inferior to him.
20. The Falls of Niagara; other falls in the United States.

Some adjectives and adverbs have meanings which do not vary in degree: as,
_dead, perfect, wooden._ Such adjectives cannot properly be compared or
modified by the words "more," "most," "so," "too," and "very."

[129] "Foundations," p. 135.


_Which of the following adjectives and adverbs do not vary in degree?_--
Absolutely, brave, cloudless, cold, conclusively, continually, entirely,
essentially, extreme, faultless, French, fundamental, golden, happy,
impregnable, inaudible, incessant, incredible, indispensable, insatiate,
inseparable, intangible, intolerable, invariable, long, masterly, round,
sharp, square, sufficient, unanimous, unbearable, unbounded, unerring,
unique, universally, unparalleled, unprecedented.

MISPLACED ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS.[130]--A word, a phrase, or a clause
used as an adjective or an adverb should come next to the word, or words,
which it modifies.

The word _only_ requires special care. Observe how the position of _only_
affects the meaning in the following sentences: "Only he lost his hat;"
"He only lost his hat;" "He lost only his hat," or "He lost his hat only;"
"He lost his only hat."

[130] "Foundations," p. 136.


_Correct the errors of position in the following sentences_:--

1. Metal reflectors are only used now for cheap search-lights.
2. I will only mention some of the best.
3. I only had time to read "King Lear."
4. He only spoke to me, not to you.
5. Coons are only killed with the help of dogs. The coon only comes out in
the night-time.
6. Lost, a Scotch terrier, by a gentleman, with his ears cut close.
7. Canteens were issued to the soldiers with short necks.
8. We all went to the sea-shore for a little fresh air from the city.
9. At one time Franklin was seen bringing some paper to his
printing-office from the place where he had purchased it in a
10. He went to Germany to patronize the people in the little German
villages from which he came with his great wealth.
11. The three young men set out and finally arrived at the college dressed
in girls' clothes.
12. The maskers were nearly dressed alike.
13. Erected to the memory of John Smith accidentally shot as a mark of
affection by his brother.
14. Lost, an umbrella by a gentleman with an ivory head.
15. A piano for sale by a lady about to cross the channel in an oak case
with carved legs.
16. He blew out his brains after bidding his wife good-bye with a gun.
17. The Moor, seizing a bolster, full of rage and jealousy, smothered
18. Wanted, a handsome Shetland pony suitable for a child with a long mane
and tail.
19. Wolsey left many buildings which he had begun at his death in an
unfinished state.
20. My cousin caught a crab and took it home in a pail of water which we
had for our tea.
21. I scarcely ever remember to have had a rougher walk.

ADVERBS between TO and THE INFINITIVE.--"A careful writer
will do well to avoid the construction which places the adverb between
_to_ and the infinitive. It is true that the construction is a common one;
but it is also true that those who are most addicted to the practice are
not those who count most as authorities on questions of good usage."[131]

[131] "Foundations," p. 140.


_Improve the arrangement in the following sentences_--

1. Hermes caused the milk pitcher of the old couple to never be empty.
2. His political enemies tried to in this way impeach the courage of the
3. He promises to earnestly try to do better.
4. To really know the man we must read his books.
5. Another project is to in some way modify the power of the House of
6. She dwelt upon what was comforting, though conscious that there was
little to veritably console.
7. He proposed to either largely decrease the appropriation or to wholly
do away with it.



MISUSED PREPOSITIONS.[132]--A writer, in choosing the proper
preposition to express his meaning, must rely chiefly on his sense of
idiom, that is, his knowledge of English usage, but he may find the
following notes helpful.

AMONG, BETWEEN.--"_Among_ is the proper word when the reference is to
more than two persons or things, or groups of persons or things;
_between_, when the reference is to two only."[133]

AT, IN.--Before names of places to denote "where," _at_ is used when
the place is so small as to be treated as a mere point, or when, although
large, it is viewed as a mere point; _in_ is used when it is desired to
make prominent the idea "within the bounds of:" as, "He arrived _at_
Liverpool in the morning and remained _in_ that city two days." Before the
name of the place in which the speaker dwells, if the place is of any
size, _in_ is generally preferred to _at_, unless the place is so remote
that it dwindles in the mental vision to a point.

BACK OF.--_Back of_, though frequently heard in conversation and
sometimes seen in print, is not in good use.

BESIDE, BESIDES.--_Beside_ means "by the side of;" _besides_ is now
used only in the sense of "in addition to," "other than:" as, "Who sits
_beside_ you?" "Who _besides_ us knows this?"

BY, WITH.--To introduce the agent of an action _by_ is now commonly
used; the material instrument or tool is usually introduced by _with_: as,
"Duncan was murdered _by_ Macbeth _with_ a dagger."

DIFFERENT FROM, DIFFERENT TO.--_Different from_ is preferable to
_different to_ and _different than_.

IN, INTO.--"_In_ implies presence inside of, or within; _into_
implies movement to the inside of. Before a man can move _in_ a room, he
must already have moved _into_ it."[134]

IN, ON.--Before names of streets, _in_ implies some reference to
surroundings; _on_ is less definite, indicating location only.

ON TO, ONTO.--"Good use does not support either _on to_ or

WAIT FOR, WAIT ON.--_To wait for_ means "to await," as, "We will
_wait for_ you at the corner." _To wait on_ means "to attend on," as, "At
dinner the women _waited on_ the men."

[132] "Foundations," pp. 142-148.
[133] Ibid., p. 143.
[134] Ibid., p. 145.
[135] "Foundations," p. 146.


_Insert the proper preposition in each blank_:--

1. He divided the apples ---- the five boys.
2. There was a generous rivalry ---- the two friends.
3. I have no preference ---- many of Tennyson's poems.
4. There is bad feeling ---- China and Japan.
5. The money was divided ---- the six heirs.

6. Napoleon died ---- Longwood, a villa on the island of St. Helena; Byron
died ---- Missolonghi, ---- Greece.
7. Did he graduate ---- Oxford or ---- Cambridge?
8. He is now ---- Ireland.
9. Milton was educated ---- Christ's College.
10. When shall we arrive ---- Rome?
11. I am eager to visit a hundred places ---- Florence.
12. We live ---- New York.
13. Macaulay lived ---- London.

14. Have you nothing to tell us ---- what we have already heard?
15. The boy stood ---- her.
16. ---- the large planets, there are hundreds of smaller planets called
17. Let me sit ---- you.

18. The door was fastened ---- nails ---- the carpenter.
19. The Great Charter was signed ---- King John.
20. Thebes was founded ---- Cadmus.
21. Truth finds an easy entrance into the mind when she is introduced ----
Desire and attended ---- Pleasure.
22. He entertained us ---- a story.
23. He struck me ---- his cane.

24. The dog is ---- the water.
25. Come ---- the house.
26. Look ---- my desk.
27. Put more life ---- your speaking.
28. Throw it ---- the fire.
29. What put this idea ---- your head?
30. Carry the basket ---- the kitchen.
31. She threw herself ---- a chair.

32. The cable cars ---- Broadway.
33. Ellen and Harry are playing ---- the street.
34. The Murray Hill Hotel is ---- Fourth Avenue.
35. They carry on their business ---- William Street.

"With certain words good use requires special prepositions.
Among these words are the following:--

abhorrence of.
absolve from.
accord with.
acquit of.
adapted to or for.
affinity between, to, or with.
agree with (a person).
agree to (a proposal).
averse from or to.
bestow upon.
change for (a thing).
change with (a person).
comply with.
center on (= give to).
confer with (= talk with).
confide in (= trust in).
confide to (= intrust to).
conform to.
in conformity with or to.
convenient for or to.
conversant with.
correspond to or with (a thing).
correspond with (a person).
dependent on (but independent of).
derogatory to.
differ from (a person or thing).
differ from or with (in opinion).
disappointed of (what we cannot get).
disappointed in (what we have).
dissent from.
glad at or of.
involve in.
martyr for or to.
need of.
part from or with.
profit by.
reconcile to or with.
taste of (food).
taste for (art).
Thirst for or after."[136]

[136] "Foundations," p. 148.


I. _Tell the difference in meaning between_--

1. She confides in (to) her sister.
2. He differs from (with) me.
3. We are disappointed of (in) our guests.
4. He is in (_at_) New York.
5. He waited on (for) his mother.

II. _Tell what prepositions are required with these words_: Abhorrence,
absolve, accord, acquit, adapted, affinity, agree, agreeable, averse,
bestow, change (verb), comply, confer, confide, conform, in conformity,
convenient, conversant, correspond, dependent, derogatory, differ,
different, disappointed, dissent (verb), eager, exception, expert, glad,
independent, involve, martyr, need (noun), part (verb), profit (verb),
reconcile, taste (noun), thirst (noun), worthy.


_Insert the proper preposition in each blank_:--[137]

1. Please wait ---- me; I will come as soon as I can.
2. She married him ---- her father's consent.
3. The cathedral was rich ---- all kinds of golden vessels.
4. Moses received the laws ---- the people on Mount Sinai.
5. Evangeline died ---- Philadelphia.
6. ---- whom did they rent the house?
7. ---- whom can I rely?
8. The boy went in search ---- his sister.
9. The streams ---- this region abound ---- trout.
10. The traces of a struggle were seen ---- the tree.
11. They got ---- the carriage and rode away.
12. He has moved ---- New York, where he lives ---- an elegant mansion.
13. He thought that he put the money ---- his pocket, but he found it ----
his shoe.
14. The paper was cut ---- small strips.
15. We stood ---- the landing.
16. The firemen went ---- the roof of the house.
17. He is down ---- the village.
18. What was the matter ---- him?
19. He died ---- a fever.
20. When we were ---- Rome we stayed ---- a small hotel.
21. He lives ---- a frame house ---- Cambridge.
22. Her unladylike behavior gave occasion ---- many unpleasant remarks.
23. Caterpillars change ---- butterflies.
24. She lives ---- College Street, ---- No. 1009.
25. It was conducive ---- my comfort.
26. The calm was followed ---- a sudden storm.
27. The soil of Virginia is adapted ---- the production of hemp and
28. The flower is excellently adapted ---- catching insects.
29. Congress consists ---- a Senate and a House of Representatives.
30. ---- what does happiness consist?
31. ---- some sentences the conjunction is omitted.
32. A judge who has an interest in a case is disqualified ---- hearing it.
33. He was accused ---- robbery.
34. He died ---- starvation, she ---- pneumonia.
35. You may rely ---- what I say, and confide ---- my honesty.
36. The bird flew ---- the tree.
37. He let the knife fall ---- the creek.
38. What is my grief in comparison ---- that which she bears?
39. Most persons feel an abhorrence ---- snakes.
40. He aspires ---- political distinction.
41. We were disappointed ---- the pleasure of seeing you.
42. There is need ---- great watchfulness.
43. I have been ---- New Orleans, and I am now going ---- New York.
44. We lived ---- a little village ---- the South.
45. I find no difficulty ---- keeping up with my class.
46. ---- every class of people selfishness prevails.
47. He divided his estate ---- his son, his daughter, and his nephew.
48. He is very different ---- his brother.
49. This was different ---- what I expected.
50. Compare your work ---- his, and you will see the difference.
51. My old yacht was small in comparison ---- this.
52. He is adapted ---- an out-door life.
53. His disobedience was attended ---- serious consequences.
54. His mother was overcome ---- grief.
55. We were accompanied ---- our parents.
56. A man should try to rid himself ---- prejudice.
57. He will profit ---- his experience.
58. The room was redolent ---- the perfume.
59. You must conform ---- the rules.
60. Fondness ---- horses was his leading trait.
61. We felt the need ---- some adviser.
62. I cannot reconcile this assertion ---- your other one.
63. Let us cut it ---- three equal parts.
64. He is acquitted ---- all blame.
65. The Pope absolved him ---- his oath of allegiance.
66. This fact does not accord ---- her declaration.
67. I do not agree ---- you; therefore I cannot agree ---- your proposal.
68. The queen bestowed ---- Tennyson the title of baron.
69. The college has conferred ---- my uncle the degree of Doctor of
70. The two emperors conferred ---- each other for an hour.
71. He is conversant ---- many languages.
72. They were independent ---- each other.
73. His sisters are dependent ---- him.
74. That is not derogatory ---- their character.
75. I dissent ---- that proposition.
76. We are glad ---- his promotion.
77. He has a taste ---- poetry; she, a thirst ---- knowledge.
78. In 1842 he emerged ---- obscurity.
79. His property was merged ---- the common stock.
80. She often went ---- town shopping.
81. He plunged ---- the deepest part of the lake.
82. These bands of Indians were accompanied ---- settlers from Detroit.
83. The settlers were in company ---- Indians.
84. His proposal is likely to stir up ill-will ---- the various classes.
85. The Greeks, fearing that they would be surrounded, wheeled about and
halted, with the river ---- their backs.
86. We are within three miles ---- Salisbury.

OMITTED PREPOSITIONS.[138]--"Beware of omitting a preposition that is
needed to make the meaning clear or the sentence grammatical."[139]

"Before 'home' the preposition 'at' should never be omitted, but the
preposition 'to' is always omitted: _e.g.,_ 'I am going home.'"[138]

[137] In this exercise the pupil must rely chiefly on his knowledge of
English usage or on a dictionary. In some of the sentences more than one
preposition is allowable, according to the sense.
[138] "Foundations," p. 149.
[139] Ibid., p. 150.


_Insert the necessary prepositions in the following sentences:_--

1. What use is this piece of ribbon?
2. The oak was five feet diameter.
3. My business prevented me attending the last meeting of the committee.
4. I could not refrain shedding tears.
5. The remark is worthy the fool that made it.
6. It is unworthy your notice.
7. He lives the other side the river.
8. He fled the country, and went either to England or France.
9. Ignorance is the mother of fear as well as admiration.
10. Religion is a comfort in youth as well as old age.
11. It's no use to give up.
12. This side the mountain the country is thickly settled; the other side
there are few inhabitants.
13. I wrote Mr. Knapp to come Wednesday, and promised that he should find
us home.
14. Wealth is more conducive to worldliness than piety.
15. He is not home, but I think he is coming home to-night.

REDUNDANT PREPOSITIONS.[140]--Beware of inserting prepositions which
are not needed.

[140] Ibid., p. 150.


_Strike out the redundant prepositions:_--

1. He met a boy of about eighteen years old.
2. Cadmus stood pondering upon what he should do.
3. Let a gallows be erected of fifty cubits high.
4. Hercules was very willing to take the world off from his shoulders and
give it to Atlas again.
5. No one can help from loving her.
6. From thence in two days the Greeks marched twenty miles.
7. There was much of wisdom in their plan.
8. A workman fell off of the ladder.
9. On one day I caught five trout, on another twelve.
10. We must examine into this subject more carefully.
11. A child copies after its parents.
12. The proposal to go to the woods was approved of by all of the boys.
13. At about what time will father return?
14. After having heard his story, I gave him a dollar.
15. The spring is near to the house.
16. Bruno followed on after his master.
17. Wanted, a young man of from sixteen to twenty-one years of age.
18. They went on to the steamer soon after dinner.
19. Look out of the window.



VULGARISMS.[141]--Every educated person is expected to know the correct
use of the following words:--

LIKE, AS.--In good use _like_ is never a conjunction, and therefore
it cannot be used instead of _as_ to introduce a clause. It is incorrect
to say, "Walk _like_ I walk," but one may say, "He walks _like_ me," or
"He looks _like_ his grandfather."[142]

EXCEPT, WITHOUT, UNLESS.--_Except_, which was originally a
past-participle, was once in good use as a conjunction; but in modern use
it has been displaced as a conjunction by _unless_, and is now a

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