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Plutarch's Lives

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silence for some time possessed all that reflected on what was done; the
easiness and tardiness, however, of Collatinus, gave confidence to the
Aquillii to request some time to answer their charge, and that
Vindicius, their servant, should be remitted into their hands, and no
longer harbored amongst their accusers. The consul seemed inclined to
their proposal, and was proceeding to dissolve the assembly; but
Valerius would not suffer Vindicius, who was surrounded by his people,
to be surrendered, nor the meeting to withdraw without punishing the
traitors; and at length laid violent hands upon the Aquillii, and,
calling Brutus to his assistance, exclaimed against the unreasonable
course of Collatinus, to impose upon his colleague the necessity of
taking away the lives of his own sons, and yet have thoughts of
gratifying some women with the lives of traitors and public enemies.
Collatinus, displeased at this, and commanding Vindicius to be taken
away, the lictors made their way through the crowd and seized their man,
and struck all who endeavored a rescue. Valerius's friends headed the
resistance, and the people cried out for Brutus, who, returning, on
silence being made, told them he had been competent to pass sentence by
himself upon his own sons, but left the rest to the suffrages of the
free citizens: "Let every man speak that wishes, and persuade whom he
can." But there was no need of oratory, for, it being referred to the
vote, they were returned condemned by all the suffrages, and were
accordingly beheaded.

Collatinus's relationship to the kings had, indeed, already rendered him
suspicious, and his second name, too, had made him obnoxious to the
people, who were loath to hear the very sound of Tarquin; but after this
had happened, perceiving himself an offense to every one, he
relinquished his charge and departed from the city. At the new
elections in his room, Valerius obtained, with high honor, the
consulship, as a just reward of his zeal; of which he thought Vindicius
deserved a share, whom he made, first of all freedmen, a citizen of
Rome, and gave him the privilege of voting in what tribe soever he was
pleased to be enrolled; other freedmen received the right of suffrage a
long time after from Appius, who thus courted popularity; and from this
Vindicius, a perfect manumission is called to this day vindicta. This
done, the goods of the kings were exposed to plunder, and the palace to

The pleasantest part of the field of Mars, which Tarquin had owned, was
devoted to the service of that god; it happening to be harvest season,
and the sheaves yet being on the ground, they thought it not proper to
commit them to the flail, or unsanctify them with any use; and,
therefore, carrying them to the river side, and trees withal that were
cut down, they cast all into the water, dedicating the soil, free from
all occupation, to the deity. Now, these thrown in, one upon another,
and closing together, the stream did not bear them far, but where the
first were carried down and came to a bottom, the remainder, finding no
farther conveyance, were stopped and interwoven one with another; the
stream working the mass into a firmness, and washing down fresh mud.
This, settling there, became an accession of matter, as well as cement,
to the rubbish, insomuch that the violence of the waters could not
remove it, but forced and compressed it all together. Thus its bulk and
solidity gained it new subsidies, which gave it extension enough to stop
on its way most of what the stream brought down. This is now a sacred
island, lying by the city, adorned with temples of the gods, and walks,
and is called in the Latin tongue inter duos pontes. Though some say
this did not happen at the dedication of Tarquin's field, but in after-
times, when Tarquinia, a vestal priestess, gave an adjacent field to the
public, and obtained great honors in consequence, as, amongst the rest,
that of all women her testimony alone should be received; she had also
the liberty to marry, but refused it; thus some tell the story.

Tarquin, despairing of a return to his kingdom by the conspiracy, found
a kind reception amongst the Tuscans, who, with a great army, proceeded
to restore him. The consuls headed the Romans against them, and made
their rendezvous in certain holy places, the one called the Arsian
grove, the other the Aesuvian meadow. When they came into action,
Aruns, the son of Tarquin, and Brutus, the Roman consul, not
accidentally encountering each other, but out of hatred and rage, the
one to avenge tyranny and enmity to his country, the other his
banishment, set spurs to their horses, and, engaging with more fury than
forethought, disregarding their own security, fell together in the
combat. This dreadful onset hardly was followed by a more favorable
end; both armies, doing and receiving equal damage, were separated by a
storm. Valerius was much concerned, not knowing what the result of the
day was, and seeing his men as well dismayed at the sight of their own
dead, as rejoiced at the loss of the enemy; so apparently equal in the
number was the slaughter on either side. Each party, however, felt
surer of defeat from the actual sight of their own dead, than they could
feel of victory from conjecture about those of their adversaries. The
night being come (and such as one may presume must follow such a
battle), and the armies laid to rest, they say that the grove shook, and
uttered a voice, saying that the Tuscans had lost one man more than the
Romans; clearly a divine announcement; and the Romans at once received
it with shouts and expressions of joy; whilst the Tuscans, through fear
and amazement, deserted their tents, and were for the most part
dispersed. The Romans, falling upon the remainder, amounting to nearly
five thousand, took them prisoners, and plundered the camp; when they
numbered the dead, they found on the Tuscans' side eleven thousand and
three hundred, exceeding their own loss but by one man. This fight
happened upon the last day of February, and Valerius triumphed in honor
of it, being the first consul that drove in with a four-horse chariot;
which sight both appeared magnificent, and was received with an
admiration free from envy or offense (as some suggest) on the part of
the spectators; it would not otherwise have been continued with so much
eagerness and emulation through all the after ages. The people
applauded likewise the honors he did to his colleague, in adding to his
obsequies a funeral oration; which was so much liked by the Romans, and
found so good a reception, that it became customary for the best men to
celebrate the funerals of great citizens with speeches in their
commendation; and their antiquity in Rome is affirmed to be greater than
in Greece, unless, with the orator Anaximenes, we make Solon the first

Yet some part of Valerius's behavior did give offense and disgust to the
people, because Brutus, whom they esteemed the father of their liberty,
had not presumed to rule without a colleague, but united one and then
another to him in his commission; while Valerius, they said, centering
all authority in himself, seemed not in any sense a successor to Brutus
in the consulship, but to Tarquin in the tyranny; he might make verbal
harangues to Brutus's memory, yet, when he was attended with all the
rods and axes, proceeding down from a house than which the king's house
that he had demolished had not been statelier, those actions showed him
an imitator of Tarquin. For, indeed, his dwelling house on the Velia
was somewhat imposing in appearance, hanging over the forum, and
overlooking all transactions there; the access to it was hard, and to
see him far of coming down, a stately and royal spectacle. But Valerius
showed how well it were for men in power and great offices to have ears
that give admittance to truth before flattery; for upon his friends
telling him that he displeased the people, he contended not, neither
resented it, but while it was still night, sending for a number of
workpeople, pulled down his house and leveled it with the ground; so
that in the morning the people, seeing and flocking together, expressed
their wonder and their respect for his magnanimity, and their sorrow, as
though it had been a human being, for the large and beautiful house
which was thus lost to them by an unfounded jealousy, while its owner,
their consul, without a roof of his own, had to beg a lodging with his
friends. For his friends received him, till a place the people gave him
was furnished with a house, though less stately than his own, where now
stands the temple, as it is called, of Vica Pota.

He resolved to render the government, as well as himself, instead of
terrible, familiar and pleasant to the people, and parted the axes from
the rods, and always, upon his entrance into the assembly, lowered these
also to the people, to show, in the strongest way, the republican
foundation of the government; and this the consuls observe to this day.
But the humility of the man was but a means, not, as they thought, of
lessening himself, but merely to abate their envy by this moderation;
for whatever he detracted from his authority he added to his real
power, the people still submitting with satisfaction, which they
expressed by calling him Poplicola, or people-lover, which name had the
preeminence of the rest, and, therefore, in the sequel of this narrative
we shall use no other.

He gave free leave to any to sue for the consulship; but before the
admittance of a colleague, mistrusting the chances, lest emulation or
ignorance should cross his designs, by his sole authority enacted his
best and most important measures. First, he supplied the vacancies of
the senators, whom either Tarquin long before had put to death, or the
war lately cut off; those that he enrolled, they write, amounted to a
hundred and sixty-four; afterwards he made several laws which added much
to the people's liberty, in particular one granting offenders the
liberty of appealing to the people from the judgment of the consuls; a
second, that made it death to usurp any magistracy without the people's
consent; a third, for the relief of poor citizens, which, taking off
their taxes, encouraged their labors; another, against disobedience to
the consuls, which was no less popular than the rest, and rather to the
benefit of the commonalty than to the advantage of the nobles, for it
imposed upon disobedience the penalty of ten oxen and two sheep; the
price of a sheep being ten obols, of an ox, a hundred. For the use of
money was then infrequent amongst the Romans, but their wealth in cattle
great; even now pieces of property are called peculia, from pecus,
cattle; and they had stamped upon their most ancient money an ox, a
sheep, or a hog; and surnamed their sons Suillii, Bubulci, Caprarii,
and Porcii, from caprae, goats, and porci, hogs.

Amidst this mildness and moderation, for one excessive fault he
instituted one excessive punishment; for he made it lawful without trial
to take away any man's life that aspired to a tyranny, and acquitted the
slayer, if he produced evidence of the crime; for though it was not
probable for a man, whose designs were so great, to escape all notice;
yet because it was possible he might, although observed, by force
anticipate judgment, which the usurpation itself would then preclude, he
gave a license to any to anticipate the usurper. He was honored
likewise for the law touching the treasury; for because it was necessary
for the citizens to contribute out of their estates to the maintenance
of wars, and he was unwilling himself to be concerned in the care of it,
or to permit his friends, or indeed to let the public money pass into
any private house, he allotted the temple of Saturn for the treasury, in
which to this day they deposit the tribute-money, and granted the people
the liberty of choosing two young men as quaestors, or treasurers. The
first were Publius Veturius and Marcus Minucius; and a large sum was
collected, for they assessed one hundred and thirty thousand, excusing
orphans and widows from the payment. After these dispositions, he
admitted Lucretius, the father of Lucretia, as his colleague, and gave
him the precedence in the government, by resigning the fasces to him,
as due to his years, which privilege of seniority continued to our time.
But within a few days Lucretius died, and in a new election Marcus
Horatius succeeded in that honor, and continued consul for the remainder
of the year.

Now, whilst Tarquin was making preparations in Tuscany for a second war
against the Romans, it is said a great portent occurred. When Tarquin
was king, and had all but completed the buildings of the Capitol,
designing, whether from oracular advice or his own pleasure, to erect an
earthen chariot upon the top, he entrusted the workmanship to Tuscans of
the city Veii, but soon after lost his kingdom. The work thus modeled,
the Tuscans set in a furnace, but the clay showed not those passive
qualities which usually attend its nature, to subside and be condensed
upon the evaporation of the moisture, but rose and swelled out to that
bulk, that, when solid and firm, notwithstanding the removal of the roof
and opening the walls of the furnace, it could not be taken out without
much difficulty. The soothsayers looked upon this as a divine
prognostic of success and power to those that should possess it; and the
Tuscans resolved not to deliver it to the Romans, who demanded it, but
answered that it rather belonged to Tarquin than to those who had sent
him into exile. A few days after, they had a horse-race there, with the
usual shows and solemnities, and as the charioteer, with his garland on
his head, was quietly driving the victorious chariot out of the ring,
the horses, upon no apparent occasion, taking fright, either by divine
instigation or by accident, hurried away their driver at full speed to
Rome; neither did his holding them in prevail, nor his voice, but he was
forced along with violence till, coming to the Capitol, he was thrown
out by the gate called Ratumena. This occurrence raised wonder and fear
in the Veientines, who now permitted the delivery of the chariot.

The building of the temple of the Capitoline Jupiter had been vowed by
Tarquin, the son of Demaratus, when warring with the Sabines; Tarquinius
Superbus, his son or grandson, built, but could not dedicate it, because
he lost his kindom before it was quite finished. And now that it was
completed with all its ornaments, Poplicola was ambitious to dedicate
it; but the nobility envied him that honor, as, indeed, also, in some
degree, those his prudence in making laws and conduct in wars entitled
him to. Grudging him, at any rate, the addition of this, they urged
Horatius to sue for the dedication and, whilst Poplicola was engaged in
some military expedition, voted it to Horatius, and conducted him to the
Capitol, as though, were Poplicola present, they could not have carried
it. Yet, some write, Poplicola was by lot destined against his will to
the expedition, the other to the dedication; and what happened in the
performance seems to intimate some ground for this conjecture; for, upon
the Ides of September, which happens about the full moon of the month
Metagitnion, the people having assembled at the Capitol and silence
being enjoined, Horatius, after the performance of other ceremonies,
holding the doors, according to custom, was proceeding to pronounce the
words of dedication, when Marcus, the brother of Poplicola, who had got
a place on purpose beforehand near the door, observing his opportunity,
cried, "O consul, thy son lies dead in the camp;" which made a great
impression upon all others who heard it, yet in nowise discomposed
Horatius, who returned merely the reply, "Cast the dead out whither you
please; I am not a mourner;" and so completed the dedication. The news
was not true, but Marcus thought the lie might avert him from his
performance; but it argues him a man of wonderful self-possession,
whether he at once saw through the cheat, or, believing it as true,
showed no discomposure.

The same fortune attended the dedication of the second temple; the
first, as has been said, was built by Tarquin and dedicated by Horatius;
it was burnt down in the civil wars. The second, Sylla built, and,
dying before the dedication, left that honor to Catulus; and when this
was demolished in the Vitellian sedition, Vespasian, with the same
success that attended him in other things, began a third, and lived to
see it finished, but did not live to see it again destroyed, as it
presently was; but was as fortunate in dying before its destruction, as
Sylla was the reverse in dying before the dedication of his. For
immediately after Vespasian's death it was consumed by fire. The
fourth, which now exists, was both built and dedicated by Domitian. It
is said Tarquin expended forty thousand pounds of silver in the very
foundations; but the whole wealth of the richest private man in Rome
would not discharge the cost of the gilding of this temple in our days,
it amounting to above twelve thousand talents; the pillars were cut out
of Pentelican marble, of a length most happily proportioned to their
thickness; these we saw at Athens; but when they were cut anew at Rome
and polished, they did not gain so much in embellishment, as they lost
in symmetry, being rendered too taper and slender. Should any one who
wonders at the costliness of the Capitol visit any one gallery in
Domitian's palace, or hall, or bath, or the apartments of his
concubines, Epicharmus's remark upon the prodigal, that

'Tis not beneficence, but, truth to say,
A mere disease of giving things away,

would be in his mouth in application to Domitian. It is neither piety,
he would say, nor magnificence, but, indeed, a mere disease of building,
and a desire, like Midas, of converting every thing into gold or stone.
And thus much for this matter.

Tarquin, after the great battle wherein he lost his son in combat with
Brutus, fled to Clusium, and sought aid from Lars Porsenna, then one of
the most powerful princes of Italy, and a man of worth and generosity;
who assured him of assistance, immediately sending his commands to Rome
that they should receive Tarquin as their king, and, upon the Romans'
refusal, proclaimed war, and, having signified the time and place where
he intended his attack, approached with a great army. Poplicola was, in
his absence, chosen consul a second time, and Titus Lucretius his
colleague, and, returning to Rome, to show a spirit yet loftier than
Porsenna's, built the city Sigliuria when Porsenna was already in the
neighborhood; and, walling it at great expense, there placed a colony of
seven hundred men, as being little concerned at the war. Nevertheless,
Porsenna, making a sharp assault, obliged the defendants to retire to
Rome, who had almost in their entrance admitted the enemy into the city
with them; only Poplicola by sallying out at the gate prevented them,
and, joining battle by Tiber side, opposed the enemy, that pressed on
with their multitude, but at last, sinking under desperate wounds, was
carried out of the fight. The same fortune fell upon Lucretius, so that
the Romans, being dismayed, retreated into the city for their security,
and Rome was in great hazard of being taken, the enemy forcing their way
on to the wooden bridge, where Horatius Cocles, seconded by two of the
first men in Rome, Herminius and Lartius, made head against them.
Horatius obtained this name from the loss of one of his eyes in the
wars, or, as others write, from the depressure of his nose, which,
leaving nothing in the middle to separate them, made both eyes appear
but as one; and hence, intending to say Cyclops, by a mispronunciation
they called him Cocles. This Cocles kept the bridge, and held back the
enemy, till his own party broke it down behind, and then with his armor
dropped into the river, and swam to the hither side, with a wound in his
hip from a Tuscan spear. Poplicola, admiring his courage, proposed at
once that the Romans should every one make him a present of a day's
provisions, and afterwards gave him as much land as he could plow round
in one day, and besides erected a brazen statue to his honor in the
temple of Vulcan, as a requital for the lameness caused by his wound.

But Porsenna laying close siege to the city, and a famine raging amongst
the Romans, also a new army of the Tuscans making incursions into the
country, Poplicola, a third time chosen consul, designed to make,
without sallying out, his defense against Porsenna, but, privately
stealing forth against the new army of the Tuscans, put them to flight,
and slew five thousand. The story of Mucius is variously given; we,
like others, must follow the commonly received statement. He was a man
endowed with every virtue, but most eminent in war; and, resolving to
kill Porsenna, attired himself in the Tuscan habit, and, using the
Tuscan language, came to the camp, and approaching the seat where the
king sat amongst his nobles, but not certainly knowing the king, and
fearful to inquire, drew out his sword, and stabbed one who he thought
had most the appearance of king. Mucius was taken in the act, and
whilst he was under examination, a pan of fire was brought to the king,
who intended to sacrifice; Mucius thrust his right hand into the flame,
and whilst it burnt stood looking at Porsenna with a steadfast and
undaunted countenance; Porsenna at last in admiration dismissed him, and
returned his sword, reaching it from his seat; Mucius received it in his
left hand, which occasioned the name of Scaevola, left-handed, and said,
"I have overcome the terrors of Porsenna, yet am vanquished by his
generosity, and gratitude obliges me to disclose what no punishment
could extort;" and assured him then, that three hundred Romans, all of
the same resolution, lurked about his camp, only waiting for an
opportunity; he, by lot appointed to the enterprise, was not sorry that
he had miscarried in it, because so brave and good a man deserved rather
to be a friend to the Romans than an enemy. To this Porsenna gave
credit, and thereupon expressed an inclination to a truce, not, I
presume, so much out of fear of the three hundred Romans, as in
admiration of the Roman courage. All other writers call this man Mucius
Scaevola, yet Athenodorus, son of Sandon, in a book addressed to
Octavia, Caesar's sister, avers he was also called Postumus.

Poplicola, not so much esteeming Porsenna's enmity dangerous to Rome as
his friendship and alliance serviceable, was induced to refer the
controversy with Tarquin to his arbitration, and several times undertook
to prove Tarquin the worst of men, and justly deprived of his kingdom.
But Tarquin proudly replied he would admit no judge, much less Porsenna,
that had fallen away from his engagements; and Porsenna, resenting this
answer, and mistrusting the equity of his cause, moved also by the
solicitations of his son Aruns, who was earnest for the Roman interest,
made a peace on these conditions, that they should resign the land they
had taken from the Tuscans, and restore all prisoners and receive back
their deserters. To confirm the peace, the Romans gave as hostages ten
sons of patrician parents, and as many daughters, amongst whom was
Valeria, the daughter of Poplicola.

Upon these assurances, Porsenna ceased from all acts of hostility, and
the young girls went down to the river to bathe, at that part where the
winding of the bank formed a bay and made the waters stiller and
quieter; and, seeing no guard, nor any one coming or going over, they
were encouraged to swim over, notwithstanding the depth and violence of
the stream. Some affirm that one of them, by name Cloelia, passing over
on horseback, persuaded the rest to swim after; but, upon their safe
arrival, presenting themselves to Poplicola, he neither praised nor
approved their return, but was concerned lest he should appear less
faithful than Porsenna, and this boldness in the maidens should argue
treachery in the Romans; so that, apprehending them, he sent them back
to Porsenna. But Tarquin's men, having intelligence of this, laid a
strong ambuscade on the other side for those that conducted them; and
while these were skirmishing together, Valeria, the daughter of
Poplicola, rushed through the enemy and fled, and with the assistance of
three of her attendants made good her escape, whilst the rest were
dangerously hedged in by the soldiers; but Aruns, Porsenna's son, upon
tidings of it, hastened to their rescue, and, putting the enemy to
flight, delivered the Romans. When Porsenna saw the maidens returned,
demanding who was the author and adviser of the act, and understanding
Cloelia to be the person, he looked on her with a cheerful and benignant
countenance, and, commanding one of his horses to be brought,
sumptuously adorned, made her a present of it. This is produced as
evidence by those who affirm that only Cloelia passed the river or.
horseback; those who deny it call it only the honor the Tuscan did to
her courage; a figure, however, on horseback stands in the Via Sacra, as
you go to the Palatium, which some say is the statue of Cloelia, others
of Valeria. Porsenna, thus reconciled to the Romans, gave them a fresh
instance of his generosity, and commanded his soldiers to quit the camp
merely with their arms, leaving their tents, full of corn and other
stores, as a gift to the Romans. Hence, even down to our time, when
there is a public sale of goods, they cry Porsenna's first, by way of
perpetual commemoration of his kindness. There stood, also, by the
senate-house, a brazen statue of him, of plain and antique workmanship.

Afterwards, the Sabines making incursions upon the Romans, Marcus
Valerius, brother to Poplicola, was made consul, and with him Postumius
Tubertus. Marcus, through the management of affairs by the conduct and
direct assistance of Poplicola, obtained two great victories, in the
latter of which he slew thirteen thousand Sabines without the loss of
one Roman, and was honored, as all accession to his triumph, with an
house built in the Palatium at the public charge; and whereas the doors
of other houses opened inward into the house, they made this to open
outward into the street, to intimate their perpetual public recognition
of his merit by thus continually making way for him. The same fashion
in their doors the Greeks, they say, had of old universally, which
appears from their comedies, where those that are going out make a noise
at the door within, to give notice to those that pass by or stand near
the door, that the opening the door into the street might occasion no

The year after, Poplicola was made consul the fourth time, when a
confederacy of the Sabines and Latins threatened a war; a superstitious
fear also overran the city on the occasion of general miscarriages of
their women, no single birth coming to its due time. Poplicola, upon
consultation of the Sibylline books, sacrificing to Pluto, and renewing
certain games commanded by Apollo, restored the city to more cheerful
assurance in the gods, and then prepared against the menaces of men.
There were appearances of treat preparation, and of a formidable
confederacy. Amongst the Sabines there was one Appius Clausus, a man of
a great wealth and strength of body, but most eminent for his high
character and for his eloquence; yet, as is usually the fate of great
men, he could not escape the envy of others, which was much occasioned
by his dissuading the war, and seeming to promote the Roman interest,
with a view, it was thought, to obtaining absolute power in his own
country for himself. Knowing how welcome these reports would be to the
multitude, and how offensive to the army and the abettors of the war, he
was afraid to stand a trial, but, having a considerable body of friends
and allies to assist him, raised a tumult amongst the Sabines, which
delayed the war. Neither was Poplicola wanting, not only to understand
the grounds of the sedition, but to promote and increase it, and he
dispatched emissaries with instructions to Clausus, that Poplicola was
assured of his goodness and justice, and thought it indeed unworthy in
any man, however injured, to seek revenge upon his fellow-citizens; yet
if he pleased, for his own security, to leave his enemies and come to
Rome, he should be received, both in public and private, with the honor
his merit deserved, and their own glory required. Appius, seriously
weighing the matter, came to the conclusion that it was the best
resource which necessity left him, and advising with his friends; and
they inviting again others in the same manner, he came to Rome, bringing
five thousand families, with their wives and children; people of the
quietest and steadiest temper of all the Sabines. Poplicola, informed
of their approach, received them with all the kind offices of a friend,
and admitted them at once to the franchise, allotting to every one two
acres of land by the river Anio, but to Clausus twenty-five acres, and
gave him a place in the senate; a commencement of political power which
he used so wisely, that he rose to the highest reputation, was very
influential, and left the Claudian house behind him, inferior to none in

The departure of these men rendered things quiet amongst the Sabines;
yet the chief of the community would not suffer them to settle into
peace, but resented that Clausus now, by turning deserter, should
disappoint that revenge upon the Romans, which, while at home, he had
unsuccessfully opposed. Coming with a great army, they sat down before
Fidenae, and placed an ambuscade of two thousand men near Rome, in
wooded and hollow spots, with a design that some few horsemen, as soon
as it was day, should go out and ravage the country, commanding them
upon their approach to the town so to retreat as to draw the enemy into
the ambush. Poplicola, however, soon advertised of these designs by
deserters, disposed his forces to their respective charges. Postumius
Balbus, his son-in-law, going out with three thousand men in the
evening, was ordered to take the hills, under which the ambush lay,
there to observe their motions; his colleague, Lucretius, attended with
a body of the lightest and boldest men, was appointed to meet the Sabine
horse; whilst he, with the rest of the army, encompassed the enemy. And
a thick mist rising accidentally, Postumius, early in the morning, with
shouts from the hills, assailed the ambuscade, Lucretius charged the
light-horse, and Poplicola besieged the camp; so that on all sides
defeat and ruin came upon the Sabines, and without any resistance the
Romans killed them in their flight, their very hopes leading them to
their death, for each division, presuming that the other was safe, gave
up all thought of fighting or keeping their ground; and these quitting
the camp to retire to the ambuscade, and the ambuscade flying; to the
camp, fugitives thus met fugitives, and found those from whom they
expected succor as much in need of succor from themselves. The
nearness, however, of the city Fidenae was the preservation of the
Sabines, especially those that fled from the camp; those that could not
gain the city either perished in the field, or were taken prisoners.
This victory, the Romans, though usually ascribing such success to some
god, attributed to the conduct of one captain; and it was observed to be
heard amongst the soldiers, that Poplicola had delivered their enemies
lame and blind, and only not in chains, to be dispatched by their
swords. From the spoil and prisoners great wealth accrued to the

Poplicola, having completed his triumph, and bequeathed the city to the
care of the succeeding consuls, died; thus closing a life which, so far
as human life may be, had been full of all that is good and honorable.
The people, as though they had not duly rewarded his deserts when alive,
but still were in his debt, decreed him a public interment, every one
contributing his quadrans towards the charge; the women, besides, by
private consent, mourned a whole year, a signal mark of honor to his
memory. He was buried, by the people's desire, within the city, in the
part called Velia, where his posterity had likewise privilege of burial;
now, however, none of the family are interred there, but the body is
carried thither and set down, and someone places a burning torch under
it, and immediately takes it away, as an attestation of the deceased's
privilege, and his receding from his honor; after which the body is


There is something singular in the present parallel, which has not
occurred in any other of the lives; that the one should be the imitator
of the other, and the other his best evidence. Upon the survey of
Solon's sentence to Croesus in favor of Tellus's happiness, it seems
more applicable to Poplicola; for Tellus, whose virtuous life and dying
well had gained him the name of the happiest man, yet was never
celebrated in Solon's poems for a good man, nor have his children or any
magistracy of his deserved a memorial; but Poplicola's life was the most
eminent amongst the Romans, as well for the greatness of his virtue as
his power, and also since his death many amongst the distinguished
families, even in our days, the Poplicolae, Messalae, and Valerii, after
a lapse of six hundred years, acknowledge him as the fountain of their
honor. Besides, Tellus, though keeping his post and fighting like a
valiant soldier, was yet slain by his enemies; but Poplicola, the better
fortune, slew his, and saw his country victorious under his command.
And his honors and triumphs brought him, which was Solon's ambition, to
a happy end; the ejaculation which, in his verses against Mimnermus
about the continuance of man's life, he himself made,

Mourned let me die; and may I, when life ends,
Occasion sighs and sorrows to my friends,

is evidence to Poplicola's happiness; his death did not only draw tears
from his friends and acquaintance, but was the object of universal
regret and sorrow through the whole city; the women deplored his loss as
that of a son, brother, or common father. "Wealth I would have," said
Solon, "but wealth by wrong procure would not," because punishment would
follow. But Poplicola's riches were not only justly his, but he spent
them nobly in doing good to the distressed. So that if Solon was
reputed the wisest man, we must allow Poplicola to be the happiest; for
what Solon wished for as the greatest and most perfect good, this
Poplicola had, and used and enjoyed to his death.

And as Solon may thus be said to have contributed to Poplicola's glory,
so did also Poplicola to his, by his choice of him as his model in the
formation of republican institutions; in reducing, for example, the
excessive powers and assumption of the consulship. Several of his laws,
indeed, he actually transferred to Rome, as his empowering the people to
elect their officers, and allowing offenders the liberty of appealing to
the people, as Solon did to the jurors. He did not, indeed, create a
new senate, as Solon did, but augmented the old to almost double its
number. The appointment of treasurers again, the quaestors, has a like
origin; with the intent that the chief magistrate should not, if of good
character, be withdrawn from greater matters; or, if bad, have the
greater temptation to injustice, by holding both the government and
treasury in his hands. The aversion to tyranny was stronger in
Poplicola; any one who attempted usurpation could, by Solon's law, only
be punished upon conviction; but Poplicola made it death before a trial.
And though Solon justly gloried, that, when arbitrary power was
absolutely offered to him by circumstances, and when his countrymen
would have willingly seen him accept it, he yet declined it; still
Poplicola merited no less, who, receiving a despotic command, converted
it to a popular office, and did not employ the whole legal power which
he held. We must allow, indeed, that Solon was before Poplicola in
observing that

A people always minds its rulers best
When it is neither humored nor oppressed.

The remission of debts was peculiar to Solon; it was his great means for
confirming the citizens' liberty; for a mere law to give all men equal
rights is but useless, if the poor must sacrifice those rights to their
debts, and, in the very seats and sanctuaries of equality, the courts of
justice, the offices of state, and the public discussions, be more than
anywhere at the beck and bidding of the rich. A yet more extraordinary
success was, that, although usually civil violence is caused by any
remission of debts, upon this one occasion this dangerous but powerful
remedy actually put an end to civil violence already existing, Solon's
own private worth and reputation overbalancing all the ordinary ill-
repute and discredit of the change. The beginning of his government was
more glorious, for he was entirely original, and followed no man's
example, and, without the aid of any ally, achieved his most important
measures by his own conduct; yet the close of Poplicola's life was more
happy and desirable, for Solon saw the dissolution of his own
commonwealth, Poplicola's maintained the state in good order down to the
civil wars. Solon, leaving his laws, as soon as he had made them,
engraven in wood, but destitute of a defender, departed from Athens;
whilst Poplicola, remaining, both in and out of office, labored to
establish the government Solon, though he actually knew of Pisistratus's
ambition, yet was not able to suppress it, but had to yield to
usurpation in its infancy; whereas Poplicola utterly subverted and
dissolved a potent monarchy, strongly settled by long continuance;
uniting thus to virtues equal to those, and purposes identical with
those of Solon, the good fortune and the power that alone could make
them effective.

In military exploits, Daimachus of Plataea will not even allow Solon the
conduct of the war against the Megarians, as was before intimated; but
Poplicola was victorious in the most important conflicts, both as a
private soldier and commander. In domestic politics, also, Solon, in
play, as it were, and by counterfeiting madness, induced the enterprise
against Salamis; whereas Poplicola, in the very beginning, exposed
himself to the greatest risk, took arms against Tarquin, detected the
conspiracy, and, being principally concerned both in preventing the
escape of and afterwards punishing the traitors, not only expelled the
tyrants from the city, but extirpated their very hopes. And as, in
cases calling for contest and resistance and manful opposition, he
behaved with courage and resolution, so, in instances where peaceable
language, persuasion, and concession were requisite, he was yet more to
be commended; and succeeded in gaining happily to reconciliation and
friendship, Porsenna, a terrible and invincible enemy. Some may,
perhaps, object, that Solon recovered Salamis, which they had lost, for
the Athenians; whereas Poplicola receded from part of what the Romans
were at that time possessed of; but judgment is to be made of actions
according to the times in which they were performed. The conduct of a
wise politician is ever suited to the present posture of affairs; often
by foregoing a part he saves the whole, and by yielding in a small
matter secures a greater; and so Poplicola, by restoring what the Romans
had lately usurped, saved their undoubted patrimony, and procured,
moreover, the stores of the enemy for those who were only too thankful
to secure their city. Permitting the decision of the controversy to his
adversary, he not only got the victory, but likewise what he himself
would willingly have given to purchase the victory, Porsenna putting an
end to the war, and leaving them all the provision of his camp, from the
sense of the virtue and gallant disposition of the Romans which their
consul had impressed upon him.


The birth of Themistocles was somewhat too obscure to do him honor. His
father, Neocles, was not of the distinguished people of Athens, but of
the township of Phrearrhi, and of the tribe Leontis; and by his mother's
side, as it is reported, he was base-born.

I am not of the noble Grecian race,
I'm poor Abrotonon, and born in Thrace;
Let the Greek women scorn me, if they please,
I was the mother of Themistocles.

Yet Phanias writes that the mother of Themistocles was not of Thrace,
but of Caria, and that her name was not Abrotonon, but Euterpe; and
Neanthes adds farther that she was of Halicarnassus in Caria. And, as
illegitimate children, including those that were of the half-blood or
had but one parent an Athenian, had to attend at the Cynosarges (a
wrestling-place outside the gates, dedicated to Hercules, who was also
of half-blood amongst the gods, having had a mortal woman for his
mother), Themistocles persuaded several of the young men of high birth
to accompany him to anoint and exercise themselves together at
Cynosarges; an ingenious device for destroying the distinction between
the noble and the base-born, and between those of the whole and those of
the half blood of Athens. However, it is certain that he was related to
the house of the Lycomedae; for Simonides records, that he rebuilt the
chapel of Phlya, belonging to that family, and beautified it with
pictures and other ornaments, after it had been burnt by the Persians.

It is confessed by all that from his youth he was of a vehement and
impetuous nature, of a quick apprehension, and a strong and aspiring
bent for action and great affairs. The holidays and intervals in his
studies he did not spend in play or idleness, as other children, but
would be always inventing or arranging some oration or declamation to
himself, the subject of which was generally the excusing or accusing his
companions, so that his master would often say to him, "You, my boy,
will be nothing small, but great one way or other, for good or else for
bad." He received reluctantly and carelessly instructions given him to
improve his manners and behavior, or to teach him any pleasing or
graceful accomplishment, but whatever was said to improve him in
sagacity, or in management of affairs, he would give attention to,
beyond one of his years, from confidence in his natural capacities for
such things. And thus afterwards, when in company where people engaged
themselves in what are commonly thought the liberal and elegant
amusements, he was obliged to defend himself against the observations of
those who considered themselves highly accomplished, by the somewhat
arrogant retort, that he certainly could not make use of any stringed
instrument, could only, were a small and obscure city put into his
hands, make it great and glorious. Notwithstanding this, Stesimbrotus
says that Themistocles was a hearer of Anaxagoras, and that he studied
natural philosophy under Melissus, contrary to chronology; for Melissus
commanded the Samians in their siege by Pericles, who was much
Themistocles's junior; and with Pericles, also, Anaxagoras was intimate.
They, therefore, might rather be credited, who report, that Themistocles
was an admirer of Mnesiphilus the Phrearrhian, who was neither
rhetorician nor natural philosopher, but a professor of that which was
then called wisdom, consisting in a sort of political shrewdness and
practical sagacity, which had begun and continued, almost like a sect of
philosophy, from Solon; but those who came afterwards, and mixed it with
pleadings and legal artifices, and transformed the practical part of it
into a mere art of speaking and an exercise of words, were generally
called sophists. Themistocles resorted to Mnesiphilus when he had
already embarked in politics.

In the first essays of his youth he was not regular nor happily
balanced; he allowed himself to follow mere natural character, which,
without the control of reason and instruction, is apt to hurry, upon
either side, into sudden and violent courses, and very often to break
away and determine upon the worst; as he afterwards owned himself,
saying, that the wildest colts make the best horses, if they only get
properly trained and broken in. But those who upon this fasten stories
of their own invention, as of his being disowned by his father, and that
his mother died for grief of her son's ill fame, certainly calumniate
him; and there are others who relate, on the contrary, how that to deter
him from public business, and to let him see how the vulgar behave
themselves towards their leaders when they have at last no farther use
of them, his father showed him the old galleys as they lay forsaken and
cast about upon the sea-shore.

Yet it is evident that his mind was early imbued with the keenest
interest in public affairs, and the most passionate ambition for
distinction. Eager from the first to obtain the highest place, he
unhesitatingly accepted the hatred of the most powerful and influential
leaders in the city, but more especially of Aristides, the son of
Lysimachus, who always opposed him. And yet all this great enmity
between them arose, it appears, from a very boyish occasion, both being
attached to the beautiful Stesilaus of Ceos, as Ariston the philosopher
tells us; ever after which, they took opposite sides, and were rivals in
politics. Not but that the incompatibility of their lives and manners
may seem to have increased the difference, for Aristides was of a mild
nature, and of a nobler sort of character, and, in public matters,
acting always with a view, not to glory or popularity, but to the best
interests of the state consistently with safety and honesty, he was
often forced to oppose Themistocles, and interfere against the increase
of his influence, seeing him stirring up the people to all kinds of
enterprises, and introducing various innovations. For it is said that
Themistocles was so transported with the thoughts of glory, and so
inflamed with the passion for great actions, that, though he was still
young when the battle of Marathon was fought against the Persians, upon
the skillful conduct of the general, Miltiades, being everywhere talked
about, he was observed to be thoughtful, and reserved, alone by him
self; he passed the nights without sleep, and avoided all his usual
places of recreation, and to those who wondered at the change, and
inquired the reason of it, he gave the answer, that "the trophy of
Miltiades would not let him sleep." And when others were of opinion
that the battle of Marathon would be an end to the war, Themistocles
thought that it was but the beginning of far greater conflicts, and for
these, to the benefit of all Greece, he kept himself in continual
readiness, and his city also in proper training, foreseeing from far
before what would happen.

And, first of all, the Athenians being accustomed to divide amongst
themselves the revenue proceeding from the silver mines at Laurium, he
was the only man that dared propose to the people that this distribution
should cease, and that with the money ships should be built to make war
against the Aeginetans, who were the most flourishing people in all
Greece, and by the number of their ships held the sovereignty of the
sea; and Themistocles thus was more easily able to persuade them,
avoiding all mention of danger from Darius or the Persians, who were at
a great distance, and their coming very uncertain, and at that time not
much to be feared; but, by a seasonable employment of the emulation and
anger felt by the Athenians against the Aeginetans, he induced them to
preparation. So that with this money a hundred ships were built, with
which they afterwards fought against Xerxes. And, henceforward, little
by little, turning and drawing the city down towards the sea, in the
belief, that, whereas by land they were not a fit match for their next
neighbors, with their ships they might be able to repel the Persians and
command Greece, thus, as Plato says, from steady soldiers he turned them
into mariners and seamen tossed about the sea, and gave occasion for the
reproach against him, that he took away from the Athenians the spear and
the shield, and bound them to the bench and the oar. These measures he
carried in the assembly, against the opposition, as Stesimbrotus
relates, of Miltiades; and whether or no he hereby injured the purity
and true balance of government, may be a question for philosophers, but
that the deliverance of Greece came at that time from the sea, and that
these galleys restored Athens again after it was destroyed, were others
wanting, Xerxes himself would be sufficient evidence, who, though his
land-forces were still entire, after his defeat at sea, fled away, and
thought himself no longer able to encounter the Greeks; and, as it seems
to me, left Mardonius behind him, not out of any hopes he could have to
bring them into subjection, but to hinder them from pursuing him.

Themistocles is said to have been eager in the acquisition of riches,
according to some, that he might be the more liberal; for loving to
sacrifice often, and to be splendid in his entertainment of strangers,
he required a plentiful revenue; yet he is accused by others of having
been parsimonious and sordid to that degree that he would sell
provisions which were sent to him as a present. He desired Diphilides,
who was a breeder of horses, to give him a colt, and when he refused it,
threatened that in a short time he would turn his house into a wooden
horse, intimating that he would stir up dispute and litigation between
him and some of his relations.

He went beyond all men in the passion for distinction. When he was
still young and unknown in the world, he entreated Epicles of Hermione,
who had a good hand at the lute and was much sought after by the
Athenians, to come and practice at home with him, being ambitious of
having people inquire after his house and frequent his company. When he
came to the Olympic games, and was so splendid in his equipage and
entertainments, in his rich tents and furniture, that he strove to outdo
Cimon, he displeased the Greeks, who thought that such magnificence
might be allowed in one who was a young man and of a great family but
was a great piece of insolence in one as yet undistinguished, and
without title or means for making any such display. In a dramatic
contest, the play he paid for won the prize, which was then a matter
that excited much emulation; he put up a tablet in record of it, with
the inscription, "Themistocles of Phrearrhi was at the charge of it;
Phrynichus made it; Adimantus was archon." He was well liked by the
common people, would salute every particular citizen by his own name,
and always show himself a just judge in questions of business between
private men; he said to Simonides, the poet of Ceos, who desired
something of him, when he was commander of the army, that was not
reasonable, "Simonides, you would be no good poet if you wrote false
measure, nor should I be a good magistrate if for favor I made false
law." And at another time, laughing at Simonides, he said, that he was
a man of little judgment to speak against the Corinthians, who were
inhabitants of a great city, and to have his own picture drawn so often,
having so ill-looking a face.

Gradually growing to be great, and winning the favor of the people, he
at last gained the day with his faction over that of Aristides, and
procured his banishment by ostracism. When the king of Persia was now
advancing against Greece, and the Athenians were in consultation who
should be general, and many withdrew themselves of their own accord,
being terrified with the greatness of the danger, there was one
Epicydes, a popular speaker, son to Euphemides, a man of an eloquent
tongue, but of a faint heart, and a slave to riches, who was desirous of
the command, and was looked upon to be in a fair way to carry it by the
number of votes; but Themistocles, fearing that, if the command should
fall into such hands, all would be lost, bought off Epicydes and his
pretensions, it is said, for a sum of money.

When the king of Persia sent messengers into Greece, with an
interpreter, to demand earth and water, as an acknowledgment of
subjection, Themistocles, by the consent of the people, seized upon the
interpreter, and put him to death, for presuming to publish the
barbarian orders and decrees in the Greek language; this is one of the
actions he is commended for, as also for what he did to Arthmius of
Zelea, who brought gold from the king of Persia to corrupt the Greeks,
and was, by an order from Themistocles, degraded and disfranchised, he
and his children and his posterity; but that which most of all redounded
to his credit was, that he put an end to all the civil wars of Greece,
composed their differences, and persuaded them to lay aside all enmity
during the war with the Persians; and in this great work, Chileus the
Arcadian was, it is said, of great assistance to him.

Having taken upon himself the command of the Athenian forces, he
immediately endeavored to persuade the citizens to leave the city, and
to embark upon their galleys, and meet with the Persians at a great
distance from Greece; but many being against this, he led a large force,
together with the Lacedaemonians, into Tempe, that in this pass they
might maintain the safety of Thessaly, which had not as yet declared for
the king; but when they returned without performing anything; and it
was known that not only the Thessalians, but all as far as Boeotia, was
going over to Xerxes, then the Athenians more willingly hearkened to the
advice of Themistocles to fight by sea, and sent him with a fleet to
guard the straits of Artemisium.

When the contingents met here, the Greeks would have the Lacedaemonians
to command, and Eurybiades to be their admiral; but the Athenians, who
surpassed all the rest together in number of vessels, would not submit
to come after any other, till Themistocles, perceiving the danger of
this contest, yielded his own command to Eurybiades, and got the
Athenians to submit, extenuating the loss by persuading them, that if in
this war they behaved themselves like men, he would answer for it after
that, that the Greeks, of their own will, would submit to their command.
And by this moderation of his, it is evident that he was the chief means
of the deliverance of Greece, and gained the Athenians the glory of
alike surpassing their enemies in valor, and their confederates in

As soon as the Persian armada arrived at Aphetae, Eurybiades was
astonished to see such a vast number of vessels before him, and, being
informed that two hundred more were sailing round behind the island of
Sciathus, he immediately determined to retire farther into Greece, and
to sail back into some part of Peloponnesus, where their land army and
their fleet might join, for he looked upon the Persian forces to be
altogether unassailable by sea. But the Euboeans, fearing that the
Greeks would forsake them, and leave them to the mercy of the enemy,
sent Pelagon to confer privately with Themistocles, taking with him a
good sum of money, which, as Herodotus reports, he accepted and gave to
Eurybiades. In this affair none of his own countrymen opposed him so
much as Architeles, captain of the sacred galley, who, having no money
to supply his seamen, was eager to go home; but Themistocles so incensed
the Athenians against him, that they set upon him and left him not so
much as his supper, at which Architeles was much surprised, and took it
very ill; but Themistocles immediately sent him in a chest a service of
provisions, and at the bottom of it a talent of silver, desiring him to
sup tonight, and tomorrow provide for his seamen; if not, he would
report it amongst the Athenians that he had received money from the
enemy. So Phanias the Lesbian tells the story.

Though the fights between the Greeks and Persians in the straits of
Euboea were not so important as to make any final decision of the war,
yet the experience which the Greeks obtained in them was of great
advantage, for thus, by actual trial and in real danger, they found out
that neither number of ships, nor riches and ornaments, nor boasting
shouts, nor barbarous songs of victory, were any way terrible to men
that knew how to fight, and were resolved to come hand to hand with
their enemies; these things they were to despise, and to come up close
and grapple with their foes. This, Pindar appears to have seen, and
says justly enough of the fight at Artemisium, that

There the sons of Athens set
The stone that freedom stands on yet.

For the first step towards victory undoubtedly is to gain courage.
Artemisium is in Euboea, beyond the city of Histiaea, a sea-beach open
to the north; most nearly opposite to it stands Olizon, in the country
which formerly was under Philoctetes; there is a small temple there,
dedicated to Diana, surnamed of the Dawn, and trees about it, around
which again stand pillars of white marble; and if you rub them with your
hand, they send forth both the smell and color of saffron. On one of
the pillars these verses are engraved,--

With numerous tribes from Asia's regions brought
The sons of Athens on these waters, fought;
Erecting, after they had quelled the Mede,
To Artemis this record of the deed.

There is a place still to be seen upon this shore, where, in the middle
of a great heap of sand, they take out from the bottom a dark powder
like ashes, or something that has passed the fire; and here, it is
supposed, the shipwrecks and bodies of the dead were burnt.

But when news came from Thermopylae to Artemisium, informing them that
king Leonidas was slain, and that Xerxes had made himself master of all
the passages by land, they returned back to the interior of Greece, the
Athenians having the command of the rear, the place of honor and danger,
and much elated by what had been done.

As Themistocles sailed along the coast, he took notice of the harbors
and fit places for the enemies' ships to come to land at, and engraved
large letters in such stones as he found there by chance, as also in
others which he set up on purpose near to the landing-places, or where
they were to water; in which inscriptions he called upon the Ionians to
forsake the Medes, if it were possible, and come over to the Greeks, who
were their proper founders and fathers, and were now hazarding all for
their liberties; but, if this could not be done, at any rate to impede
and disturb the Persians in all engagements. He hoped that these
writings would prevail with the Ionians to revolt, or raise some trouble
by making their fidelity doubtful to the Persians.

Now, though Xerxes had already passed through Doris and invaded the
country of Phocis, and was burning and destroying the cities of the
Phocians, yet the Greeks sent them no relief; and, though the Athenians
earnestly desired them to meet the Persians in Boeotia, before they
could come into Attica, as they themselves had come forward by sea at
Artemisium, they gave no ear to their request, being wholly intent upon
Peloponnesus, and resolved to gather all their forces together within
the Isthmus, and to build a wall from sea to sea in that narrow neck of
land; so that the Athenians were enraged to see themselves betrayed, and
at the same time afflicted and dejected at their own destitution. For
to fight alone against such a numerous army was to no purpose, and the
only expedient now left them was to leave their city and cling to their
ships; which the people were very unwilling to submit to, imagining that
it would signify little now to gain a victory, and not understanding how
there could be deliverance any longer after they had once forsaken the
temples of their gods and exposed the tombs and monuments of their
ancestors to the fury of their enemies.

Themistocles, being at a loss, and not able to draw the people over to
his opinion by any human reason, set his machines to work, as in a
theater, and employed prodigies and oracles. The serpent of Minerva,
kept in the inner part of her temple, disappeared; the priests gave it
out to the people that the offerings which were set for it were found
untouched, and declared, by the suggestion of Themistocles, that the
goddess had left the city, and taken her flight before them towards the
sea. And he often urged them with the oracle which bade them trust to
walls of wood, showing them that walls of wood could signify nothing
else but ships; and that the island of Salamis was termed in it, not
miserable or unhappy, but had the epithet of divine, for that it should
one day be associated with a great good fortune of the Greeks. At
length his opinion prevailed, and he obtained a decree that the city
should be committed to the protection of Minerva, "queen of Athens;"
that they who were of age to bear arms should embark, and that each
should see to sending away his children, women, and slaves where he
could. This decree being confirmed, most of the Athenians removed their
parents, wives, and children to Troezen, where they were received with
eager good-will by the Troezenians, who passed a vote that they should
be maintained at the public charge, by a daily payment of two obols to
every one, and leave be given to the children to gather fruit where they
pleased, and schoolmasters paid to instruct them. This vote was
proposed by Nicagoras.

There was no public treasure at that time in Athens; but the council of
Areopagus, as Aristotle says, distributed to every one that served,
eight drachmas, which was a great help to the manning of the fleet; but
Clidemus ascribes this also to the art of Themistocles. When the
Athenians were on their way down to the haven of Piraeus, the shield
with the head of Medusa was missing; and he, under the pretext of
searching for it, ransacked all places, and found among their goods
considerable sums of money concealed, which he applied to the public
use; and with this the soldiers and seamen were well provided for their

When the whole city of Athens were going on board, it afforded a
spectacle worthy of pity alike and admiration, to see them thus send
away their fathers and children before them, and, unmoved with their
cries and tears, pass over into the island. But that which stirred
compassion most of all was, that many old men, by reason of their
great age, were left behind; and even the tame domestic animals could
not be seen without some pity, running about the town and howling, as
desirous to be carried along with their masters that had kept them;
among which it is reported that Xanthippus, the father of Pericles, had
a dog that would not endure to stay behind, but leaped into the sea, and
swam along by the galley's side till he came to the island of Salamis,
where he fainted away and died, and that spot in the island, which is
still called the Dog's Grave, is said to be his.

Among the great actions of Themistocles at this crisis, the recall of
Aristides was not the least, for, before the war, he had been ostracized
by the party which Themistocles headed, and was in banishment; but now,
perceiving that the people regretted his absence, and were fearful that
he might go over to the Persians to revenge himself, and thereby ruin
the affairs of Greece, Themistocles proposed a decree that those who
were banished for a time might return again, to give assistance by word
and deed to the cause of Greece with the rest of their fellow-citizens.

Eurybiades, by reason of the greatness of Sparta, was admiral of the
Greek fleet, but yet was faint-hearted in time of danger, and willing to
weigh anchor and set sail for the isthmus of Corinth, near which the
land army lay encamped; which Themistocles resisted; and this was the
occasion of the well-known words, when Eurybiades, to check his
impatience, told him that at the Olympic games they that start up before
the rest are lashed; "And they," replied Themistocles, "that are left
behind are not crowned." Again, Eurybiades lifting up his staff as if
he were going to strike, Themistocles said, "Strike if you will, but
hear;" Eurybiades, wondering much at his moderation, desired him to
speak, and Themistocles now brought him to a better understanding. And
when one who stood by him told him that it did not become those who had
neither city nor house to lose, to persuade others to relinquish their
habitations and forsake their countries, Themistocles gave this reply:
"We have indeed left our houses and our walls, base fellow, not thinking
it fit to become slaves for the sake of things that have no life nor
soul; and yet our city is the greatest of all Greece, consisting of two
hundred galleys, which are here to defend you, if you please; but if you
run away and betray us, as you did once before, the Greeks shall soon
hear news of the Athenians possessing as fair a country, and as large
and free a city, as that they have lost." These expressions of
Themistocles made Eurybiades suspect that if he retreated the Athenians
would fall off from him. When one of Eretria began to oppose him, he
said, "Have you anything to say of war, that are like an ink-fish? you
have a sword, but no heart." Some say that while Themistocles was
thus speaking things upon the deck, an owl was seen flying to the right
hand of the fleet, which came and sat upon the top of the mast; and
this happy omen so far disposed the Greeks to follow his advice, that
they presently prepared to fight. Yet, when the enemy's fleet was
arrived at the haven of Phalerum, upon the coast of Attica, and with the
number of their ships concealed all the shore, and when they saw the
king himself in person come down with his land army to the seaside, with
all his forces united, then the good counsel of Themistocles was soon
forgotten, and the Peloponnesians cast their eyes again towards the
isthmus, and took it very ill if any one spoke against their returning
home; and, resolving to depart that night, the pilots had order what
course to steer.
The Teuthis, loligo, or cuttlefish, is said to have a bone or
cartilage shaped like a sword, and was conceived to have no heart.

Themistocles, in great distress that the Greeks should retire, and lose
the advantage of the narrow seas and strait passage, and slip home every
one to his own city, considered with himself, and contrived that
stratagem that was carried out by Sicinnus. This Sicinnus was a Persian
captive, but a great lover of Themistocles, and the attendant of his
children. Upon this occasion, he sent him privately to Xerxes,
commanding him to tell the king, that Themistocles, the admiral of the
Athenians, having espoused his interest, wished to be the first to
inform him that the Greeks were ready to make their escape, and that he
counseled him to hinder their flight, to set upon them while they were
in this confusion and at a distance from their land army, and hereby
destroy all their forces by sea. Xerxes was very joyful at this
message, and received it as from one who wished him all that was good,
and immediately issued instructions to the commanders of his ships, that
they should instantly Yet out with two hundred galleys to encompass all
the islands, and enclose all the straits and passages, that none of the
Greeks might escape, and that they should afterwards follow with the
rest of their fleet at leisure. This being done, Aristides, the son of
Lysimachus, was the first man that perceived it, and went to the tent of
Themistocles, not out of any friendship, for he had been formerly
banished by his means, as has been related, but to inform him how they
were encompassed by their enemies. Themistocles, knowing the generosity
of Aristides, and much struck by his visit at that time, imparted to him
all that he had transacted by Sicinnus, and entreated him, that, as he
would be more readily believed among the Greeks, he would make use of
his credit to help to induce them to stay and fight their enemies in the
narrow seas. Aristides applauded Themistocles, and went to the other
commanders and captains of the galleys, and encouraged them to engage;
yet they did not perfectly assent to him, till a galley of Tenos, which
deserted from the Persians, of which Panaetius was commander, came in,
while they were still doubting, and confirmed the news that all the
straits and passages were beset; and then their rage and fury, as well
as their necessity; provoked them all to fight.

As soon as it was day, Xerxes placed himself high up, to view his fleet,
and how it was set in order. Phanodemus says, he sat upon a promontory
above the temple of Hercules, where the coast of Attica is separated
from the island by a narrow channel; but Acestodorus writes, that it was
in the confines of Megara, upon those hills which are called the Horns,
where he sat in a chair of gold, with many secretaries about him to
write down all that was done in the fight.

When Themistocles was about to sacrifice, close to the admiral's galley,
there were three prisoners brought to him, fine looking men, and richly
dressed in ornamented clothing and gold, said to be the children of
Artayctes and Sandauce, sister to Xerxes. As soon as the prophet
Euphrantides saw them, and observed that at the same time the fire
blazed out from the offerings with a more than ordinary flame, and that
a man sneezed on the right, which was an intimation of a fortunate
event, he took Themistocles by the hand, and bade him consecrate the
three young men for sacrifice, and offer them up with prayers for
victory to Bacchus the Devourer: so should the Greeks not only save
themselves, but also obtain victory. Themistocles was much disturbed at
this strange and terrible prophecy, but the common people, who, in any
difficult crisis and great exigency, ever look for relief rather to
strange and extravagant than to reasonable means, calling upon Bacchus
with one voice, led the captives to the altar, and compelled the
execution of the sacrifice as the prophet had commanded. This is
reported by Phanias the Lesbian, a philosopher well read in history.

The number of the enemy's ships the poet Aeschylus gives in his tragedy
called the Persians, as on his certain knowledge, in the following

Xerxes, I know, did into battle lead
One thousand ships; of more than usual speed
Seven and two hundred. So is it agreed.

The Athenians had a hundred and eighty; in every ship eighteen men
fought upon the deck, four of whom were archers and the rest men-at-

As Themistocles had fixed upon the most advantageous place, so, with no
less sagacity, he chose the best time of fighting; for he would not run
the prows of his galleys against the Persians, nor begin the fight till
the time of day was come, when there regularly blows in a fresh breeze
from the open sea, and brings in with it a strong swell into the
channel; which was no inconvenience to the Greek ships, which were low-
built, and little above the water, but did much hurt to the Persians,
which had high sterns and lofty decks, and were heavy and cumbrous in
their movements, as it presented them broadside to the quick charges of
the Greeks, who kept their eyes upon the motions of Themistocles, as
their best example, and more particularly because, opposed to his ship,
Ariamenes, admiral to Xerxes, a brave man, and by far the best and
worthiest of the king's brothers, was seen throwing darts and shooting
arrows from his huge galley, as from the walls of a castle. Aminias the
Decelean and Sosicles the Pedian, who sailed in the same vessel, upon
the ships meeting stem to stem, and transfixing each the other with
their brazen prows, so that they were fastened together, when Ariamenes
attempted to board theirs, ran at him with their pikes, and thrust him
into the sea; his body, as it floated amongst other shipwrecks, was
known to Artemisia, and carried to Xerxes.

It is reported, that, in the middle of the fight, a great flame rose
into the air above the city of Eleusis, and that sounds and voices were
heard through all the Thriasian plain, as far as the sea, sounding like
a number of men accompanying and escorting the mystic Iacchus, and that
a mist seemed to form and rise from the place from whence the sounds
came, and, passing forward, fell upon the galleys. Others believed that
they saw apparitions, in the shape of armed men, reaching out their
hands from the island of Aegina before the Grecian galleys; and supposed
they were the Aeacidae, whom they had invoked to their aid before the
battle. The first man that took a ship was Lycomedes the Athenian,
captain of a galley, who cut down its ensign, and dedicated it to Apollo
the Laurel-crowned. And as the Persians fought in a narrow arm of the
sea, and could bring but part of their fleet to fight, and fell foul of
one another, the Greeks thus equaled them in strength, and fought with
them till the evening, forced them back, and obtained, as says
Simonides, that noble and famous victory, than which neither amongst the
Greeks nor barbarians was ever known more glorious exploit on the seas;
by the joint valor, indeed, and zeal of all who fought, but by the
wisdom and sagacity of Themistocles.

After this sea-fight, Xerxes, enraged at his ill-fortune, attempted, by
casting great heaps of earth and stones into the sea, to stop up the
channel and to make a dam, upon which he might lead his land-forces over
into the island of Salamis.

Themistocles, being desirous to try the opinion of Aristides, told him
that he proposed to set sail for the Hellespont, to break the bridge of
ships, so as to shut up, he said, Asia a prisoner within Europe; but
Aristides, disliking the design, said, "We have hitherto fought with an
enemy who has regarded little else but his pleasure and luxury; but if
we shut him up within Greece, and drive him to necessity, he that is
master of such great forces will no longer sit quietly with an umbrella
of gold over his head, looking upon the fight for his pleasure; but in
such a strait will attempt all things; he will be resolute, and appear
himself in person upon all occasions, he will soon correct his errors,
and supply what he has formerly omitted through remissness, and will be
better advised in all things. Therefore, it is noways our interest,
Themistocles," he said, "to take away the bridge that is already made,
but rather to build another, if it were possible, that he might make his
retreat with the more expedition." To which Themistocles answered, "If
this be requisite, we must immediately use all diligence, art, and
industry, to rid ourselves of him as soon as may be;" and to this
purpose he found out among the captives one of the king Of Persia's
eunuchs, named Arnaces, whom he sent to the king, to inform him that the
Greeks, being now victorious by sea, had decreed to sail to the
Hellespont, where the boats were fastened together, and destroy the
bridge; but that Themistocles, being concerned for the king, revealed
this to him, that he might hasten towards the Asiatic seas, and pass
over into his own dominions; and in the mean time would cause delays,
and hinder the confederates from pursuing him. Xerxes no sooner heard
this, but, being very much terrified, he proceeded to retreat out of
Greece with all speed. The prudence of Themistocles and Aristides in
this was afterwards more fully understood at the battle of Plataea,
where Mardonius, with a very small fraction of the forces of Xerxes, put
the Greeks in danger of losing all.

Herodotus writes, that, of all the cities of Greece, Aegina was held to
have performed the best service in the war; while all single men yielded
to Themistocles, though, out of envy, unwillingly; and when they
returned to the entrance of Peloponnesus, where the several commanders
delivered their suffrages at the altar, to determine who was most
worthy, every one gave the first vote for himself and the second for
Themistocles. The Lacedaemonians carried him with them to Sparta,
where, giving the rewards of valor to Eurybiades, and of wisdom and
conduct to Themistocles, they crowned him with olive, presented him with
the best chariot in the city, and sent three hundred young men to
accompany him to the confines of their country. And at the next Olympic
games, when Themistocles entered the course, the spectators took no
farther notice of those who were contesting the prizes, but spent the
whole day in looking upon him, showing him to the strangers, admiring
him, and applauding him by clapping their hands, and other expressions
of joy, so that he himself, much gratified, confessed to his friends
that he then reaped the fruit of all his labors for the Greeks.

He was, indeed, by nature, a great lover of honor, as is evident from
the anecdotes recorded of him. When chosen admiral by the Athenians, he
would not quite conclude any single matter of business, either public or
private, but deferred all till the day they were to set sail, that, by
dispatching a great quantity of business all at once, and having to meet
a great variety of people, he might make an appearance of greatness and
power. Viewing the dead bodies cast up by the sea, he perceived
bracelets and necklaces of gold about them, yet passed on, only showing
them to a friend that followed him, saying, "Take you these things, for
you are not Themistocles." He said to Antiphates, a handsome young man,
who had formerly avoided, but now in his glory courted him, "Time, young
man, has taught us both a lesson." He said that the Athenians did not
honor him or admire him, but made, as it were, a sort of plane-tree of
him; sheltered themselves under him in bad weather, and, as soon as it
was fine, plucked his leaves and cut his branches. When the Seriphian
told him that he had not obtained this honor by himself, but by the
greatness of his city, he replied, "You speak truth; I should never have
been famous if I had been of Seriphus; nor you, had you been of Athens."
When another of the generals, who thought he had performed considerable
service for the Athenians, boastingly compared his actions with those of
Themistocles, he told him that once upon a time the Day after the
Festival found fault with the Festival: "On you there is nothing but
hurry and trouble and preparation, but, when I come, everybody sits down
quietly and enjoys himself;" which the Festival admitted was true, but
"if I had not come first, you would not have come at all." "Even so,"
he said, "if Themistocles had not come before, where had you been now?"
Laughing at his own son, who got his mother, and, by his mother's means,
his father also, to indulge him, he told him that he had the most power
of any one in Greece: "For the Athenians command the rest of Greece, I
command the Athenians, your mother commands me, and you command your
mother." Loving to be singular in all things, when he had land to sell,
he ordered the crier to give notice that there were good neighbors near
it. Of two who made love to his daughter, he preferred the man of worth
to the one who was rich, saying he desired a man without riches, rather
than riches without a man. Such was the character of his sayings.

After these things, he began to rebuild and fortify the city of Athens,
bribing, as Theopompus reports, the Lacedaemonian ephors not to be
against it, but, as most relate it, overreaching and deceiving them.
For, under pretest of an embassy, he went to Sparta, where, upon the
Lacedaemonians charging him with rebuilding the walls, and Poliarchus
coming on purpose from Aegina to denounce it, he denied the fact,
bidding them to send people to Athens to see whether it were so or no;
by which delay he got time for the building of the wall, and also placed
these ambassadors in the hands of his countrymen as hostages for him;
and so, when the Lacedaemonians knew the truth, they did him no hurt,
but, suppressing all display of their anger for the present, sent him

Next he proceeded to establish the harbor of Piraeus, observing the
great natural advantages of the locality and desirous to unite the whole
city with the sea, and to reverse, in a manner, the policy of ancient
Athenian kings, who, endeavoring to withdraw their subjects from the
sea, and to accustom them to live, not by sailing about, but by planting
and tilling the earth, spread the story of the dispute between Minerva
and Neptune for the sovereignty of Athens, in which Minerva, by
producing to the judges an olive tree, was declared to have won; whereas
Themistocles did not only knead up, as Aristophanes says, the port and
the city into one, but made the city absolutely the dependent and the
adjunct of the port, and the land of the sea, which increased the power
and confidence of the people against the nobility; the authority coming
into the hands of sailors and boatswains and pilots. Thus it was one of
the orders of the thirty tyrants, that the hustings in the assembly,
which had faced towards the sea, should be turned round towards the
land; implying their opinion that the empire by sea had been the origin
of the democracy, and that the farming population were not so much
opposed to oligarchy.

Themistocles, however, formed yet higher designs with a view to naval
supremacy. For, after the departure of Xerxes, when the Grecian fleet
was arrived at Pagasae, where they wintered, Themistocles, in a public
oration to the people of Athens, told them that he had a design to
perform something that would tend greatly to their interests and safety,
but was of such a nature, that it could not be made generally public.
The Athenians ordered him to impart it to Aristides only; and, if he
approved of it, to put it in practice. And when Themistocles had
discovered to him that his design was to burn the Grecian fleet in the
haven of Pagasae, Aristides, coming out to the people, gave this report
of the stratagem contrived by Themistocles, that no proposal could be
more politic, or more dishonorable; on which the Athenians commanded
Themistocles to think no farther of it.

When the Lacedaemonians proposed, at the general council of the
Amphictyonians, that the representatives of those cities which were not
in the league, nor had fought against the Persians, should be excluded,
Themistocles, fearing that the Thessalians, with those of Thebes,
Argos, and others, being thrown out of the council, the Lacedaemonians
would become wholly masters of the votes, and do what they pleased,
supported the deputies of the cities, and prevailed with the members
then sitting to alter their opinion in this point, showing them that
there were but one and thirty cities which had partaken in the war, and
that most of these, also, were very small; how intolerable would it be,
if the rest of Greece should be excluded, and the general council should
come to be ruled by two or three great cities. By this, chiefly, he
incurred the displeasure of the Lacedaemonians, whose honors and favors
were now shown to Cimon, with a view to making him the opponent of the
state policy of Themistocles.

He was also burdensome to the confederates, sailing about the islands
and collecting money from them. Herodotus says, that, requiring money
of those of the island of Andros, he told them that he had brought with
him two goddesses, Persuasion and Force; and they answered him that they
had also two great goddesses, which prohibited them from giving him any
money, Poverty and Impossibility. Timocreon, the Rhodian poet,
reprehends him somewhat bitterly for being wrought upon by money to let
some who were banished return, while abandoning himself, who was his
guest and friend. The verses are these:--

Pausanias you may praise, and Xanthippus he be for,
For Leutychidas, a third; Aristides, I proclaim,
From the sacred Athens came,
The one true man of all; for Themistocles Latona doth abhor

The liar, traitor, cheat, who, to gain his filthy pay,
Timocreon, his friend, neglected to restore
To his native Rhodian shore;
Three silver talents took, and departed (curses with him) on his way,

Restoring people here, expelling there, and killing here,
Filling evermore his purse: and at the Isthmus gave a treat,
To be laughed at, of cold meat,
Which they ate, and prayed the gods some one else might give the feast
another year.

But after the sentence and banishment of Themistocles, Timocreon reviles
him yet more immoderately and wildly in a poem which begins thus:--

Unto all the Greeks repair
O Muse, and tell these verses there,
As is fitting and is fair.

The story is, that it was put to the question whether Timocreon should
be banished for siding with the Persians, and Themistocles gave his vote
against him. So when Themistocles was accused of intriguing with the
Medes, Timocreon made these lines upon him:--

So now Timocreon, indeed, is not the sole friend of the Mede,
There are some knaves besides; nor is it only mine that fails,
But other foxes have lost tails. --

When the citizens of Athens began to listen willingly to those who
traduced and reproached him, he was forced, with somewhat obnoxious
frequency, to put them in mind of the great services he had performed,
and ask those who were offended with him whether they were weary with
receiving benefits often from the same person, so rendering himself more
odious. And he yet more provoked the people by building a temple to
Diana with the epithet of Aristobule, or Diana of Best Counsel;
intimating thereby, that he had given the best counsel, not only to the
Athenians, but to all Greece. He built this temple near his own house,
in the district called Melite, where now the public officers carry out
the bodies of such as are executed, and throw the halters and clothes of
those that are strangled or otherwise put to death. There is to this
day a small figure of Themistocles in the temple of Diana of Best
Counsel, which represents him to be a person, not only of a noble mind,
but also of a most heroic aspect. At length the Athenians banished him,
making use of the ostracism to humble his eminence and authority, as
they ordinarily did with all whom they thought too powerful, or, by
their greatness, disproportionable to the equality thought requisite in
a popular government. For the ostracism was instituted, not so much to
punish the offender, as to mitigate and pacify the violence of the
envious, who delighted to humble eminent men, and who, by fixing this
disgrace upon them, might vent some part of their rancor.

Themistocles being banished from Athens, while he stayed at Argos the
detection of Pausanias happened, which gave such advantage to his
enemies, that Leobotes of Agraule, son of Alcmaeon, indicted him of
treason, the Spartans supporting him in the accusation.

When Pausanias went about this treasonable design, he concealed it at
first from Themistocles, though he were his intimate friend; but when he
saw him expelled out of the commonwealth, and how impatiently he took
his banishment, he ventured to communicate it to him, and desired his
assistance, showing him the king of Persia's letters, and exasperating
him against the Greeks, as a villainous, ungrateful people. However,
Themistocles immediately rejected the proposals of Pausanias, and wholly
refused to be a party in the enterprise, though he never revealed his
communications, nor disclosed the conspiracy to any man, either hoping
that Pausanias would desist from his intentions, or expecting that so
inconsiderate an attempt after such chimerical objects would be
discovered by other means.

After that Pausanias was put to death, letters and writings being found
concerning this matter, which rendered Themistocles suspected, the
Lacedaemonians were clamorous against him, and his enemies among the
Athenians accused him; when, being absent from Athens, he made his
defense by letters, especially against the points that had been
previously alleged against him. In answer to the malicious detractions
of his enemies, he merely wrote to the citizens, urging that he who was
always ambitious to govern, and not of a character or a disposition to
serve, would never sell himself and his country into slavery to a
barbarous and hostile nation.

Notwithstanding this, the people, being persuaded by his accusers, sent
officers to take him and bring him away to be tried before a council of
the Greeks, but, having timely notice of it, he passed over into the
island of Corcyra, where the state was under obligations to him; for
being chosen as arbitrator in a difference between them and the
Corinthians, he decided the controversy by ordering the Corinthians to
pay down twenty talents, and declaring the town and island of Leucas a
joint colony from both cities. From thence he fled into Epirus, and,
the Athenians and Lacedaemonians still pursuing him, he threw himself
upon chances of safety that seemed all but desperate. For he fled for
refuge to Admetus, king of the Molossians, who had formerly made some
request to the Athenians, when Themistocles was in the height of his
authority, and had been disdainfully used and insulted by him, and had
let it appear plain enough, that could he lay hold of him, he would take
his revenge. Yet in this misfortune, Themistocles, fearing the recent
hatred of his neighbors and fellow-citizens more than the old
displeasure of the king, put himself at his mercy, and became a humble
suppliant to Admetus, after a peculiar manner, different from the custom
of other countries. For taking the king's son, who was then a child, in
his arms, he laid himself down at his hearth, this being the most sacred
and only manner of supplication, among the Molossians, which was not to
be refused. And some say that his wife, Phthia, intimated to
Themistocles this way of petitioning, and placed her young son with him
before the hearth; others, that king Admetus, that he might be under a
religious obligation not to deliver him up to his pursuers, prepared and
enacted with him a sort of stage-play to this effect. At this time,
Epicrates of Acharnae privately conveyed his wife and children out of
Athens, and sent them hither, for which afterwards Cimon condemned him
and put him to death, as Stesimbrotus reports, and yet somehow, either
forgetting this himself, or making Themistocles to be little mindful of
it, says presently that he sailed into Sicily, and desired in marriage
the daughter of Hiero, tyrant of Syracuse, promising to bring the Greeks
under his power; and, on Hiero refusing him, departed thence into Asia;
but this is not probable.

For Theophrastus writes, in his work on Monarchy, that when Hiero sent
race-horses to the Olympian games, and erected a pavilion sumptuously
furnished, Themistocles made an oration to the Greeks, inciting them to
pull down the tyrant's tent, and not to suffer his horses to run.
Thucydides says, that, passing over land to the Aegaean Sea, he took
ship at Pydna in the bay of Therme, not being known to any one in the
ship, till, being terrified to see the vessel driven by the winds near
to Naxos, which was then besieged by the Athenians, he made himself
known to the master and pilot, and, partly entreating them, partly
threatening that if they went on shore he would accuse them, and make
the Athenians to believe that they did not take him in out of ignorance,
but that he had corrupted them with money from the beginning, he
compelled them to bear off and stand out to sea, and sail forward
towards the coast of Asia.

A great part of his estate was privately conveyed away by his friends,
and sent after him by sea into Asia; besides which there was discovered
and confiscated to the value of fourscore talents, as Theophrastus
writes, Theopompus says a hundred; though Themistocles was never worth
three talents before he was concerned in public affairs.

When he arrived at Cyme, and understood that all along the coast there
were many laid wait for him, and particularly Ergoteles and Pythodorus
(for the game was worth the hunting for such as were thankful to make
money by any means, the king of Persia having offered by public
proclamation two hundred talents to him that should take him), he fled
to Aegae, a small city of the Aeolians, where no one knew him but only
his host Nicogenes, who was the richest man in Aeolia, and well known to
the great men of Inner Asia. While Themistocles lay hid for some days
in his house, one night, after a sacrifice and supper ensuing, Olbius,
the attendant upon Nicogenes's children, fell into a sort of frenzy and
fit of inspiration, and cried out in verse,--

Night shall speak, and night instruct thee,
By the voice of night conduct thee.

After this, Themistocles, going to bed, dreamed that he saw a snake coil
itself up upon his belly, and so creep to his neck; then, as soon as it
touched his face, it turned into an eagle, which spread its wings over
him, and took him up and flew away with him a great distance; then there
appeared a herald's golden wand, and upon this at last it set him down
securely, after infinite terror and disturbance.

His departure was effected by Nicogenes by the following artifice; the
barbarous nations, and amongst them the Persians especially, are
extremely jealous, severe, and suspicious about their women, not only
their wives, but also their bought slaves and concubines, whom they keep
so strictly that no one ever sees them abroad; they spend their lives
shut up within doors, and, when they take a journey, are carried in
close tents, curtained in on all sides, and set upon a wagon. Such a
traveling carriage being prepared for Themistocles, they hid him in it,
and carried him on his journeys and told those whom they met or spoke
with upon the road that they were conveying a young Greek woman out of
Ionia to a nobleman at court.

Thucydides and Charon of Lampsacus say that Xerxes was dead, and that
Themistocles had an interview with his son; but Ephorus, Dinon,
Clitarchus, Heraclides, and many others, write that he came to Xerxes.
The chronological tables better agree with the account of Thucydides,
and yet neither can their statements be said to be quite set at rest.

When Themistocles was come to the critical point, he applied himself
first to Artabanus, commander of a thousand men, telling him that he was
a Greek, and desired to speak with the king about important affairs
concerning which the king was extremely solicitous. Artabanus answered
him, "O stranger, the laws of men are different, and one thing is
honorable to one man, and to others another; but it is honorable for all
to honor and observe their own laws. It is the habit of the Greeks, we
are told, to honor, above all things, liberty and equality; but amongst
our many excellent laws, we account this the most excellent, to honor
the king, and to worship him, as the image of the great preserver of the
universe; if, then, you shall consent to our laws, and fall down before
the king and worship him, you may both see him and speak to him; but if
your mind be otherwise, you must make use of others to intercede for
you, for it is not the national custom here for the king to give
audience to anyone that doth not fall down before him."
Themistocles, hearing this, replied, "Artabanus, I that come hither to
increase the power and glory of the king, will not only submit myself to
his laws, since so it hath pleased the god who exalteth the Persian
empire to this greatness, but will also cause many more to be
worshippers and adorers of the king. Let not this, therefore, be an
impediment why I should not communicate to the king what I have to
impart." Artabanus asking him, "Who must we tell him that you are? for
your words signify you to be no ordinary person," Themistocles answered,
"No man, O Artabanus, must be informed of this before the king himself."
Thus Phanias relates; to which Eratosthenes, in his treatise on Riches,
adds, that it was by the means of a woman of Eretria, who was kept by
Artabanus, that he obtained this audience and interview with him.

When he was introduced to the king, and had paid his reverence to him,
he stood silent, till the king commanding the interpreter to ask him who
he was, he replied, "O king, I am Themistocles the Athenian, driven
into banishment by the Greeks. The evils that I have done to the
Persians are numerous; but my benefits to them yet greater, in
withholding the Greeks from pursuit, so soon as the deliverance of my
own country allowed me to show kindness also to you. I come with a mind
suited to my present calamities; prepared alike for favors and for
anger; to welcome your gracious reconciliation, and to deprecate your
wrath. Take my own countrymen for witnesses of the services I have done
for Persia, and make use of this occasion to show the world your virtue,
rather than to satisfy your indignation. If you save me, you will save
your suppliant; if otherwise, will destroy an enemy of the Greeks." He
talked also of divine admonitions, such as the vision which he saw at
Nicogenes's house, and the direction given him by the oracle of Dodona,
where Jupiter commanded him to go to him that had a name like his, by
which he understood that he was sent from Jupiter to him, seeing that
they both were great, and had the name of kings.

The king heard him attentively, and, though he admired his temper and
courage, gave him no answer at that time; but, when he was with his
intimate friends, rejoiced in his great good fortune, and esteemed
himself very happy in this, and prayed to his god Arimanius, that all
his enemies might be ever of the same mind with the Greeks, to abuse and
expel the bravest men amongst them. Then he sacrificed to the gods, and
presently fell to drinking, and was so well pleased, that in the night,
in the middle of his sleep, he cried out for joy three times, "I have
Themistocles the Athenian."

In the morning, calling together the chief of his court, he had
Themistocles brought before him, who expected no good of it, when he
saw, for example, the guards fiercely set against him as soon as they
learnt his name, and giving him ill language. As he came forward
towards the king, who was seated, the rest keeping silence, passing by
Roxanes, a commander of a thousand men, he heard him, with a slight
groan, say, without stirring out of his place, "You subtle Greek
serpent, the king's good genius hath brought thee hither." Yet, when he
came into the presence, and again fell down, the king saluted him, and
spoke to him kindly, telling him he was now indebted to him two hundred
talents; for it was just and reasonable that he should receive the
reward which was proposed to whosoever should bring Themistocles; and
promising much more, and encouraging him, he commanded him to speak
freely what he would concerning the affairs of Greece. Themistocles
replied, that a man's discourse was like to a rich Persian carpet, the
beautiful figures and patterns of which can only be shown by spreading
and extending it out; when it is contracted and folded up, they are
obscured and lost; and, therefore, he desired time. The king being
pleased with the comparison, and bidding him take what time he would, he
desired a year; in which time, having, learnt the Persian language
sufficiently, he spoke with the king by himself without the help of an
interpreter, it being supposed that he discoursed only about the affairs
of Greece; but there happening, at the same time, great alterations at
court, and removals of the king's favorites, he drew upon himself the
envy of the great people, who imagined that he had taken the boldness to
speak concerning them. For the favors shown to other strangers were
nothing in comparison with the honors conferred on him; the king invited
him to partake of his own pastimes and recreations both at home and
abroad, carrying him with him a-hunting, and made him his intimate so
far that he permitted him to see the queen-mother, and converse
frequently with her. By the king's command, he also was made acquainted
with the Magian learning.

When Demaratus the Lacedaemonian, being ordered by the king to ask
whatsoever he pleased, and it should immediately be granted him, desired
that he might make his public entrance, and be carried in state through
the city of Sardis, with the tiara set in the royal manner upon his
head, Mithropaustes, cousin to the king, touched him on the head, and
told him that he had no brains for the royal tiara to cover, and if
Jupiter should give him his lightning and thunder, he would not any the
more be Jupiter for that; the king also repulsed him with anger
resolving never to be reconciled to him, but to be inexorable to all
supplications on his behalf. Yet Themistocles pacified him, and
prevailed with him to forgive him. And it is reported, that the
succeeding kings, in whose reigns there was a greater communication
between the Greeks and Persians, when they invited any considerable
Greek into their service, to encourage him, would write, and promise him
that he should be as great with them as Themistocles had been. They
relate, also, how Themistocles, when he was in great prosperity, and
courted by many, seeing himself splendidly served at his table turned
to his children and said, "Children, we had been undone if we had not
been undone." Most writers say that he had three cities given him,
Magnesia, Myus, and Lampsacus, to maintain him in bread, meat, and wine.
Neanthes of Cyzicus, and Phanias, add two more, the city of
Palaescepsis, to provide him with clothes, and Percote, with bedding and
furniture for his house.

As he was going down towards the sea-coast to take measures against
Greece, a Persian whose name was Epixyes, governor of the upper Phrygia,
laid wait to kill him, having for that purpose provided a long time
before a number of Pisidians, who were to set upon him when he should
stop to rest at a city that is called Lion's-head. But Themistocles,
sleeping in the middle of the day, saw the Mother of the gods appear to
him in a dream and say unto him, "Themistocles, keep back from the
Lion's-head, for fear you fall into the lion's jaws; for this advice I
expect that your daughter Mnesiptolema should be my servant."
Themistocles was much astonished, and, when he had made his vows to the
goddess, left the broad road, and, making a circuit, went another way,
changing his intended station to avoid that place, and at night took up
his rest in the fields. But one of the sumpter-horses, which carried
the furniture for his tent, having fallen that day into the river, his
servants spread out the tapestry, which was wet, and hung it up to dry;
in the mean time the Pisidians made towards them with their swords
drawn, and, not discerning exactly by the moon what it was that was
stretched out thought it to be the tent of Themistocles, and that they
should find him resting himself within it; but when they came near, and
lifted up the hangings, those who watched there fell upon them and took
them. Themistocles, having escaped this great danger, in admiration of
the goodness of the goddess that appeared to him, built, in memory of
it, a temple in the city of Magnesia, which he dedicated to Dindymene,
Mother of the gods, in which he consecrated and devoted his daughter
Mnesiptolema to her service.

When he came to Sardis, he visited the temples of the gods, and
observing, at his leisure, their buildings, ornaments, and the number of
their offerings, he saw in the temple of the Mother of the gods, the
statue of a virgin in brass, two cubits high, called the water-bringer.
Themistocles had caused this to be made and set up when he was surveyor
of waters at Athens, out of the fines of those whom he detected in
drawing off and diverting the public water by pipes for their private
use; and whether he had some regret to see this image in captivity, or
was desirous to let the Athenians see in what great credit and authority
he was with the king, he entered into a treaty with the governor of
Lydia to persuade him to send this statue back to Athens, which so
enraged the Persian officer, that he told him he would write the king
word of it. Themistocles, being affrighted hereat, got access to his
wives and concubines, by presents of money to whom, he appeased the fury
of the governor; and afterwards behaved with more reserve and
circumspection, fearing the envy of the Persians, and did not, as
Theopompus writes, continue to travel about Asia, but lived quietly in
his own house in Magnesia, where for a long time he passed his days in
great security, being courted by all, and enjoying rich presents, and
honored equally with the greatest persons in the Persian empire; the
king, at that time, not minding his concerns with Greece, being taken up
with the affairs of Inner Asia.

But when Egypt revolted, being assisted by the Athenians, and the Greek
galleys roved about as far as Cyprus and Cilicia, and Cimon had made
himself master of the seas, the king turned his thoughts thither, and,
bending his mind chiefly to resist the Greeks, and to check the growth
of their power against him, began to raise forces, and send out
commanders, and to dispatch messengers to Themistocles at Magnesia, to
put him in mind of his promise, and to summon him to act against the
Greeks. Yet this did not increase his hatred nor exasperate him against
the Athenians, neither was he any way elevated with the thoughts of the
honor and powerful command he was to have in this war; but judging,
perhaps, that the object would not be attained, the Greeks having at
that time, beside other great commanders, Cimon, in particular, who was
gaining wonderful military successes; but chiefly, being ashamed to
sully the glory of his former great actions, and of his many victories
and trophies, he determined to put a conclusion to his life, agreeable
to its previous course. He sacrificed to the gods, and invited his
friends; and, having entertained them and shaken hands with them, drank
bull's blood, as is the usual story; as others state, a poison producing
instant death; and ended his days in the city of Magnesia, having lived
sixty-five years, most of which he had spent in politics and in the
wars, in government and command. The king, being informed of the cause
and manner of his death, admired him more than ever, and continued to
show kindness to his friends and relations.

Themistocles left three sons by Archippe, daughter to Lysander of
Alopece, -- Archeptolis, Polyeuctus, and Cleophantus. Plato the
philosopher mentions the last as a most excellent horseman, but
otherwise insignificant person; of two sons yet older than these,
Neocles and Diocles, Neocles died when he was young by the bite of a
horse, and Diocles was adopted by his grandfather, Lysander. He had
many daughters, of whom Mnesiptolema, whom he had by a second marriage,
was wife to Archeptolis, her brother by another mother; Italia was
married to Panthoides, of the island of Chios; Sybaris to Nicomedes the
Athenian. After the death of Themistocles, his nephew, Phrasicles, went
to Magnesia, and married, with her brothers' consent, another daughter,
Nicomache, and took charge of her sister Asia, the youngest of all the

The Magnesians possess a splendid sepulchre of Themistocles, placed in
the middle of their market-place. It is not worthwhile taking notice
of what Andocides states in his Address to his Friends concerning his
remains, how the Athenians robbed his tomb, and threw his ashes into the
air; for he feigns this, to exasperate the oligarchical faction against
the people; and there is no man living but knows that Phylarchus simply
invents in his history, where he all but uses an actual stage machine,
and brings in Neocles and Demopolis as the sons of Themistocles, to
incite or move compassion, as if he were writing a tragedy. Diodorus
the cosmographer says, in his work on Tombs, but by conjecture rather
than of certain knowledge, that near to the haven of Piraeus, where the
land runs out like an elbow from the promontory of Alcimus, when you
have doubled the cape and passed inward where the sea is always calm,
there is a large piece of masonry, and upon this the tomb of
Themistocles, in the shape of an altar; and Plato the comedian confirms
this, he believes, in these verses,--

Thy tomb is fairly placed upon the strand,
Where merchants still shall greet it with the land;
Still in and out 'twill see them come and go,
And watch the galleys as they race below.

Various honors also and privileges were granted to the kindred of
Themistocles at Magnesia, which were observed down to our times, and
were enjoyed by another Themistocles of Athens, with whom I had an
intimate acquaintance and friendship in the house of Ammonius the


Among the many remarkable things that are related of Furius Camillus, it
seems singular and strange above all, that he, who continually was in
the highest commands, and obtained the greatest successes, was five
times chosen dictator, triumphed four times, and was styled a second
founder of Rome, yet never was so much as once consul. The reason of
which was the state and temper of the commonwealth at that time; for the
people, being at dissension with the senate, refused to return consuls,
but in their stead elected other magistrates, called military tribunes,
who acted, indeed, with full consular power, but were thought to
exercise a less obnoxious amount of authority, because it was divided
among a larger number; for to have the management of affairs entrusted
in the hands of six persons rather than two was some satisfaction to the
opponents of oligarchy. This was the condition of the times when
Camillus was in the height of his actions and glory, and, although the
government in the meantime had often proceeded to consular elections,
yet he could never persuade himself to be consul against the inclination
of the people. In all his other administrations, which were many and
various, he so behaved himself, that, when alone in authority, he
exercised his power as in common, but the honor of all actions redounded
entirely to himself, even when in joint commission with others; the
reason of the former was his moderation in command; of the latter, his
great judgment and wisdom, which gave him without controversy the first

The house of the Furii was not, at that time of any considerable
distinction; he, by his own acts, first raised himself to honor, serving
under Postumius Tubertus, dictator, in the great battle against the
Aequians and Volscians. For riding out from the rest of the army, and
in the charge receiving a wound in his thigh, he for all that did not
quit the fight, but, letting the dart drag in the wound, and engaging
with the bravest of the enemy, put them to flight; for which action,
among other rewards bestowed on him, he was created censor, an office in
those days of great repute and authority. During his censorship one
very good act of his is recorded, that, whereas the wars had made many
widows, he obliged such as had no wives, some by fair persuasion, others
by threatening to set fines on their heads, to take them in marriage;
another necessary one, in causing orphans to be rated, who before were
exempted from taxes, the frequent wars requiring more than ordinary
expenses to maintain them. What, however, pressed them most was the
siege of Veii. Some call this people Veientani. This was the head city
of Tuscany, not inferior to Rome, either in number of arms or multitude
of soldiers, insomuch that, presuming on her wealth and luxury, and
priding herself upon her refinement and sumptuousness, she engaged in
many honorable contests with the Romans for glory and empire. But now
they had abandoned their former ambitious hopes, having been weakened by
great defeats, so that, having fortified themselves with high and strong
walls, and furnished the city with all sorts of weapons offensive and
defensive, as likewise with corn and all manner of provisions, they
cheerfully endured a siege, which, though tedious to them, was no less
troublesome and distressing to the besiegers. For the Romans, having
never been accustomed to stay away from home, except in summer, and for
no great length of time, and constantly to winter at home, were then
first compelled by the tribunes to build forts in the enemy's country,
and, raising strong works about their camp, to join winter and summer
together. And now, the seventh year of the war drawing to an end, the
commanders began to be suspected as too slow and remiss in driving on
the siege, insomuch that they were discharged and others chosen for the
war, among whom was Camillus, then second time tribune. But at present
he had no hand in the siege, the duties that fell by lot to him being to
make war upon the Faliscans and Capenates, who, taking advantage of the
Romans being occupied on all hands, had carried ravages into their
country, and, through all the Tuscan war, given them much annoyance, but
were now reduced by Camillus, and with great loss shut up within their

And now, in the very heat of the war, a strange phenomenon in the Alban
lake, which, in the absence of any known cause and explanation by
natural reasons, seemed as great a prodigy as the most incredible that
are reported, occasioned great alarm. It was the beginning of autumn,
and the summer now ending had, to all observation, been neither rainy
nor much troubled with southern winds; and of the many lakes, brooks,
and springs of all sorts with which Italy abounds, some were wholly
dried up, others drew very little water with them; all the rivers, as is
usual in summer, ran in a very low and hollow channel. But the Alban
lake, that is fed by no other waters but its own, and is on all sides
encircled with fruitful mountains, without any cause, unless it were
divine, began visibly to rise and swell, increasing to the feet of the
mountains, and by degrees reaching the level of the very tops of them,
and all this without any waves or agitation. At first it was the wonder
of shepherds and herdsmen; but when the earth, which, like a great dam,
held up the lake from falling into the lower grounds, through the
quantity and weight of water was broken down, and in a violent stream it
ran through the plowed fields and plantations to discharge itself in the
sea, it not only struck terror into the Romans, but was thought by all
the inhabitants of Italy to portend some extraordinary event. But the
greatest talk of it was in the camp that besieged Veii, so that in the
town itself, also, the occurrence became known.

As in long sieges it commonly happens that parties on both sides meet
often and converse with one another, so it chanced that a Roman had
gained much confidence and familiarity with one of the besieged, a man
versed in ancient prophecies, and of repute for more than ordinary skill
in divination. The Roman, observing him to be overjoyed at the story of
the lake, and to mock at the siege, told him that this was not the only
prodigy that of late had happened to the Romans; others more wonderful
yet than this had befallen them, which he was willing to communicate to
him, that he might the better provide for his private interests in these
public distempers. The man greedily embraced the proposal, expecting to
hear some wonderful secrets; but when, by little and little, he had led
him on in conversation, and insensibly drawn him a good way from the
gates of the city, he snatched him up by the middle, being stronger than
he, and, by the assistance of others that came running from the camp,
seized and delivered him to the commanders. The man, reduced to this
necessity, and sensible now that destiny was not to be avoided,
discovered to them the secret oracles of Veii; that it was not possible
the city should be taken, until the Alban lake, which now broke forth
and had found out new passages, was drawn back from that course, and so
diverted that it could not mingle with the sea. The senate, having
heard and satisfied themselves about the matter, decreed to send to
Delphi, to ask counsel of the god. The messengers were persons of the
highest repute, Licinius Cossus, Valerius Potitus, and Fabius Ambustus;
who, having made their voyage by sea and consulted the god, returned
with other answers, particularly that there had been a neglect of some
of their national rites relating to the Latin feasts; but the Alban
water the oracle commanded, if it were possible, they should keep from
the sea, and shut it up in its ancient bounds; but if that was not to be
done, then they should carry it off by ditches and trenches into the
lower grounds, and so dry it up; which message being delivered, the
priests performed what related to the sacrifices, and the people went to
work and turned the water.

And now the senate, in the tenth year of the war, taking away all other
commands, created Camillus dictator, who chose Cornelius Scipio for his
general of horse. And in the first place he made vows unto the gods,
that, if they would grant a happy conclusion of the war, he would
celebrate to their honor the great games, and dedicate a temple to the
goddess whom the Romans call Matuta the Mother, though, from the
ceremonies which are used, one would think she was Leucothea. For they
take a servant-maid into the secret part of the temple, and there cuff
her, and drive her out again, and they embrace their brothers' children
in place of their own; and, in general, the ceremonies of the sacrifice
remind one of the nursing of Bacchus by Ino, and the calamities
occasioned by her husband's concubine. Camillus, having made these
vows, marched into the country of the Faliscans, and in a great battle
overthrew them and the Capenates, their confederates; afterwards he
turned to the siege of Veii, and, finding that to take it by assault
would prove a difficult and hazardous attempt, proceeded to cut mines
under ground, the earth about the city being easy to break up, and
allowing such depth for the works as would prevent their being
discovered by the enemy. This design going on in a hopeful way, he
openly gave assaults to the enemy, to keep them to the walls, whilst
they that worked underground in the mines were, without being perceived,
arrived within the citadel, close to the temple of Juno, which was the
greatest and most honored in all the city. It is said that the prince
of the Tuscans was at that very time at sacrifice, and that the priest,
after he had looked into the entrails of the beast, cried out with a
loud voice that the gods would give the victory to those that should
complete those offerings; and that the Romans who were in the mines,
hearing the words, immediately pulled down the floor, and, ascending
with noise and clashing of weapons, frightened away the enemy, and,
snatching up the entrails, carried them to Camillus. But this may look
like a fable. The city, however, being taken by storm, and the soldiers
busied in pillaging and gathering an infinite quantity of riches and
spoil, Camillus, from the high tower, viewing what was done, at first
wept for pity; and when they that were by congratulated his good
success, he lifted up his hands to heaven, and broke out into this
prayer: "O most mighty Jupiter, and ye gods that are judges of good and
evil actions, ye know that not without just cause, but constrained by
necessity, we have been forced to revenge ourselves on the city of our
unrighteous and wicked enemies. But if, in the vicissitude of things,
there be any calamity due, to counterbalance this great felicity, I beg
that it may be diverted from the city and army of the Romans, and fall,
with as little hurt as may be, upon my own head." Having said these
words, and just turning about (as the custom of the Romans is to turn to
the right after adoration or prayer), he stumbled and fell, to the
astonishment of all that were present. But, recovering himself
presently from the fall, he told them that he had received what he had
prayed for, a small mischance, in compensation for the greatest good

Having sacked the city, he resolved, according as he had vowed, to carry
Juno's image to Rome; and, the workmen being ready for that purpose, he
sacrificed to the goddess, and made his supplications that she would be
pleased to accept of their devotion toward her, and graciously vouchsafe
to accept of a place among the gods that presided at Rome; and the
statue, they say, answered in a low voice that she was ready and willing
to go. Livy writes, that, in praying, Camillus touched the goddess, and
invited her, and that some of the standers-by cried out that she was
willing and would come. They who stand up for the miracle and endeavor
to maintain it have one great advocate on their side in the wonderful
fortune of the city, which, from a small and contemptible beginning,
could never have attained to that greatness and power without many
signal manifestations of the divine presence and cooperation. Other
wonders of the like nature, drops of sweat seen to stand on statues,
groans heard from them, the figures seen to turn round and to close
their eyes, are recorded by many ancient historians; and we ourselves
could relate divers wonderful things, which we have been told by men of
our own time, that are not lightly to be rejected; but to give too easy
credit to such things, or wholly to disbelieve them, is equally
dangerous, so incapable is human infirmity of keeping any bounds, or
exercising command over itself, running off sometimes to superstition
and dotage, at other times to the contempt and neglect of all that is
supernatural. But moderation is best, and to avoid all extremes.

Camillus, however, whether puffed up with the greatness of his
achievement in conquering a city that was the rival of Rome, and had
held out a ten years' siege, or exalted with the felicitations of those
that were about him, assumed to himself more than became a civil and
legal magistrate; among other things, in the pride and haughtiness of
his triumph, driving through Rome in a chariot drawn with four white
horses, which no general either before or since ever did; for the Romans
consider such a mode of conveyance to be sacred, and specially set apart
to the king and father of the gods. This alienated the hearts of his
fellow-citizens, who were not accustomed to such pomp and display.

The second pique they had against him was his opposing the law by which
the city was to be divided; for the tribunes of the people brought
forward a motion that the people and senate should be divided into two
parts, one of which should remain at home, the other, as the lot should
decide, remove to the new-taken city. By which means they should not
only have much more room, but by the advantage of two great and
magnificent cities, be better able to maintain their territories and
their fortunes in general. The people, therefore, who were numerous and
indigent, greedily embraced it, and crowded continually to the forum,
with tumultuous demands to have it put to the vote. But the senate and
the noblest citizens, judging the proceedings of the tribunes to tend
rather to a destruction than a division of Rome, greatly averse to it,
went to Camillus for assistance, who, fearing the result if it came to a
direct contest, contrived to occupy the people with other business, and
so staved it off. He thus became unpopular. But the greatest and most
apparent cause of their dislike against him arose from the tenths of the
spoil; the multitude having here, if not a just, yet a plausible case
against him. For it seems, as he went to the siege of Veii, he had
vowed to Apollo that if he took the city he would dedicate to him the
tenth of the spoil. The city being taken and sacked, whether he was
loath to trouble the soldiers at that time, or that through the
multitude of business he had forgotten his vow, he suffered them to
enjoy that part of the spoils also. Some time afterwards, when his
authority was laid down, he brought the matter before the senate, and
the priests, at the same time, reported, out of the sacrifices, that
there were intimations of divine anger, requiring propitiations and
offerings. The senate decreed the obligation to be in force.

But seeing it was difficult for every one to produce the very same
things they had taken, to be divided anew, they ordained that every one
upon oath should bring into the public the tenth part of his gains.
This occasioned many annoyances and hardships to the soldiers, who were
poor men, and had endured much in the war, and now were forced, out of
what they had gained and spent, to bring in so great a proportion.
Camillus, being assaulted by their clamor and tumults, for want of a
better excuse, betook himself to the poorest of defenses, confessing he
had forgotten his vow; they in turn complained that he had vowed the
tenth of the enemy's goods, and now levied it out of the tenths of the
citizens. Nevertheless, every one having brought in his due proportion,
it was decreed that out of it a bowl of massy gold should be made, and
sent to Delphi. And when there was great scarcity of gold in the city,
and the magistrates were considering where to get it, the Roman ladies,
meeting together and consulting among themselves, out of the golden
ornaments they wore contributed as much as went to the making the
offering, which in weight came to eight talents of gold. The senate, to
give them the honor they had deserved, ordained that funeral orations
should be used at the obsequies of women as well as men, it having never
before been a custom that any woman after death should receive any
public eulogy. Choosing out, therefore, three of the noblest citizens
as a deputation, they sent them in a vessel of war, well manned and
sumptuously adorned. Storm and calm at sea may both, they say, alike be
dangerous; as they at this time experienced, being brought almost to the
very brink of destruction, and, beyond all expectation, escaping. For
near the isles of Solus the wind slacking, galleys of the Lipareans came
upon them, taking them for pirates; and, when they held up their hands
as suppliants, forbore indeed from violence, but took their ship in tow,
and carried her into the harbor, where they exposed to sale their goods
and persons as lawful prize, they being pirates; and scarcely, at last,
by the virtue and interest of one man, Timesitheus by name, who was in
office as general, and used his utmost persuasion, they were, with much
ado, dismissed. He, however, himself sent out some of his own vessels
with them, to accompany them in their voyage and assist them at the
dedication; for which he received honors at Rome, as he had deserved.

And now the tribunes of the people again resuming their motion for the
division of the city, the war against the Faliscans luckily broke out,
giving liberty to the chief citizens to choose what magistrates they

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