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Picturesque Quebec by James MacPherson Le Moine

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overlying goods before they went or sent to Europe for a

"The following books were advertised as 'missing:'--Langhorn's
Plutarch, 1st vol., Thomson's Works, 4th vol., Gordon's 'Universal
Accountant,' 1st vol.; and Gray's Hudibras, 2nd vol. For each one of
them there is offered a reward of _two dollars_! Reading was expensive
recreation in those times.

"The reader, perhaps, has seen, or, it may be, possesses one of those
old libraries, of which the general public occasionally have a glimpse
at auction rooms, composed of standard authors, and beautifully and
solidly bound, which had adorned the studies of the fathers of our
country. They contain all that was best in the French and English
literature of the last century--history, poetry, divinity, _belles
lettres_, science and art. From these may be gathered what were the
tastes, the culture and the thought of the Canadians of the last

"Music and painting were cultivated--the former being, as now, a
necessary part of female education. Of a festival given by the young
ladies of a place called _La Côte_, near Quebec, in 1764, it is
promised in the programme that "the orchestra and symphony will be
composed of instruments of all kinds." It may interest some ladies to
know that among the dances at the same entertainment are mentioned
'l'Harlequinade,' 'La Chinoise,' and 'La Matelote Hollandaise'--some
relation, perhaps, to the 'Sailor's Hornpipe.'

"The settlement in Canada of the United Empire Loyalists, after the
peace of September, 1783, by which the independence of the revolted
colonies was recognized, must have had a considerable influence on
Canadian society, and more than atoned for sufferings inflicted on the
colony during the progress of the war. Repeated efforts had been made
by the Americans to engage the affections of the Canadians. Among
those whom Congress had appointed commissioners to treat with the
Canadian people on this subject was the renowned Dr. Benjamin
Franklin, whose visit to this country was not the most successful
portion of his career. Although in some instances there was a
manifestation of disaffection to the British Government, the great
bulk of the population remained unmistakably loyal. In the Quebec
_Gazette_ of October 23rd, 1783, is found the Act of Parliament
passed in favour of the Loyalists, in which the 25th day of March,
1784, is fixed as the limit of the period during which claims for
relief or compensation for the loss of property should be received.
How many availed themselves of the provisions of this act it is not
easy to say, but the whole number of persons dispossessed of their
estates and forced to seek another home in consequence of their
continued allegiance, is set down at from 25,000 to 30,000. Of these,
the great majority took up their abodes in the Canadas, New Brunswick
and Nova Scotia, while a few went to the West Indies, and others
returned to England. The biographies of some of these Loyalist
settlers in British North America would be full of interest and
instruction. But records of family movements and vicissitudes are very
rarely kept--most rarely in those cases in which adventures are most
frequent and the course of events most changeful. I have, however,
seen accounts of the early settlements in the Eastern Townships, P.
Q., and in different portions of Ontario, which were full of the
romance of faith, of courage, and of perseverance."


A sketch of this fashionable thoroughfare--St. Louis street--the
headquarters of the judiciary, barristers, politicians, etc., would be
incomplete without a mention of the chief trysting-place of travellers and
tourists for the last thirty years--the leading hostelry of Quebec. St.
Louis Hotel is made up of two or more private dwellings joined together.
That on the corner of Haldimand and St. Louis streets formerly was owned
as a residence by the late Edward Burroughs, Esq., P. S. C. Next to it
stood, in 1837, Schluep's Hotel--the Globe Hotel--kept by a German, and
where the military swells in 1837-8-9 and our jolly curlers used to have
_recherché_ dinners or their frugal "beef and greens" and fixings. In
1848, Mr. Burroughs' house was rented to one Robert Bambrick, who
subsequently opened a second-class hotel at the corner of Ste. Anne and
Garden streets, on the spot on which the Queen's printer, the late Mr.
George Desbarats, built a stately office for the printing of the _Canada
Gazette_--subsequently sold on the removal of the Government to Ottawa
--now the Russell House. The _Globe_ Hotel belonged to the late B. C.
A. Gugy, Esq. It was purchased by the late Messrs Lelièvre & Angers,
barristers, connected with two or three adjacent tenements, and rented,
about 1852, to Messrs. Azro and Willis Russell (represented now by the
Russell Hotel Company) for the St. Louis Hotel. Connected by a door
through the wall with the Music Hall, it is a notable landmark in St.
Louis street and an object of considerable interest to city cabmen as
well, during the season of tourists. Its dining saloon, on the second
flow, has witnessed many bountiful repasts, to celebrate social, military,
political or literary events, none better remembered than that of the 17th
of November, 1880, when the _élite_ of Quebec crowded in unusual numbers--
about one hundred and eighty citizens, English and French--to do honour,
by a public banquet, to the laureate of the French Academy, M. Louis
Honoré Fréchette, [30] to celebrate his receiving in August last, in
Paris, from the _Académie Française_, the unprecedented distinction, for a
colonist, of the _Grand Prix Monthyon_ (2,000 livres) for the excellence
of his poetry.

Subjoined will be found the names of some of those present, also, extracts
from a few of the addresses delivered. We regret much that want of space
precludes us from adding more of the eloquent speeches delivered, because
they throw light for English readers on the high degree of culture French
literature has attained at Quebec. All, we are sure, will rejoice with us
that, for the cause of letters, M. Fréchette was timely rescued from the
quagmire of political warfare and hustings promises.


"Mr. L. H. Fréchette, the laureate of the French Academy, was last
night the recipient of marks of honor and esteem, in the shape of a
magnificent banquet given him at the St. Louis Hotel, by the citizens
of Quebec and vicinity. The tables were laid in the large dining hall
of the St. Louis Hotel, which was handsomely decorated for the
occasion. The walls were partially covered with French and English
flags, and wreaths of evergreen surrounded all the windows. Behind the
Chairman, on a bracket, was an excellent bust of the Canadian poet,
having on either side paintings of scenes in Mr. Fréchette's drama,
'Papineau,' by Mr. E. W. Sewell, Levis.

"Over 125 gentlemen sat down to the banquet, amongs-whom we noticed--
The Honorable Judge Henri T. Taschereau, M. Lefaivre, Consul of
France, Count de Premio-Real, Consul-General of Spain, the Baron
Bols, Consul-General of Belgium, Major Wasson, Consul of the United
States, M. Thors, Hon. W. Laurier, Hon. I. Thibaudeau, Hon. C. A. P.
Pelletier, C.M.G. Hon. D. A. Ross, M.P.P., Achille Larue, N.P.,
Charles Langelier, M.P.P., Hon. H. G. Joly, M.P.P., Hon. F. Langelier,
M.P.P., Hon. Arthur Turcotte, Speaker of the Assembly, Dr. Rinfret,
M.P.P, P. B. Casgrain, N.P., James Dunbar, Esq., Q.C., Nazaire
Turcotte, Dr. Colin Sewell, Oscar Dunn, C. Antil, B. Bédard, G. T.
Davie, G. Paré, Henri Delagrave, W. E. Brunet, E. W Sewell, F. X.
Lemieux, Faucher de St. Maurice, F. M. Dechêne, G. E. T. Rinfret, O.
L. Richardson, Louis Bilodeau, Oscar Lanctôt, N. Levasseur, George
Stewart, jr., Edward Thomas, D. Chambers, F. G. Gautier, Paul de
Cazes, R. J. Bradley, D. J. Montambault, T. Godfroy Papineau, N.P.,
Montreal, De La Broquerie Taché, C. Massiah, James M. LeMoine,
President Literary and Historical Society, W. J. Wyatt, Alphonse
Pouliot, Dr. L. LaRue, Colonel Rhodes, Dr. Pourtier, C. Duquet, V.
Bélanger, Charles Langlois, W. C. Languedoc, Alfred White, Peter
McEwan, George Henry Powell, A. P. Beaulieu, Alfred Lemieux, Elie
Lachance, Richard L. Suffur, Lieut.-Col. Turnbull, H. M. Price, R. St.
B. Young, G. R. White, Captain Gzowski, J. U. Laird, Chariot,
Fitzpatrick, E. Swindell, E. J. Hale, Cecil Fraser, Aug. Stuart, C. V.
M. Temple, Timolaus Beaulieu, C. S. Beaulieu, N. Laforce, George
Bouchard, L. N. Carrier, J. B. Michaud, Dr. Lamontagne. Dr. Collet,
Arthur Lavigne, P. Boutin, M.P.P., F. Fortier, G. Bresse, J. S. C.
Wurtele, M.P.P., P. E. Godbout, Paul Dumas, Lieutenant Drury, Captain
Wilson, H. G. Sheppard, J. B. Charleson, Dr. Hubert LaRue, H. J. J. B.
Chouinard, Président de l'Institut Canadien, H. J. Beemer, J. L.
Renaud, E. W. Méthot, E. C. E. Gauthier, O. Leger, J. E. Pouliot, D.
R. Barry, L. P. Lemay, Jacques Auger, Ernest Pacaud, J. Allaire, M.P.,
T. G. Tremblay, M.P., J. J. Gahan, Joseph Blondeau, Thomas Potvin, J.
B. Z. Dubeau, Frs. Bertrand, J. C. Hamel, Emile Jacot, John Buchanan,
Antoine Carrier, William Breakey.

"The Chair was occupied by Hon. Judge H. T. Taschereau, having on his
right the guest of the evening, L. H. Fréchette, the Count Premio-
Real, Hon. C. A. P. Pelletier, Mr. Wasson, Hon. F. Langelier, M. Thors
of Paris, &c., and on his left the Consul-General for France, Hon. Mr.
Laurier, Mr. Bols, Hon. D. Ross, &c.

"The banquet was given in the well-known excellent style of the
Russell Hotel Company, which never leaves anything to be desired.
After full justice had been done the good things provided for the
occasion, silence was obtained, when the following resolution,
presented to Mr. Fréchette by the Literary and Historical Society of
Quebec, was read by the Secretary, Mr. Delagrave:--

"At a monthly general meeting of the Literary and Historical Society,
held on the 13th October last:

"It was proposed by Commander Ashe, R.N., seconded by R. McLeod, Esq.,

"That the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec has witnessed with
the highest satisfaction the literary honours conferred in August
last, by the _Académie Française_, on Monsieur Louis Honoré Fréchette,
for the poetical excellence of his two poems, 'Les Fleurs Boréales'
and 'Les Oiseaux de Neige.'

"That the Academical crown, encircling the brow of a Canadian poet,
ought to be as much prised by Canada as it must be dear to its gifted
son, the Laureate of the French Academy.

"That such a signal distinction conferred by the highest literary
tribunal, whilst it exhibits in such a favourable light the
intellectual vigour of the Province of Quebec, cannot be otherwise
than a subject of legitimate pride to the Dominion of Canada.

"That the President and Secretary of this Society be charged with the
pleasant duty of conveying to Monsieur L. H. Fréchette the expression
of the sentiments of admiration with which it views his literary

(Signed,) J. M. LEMOINE, President

_Quebec_, 13th October, 1880.

"The usual loyal toasts--the Queen and Governor-General--were given
by the Chairman, and enthusiastically honoured.

"The Chairman then proposed "France," the toast being received with
the usual honours and responded to by M. Lefaivre, the Consul-General
for France.

"M. Lefaivre made an interesting speech, alluding to the past and
present of France, to the communication between the France of the Old
World and the _Nouvelle France_ of this Western hemisphere, dwelling
upon the honours achieved by the guest of the evening in Paris, and
contending that literature was the soul of a nation.

"The Chairman, Hon. Mr. Justice H. Taschereau, then rose to propose
the toast of the evening, being received with loud and prolonged
cheering. He said,--

"GENTLEMEN,--I have now the honour to propose the toast of the
evening--the health of our distinguished fellow-countryman, our guest,
Louis Honoré Fréchette, the poet of Canada, crowned by the Academy of
France. You have heard, gentlemen, the loud hurrah of all Canada in
honour of one of her children, and here, perhaps, I might cease
speaking. Nothing that I might say could increase the glad strength of
the general voice of the country, when the news arrived here that the
grand arena of literature, the French Academy, an institution whose
life is counted by centuries, and which is without equal in the world,
that great interpreter and infallible judge of the difficulties, the
beauties and the genius of the French language, had given one of its
annual prizes, and perhaps the finest of all--the prize of poetry--to
one of our countrymen. I could never fittingly express or depict the
sentiments of pride and joy felt by all lovers of literature in this
country--I may add of all good Canadians--when the news came from
beyond the ocean, from that sacred France, mother of civilization;
from fairy Paris, capital of the Muses, that Mr. Fréchette had been
crowned! But, as Chairman of this happy reunion, at the risk of but
faintly re-echoing the general sentiment, I must at least try to
express my feelings in proposing this toast. The emotions which I feel
are of a dual nature, that of friendship and of patriotism, and, as
friendship is nearer to the heart, so I gave that feeling the first
place. The speaker here referred to his collegiate days in the
Seminary of Quebec, where he met Mr. Fréchette, and in preparing
himself for the battle of life, had won the friendship of the Canadian
poet. He alluded to Mr. Fréchette's first efforts in verse, and had
judged his early attempts, and in referring to his (the Judge's) own
literary works at the time, the speaker said that the line of Boileau
might be applied to him,

"'Pour lui, Phoebus est sourd et Pégase est rétif.'

"At that time, Mr. Fréchette had not reached the heights of Helicon,
nor attained the regions wherein the 'Boreal Flowers' are gathered and
the 'Snow Birds' fly, but the little flowers he gathered in more
modest fields had around them the perfume of genuine poetry, and the
emerald, ruby and topaz of art already shone in the dainty plumage of
his summer birds. Mr. Fréchette published in a small journal in
manuscript, called _L'Echo_, of which Judge Taschereau was then
editor in the Seminary, the first efforts of his muse. This souvenir
of the past is now very precious to me, said the speaker, because it
enables me to state that I was the first editor of our poet's works.
Judge Taschereau further alluded to the time when, with Mr. Fréchette,
he studied law, that dry study, and though the poet was thus devoted
to the goddess Themis, he nevertheless found time to worship at the
shrine of song. How could the poet do otherwise? His fame had already
gone abroad. The journals of the country were already publishing his
sonnets, odes and songs. His acrostics were sought after to grace the
albums of fair ladies. Even the volunteers of Canada asked him for
war-songs, which are happily more frequently heard in drawing-rooms
than in camps. The young student did not possess himself. He was
already the property of the country, and the Institutes of Justinian
were put aside for the more pleasing task of framing idyllic pictures
of poetic genius. In fact, Crémazie was almost forgotten, and the name
of Fréchette was on every tongue. Mr. Taschereau tried to reclaim the
poet to his legal duties, and give him the place of Mr. Faucher de St.
Maurice in his office. Mr. Fréchette accepted the sinecure, but no
sooner had he done so than Mr. Faucher returned, anxious, no doubt,
for good and congenial company. Judge of my happiness, with Fréchette
and Faucher in my office, and I their humble patron. I thought I would
succeed in converting my friends, but in this I failed, for they led
me on their own paths until I myself began to versify, and, instead of
reading Pothier, read 'proofs' of verses. As it is, Mr. Fréchette did
become a lawyer; but Mr. Faucher abandoned the pursuit--he retired
from my office, lost forever to Themis, but safe to the cause of
literature. The departure of my young friends saved me. I could never
expect to win the applause of the French Academy, and thus, as I am
enabled to preside at this banquet, I may be permitted to offer our
guest a bouquet of friendship's flowers, gathered during twenty-five
years, and I feel that its perfume will be agreeable to my
distinguished friend. The life of Mr. Fréchette is written in the
poetry and literature of this country. He has marched steadily onward
from the day on which he wrote his _Loisirs_, until the grand
moment when he stood the crowned victor in the Academy of France. We
have known our guest as a lawyer, journalist and member of Parliament,
and have always admired his wonderful faculties, ever ready as he was
to promote the welfare of his friends. His large heart contributed to
pave the way to success, for, undoubted though his talents are, his
winning manners won for him an ever-growing popularity, and we may
affirm that, if he had traducers, he had, on the other hand, a host of
friends. Traducers always follow the wake of a literary man, and they
resemble the creeping things which we suffer in our gardens, because
their existence can lead to no effectual harm. I may have occupied
your time at too great length in treating of Mr. Fréchette as a
friend. Allow me now, however, for a few moments, to speak of his
success from a patriotic point of view. As French-Canadians, we are
proud of our Laureate, and happy to see him in our midst this evening.
In crowning our distinguished poet, the French Academy has given a
splendid recognition to Canadian literature in the great Republic of
Letters. Our Laureate is a French-Canadian, but our fellow-citizens of
British origin have joined with us in this manifestation of our joy,
and through their press, as at such gatherings as this, they have
spontaneously recognized his talent, thus showing their spirit of
justice and their enlightened patriotism. Party politics have ceased
their discordant cries to join unanimously in honoring our Laureate,
and this is a spectacle of consolation to the country. No commentary
is required on this expression of our joy. It is, in itself, the most
eloquent of proofs that the citizens of Quebec, as well as those of
Montreal, in giving this festival to Mr. Fréchette, have invited all
Canadians, in the largest acceptation of the word, to do him honour.
In concluding, as I know you are anxious to hear him address you this
evening, permit me to make a comparison. One of the most distinguished
of modern poets, Alfred de Musset, said in a moment of despair:--

"J'ai perdu ma force, et ma vie,
Et mes amis, et ma gaîté:
J'ai perdu jusqu'à la fierté
Qui faisait croire à mon génie."

"'I have lost my strength and my life, my friends and my gayety,
almost my very pride, which made me believe in my genius.' We may say
to Mr. Fréchette, as an offset to this cry of despair from one of his
elder poetic brethren: 'Courage! You have strength and life! More
friends than ever! An enthusiasm of gayety which is fathomless! March
on and sing! We are proud of you, and we believe in your genius,
crowned, as it is, by the highest literary tribunal in the world--that
of the Forty Immortals!' (Cheers.)

"The utmost enthusiasm pervaded those present, and when the poet
laureate rose to reply, he was greeted with loud applause, which
continued for several minutes. Mr. Fréchette said:--

"MR. CHAIRMAN AND GENTLEMEN,--For some time past I have abstained from
public speaking, and there are those amongst my best friends who tell
me that I have done well. To-day Montreal [31] and Quebec seem to have
conspired against me, to oblige me to make two speeches on the same
subject. This, though flattering to me, is hardly fair. If, having
pleaded in one sense, I were asked to take the opposite ground, it
might appear that such would not embarrass a lawyer, and one who has
also been a politician, but in my present position I am called upon to
treat the same question twice, and absolutely in the same sense. How
can I discover something new to advance. Naturally, I felt embarrassed
at the outset, but, at any risk, my duty is to respond to your
flattering call, and thus to best avenge myself upon this conspiracy
of my friends. It will not be surprising if I affirm that the occasion
of this reunion has for me a character of especial solemnity. Seated
at this festive board, I see the representatives of different nations,
who, in private capacities also, have won general respect. I see,
also, my fellow-citizens of Quebec and of Levis, my native town--the
schoolmates of my earliest days--_confrères_ in professional
life and in the walks of literature--comrades of past political
struggles--friends, ever indulgent and generous--political leaders of
whom I have always been proud, and gentlemen of various origins,
divergent opinions and different religious beliefs, all tendering me
their warmest congratulations upon the success I have achieved in the
literary world. No words of mine are adequate to express my feelings,
not can I sufficiently thank you all for this spontaneous and
sympathetic demonstration in honour of one who regrets that he is not
more worthy of your favour. I can only accept your evidences of
friendship with cordial emotion, thank you from the depth of my heart
and bear with me from this hall a proud memory which will unite with
the remembrances of my youth, all of which are so intimately
identified with the hospitable people of Quebec, and, in so declaring,
I am but assuring you that this remembrance will ever attend upon me.
The past vouches for this; for when my tent of exile shook in the
winds from off the great Western lakes, or slept on the bowery shores
of Louisianian streams; when my traveller's skiff was rocked on the
waters of the Southern gulfs, or was reflected on the blue waves of
the Loire; when I had before me the wild majesty of Niagara, the
immensity of the ocean, or when, filled with admiration, I paused to
gaze upon the stupendous monuments of the Old World, my thoughts ever
instinctively flew back to the good old city of Champlain,
unparalleled in the world for the picturesque splendor of its site,
and the poetry which no less issues from the very stones of its
fortress, than it lingers upon every page of its history. Yes! Old
Quebec! In all places I have cherished with devotion every memory of
you, for within your walls my heart first opened to the noble teaching
of intellect! It is your lofty embrasures--your flag, bravely floating
in the skies--your abrupt rock, your stretches of ramparts, your
brilliant steeples, reflecting their beauty on the bosom of the St.
Lawrence, mingled with the sails of your cosmopolitan navies; which,
for the first time, awoke the poetic enthusiasm in my breast. Long ago
I first saw these scenes from the window of an humble cottage of
Levis, half-hidden in a screen of foliage; and in my youngest days,
ere I knew the method or formation of a verse, I felt the fluttering
against the cage of my heart of that golden bird, whose sonorous voice
is styled Poetry. In fact, gentlemen, I was carried towards a literary
career from the very outset, and in this connection you will permit me
to relate a little anecdote. You will pardon me if I appear
egotistical, but your cordial reception warrants me in looking for
your indulgence. I had learned to read in a book full of reveries and
sentiment, entitled 'Letters or the poet Gilbert to his sister.' Of
course I understood but little of it, yet it made a deep impression on
my imagination. One day my father, an honest man and good citizen, if
there were ever any such, but who had nothing in common with the
Muses, asked my brother and I what professions we would adopt when we
grew big. 'For me,' replied my happy-hearted brother Edmond, 'I will
be a carter,' and 'I will be a poet,' I immediately added. I still
remember my father's smile of affectionate pity when he heard these
unexpected declarations from the hopes of his declining years. "My
poor children," said he, with a resigned air, "these two occupations
will never lead you to wealth and fortune." Later I understood the
wise reflection of my father, but no one carves out his own destiny
and he must submit to fate. I have vainly tried other careers but
finally was obliged to return to this dream of my infancy. As the poet

"Drive away the natural, and it returns at full speed."

Yes, dear old City of Quebec, so old and so glorious, so beautiful in
your _ensemble_ and so characteristic in your details, so cordial
and so hospitable, in presence of your noblest children assembled here
to welcome me, within your old walls, let me give this testimony, that
if I have had the happiness of causing the Canadian name to be heard
in the immortal shrine of French literature it is to you I owe it, and
to you is my gratitude offered. For I must tell you, gentlemen, that I
loved Quebec too much, at the distance, not to hasten across the
river, when the bird felt that his wings were strong enough to fly. At
that time the greatest of the poets of Quebec, Octave Crémazie, sang
the glories of our ancestors and the brave deeds of old France. His
energetic and inspired voice excited youthful emulation. A group of
budding writers surrounded him, but each one felt timid and hesitated
to tune his notes amongst the loud echoes of his vigorous patriotism.
Alas! the star fled from our skies, another generation of enthusiastic
poets and writers disputed the honour of seizing the lyre, so heavy
for their fingers, which had been left on the rock of Quebec, by the
author of the Flag of Carillon. O! my old comrades, do you think as
frequently as do I, of those old days, when with hearts full of poetic
illusions, we united our talents, our hopes and I might add our
poverty, to establish that spiritual association in which the
beautiful was idolized, seekers as we were after the ideal, dealers in
mental _bijouterie_, despised at first by some, but which
succeeded more than once in directing the attention of literary France
to our shores? Do you, at times, remember our joyful meetings, our
interminable readings, our long hours of continued study and waking
reveries in common--do you yet remember the bewildering evenings in
which the glass of Henri Murger mingled its sonorous tinklings, bright
and merry, to the love-song of our flowery youth? We were all rivals,

"Our hearts, as our lute, vibrated as one,"

and God knows that this rivalry never severed the bonds of affection
which united us, and so was founded what has since been styled the
Mutual Admiration Society. Mutual Admiration Society! If we were to
consider the number of books, dress-coats, gloves and other articles
of more intimate character that were exchanged between us, it might
more safely have been called the Society for Mutual Support. At all
events, from the spectacle before me this evening I gather that this
Society of Mutual Admiration, if admiration it must be termed, has
taken a singular development since I had the honour of assisting so
frequently at its meetings, and there is nothing surprising in this,
since one of the most distinguished of the founders of this society,
Mr. Faucher de St. Maurice, informed me the other day that the society
in question was about to annex the French Academy. (Laughter.) But to
be serious, allow me to recount another anecdote. There was a time,
gentlemen, when our Mutual Admiration was far from being so ambitious
as to dream of having a _succursale_ under the rotunda of the
French Institute. But if our productions were meagre, our revenues
were still more so, and famine often reigned in the chests of the
confraternity. However we had our own days of abundance when there was
corn in Egypt. The first Quebecer who understood that poetry, unlike
perpetual motion, could not feed itself, was a brewer, whose memory is
now legendary and who was known by the harmonious name of McCallum.
Arthur Casgrain, who in a couple of years afterwards we sorrowfully
bore to the cemetery, had thought of composing an Epic on the Grand
Trunk. This was called "La grande Tronciade!" Well in one of the
twelve parts of this production, so very original, there were three
remarkable lines.

"Buvons, buvons, amis, de ce bon maccallome,
Venant directement du brasseur qu'il dénome!
C'est ça qui vous retape et vous refait un homme?"

The effect was magical. The heart of the brewer was touched. A long
waggon on which we could read the eloquent words "pale ale and porter"
stopped next day before our door. For twenty minutes a man with
burthened step climbed the Jacob's ladder which led to the poet's
attic, and one hundred and forty-four bottles of inviting appearance
ranged themselves around the chamber. I cannot picture the joy of the
happy recipient. In his enthusiasm he offered me a community in his
good fortune--of course under a pledge of inviolable secrecy. But as I
felt the imperious necessity of communicating my emotions I was as
wanting in discretion as he had been, and that evening all the
Bohemians, students and literary friends even to the remotest degree
followed in the wake of McCallum's bottles, and invaded the attic
chamber of poor Arthur (your good-natured cousin, Mr. President.)
There we had French, English, Latin and Greek speeches in prose and in
verse. Arsène Michaud has even prepared a story for the occasion. In
brief, the hecatomb was made; the libation was Olympic, the twelve
dozen disappeared and on the morrow poor Casgrain showed me with a sad
face the Homeric remains of his one day's wealth, and in a lamentable
tone of despair he exclaimed: "I will have to write another poem."
Gentlemen, that was the first time in Canada that poetry made a return
to its author, and in tasting these delicate viands which the
hospitable city of Quebec now offers to one of those early Bohemians
in recognition of his literary success, I could not fail to recollect
with emotion this amusing circumstance now enveloped, with other
scenes of youth, sometimes glad--sometimes sorrowful, in the shadowy
robe of past recollections. Another story just suggests itself to my
mind. Lusignan and I occupied the attic of an old house in Palace
street. Our room was heated by a stove-pipe, which reached from the
lower apartments. One day I had published in _Le Canadien_--_Tempora
Mutantur_--a little poem in which was the following line:

"Shivering in my attic poor."

The next day a surprise awaited us. A dumb stove had replaced the mere
stove-pipe, and while holding our sides from laughter we heard this
speech: "Gentlemen, we are very indulgent, considering your noisy
meetings--we are not very particular when rent-day arrives--and if you
_so shivered_ in your room, it would have been better to have
said so privately, than to have complained of it in the newspapers."
(Laughter.) Poor Mrs. Tessier, our landlady--she was not well
acquainted with figures of speech, but she has been the Providence of
many of the destitute, and more than one who hears me now can say as I
do, that no better or more obliging heart ever beat in a more pitiful
bosom towards purseless youth. And who knows, it is perhaps due to
this sympathetic feeling of its population towards literary men and
writers that this city of Quebec has seen such an array of talent
within her bosom, such a succession of Pleiades of distinguished
litterateurs, who have glorified her name and that of their country.
For the last fifty years, men eminent in all branches of literature
have made a gorgeous and resplendent aureole around the city of
Quebec. In the generation immediately preceding us, we see Petitclerc,
Parent, Soulard, Chauveau, Garneau, L'Ecuyer, Ferland, Barthe and Réal
Angers, these grand pioneers of intellect, who in history, poetry,
drama and romance, made such a wide opening for the generation which
followed them. Then we have l'Abbé Laverdière, l'Abbé Casgrain,
LeMoine, Fiset, Taché, Plamondon, LaRue, and the first among all
Octave Crémazie, who coming at different times bravely and constantly
continued the labours of their predecessors, until we reach the
brilliant phalanx of contemporary writers, Lemay, Fabre, l'Abbé Begin,
Routhier, Oscar Dunn, Faucher de St. Maurice, Buies, Marmette and
Legendre, all charged with the glorious task of preserving for Quebec
her legitimate title of the Athens of Canada. And how could it be
otherwise? Is not Quebec the cradle of our nationality--the spot
whereon is engraved the most illustrious pages of our history--heroic
annals, touching souvenirs, all combining with the marvels of nature
to speak here the soul of the historian and of the poet. What a
flourishing field for the historian and poet is not the tale of that
handful of Breton heroes, who, three centuries ago, planted on the
rock of Quebec the flag of Christianity and civilization! What
innumerable sources of inspiration can we not find in our majestic
river, our gigantic lakes, our grand cascades, our lofty mountains,
our impenetrable forests and in all that grand and wild nature, which
will ever be the characteristic feature of our dear Canada. Oh! our
history, gentlemen! Oh, the picturesque beauties of our country! Two
marvellous veins--two mines of precious material open at our feet. The
European writers are ever striving to discover something fresh. Having
exhausted all kinds of themes, they are now stooping to the dust to
find an originality which seems to fly from them. Well, this
freshness, this originality, so courted and so rare now-a-days, may be
found within our grasp,--it is there in our historical archives--in
our patriarchal customs--in the many characters of a people young and
thirsting for independence--a robust and healthy poetry, floats on our
breezes--breathes in our popular songs--sings in the echoes of our
wild forests, and opens graceful and proud her white wings to the
winds of the free aspirations of the new world. To us this virgin
field belongs, gentlemen! Take from Europe her form and experience,
but leave to her, her old Muses. Let us be true to ourselves! Be
Canadians and the future is ours. "That which strikes us most in your
poems" said a member of the French Academy to me, "is that the modern
style, the Parisian style of your verses is united to something
strange, so particular and singular--it seems an exotic, disengaged
from the entire." This perfume of originality which this writer
discovered in my writings was then unknown to myself. What was it? It
was the secret of their nationality,--the certificate of their origin,
their Canadian stamp! And it is important for us, gentlemen, never to
allow this character to disappear. Let our young writers stamp it
broadly on their pages and then advance to their task, they need no
longer fear the thorns on the way. The path is wide open and millions
of readers await their efforts. To the work then; France offers us her
hand, and now that we have renewed the bonds between us and our
illustrious and well-beloved mother country--bonds broken by the
vicissitudes which occur in the life of peoples, we shall be enabled
once more to prove the great truth enunciated by Bulwer Lytton in
"_Richelieu_," that

"The pen is mightier than the sword."

The Chairman called upon Hon. Wilfred Laurier to propose the next

Hon. Mr. Laurier, on being called on to propose the toast of the
Academy of France, was loudly cheered on rising, and the enthusiasm
became the greater as he advanced, showing the many claims the great
French tribunal of letters had upon the attention of the learned word.
He spoke of the old ties which bound France and Canada, and alluded to
the argument of Doucet, the French Academician, in favour of the
admission of Fréchette to the French _concours_, viz., that when
France was in the throes of agony, the voice of French Canada spoke
out its loud attachment to the cause of the ancient mother country. In
such action was the forgotten daughter restored to its sorrowing
mother. The hon. gentleman then in language of forcible eloquence
referred to the pleasure shown by English-Canadians at the success of
Mr. Fréchette, and concluded a highly intellectual and eloquent
speech, amidst the reiterated cheers of the whole assemblage.

The Chairman then proposed the toast of English and French literature.

Mr. George Stewart, jr., who on rising was greeted with cheers,

MR. CHAIRMAN AND GENTLEMEN:--I must thank you for the very
enthusiastic manner in which you have just drank to this toast, and
for the cordiality with which you have been good enough to receive my
name. Before asking you to consider with me the subject which has just
been so happily proposed from the chair, I would ask your permission
to say how gratified I am at being present, this evening, to assist
you in paying homage to one whom we all delight to honour, and at
whose feet it is our special privilege to sit. (Cheers.) It is all of
seventeen years since Mr. Fréchette gave to the public, in a little
book, the best fruits of his youthful muse, but those early efforts of
his mind gave abundant promise of future excellence and hope,--a
promise which has since been admirably and delightfully fulfilled. I
cannot tell you how proud we all feel,--we who speak the English
tongue, alike with you who utter the liquid and mellow language of
Béranger and De Musset,--that the "Forty Immortals" of Mother France,
recognized in Mr. Fréchette,--what all of us knew before,--that he was
a tender and graceful poet, and that his work is as pure and sweet as
anything to be found in the lyric poetry of our time. (Cheers.) Mr.
Fréchette had not to go abroad to find that out, but it is pleasing to
us all to find our opinions confirmed and ratified by the highest
authority in France. I again thank you, gentlemen, for the privilege
which you have afforded me of saying these few words regarding our
laurel-crowned poet and guest. (Applause.) With regard to the subject
which has brought me to my feet, what am I to say? I might dilate upon
the beauties of Chaucer's _Canterbury Tales_, or Edmund Spenser's
immortal _Faerie Queene_, or Shakespeare's tender women, the
_Juliet_ we love, the Rosalind who is ever in our hearts, the
Beatrice, the Imogen, gentle Ophelia, or kindly but ill-starred
Desdemona, or the great heroes of tragedy, Lear, Macbeth, Hamlet or
Othello, or I might ask you to hear a word about Ben Jonson, "rare
Ben," or poor Philip Massinger who died a stranger, of the Puritan
Milton, the great Catholic Dryden, or Swift, or Bunyan, Defoe,
Addison, Pope and Burke and grim Sam Johnson who made the dictionary
and wrote Rasselas, the Prince of Abyssinia, but there is not time for
us to go into the subject as minutely as that. At a dinner of this
kind, which is so rich in every delicacy which the most sensitive
palate could desire, and which boasts wines as delicate and as
fragrant in bouquet as one of Mr. Fréchette's sonnets--(Cheers)--and I
might add also as one of my friend LeMay's hopefullest lyrics--
(Cheers), it would be ungenerous of me to keep you very long. I will
content myself therefore with a remark or two regarding the peculiar
features which seem to inspire our literature, at the present time,
and by our literature I mean English literature in its broadest sense
and amplest significance. Perhaps at no period of letters, in the
whole history of literature from the days of Chaucer and Raleigh, from
the renaissance, through the classic period, to more modern times, to
our own day in fact, has the cultured world seen such a brilliant
array of brilliant men and women, who write the English prose which
delights our fire-sides, and enriches our minds at the present time.
The world has never presented to mankind before, in all its years of
usefulness, such a galaxy of great essayists and novelists as we have
enjoyed and enjoy now, within a period of fifty or sixty years, and
which properly belong to our own age. The era is rich in stalwart
minds, in magnificent thinkers, in splendid souls. Carlyle, Emerson,
Wilson, Morley, Froude, Holmes, Harrison, Darwin, Huxley, Spencer,
Mill, Buckle, Lewes. In fiction the list is too long for mention, but,
in passing, I may note George Eliot--a woman who writes as if her soul
had wings, William Black who paints almost as deftly as Walter Scott,
Thomas Hardy, Anthony Trollope, Thackeray, Dickens, Reade, William
Howells, who has not forgotten to write of the grandeur of the
Saguenay, and William Kirby whose _Chien d'Or_ will serve to keep
a memory green in many a Quebecer's heart. I need hardly name more.
The list could, I am well aware, be extended indefinitely, and as each
of you doubtless has your favourite novelist, I need not waste your
time by the simple enumeration of men and women who have from time to
time, beguiled away the hours with their stories of the heart, or of
purpose, or of endeavour. We get _blasé_ now and then perhaps
through the reading of so many moderns, but the cure for that lies
within easy range. We can take a peep at those old fellows in old-
fashioned bindings, who used to delight our grandfathers in the "brave
days of old," when Richardson told the story of "Pamela," and
"Clarissa Harlowe," when Fielding wrote "Tom Jones," and Smollett
narrated the history of "Humphrey Clinker," and the career of
"Tristram Shandy" found a truthful historian in that mad parson
Lawrence Sterne. We might even read those ancient authors, ancient in
style at least, for a change, and still be reading English literature
in its truest and widest sense. But it is less with the fiction-
writers that we have to deal, than with the thinkers who have given to
_belles-lettres_ in this age, its robustness and vigour. In
political economy, in scientific thought, in history, in moral
philosophy and in polite learning, and in criticism, I think our day
has produced the greatest teachers, as well as the largest number of
them since the English tongue had a literature of its own. (Applause.)
This is true at least in prose writing. I know that in poetry we are
surpassed in grandeur and majesty by the bards of other periods of our
mental activity, I know that we have not produced a Milton yet, nor a
Dryden, nor a Pope--I leave Shakespeare and Chaucer out of the
question, nor a Spenser. We have very many more than our share of
really tuneful singers and fine poets like Tennyson and Longfellow,
Morris and Swinburne, the Arnolds and Lowell--all of them sweet and in
every way charming, none of them grand and magnificent like the sons
of song of the great days of poesy. We have singers and singers, minor
poets and minor poets, all engaged in weaving for our delight very
many pretty fancies; graceful story-tellers in verse, if you will, but
our chief strength lies in prose, sober, scholarly and healthful
prose. Our fame will rest on that branch of the service. (Applause.)
Turning to Canada, I might say that our mental outfit is by no means
beggarly. In fiction we have produced, and I confine myself
particularly to those who have written in English, Judge Haliburton,
James DeMille, Wm. Kirby, John Lesperance. (Applause.) In poetry,
Heavysege, John Reade, Roberts, Charles Sangster, Wm. Murdoch,
Chandler, Howe; in history, Beamish Murdoch, Todd, Morgan, Hannay, Mr.
LeMoine--(Applause)--whom I see present here to night; Dr. Miles, Mr.
Harper, the efficient Rector of our High School, and others of more or
less repute. In Science, Dr. Dawson and Sir Wm. Logan; in logic, Wm.
Lyall; in rhetoric, James DeMille. In political and essay writing we
have a good list, the most prominent names being Goldwin Smith, whom
we may fairly claim, Bourinot, Haliburton, Todd, Howe, Elder, Ellis,
Griffin, Anglin, Dymond, McDougall, White. (Cheers.) And here I would
just say to you--for I have spoken longer than I intended--over-taxed
your patience I fear very much--that we must, if we would ever become
great in helping to form current thought and the intellectual movement
of the day, renounce all sectionalism in letters, and go in for the
great goal which all may aspire to who wish. When the French Academy
hailed our friend Fréchette as a brother poet, the act was not done
because he was a Canadian, but because he was a poet, writing and
speaking the French tongue. (Applause.) There is no such thing really
as Canadian literature or American literature. It is all English
literature, and we should all strive to add to the glory of that
literature. We can do it, in our way, as well as Moore and Lover and
Lever and Carleton and McGee did, when they added the splendid work of
their genius to build up the renown and prestige of the parent stock.
(Applause.) As Scott and Burns, Dunbar and Hector McNeill, and
Tannahill and James Hogg and bluff "Kit North;" all of Scotland, did
to make the English literature massive and spirited and grand.
(Applause.) As Hawthorne and Longfellow, Holmes and Bryant, Cooper and
Irving, and Motley did, and as our own John Reade (cheers) and Charles
Roberts, a new poet whose star has just arisen, and Bourinot--
(cheers)--and the rest of them are doing now. We must forget the small
localism which can do us no good, and join the great brotherhood of
letters which writes the world over, in the English tongue. France,
Germany and Russia, Italy and Spain teem with the grand work of their
children. We who speak and write in the English language must not be
unmindful of our several duties. We must work for the attainment of
the great end, the development of English literature, of which we are
as truly a part as the authors of the United States, of Scotland, of
Ireland and of England. English literature does not mean simply a
literature written solely by Englishmen. It takes its name from the
fact that it draws its nourishment from all writers who write in
English, and Scotchmen, Irishmen, Americans, and colonists, as well as
citizens of England are invited to add to its greatness and
permanency. I thank you Mr. Chairman and you gentlemen for your
kindness and forbearance in listening to me so long, and so patiently.
(Loud continued cheering.)

Mr. Lemay, in replying for French literature, said--It is particularly
agreeable to be called on to speak on this occasion because it affords
me the opportunity to render to our host an evidence of the admiration
and friendship which I bear towards him this evening. It is now over
twenty years since we were together at College, and the same tastes
which pleased us then govern us now. The same destiny which led us
towards the bar guided us also on the paths of literature. The speaker
here improvised a magnificent address to the genius of French-Canadian
letters. He alluded to the first pages of Canadian history written in
the blood of martyrs, thus giving to the Canadian people a literature
of heroes. The speaker then traced the changeful epochs from the days
of the soldiers of the sword to the warriors of the pen, and he drew
forth loud applause as he alluded to the brave polemists who traced
their literary endeavors in the brave work of defending their country
and redeeming its liberties. In quoting Sir Geo. Cartier's well known
line, "O Canada, my country and my love," ("O Canada, mon pays, mes
amours,") the eloquent orator elicited the warm and hearty applause of
the assemblage. From the troublous days of 1837 to the present moment,
Mr. Lemay reviewed the various efforts at literary renown of the
French Canadian people, and concluded one of the finest speeches of
the evening amidst the tumultuous applause of his sympathising

The next toast was that of the Literary and Historical Society and of
the _Institut Canadien_ of Quebec.

Mr. J. M. LeMoine, in replying to the first part of the toast said:--

GENTLEMEN,--In the name of the Literary and Historical Society of
Quebec, I thank you cordially for the health just proposed--As the
President of a society numbering close on 400 members, who though
diverse in creed and language, are united for one common object--the
promotion of culture and science and the encouragement of historical
studies,--I cannot help feeling I stand here somehow in the character
of a representative man. In tendering a welcome to Mr. Fréchette, our
honoured guest, I can add but little to the sentiments conveyed in the
resolution adopted at our last meeting and which you have heard read.
In presence of so many distinguished persons, several of whom have
made their mark, at the Bar--or on the Bench--the forum--in
literature--in the bank parlor or in the counting house,--with so many
fluent speakers here present and prepared to applaud, with all the
graces of oratory and fervour of patriotism,--the distinction
conferred on French Canada, by the highest literary tribunal in
France--convinced myself of the honour which Mr. Fréchette's laurels
must confer on this ancient and picturesque Province of Quebec, with
its glorious though yet unrevealed destinies, I feel proud as a
Canadian in standing here, the bearer even of a solitary rosebud for
the fragrant _bouquet_, which a grateful country offers this
night to its gifted child. Alas! had not the relentless hand [32] of
death--had not a self-imposed fate, darker even than death, removed
from our midst, another "mind pregnant with celestial fire," Canada
this night might possibly have counted two laurel-crowned poets--Louis
Honoré Fréchette and Octave Crémazie. For I am not one of those who
refuse to recognize Canadian talent; on the contrary, I feel myself
moved to rejoice in our wealth of intellect. I am reminded to be
brief; around me there is a surging stream of eloquence ready to burst
through its floodgates. I must give way. With your permission, I shall
therefore merely ask a question. What propitious turn of fortune?
which of the benign fairies who watched over his natal hour has Mr.
Fréchette to thank for his present success? How came it to pass that,
though he was born a poet, he should have to undergo an ordeal like
another great poet (whom posterity may specially claim as an
historian) the author of the "Lays of Ancient Rome," of emancipating
himself from his earthy--at one time not burdensome--thraldom before
soaring on the wings of poesy to that lofty region, where his classic
diction and lyric power attracted the attention of those worthy but
fastidious gentlemen, yclept "The Forty Immortals of the French
Academy." I have mentioned a very illustrious name in the Republic of
Letters,--a name as dear to Britain as that of our Laureate ought to
be to Canada--that of Macaulay--historian, essayist, poet. You all
know how his parliamentary defeat as candidate for Edinburgh in 1847,
rescued him forever from the "dismal swamp" of politics, providing his
wondrous mind, with leisure to expand and mature, in the green fields
of literature. If New France has not yet produced such a gorgeous
genius as he, of whom all those who speak Chatham's tongue are so
justly proud, it has however out of its sparse population of one
million, put forth a representative whom Old France with its thirty-
eight millions has deemed a fit subject to honour in an unmistakable
way. Shall I tell you how, figuratively, if you should prefer, ended
for Fréchette the "day of tumult"?

That _Ignis Fatuus_, ambition, has allured, as you are aware,
more than one youthful fowler to an uncertain swampy hunting ground,
called "politics." Mr. Fréchette was one of the unfortunate. This game
preserve, I pronounce "uncertain" because owing to several
inexplicable eventualities sportsmen innumerable, therefrom return
empty handed, whilst others, Mr. Chairman, make up, we know, pretty
good bags. The Son of Apollo, whilst thus hunting one gruesome, windy
morning, fortunately for us, sank in a boggy, yielding quicksand.
Luckily he extricated himself in time, and on reaching the margin of
the swamp, there stood an old pet of his tethered as if waiting for
its loved rider, a vigorous Norman or Percheron steed. Our friend
bestrode him, cantered off, and never drew rein until he stood,
panting perhaps, but a winner in the race, on the top of a mount,
distant and of access arduous, called Parnassus.

In conclusion, Mr. LeMoine quoted the memorable lines from Macaulay,
written the night when his parliamentary defeat at Edinburgh, in 1847,
restored him to letters:--

The day of tumult, strife, defeat, was o'er,
Worn out with toil, and noise, and scorn, and spleen,
I slumbered and in slumber saw once more
A room in an old mansion, long unseen.

That room, methought, was curtained from the light;
Yet through the curtains shone the moon's cold ray
Full on a cradle, where, in linen white,
Sleeping life's first sleep, an infant lay.

* * * * *

And lo! the fairy queens who rule our birth
Drew nigh to speak the new-born baby's doom:
With noiseless step, which left no trace on earth,
From gloom they came, and vanished into gloom.

Not deigning on the boy a glance to cast
Swept careless by the gorgeous Queen of Gain.
More scornful still, the Queen of Fashion passed,
With mincing gait and sneer of cold disdain.

The Queen of Power tossed high her jewelled head
And o'er her shoulder threw a wrathful frown.
The Queen of Pleasure on the pillow shed
Scarce one stray rose-leaf from her fragrant crown.

Still fay in long procession followed fay;
And still the little couch remained unblest:
But, when those wayward sprites had passed away,
Came One, the last, the mightiest, and the best.

Oh! glorious lady, with the eyes of light,
And laurels clustering round thy lofty brow,
Who by the cradle's side didst watch that night,
Warbling a sweet strange music, who wast thou?

"Yes, darling; let them go," so ran the strain:
"Yes; let them go, gain, fashion, pleasure, power,
And all the busy elves to whose domain
Belongs the nether sphere, the fleeting hour.

"Without one envious sigh, one anxious scheme,
The nether sphere, the fleeting hour assign.
Mine is the world of thought, the world of dream,
Mine all the past, and all the future mine.

* * * * *

"Of the fair brotherhood who share my grace,
I, from thy natal day, pronounce thee free;
And, if for some I keep a nobler place,
I keep for none a happier than for thee.

* * * * *

"No; when on restless night dawns cheerless morrow,
When weary soul and wasting body pine,
Thine am I still in danger, sickness, sorrow,
In conflict, obloquy, want, exile, thine;

"Thine where on mountain waves the snowbirds scream,
Where more than Thule's winter barbs the breeze,
Where scarce, through lowering clouds, one sickly gleam
Lights the drear May-day of Antarctic seas;

* * * * *

"Amidst the din of all things fell and vile,
Hate's yell, and envy's hiss, and folly's bray,
Remember me!"



In Professor Kalm's saunter round Quebec, his description of the public
edifices, in 1749, is worthy of note:

"The Palace (Château Saint Louis) says he, is situated on the west or
steepest side of the mountain, just, above the lower city. It is not
properly a palace, but a large building of stone, two stories high,
extending north and south. On the west side of it is a court-yard,
surrounded partly with a wall, and partly with houses. On the east
side, or towards the river, is a gallery as long as the whole
building, and about two fathoms broad, paved with smooth flags, and
included on the outside by iron rails, from whence the city and the
river exhibit a charming prospect. This gallery serves as a very
agreeable walk after dinner, and those who come to speak with the
Governor-General wait here till he is at leisure. The palace is the
lodging of the Governor-General of Canada, and a number of soldiers
mount the guard before it, both at the gate and in the court-yard; and
when the Governor, or the Bishop comes in or goes out, they must all
appear in arms and beat the drum. The Governor-General has his own
chapel where he hears prayers; however, he often goes to Mass at the
church of the _Récollets_, which is very near the palace."

Such it seemed, in 1749, to the learned Swedish naturalist and philosopher
Peter Kalm. How many rainbow tints, poetry and romance can lend to the
same object, we may learn from the brilliant Niagara novelist, William
Kirby! In his splendid historical novel "Le Chien d'Or," whilst venturing
on the boldest flights of imagination, he thus epitomises some striking
historical features of the state residence of the French Viceroys of

"The great hall of the Castle of St. Louis was palatial in its
dimensions and adornment. The panels of wainscoting upon the walls
were hung with paintings of historic interest--portraits of the Kings,
Governors, Intendants and Ministers of State, who had been
instrumental in the colonization of New France.

"Over the Governor's seat hung a gorgeous escutcheon of the Royal
arms, draped with a cluster of white flags, sprinkled with golden
lilies--the emblems of French sovereignty in the colony; among the
portraits on the walls, beside those of the late (Louis XIV.,) and
present King (Louis XV)--which hung on each side of the throne--might
be seen the features of Richelieu, who first organized the rude
settlements on the St. Lawrence in a body politic--a reflex of feudal
France; and of Colbert, who made available its natural wealth and
resources, by peopling it with the best scions of the Mother Land--the
noblesse and peasantry of Normandy, Brittany and Aquitaine. There,
too, might be seen the keen, bold features of Cartier, the first
discoverer, and of Champlain, the first explorer of the new land, and
the founder of Quebec. The gallant, restless Louis Buade de Frontenac
was pictured there, side by side with his fair countess, called, by
reason of her surpassing loveliness, "The Divine." Vaudreuil, too, who
spent a long life of devotion to his country, and Beauharnois, who
nourished its young strength until it was able to resist, not only the
powerful confederacy of the Five Nations, but the still more powerful
league of New England and the other English Colonies. There, also,
were seen the sharp intellectual face of Laval, its first bishop, who
organized the church and education in the colony; and of Talon, wisest
of Intendants, who devoted himself to the improvement of agriculture,
the increase of trade, and the well being of all the King's subjects
in New France. And one more portrait was there, worthy to rank among
the statesmen and rulers of New France--the pale, calm, intellectual
features of Mère Marie de l'Incarnation--the first superior of the
Ursulines of Quebec, who in obedience to heavenly visions, as she
believed, left France to found schools for the children of the new
colonists, and who taught her own womanly graces to her own sex, who
were destined to become the future mothers of New France." (Page 109.)

It were difficult to group on a smaller and brighter canvass, so many of
the glorious figures of our storied past.

In the days of de Montmagny and later, the _Jesuits' Journal_ retraces gay
scenes at the Château in connection with the festivals of the patron
saints, of St. Joseph, whose anniversary occurred on the 19th March, and
of St. John the Baptist, whose _fête_ happened on the 24th June.

For a long time the old Château, was the meeting place of the Superior

"On any Monday morning one would have found the Superior Council in
session in the antechamber of the Governor's apartment, at the Château
St. Louis. The members sat at a round table, at the head was the
Governor, with the Bishop on his right and the Intendant on his left.
The councillors sat in the order of their appointment, and the
attorney-general also had his place at the board. As La Hontan says,
they were not in judicial robes, but in their ordinary dress and all
but the Bishop wore swords. The want of the cap and the gown greatly
disturbed the Intendant Meules, and he begs the Minister to consider
how important it is that the councillors, in order to inspire respect,
should appear in public in long black robes, which on occasions of
ceremony they should exchange for robes of red. He thinks that the
principal persons of the colony should thus be induced to train up
their children to so enviable a dignity; "and" he concludes, "as none
of the councillors can afford to buy red robes, I hope that the King
will vouchsafe to send out nine such; as for the black robes, they can
furnish those themselves."

"The King did not respond, and the nine robes never arrived. The
official dignity of the Council was sometimes exposed to trials
against which even red gowns might have proven an insufficient
protection. The same Intendant urges that the tribunal ought to be
provided immediately with a house _of its own_."

"It is not decent," he says, "that it should sit in the Governor's
antechamber any longer. His guards and valets make such a noise, that
we cannot hear each other speak. I have continually to tell them to
keep quiet, which causes them to make a thousand jokes at the
councillors as they pass in and out. As the Governor and the council
were often on ill terms, the official head of the colony could not
always be trusted to keep his attendants on their good behaviour."
(Parkman's _Old Regime_, p. 273.)

At other times, startling incidents threw a pall over the old pile. Thus
in August 1666, we are told of the melancholy end of a famous Indian
warrior: "Tracy invited the Flemish Bastard and a Mohawk chief named
Agariata to his table, when allusion was made to the murder of Chasy. On
this the Mohawk, stretching out his arm, exclaimed in a Braggart tone,
"This is the hand that split the head of that young man." The indignation
of the company may be imagined. Tracy told his insolent guest that he
should never kill anybody else; and he was led out and hanged in presence
of the Bastard. [33]

Varied in language and nationality were the guests of the Château in days
of yore: thus in 1693, the proud old Governor Frontenac had at one and the
same time Baron Saint Castin's Indian father-in-law, Madocawando, from
Acadia, and "a gentleman of Boston, John Nelson, captured by Villebon, the
nephew and heir of Sir Thomas Temple, in whose right he claimed the
proprietorship of Acadia, under an old grant of Oliver Cromwell."
(Parkman's _Frontenac_, p. 357.)


Ere one of the last vestiges of the _ancien régime_, Haldimand Castle,
disappears, a few details culled from reliable sources may not be
unacceptable, especially as by fire, repairs and the vicissitudes of time,
the changes are so great, as to render difficult the delineation of what
it originally formed part of in the past.

Grave misconceptions exist as to what constituted the stately residence of
our former Governors. Many imagine that the famous _Château St. Louis_,
was but one structure, whilst in reality, it was composed at one time of
three, viz:--Fort St. Louis, Château St. Louis and Haldimand Castle, the
present Normal School. The writer has succeeded in collecting together
nine views of the Fort and Château St. Louis since the days of Champlain
down to modern times. Champlain's "brass bell" is conspicuous in more than
one of the designs.

According to Father DuCreux, the first fort erected by Champlain on the
crest of the promontory, _arx aedificata in promontarii cuspidine_,
was not placed on the site of Dufferin Terrace, but at the south-east
point of the area, which is now occupied by the Grand Battery, north-east
of the present Parliament building and looking down on Sault-au-Matelot
street. Champlain subsequently removed it to a still more elevated site;
its bastions, towers and ramparts surrounded the space on which the former
Governor's residence, soldier's barracks, magazine, &c., were constructed.

"The fortress, says Bouchette, (Fort) of St. Louis covered about four
acres of ground, and formed nearly a parallelogram; on the western
side two strong bastions on each angle were connected by a curtain, in
the centre of which was a sallyport: the other faces presented works
of nearly a similar description, but of less dimensions." [34]

We may add that Fort St. Louis, shown on the plan of Quebec of 1660,
published by Abbé Faillon, and more plainly exhibited on Jeffery's map of
Quebec, published in London in 1760, disappears after the conquest. No
mention is made of it in 1775, and still less in 1784, as a fortress.

Champlain, in his deposition, [35] sworn to, on the 9th Nov. 1629, in
London, before the Right Worshipful Sir Henry Martin, Knight, Judge of the
High Court of Admiralty, describes minutely, the armament and belongings
of Fort St. Louis, on the 9th August 1629, when he surrendered it to the
Kirkes: cannon such as they were, and ammunition he seems to have had in
abundance, without forgetting what he styles "the murderers with their
double boxes or charges," a not excessively deadly kind of
_mitrailleuse_ or Gatling gun, we should imagine; the Fort also contained
a smith's forge, carpenter's tools, machinery for a windmill, and a
handmill to grind corn, a brass bell--probably to sound the tocsin, or
alarm, at the approach of the marauding savages of Stadacona, the array
of muskets--(thirteen complete)--is not formidable. Who was the maker of
his pistol-proof coats-of-mail?


"Such dusky grandeur clothed the height
Where the huge castle holds its state,
And all the steep slope down
Whose ridgy back heaves to the sky,
Piled deep and massy, close and high
Mine own romantic town."
(Scott's _Marmion_.)

"Few circumstances of discussion and enquiry, says Hawkins, are more
interesting than the history and fate of ancient buildings, especially
if we direct our attention to the fortunes and vicissitudes of those
who were connected with them. The temper, genius and pursuits of an
historical era are frequently delineated in the features of remarkable
edifices, nor can any one contemplate them without expressing
curiosity, concerning those who first formed the plan, and afterwards
created and tenanted the structure. These observations apply
particularly to the subject of this chapter.

The history of the ancient Castle of St. Louis, or Fort of Quebec, for
above two centuries the seat of Government in the Province (of
Quebec), affords subjects of great and stirring interest during its
several periods. The hall of the old Fort during the weakness of the
colony was often a scene of terror and despair at the inroads of the
persevering and ferocious Iroquois, who, having passed or overthrown
all the French outposts, more than once threatened the fort itself and
massacred some friendly Indians within sight of its walls. Here, too,
in intervals of peace, were laid those benevolent plans for the
religious instruction and conversion of the savages which at one time
distinguished the policy of the ancient governors. At a later era,
when, under the protection of the French kings, the province had
acquired the rudiments of military strength and power, the Castle of
St. Louis was remarkable as having been the site whence the French
governors exercised an immense sovereignty, extending from the Gulf of
St. Lawrence, along the shores of that noble river, its magnificent
lakes, and down the course of the Mississippi to its outlet below New
Orleans. The banner which first streamed from the battlements of
Quebec was displayed from a chain of forts which protected the
settlements throughout this vast extent of country, keeping the
English colonies in constant alarm, and securing the fidelity of the
Indian nations. During this period the council-chamber of the castle
was the scene of many a midnight vigil [36]--many a long deliberation
and deep-laid project to free the continent from the intrusion of the
ancient rival of France and assert the supremacy of the Gallic lily.
At another era, subsequent to the surrender of Quebec to the British
armies, and until the recognition of the independence of the United
States, the extent of empire of the government of which the Castle of
Quebec was the principal seat, comprehended the whole American
continent north of Mexico. It is astonishing to reflect for a moment,
to how small, and, as to size, comparatively insignificant an island
in the Atlantic ocean this gigantic territory was once subject. Here
also was rendered to the representative of the French king, with all
its ancient forms, the fealty and homage of the noblesse and military
retainers, who held possessions in the province under the crown. A
feudal ceremony, suited to early times, which imposed a real and
substantial obligation on those who performed it, not to be violated
without forfeiture and dishonour. The king of Great Britain having
succeeded to the rights of the French crown, this ceremony is still

"Fealty and homage is rendered at this day (1834) by the seigniors to
the Governor, as the representative of the sovereign, in the following
form: His Excellency being in full dress and seated in a state chair,
surrounded by his staff, and attended by the Attorney-General, the
seignior, in an evening dress and wearing a sword, is introduced into
his presence by the Inspector General of the Royal Domain and Clerk of
the Land Roll, and having delivered up his sword, and kneeling upon
one knee before the Governor, places his right hand between his and
repeats the ancient oath of fidelity; after which a solemn act is
drawn up in a register kept for that purpose, which is signed by the
Governor and the seignior, and countersigned by the proper officers."
--(Hawkin's _Picture of Quebec_.)

The historian, Ferland, _Notes sur les Registres de Notre Dame de
Quebec_, relates one of the earliest instances (1634) of the manner
the _foi et hommage_ was rendered. It is that of Jean Guion (Dion?)
vassal of Robert Giffard, seignior of Beauport: "Guion presents
himself in the presence of a notary, at the principal door of the
manor-house of Beauport; having knocked, one Boulle, farmer of
Giffard, opened the door and in reply to Guion's question, if the
seignior was at home, replied that he was not, but that he, Boulle,
was empowered to receive acknowledgments and homage for the vassals in
his name. After the which reply, the said Guion, being at the
principal door, placed himself on his knees, on the ground, with bare
head and without sword or spurs, and said three times these words:
'Monsieur de Beauport, Monsieur de Beauport, Monsieur de Beauport, I
bring you the faith and homage which I am bound to bring you on
account of my _fief_ Du Buisson, which I hold as a man of faith
of your seigniory of Beauport, declaring that I offer to pay my
seigniorial and feudal dues in their season, and demanding of you to
accept me in faith and homage as aforesaid.'" (Parkman's _Old
Regime_, p 246.)

"Of these buildings (says Bouchette), the Castle of St. Louis being
the most prominent object on the summit of the rock--will obtain the
first notice.

"It is a handsome stone building seated near the edge of a precipice,
* * and supported towards the steep by a solid work of masonry, rising
nearly half the height of the edifice, and surmounted by a spacious
gallery, * * * The whole pile is 162 feet long by 45 feet broad, and
three stories high * * * Each extremity is terminated by a small wing,
giving to the whole an easy and regular character.

"It was built shortly after the city was fortified with solid works,
* * *--for a long series of years it was neglected, so much as to be
suffered to go to decay, and ceasing to be the residence of the
Commander-in-Chief, was used only for the offices of Government until
the year 1808, when a resolution passed the Provincial Parliament for
repairing and beautifying it; the sum of £1,000 was at the same time
voted, and the work forthwith commenced.

"The money applied was inadequate to defray the expenses--upon the
grand scale the improvements were commenced, but an additional grant
was made to cover the whole charge, * * *

"Sir James Craig took possession of it, etc.

"The part properly called the Château occupies one side of the square
or court-yard; on the opposite side stands an extensive building
(Haldimand Castle) divided among the offices of Government, both civil
and military, that are under the immediate control of the Governor, it
contains also a handsome suite of apartments where the balls and other
public entertainments of the court are always given. During the
dilapidated state of the Château, this building was occupied by the
family of the Governors. Both the exterior and the interior are in a
very plain style, it forms part of the curtain that ran between the
two exterior bastions of the old fortress of St. Louis, adjoining it
are several other buildings of smaller size, appropriated to similar
uses, a guard house, stables, and extensive riding house, of these
works only a few vestiges remain, except the eastern wall, which is
kept in solid repair. The new guard house and stables, both fronting
the parade, have a very neat exterior, the first forms the arc of a
circle and has a colonnade before it, the stables are attached to the
riding house, which is spacious, and in every way well adapted to its
intended purpose, it is also used for drilling the city militia"--
(Bouchette's _Topography of Lower Canada_, 1815, p. 431-4.)

The brilliant biographer of "Frontenac" and author of the, "Old Regime,"
thus sums up from the official correspondence of the French Governors and
Intendants the foundation, reconstructions and alterations in the Fort and

"This structure," says Francis Parkman, "destined to be famous in
Canadian history, was originally built by Samuel de Champlain. The
cellar still remains under the wooden platform of the present Durham
(now Dufferin) Terrace. Behind the château was the area of the fort,
now an open square. In the most famous epoch of its history, the time
of Frontenac, the château was old and dilapidated, and the fort was in
sad condition." "The walls are all down," writes Frontenac in 1681,
"there are neither gates nor guard-houses, the whole place is open."
On this the new Intendant Meules was ordered to report what repairs
were needed. Meanwhile la Barre had come to replace Frontenac, whose
complaints he repeats. He says that the wall is in ruins for a
distance of a hundred and eighty _toises_. "The workmen ask 6,000
francs to repair it. I could get it done in France for 2,000. The cost
frightens me. I have done nothing."--(_La Barre au Ministre_, 1682).
Meules, however, received orders to do what was necessary, and, two
years later, he reports that he had rebuilt the wall, repaired the
fort, and erected a building, intended at first for the council,
within the area. This building stood near the entrance of the present
St. Louis street, and was enclosed by an extension of the fort wall.

Denonville next appears on the scene, with his usual disposition to
fault-finding. "The so-called château," he says (1685), "is built of
wood, and is dry as a match. There is a place where with a bundle of
straw it could be set on fire at any time,... some of the gates will
not close, there is no watchtower, and no place to shoot from."--
(_Denonville au Ministre_, 20 _Août_, 1685).

When Frontenac resumed the Government, he was much disturbed at the
condition of the château, and begged for slate to cover the roof, as
the rain was coming in everywhere. At the same time the Intendant
Champigny reports it to be rotten and ruinous. This was in the year
made famous by the English attack, and the dramatic scene in the hall
of the old building when Frontenac defied the envoy of Admiral Phipps,
whose fleet lay in the river below. In the next summer, 1691,
Frontenac again asks for slate to cover the roof, and for 15,000 or
20,000 francs to repair his mansion.

In the next year the king promised to send him 12,000 francs, in
instalments. Frontenac acknowledges the favour, and says that he will
erect a new building, and try in the meantime not to be buried under
the old one, as he expects to be every time the wind blows hard.--
(_Frontenac au Ministre_, 15 _Septembre_, 1692). A misunderstanding
with the Intendant, who had control of the money, interrupted the
work. Frontenac writes the next year that he had been "obliged to send
for carpenters during the night, to prop up the château, lest he
should be crushed under the ruins." The wall of the fort was, however,
strengthened, and partly rebuilt to the height of sixteen feet, at a
cost of 13,629 francs. It was a time of war, and a fresh attack was
expected from the English.--(_Frontenac et Champigny au Ministre_, 4
_Nov_, 1693). In the year 1854, the workmen employed in demolishing a
part of this wall, adjoining the garden of the château, found a copper
plate bearing an inscription in Latin as follows--

D. O. M.
Anno reparatae salutis
Millesimo sexcentesimo nonagesimo tertio
Regnante Augustissimo Invictissimo ac
Christianissimo Galliae Rege
Rege Ludovico Magno XIIII
Excellentissimus ac Illustrissimus Dnûs Dnux
Ludovicus de Buade
Comes de Frontenac, totius Novae Franciae
Semel et iterum Provex,
Ab ipsomet, triennio ante rebellibus Novae
Angliae incolis, hanc civitatem Quebecensem,
Obsidentibus, pulsis, fusis ac penitus
Et iterum hocce supradicto anno obsidionem
Hanc arcem cum adjectis munimentis
In totius patriae tutelam populi salutem
Nec non in perfidae, tum Deo, tum suo Regi
Legitimo, gentis iterandum confusionem
Sumptibus regies oedificari
Ac primarium hunc lapidem



"In the year of Redemption, 1693, under the reign of the Most August,
Most Invincible, and Most Christian King of France, Louis the Great,
fourteenth of that name, the Most Excellent Louis de Buade, Count of
Frontenac, Governor for the second time of all New France, seeing that
the rebellious inhabitants of New England, who three years ago were
repulsed, routed, and completely vanquished by him, when they besieged
this town of Quebec, are threatening to renew the siege this very
year, has caused to be built, at the expense of the King, this
Citadel, with the fortifications adjoining thereto, for the defence of
the country, for the security of the people, and for confounding again
that nation perfidious alike towards its God and its lawful King, and
he (_Frontenac_) has placed here this first stone."

A year later, the rebuilding of the château was begun in earnest.
Frontenac says that nothing but a miracle has saved him from being
buried under its ruins, that he has pulled everything down, and begun
again from the foundation, but that the money has given out.--
(_Frontenac au Ministre_, 4 _Nov._, 1694) Accordingly, he and the
Intendant sold six licenses for the fur trade, but at a rate unusually
low, for they brought only 4,400 francs.

The King hearing of this sent 6,000 more. Frontenac is profuse in
thanks, and at the same time begs for another 6,000 francs, "to
complete a work which is the ornament and beauty of the city" (1696).
The Minister sent 8,000 more, which was soon gone; and Frontenac drew
on the royal treasurer for 5,047 in addition. The Intendant complains
of his extravagance, and says that he will have nothing but
perfection; and that besides the château, he has insisted on building
two guard-houses, with mansard roofs, at the two sides of the gate. "I
must do as he says," adds the Intendant, "or there will be a quarrel."
(_Champigny au Ministre_, 13 _Oct._, 1697). In a letter written two
days after, Frontenac speaks with great complacency of his château,
and asks for another 6,000 francs to finish it. As the case was urgent
he sold six more licenses at 1,000 francs each, but he died too soon
to see the completion of his favorite work (1698). The new château was
not finished before 1700, and even then it had no cistern. In a pen
sketch of Quebec, on a manuscript map of 1699, preserved in the Dépôt
de Cartes de la Marine, the new château is distinctly represented. In
front is a gallery or balcony resting on a wall and buttresses at the
edge of the cliff. Above the gallery is a range of high windows, along
the face of the building, and over these a range of small windows and
a mansard roof. In the middle is a porch opening on the gallery, and
on the left extends a battery, on the ground now occupied by a garden
along the brink of the cliff. A water-colour sketch of the château
taken in 1804, from the land side, by William Morrison, Jr., is in my
possession. [37] The building appears to have been completely
remodelled in the interval. It is two stories in height, the mansard
roof is gone, and a row of attic windows surmount the second story. In
1809 it was again remodelled at a cost of ten thousand pounds
sterling, a third story was added, and the building, resting on the
buttresses which still remain under the balustrade of Durham
(Dufferin) Terrace, had an imposing effect when seen from the river.
It was destroyed by fire in 1834.--(Parkman's _Old Regime_.)


After sketching Fort St. Louis, begun in 1624,--a refuge against the
Iroquois, and whose bastions rendered useless disappeared shortly after
the conquest, as well as giving the history of the Château St. Louis
proper, destroyed by fire 23rd January, 1834, it behoves us to close the
narrative with a short account of the origin of the wing or new building
still extant, and used since 1871 as the Normal School. This structure
generally, though improperly styled the _Old Château_, dates back to
the last century. On the 5th May, 1784, the corner stone was laid with
suitable ceremonies, by the Governor-General, Sir Frederick Haldimand; the
Château St. Louis had been found inadequate in size for the various
purposes required, viz.: a Vice-regal residence, a Council room for the
Legislative, the Executive and Judiciary Councils, &c.

The Province was rapidly expanding, as well as the Viceroy's levees,
official balls, public receptions, &c.; suites of rooms and stately
chambers, became indispensible.

The following incident occurred during its construction:--On the 17th
September, 1784, the workmen at the Château in levelling the yard, dug up
a large stone with a Maltese cross engraved on it, bearing the date
"1647." One of Wolfe's veterans, Mr. James Thompson, Overseer of Public
Works, got the masons to lay the stone in the cheek of the gate of the new
building. A wood-cut of the stone, gilt at the expense of Mr. Ernest
Gagnon, City Councillor in 1872, appeared in the _Morning Chronicle_
of the 24th June, 1880. Let us hope when the site shall be transferred,
that the Hon. Premier will have a niche reserved for this historic relic
as was so appropriately done by Sir H L Langevin, for the "Chien d'Or"
tablet when the new city Post Office was built in 1871-3.

Haldimand Castle soon became a building of note. On the 19th January,
1787, the anniversary of the Queen's Birthday--Charlotte of Mecklenburg,
consort of George III., the first grand reception was held there. In the
following summer, the future monarch of Great Britain, William IV., the
sailor prince, aged 22 years, visited his father's loyal Canadian lieges.
Prince William Henry had then landed, on 14th August, in the Lower Town
from H. M. frigate "Pegasus." Traditions repeat that the young Duke of
Clarence enjoyed himself amazingly among the _beau monde_ of Quebec,
having eyes for more than the scenic beauties of the "Ancient Capital,"
not unlike other worthy Princes who came after him.

"He took an early opportunity of visiting the Ursulines, and by his
polite and affable manner quite won the hearts of those worthy
ladies."--(_Histoire des Ursulines_, vol. III, p. 183.)

Sorel, in honour of his visit, changed its name into Fort William Henry.
Among other festivities at Quebec, Lord Dorchester, Governor-General, the
successor to Sir Frederick Haldimand, on the 21st August, 1787, treated H.
R. Highness to a grand pyrotechnic display. "Prince William Henry and his
company, being seated on an exalted platform, erected by the Overseer of
Public Works, James Thompson, over a powder magazine joining the end of
the new building (Haldimand Castle), while the fireworks were displayed on
an eminence fronting it below the _old_ Citadel."--(_Thompson's Diary._)


In the stately reception room of the Castle was founded, in 1789, the
_Quebec Agricultural Society_.

"On the 6th April, the rank and fashion, nobility and clergy of all
denominations, as well as commoners, crowded at the _Château St.
Louis_, to enter their names as subscribers to the Quebec Agricultural
Society, warmly patronized by his Excellency Lord Dorchester, Hon.
Hugh Finlay, Deputy Postmaster-General, was chosen Secretary.

The _Quebec Gazette_ of the 23rd April, 1789, will supply the names,
the list is suggestive on more points than one.

Rev. Philip Tosey, Military M. Pierre Florence, Rivière
Chaplain. Ouelle
T. Monk, Atty-Genl. T. Arthur Coffin
G. B. Taschereau, Esq. Capt. Chas. St. Ours.
Peter Stewart, Esq. Aug. Glapion, Sup. Jésuites.
Malcolm Fraser, Esq. A. Hubert, Curé de Québec.
William Lindsay, Esq. Juchereau Duchesnay, Esq.
J. B. Deschêneaux, Esq. L. de Salaberry, Esq.
John Lees, Esq. P. Panet, P.C.
John Renaud, Esq. M. Grave, Supérieur, Séminaire
John Young, Esq. John Craigie, Esq.
Mathew Lymburner, Esq. Berthelot D'Artigny, Esq.
John Blackwood, Esq. Perrault l'Aine, Esq.
M. L. Germain, fils. George Allsopp, Esq.
A. Panet, Esq. Robert Lester, Esq.
P. L. Panet, Esq. Alex. Davidson, Esq.
A. Gaspé, Esq., St. Jean Port The Chief Justice (W. Smith).
Joly. Hon. Hugh Finlay.
M. Ob. Aylwin. Hon. Thos. Dunn.
The Canadian Bishop. Hon. Edw. Harrison.
M. Bailly, Coadjutor. Hon. John Collins.
T. Mervin Nooth, Dr. Hon. Adam Mabane.
Henry Motz, Dr. Hon. J. G. C. DeLéry.
Jenkins Williams. Hon. Geo. Pownall.
Isaac Ogden, Judge of Admiralty. Hon. Henry Caldwell.
Messire Panet, Curé of Rivière Hon. William Grant.
Ouelle. Hon. Francois Baby.
Sir Thomas Mills. Hon. Saml. Holland.
François Dambourges, Esq. Hon. Geo. Davidson.
Capt. Fraser, 34th Regt. Hon. Chas. De Lanaudière.
Kenelm Chandler, Esq. Hon. LeCompte Dupré.
J. T. Cugnet, Esq. Major Mathews.
J. F. Cugnet, Esq. Capt. Rotson.


Could that patriotic feeling which, ten years later, in 1799, enlisted
Quebecers of all creeds to support Great Britain, then at war with
regicide France, have been inspired by the sturdy old chieftain, who
hailed from the Castle,--General Robert Prescott? It was indeed a novel
idea, that loyal league, which exhibited both R. C and Anglican Bishops,
each putting their hands in their pockets to help Protestant England to
rout the armies of the "eldest son of the Church," represented by the
First Consul; so general and so intense was the horror inspired by
revolutionary and regicide France.

Though in the past, as at present, attempts were occasionally made to
stir up discord amongst our citizens, there appears more than once,
traces of enlarged patriotism and loyalty to the mother country,
animating all classes. This seems conspicuous in the public invitation
by men of both nationalities, inserted in a public journal, for 1799,
to form a national fund in order to help England with the war waged
against France; this invitation not only bears the signatures of
leading English citizens, but also those of several Quebecers of
French extraction, rejoicing in old and historic names such as the
following."--(_Quebec, Past and Present_, page 244.)

Hon. William Osgood, C. Justice. John Young.
Hon. Francois Baby. Louis Dunière.
Hon. Hugh Finlay. J. Sewell.
Hon. J. A. Panet. John Craigie.
Hon. Thos. Dunn. Wm. Grant.
Hon. Ant. Juchereau Duchesnay Rob. Lester.
Hon. George Pownall. Jas. Sheppard, Sheriff.

Mr. Panet, one of the signers, was Speaker of our Commons for twenty-
two years later on. The city journals contain the names and amounts
subscribed, as follows:--

J. Quebec .................................. £300 0 0
Wm. Osgood ................................. 300 0 0
George Pownall ............................. 100 guineas
Henry Caldwell ............................. £300 0 0
George W. Taylor, .. per annum during war... 5 0 0
A. J. Baby, ............. " " ........ 5 0 0
Geo. Heriot, ............ " " ........ 50 0 0
Chs. De Léry, ........... " " ........ 12 0 0
John Blackwood, ......... " " ........ 10 0 0
Wm. Burns, .............. " " ........ 20 0 0
Le Séminaire de Quebec, . " " ........ 50 0 0
J. A. Panet, ............ " " ........ 30 0 0
John Wurtele, ........... " " ........ 4 0 0
Wm. Grant, .............. " " ........ 32 4 5
Wm. Bouthillier, ........ " " ........ 3 10 0
Juchereau Duchesnay, .... " " ........ 20 0 0
James Grossman, ......... " " ........ 10 0 0
Henry Brown, ............ " " ........ 0 10 0
Thos. Dunn, ............. " " ........ 66 0 0
Peter Boatson, .......... " " ........ 23 6 8
Antoine Nadeau, ......... " " ........ 0 6 0
Robert Lester, .......... " " ........ 30 0 0
Le Coadjutor de Quebec, . " " ........ 25 0 0
Thos. Scott, ............ " " ........ 20 0 0
Chs. Stewart, ........... " " ........ 11 2 2
Samuel Holland, ......... " " ........ 20 0 0
Jenkin Williams, ........ " " ........ 55 11 1
Francois Baby, .......... " " ........ 40 0 0
G. Elz. Taschereau, ..... " " ........ 10 0 0
M. Taschereau, Curé de St. Croix, " ........ 5 0 0
Thos. Taschereau, ....... " " ........ 5 0 0
Monro & Bell, ........... " " ........ 100 0 0
J. Stewart, ............. " " ........ 11 13 4
Louis Dumon, ............ " " ........ 23 6 8
Rev. Frs. de Montmollin, " " ........ 10 0 0
Xavier de Lanaudière, ... " " ........ 23 6 8
Peter Stewart, .......... " " ........ 11 2 2
Messire Raimbault, Ange-Gardien, " ........ 4 13 5
Messire Villase, Ste. Marie, " ........ 4 13 4
Messire Bernard Panet, Rivière Ouelle, ..... 5 0 0
Messire Jacques Panet, Islet, " ....... 25 0 0

See _Quebec Gazette_, 4th July, 1799.
See _Quebec Gazette_, 29th August, 1799.


"Praetorian here, Praetorian there, I mind the bigging o't"--
(_The Antiquary_)


Some years back a spicy little controversy was waged among our Quebec
antiquarians as to the origin and real date of the stone in the wall
adjoining the _Old Château_, the two last figures of the inscription
being indistinct.

Was it 1646, 1647 or 1694? After deep research, profound cogitation
and much ink used in the public prints, 1647, the present date,
prevailed, and Mr. Ernest Gagnon, then a City Councillor, had this
precious relic restored and gilt at his cost.

The date 1647 also agrees with the Jesuits _Relation_, which states
that, in 1647, under Governor de Montmagny, one of the bastions was
lined with stone; additional light was thrown on this controversy, by
the inspection of a deed of agreement, bearing date at Fort St. Louis,
19th October, 1646, exhumed from the Court House vaults, and signed by
the stonemasons who undertook to _revetir de murailles un bastion qui
est au bas de l'allee du Mont Caluaire, descendant au Fort St. Louis_,
for which work they were to receive from _Monsieur Bourdon_, engineer
and surveyor, 2,000 _livres_ and a puncheon of wine.

This musty, dry-as-dust, old document gives rise to several enquiries.
One not the least curious, is the luxurious mode of life, which the
puncheon of wine supposes among stonemasons at such a remote period of
Quebec history as 1646. Finally, it was decided that this stone and
cross were intended to commemorate the year in which the Fort St.
Louis Bastion, begun in 1646, was finished, viz., 1647.

This historic stone, which has nothing in common with the

"Stone of Blarney
On the banks of Killarney,"

cropped up again more than a century later, in the days when Sergeant
Jas. Thompson, one of Wolfe's veterans, was overseer of public works
at Quebec--(he died in 1830, aged 98.) We read in his unpublished
diary. "The cross in the wall, September 17th, 1784. The miners at the
Château, in levelling the yard, dug up a large stone, from which I
have described the annexed figure (identical with the present), I
could wish it was discovered soon enough to lay conspicuously in the
wall of the new building, (Haldimand Castle), in order to convey to
posterity the antiquity of the Château St. Louis. However, I got the
masons to lay the stone in the cheek of the gate of new building."
Extract from _James Thompson's Diary_, 1759-1830.

Col. J. Hale, grandfather to our esteemed fellow townsman, E. J. Hale,
Esq., and one of Wolfe's companions-at-arms, used to tell how he had
succeeded in having this stone saved from the _débris_ of the Château
walls, and restored a short time before the Duke of Clarence, the
sailor prince (William IV), visited Quebec in 1787.

Occasionally, the Castle opened its portals to rather unexpected but, nor
the less welcome, visitors. On the 13th March, 1789, His Excellency Lord
Dorchester had the satisfaction of entertaining a stalwart woodsman and
expert hunter, Major Fitzgerald of the 54th Regiment, then stationed at
St. John, New Brunswick, the son of a dear old friend, Lady Emilia Mary,
daughter of the Duke of Richmond. This chivalrous Irishman was no less
than the dauntless Lord Edward Fitzgerald, fifth son of the Duke of
Leinster, the true but misguided patriot, who closed his promising career
in such a melancholy manner in prison, during the Irish rebellion in 1798.
Lord Edward had walked up on snowshoes through the trackless forest, from
New Brunswick to Quebec, a distance of 175 miles, in twenty-six days,
accompanied by a brother officer, Mr. Brisbane, a servant and two
"woodsmen." This feat of endurance is pleasantly described by himself.

Tom Moore, in his biography of this generous, warmhearted son of Erin,
among other dutiful epistles addressed by Lord Edward to his mother, has
preserved the following, of which we shall give a few extracts:--

QUEBEC, March 14, 1789.

DEAREST MOTHER,--I got here yesterday after a very long and, what some
people would think, a very tedious and fatiguing journey; but to me it
was, at most, only a little fatiguing, and to make up for that, it was
delightful and quite new. We were thirty days on our march, twenty-six
of which we were in the woods, and never saw a soul but our own party.

You must know we came through a part of the country that had always
been reckoned impassable. In short, instead of going a long way about,
we determined to try and get straight through the woods, and see what
kind of country it was. I believe I mentioned my party in a letter to
Ogilvie (his step-father) before I left St. Anne's or Fredericton: it
was an officer of the regiment, Tonny, and two woodsmen. The officer
and I used to draw part of our baggage day about, and the other day
steer (by compass), which we did so well, that we made the point we
intended within ten miles. We were only wrong in computing our
distances and making them a little too great, which obliged us to
follow a new course, and make a river, which led us round to Quebec,
instead of going straight to it. * * * I expect my leave by the first
despatches. * * * I shall not be able to leave this part of the world
till May, as I cannot get my leave before that. How I do long to see
you. Your old love, Lord Dorchester, is very civil to me. I must,
though, tell you a little more of the journey. After making the river,
we fell in with some savages, and travelled with them to Quebec; they
were very kind to us, and said we were "all one brother," "all one
indian." They fed us the whole time we were with them. You would have
laughed to have seen me carrying an old squaw's pack, which was so
heavy I could hardly waddle under it. However, I was well paid
whenever we stopped, for she always gave me the best bits and most
soup, and took as much care of me as if I had been her own son; in
short, I was quite _l'enfant chéri_. We were quite sorry to part:
the old lady and gentleman both kissed me very heartily. I gave the
old lady one of Sophia's silver spoons, which pleased her very much.
When we got here, you may guess what figures we were. We had not
shaved nor washed during the journey; our blanket-coats and trousers
all worn out and pieced, in short, we went to two or three houses and
they would not let us in. There was one old lady, exactly the
_hôtesse_ in Gil Blas, _elle me prit la mesure du pied jusqu'à
la tête_, and told me there was one room, without a stove or bed,
next a billiard room, which I might have if I pleased, and when I her
told we were gentlemen, she very quietly said, "I dare say you are,"
and off she went. However, at last we got lodgings in an ale house,
and you may guess ate well and slept well, and went next day well
dressed, with one of Lord Dorchester's aide-de-camps to triumph over
the old lady; in short, exactly the story in Gil Blas.

We are quite curiosities here after our journey, some think we were
mad to undertake it, some think we were lost; some will have it we
were starved; there were a thousand lies, but we are safe and well,
enjoying rest and good eating, most completely. One ought really to
take these fillips now and then, they make one enjoy life a great deal

The hours here are a little inconvenient to us as yet; whenever we
wake at night we want to eat, the same as in the woods, and as soon as
we eat we want to sleep. In our journey we were always up two hours
before day, to load and get ready to march, we used to stop between
three and four, and it generally took us from that till night to
shovel out the snow, cut wood, cook and get ready for night, so that
immediately after our suppers we were asleep, and whenever any one
awakes in the night, he puts some wood on the fire, and eats a bit
before he lies down again; but for my part, I was not much troubled
with waking in the night.

"I really do think there is no luxury equal to that of lying before a
good fire on a good spruce bed, after a good supper, and a hard moose
chase in a fine clear frosty moonlit starry night. But to enter into
the spirit of this, you must understand what a moose chase is: the man
himself runs the moose down by pursuing the track. Your success in
killing depends on the number of people you have to pursue and relieve
one another in going first (which is the fatiguing part of snow-
shoeing), and on the depth and hardness of the snow, for when the snow
is hard and has a crust, the moose cannot get on, as it cuts his legs,
and then he stops to make battle. But when the snow is soft, though it
be above his belly, he will go on three, four or five days, for then
the man cannot get on so fast, as the snow is heavy and he only gets
his game by perseverance--an Indian never gives him up." Then follows
a most graphic description of a hunt--closing with the death of the
noble quarry.

"Pray," continues Lord Edward, "write to uncle Richmond, I would write
if there was time, but I have only time to fill up this."

Tom Moore adds, that the plan of Lord Edward's route through the woods
was forwarded from Quebec to the Duke of Richmond, by Mr. Hamilton
Moore, in a letter dated Quebec, May 22nd, 1789, this letter closes
with the following:--"Lord Edward has met with the esteem and
admiration of all here."

In a subsequent epistle to Mr. Ogilvie, his step-father, dated
"Quebec, 12th April, 1789," Lord Edward mentions the death of the
Lieut.-Governor of Quebec (Major Patrick Bellew). "It is a place of
£1,600 a year, and I think would do well for Charles. The day before
he died I was in treaty for his Lieut.-Colonelcy in the 44th

Later, on 4th May, 1789, he writes from Montreal, and speaks
gratefully of the open-handed hospitality extended to him, and of the
kind lady friends he met at Quebec. (Page 67.)

Alas! generous youth, what foul fiend, three year later, inspired you,
with Tom Paine as your adviser, to herd at Paris with the regicide crew,
and howl the "_Carmagnole_" and "_Çà Ira_," with the hideous monsters who
revelled in blood under the holy name of liberty?

Again, one follows the patriotic Irish nobleman, in 1793, plighting his
faith to a lovely and noble bride, Pamela Sims, the youthful daughter of
the Duke of Orleans, by Madame de Genlis.

A few short years and the ghastly phantom of death, in a dismal prison, in
the dearly loved land of his birth, spreads a pall over what might have
been to his unfortunate country, a career full of honour. Alas! brave,
noble Edward! Poor, pretty little Pamela, alas!

The Castle had its sunshine and its shadows. Many still survive to tell of
an impressive, and gloomy pageant. On the 4th September, 1819, previous to
their transfer to the chancel of the Anglican Cathedral, were exposed in
state in the Château, the mortal remains of the late Governor-General, His
Grace Charles Gordon Lennox, Duke of Richmond, Lennox and Aubigny, who, on
the 28th August, 1819, had died of hydrophobia.

The revolving wheel of time ushers in, with his successor, other actors,
and other scenes. One likes to recall the presence there of a graceful and
noble Chatelaine, his daughter, Lady Sarah Lennox, the devoted wife of the
administrator of the Government of Lower Canada, Sir Peregrine Maitland,
"a tall, grave officer, says Dr. Scadding, always in military undress, his
countenance ever wearing a mingled expression of sadness and benevolence,
like that which one may observe on the face of the predecessor of Louis
Philippe, Charles the Tenth," whose current portraits recall, not badly,
the whole head and figure of this early Governor of Upper Canada.

"In an outline representation which we (Dr. Scadding) accidentally
possessed, of a panorama of the battle of Waterloo, on exhibition in
London, the 1st Foot Guards were conspicuously to be seen, led on by
'Major General Sir Peregrine Maitland.'" [38]

With persons of wider knowledge, Sir Peregrine was invested With
further associations. Besides being the royal representative in these
parts, he was the son-in-law of Charles Gordon Lennox, fourth Duke of
Richmond, a name that stirred chivalrous feelings in early Canadians
of both Provinces; for the Duke had come to Canada as Governor-in-
Chief, with a grand reputation acquired as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland,
and great benefits were expected, and probably would have been
realized, from his administration, had it been of long continuance.
But he had been suddenly removed by an excruciating death. Whilst on a
tour of inspection in the Upper Province, he had been fatally attacked
by hydrophobia, occasioned by the bite of a pet fox. The injury had
been received at Sorel; its terrible effects were fatally experienced
at a place near the Ottawa river called Richmond.

Some of the prestige of the deceased Duke continued to adhere to Sir
Peregrine Maitland, for he had married the Duke's daughter, a graceful
and elegant woman, who was always at his side here (York, now
Toronto), and at Stanford Cottage across the lake. She bore a name not
unfamiliar in the domestic annals of George III., who once, it is
said, was enamored of a beautiful Lady Sarah Lennox, grandmother, as
we suppose, or some other near relative of the Lady Sarah Lennox here
before us. However, conversationists whispered about (in confidence)
something supposed to be unknown to the general public, that the match
between Sir Peregrine and Lady Sarah had been effected in spite of the
Duke. The report was that there had been an elopement, and it was
naturally supposed that the party of the sterner sex bad been the most
active agent in the affair. To say the truth, however, in this
instance it was the lady who precipitated matters. The affair occurred
at Paris, soon after the Waterloo campaign. The Duke's final
determination against Sir Peregrine's proposals having been announced,
the daughter suddenly withdrew from the father's roof, and fled to the
lodgings of Sir Peregrine, who instantly retired to other quarters.
The upshot of the whole thing, at once romantic and unromantic,
included a marriage and a reconciliation, and eventually a Lieutenant-
Governorship for the son-in-law, under the Governorship-in-Chief of
the father, both despatched together to undertake the discharge of
vice-regal functions in a distant colony. At the time of his marriage
with Lady Sarah Lennox, Sir Peregrine had been for some ten years a
widower. [39] After the death of the Duke of Richmond, Sir Peregrine
became administrator, for a time of the general government of British
North America.

One of the Duke of Richmond's sons was lost in the ill-fated steamer
_President_ in 1840. In December, 1824, Sir Peregrine revisited Quebec
with Sir Francis Burton, Lieutenant-Governor, in the _Swiftsure_, steamer
escorting some very distinguished tourists. A periodical notices the
arrivals at the old Château as follows:--

"Sir Peregrine is accompanied by Lord Arthur Lennox, Mr. Maitland,
Colonels Foster, Lightfoot, Coffin and Talbot, with the Hon. E. G.
Stanley (from 1851 to 1869 Earl of Derby), grandson of Earl Derby, M.
P. for Stockbridge; John E. Denison, Esq., (subsequently Speaker of
the House of Commons), M. P. for Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and James S.
Wortley, Esq. (afterwards Lord Wharncliffe), M. P. for Bossiney in
Cornwall. The three latter gentlemen are upon a tour in this country
from England, and we are happy to learn, that they have expressed
themselves as being highly gratified with all they have hitherto seen
in Canada."--(_Canadian Review_, 1824.)

Quebecers will be pleased to learn that the name of Sir Peregrine Maitland
is pleasantly preserved by means of Maitland Scholarships in a grammar
school for natives at Madras, and by a Maitland Prize in the University of
Cambridge. Sir Peregrine, as patron of education, opened an era of
progress which his successors Lords Elgin, Dufferin and Lorne have
continued in a most munificent manner.

A curious glimpse of high life at Quebec, in the good old days of Lord
Dalhousie, is furnished in a letter addressed to _Delta_, of Blackwood's
Magazine, by John Galt, the novelist, the respected father of our gifted
statesman, Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt. [40]

The talented author of the "_Annals of the Parish_," after expatiating on
the dangers he had that day incurred in crossing over from Levis to Quebec
in a canoe, among the ice-floes, thus alludes to the winter amusements:--

QUEBEC, 22nd February, 1827.

MY DEAR SIR,--I am under very great obligations to you. A copy of the
"Laird" having come to the castle from the New York publishers, Lady
Dalhousie lent it to me. * * * I am much pleased with Quebec. It is at
present filled with Highland regiments, in which I have many
acquaintances and the hospitality of the other inhabitants is also
unbounded, for the winter suspends all business, and pleasure is
conducted as if it were business. The amateurs have a theatre, and I
wrote a piece for them, in which a Londoner, a Glasgow merchant, an
Irish girl, a Yankee family and a Highlander were introduced. It was
adapted entirely to the place, and in quiz of a very agreeable custom
--of everybody calling on strangers. Dr. Dunlop performed the
Highlander beyond anything I ever saw on the regular stage. The whole
went off with more laughter than anything I have ever seen, for the
jokes being local and personal (supplied by upwards of thirty
contributors), every one told with the utmost effect."

"This farce, says Delta, composed at Quebec by J. Galt, and performed
there before the Earl of Dalhousie (then Governor-General), was named
"The Visitors, or a Trip to Quebec," and was meant as a good humoured
satire on some of the particular usages of the place. An American
family figured as the visitors, and the piece opened with a scene in
an hôtel, when a waiter brings in a tea-tray loaded with cards of
callers, and the explanation of the initials having had reference to
people, many of whom were present at the performance, tended much to
make the thing pass off with great éclat. It seems that a custom
prevails there to a punctilious extent, of all the inhabitants of a
certain grade calling upon strangers and leaving their cards.

"This flash of harmless lightning, however, assumed somewhat of a
malignant glare when seen from the United States. The drift of the
performance was, it seems, hideously misrepresented by some of the
newspapers, and it was said that Mr. Galt had ungratefully ridiculed
the Americans, notwithstanding the distinction and hospitality with
which they had received him. It thus came to pass that he promised,
when next in New York, to write another farce, in which liberty as
great should be taken with his own countrymen. "An Aunt in Virginia"
was the product of this promise, and with the alterations mentioned
and a change of scene from New York to London, it was published under
the name of "Scotch and Yankees.""

A volume would not suffice to detail the brilliant receptions, gay routs,
_levees_, state balls given at the Castle during Lord Dorchester's
administration--the lively discussions--the formal protests originating
out of points of precedence, burning _questions de jupons_ between
the touchy magnates of the old and those of the new _regime_. Whether
la Baronne de St. Laurent would be admitted there or not? Whether a de
Longueuil's or a de Lanaudière's place was on the right of Lady Maria, the
charming consort of His Excellency Lord Dorchester--a daughter of the
great English Earl of Effingham? Whether dancing ought to cease when their
Lordships the Bishops entered, and made their bow to the representative of
royalty? Unfortunately Quebec had then no Court Journal, so that following
generations will have but faint ideas of all the witchery, the stunning
head-dresses, the _décolletées_, high-waisted robes of their stately
grandmothers, whirled round in the giddy waltz by whiskered, épauletted
cavaliers, or else courtesying in the demure _menuet de la cour_.

In August, 1796, when Isaac Weld, Jr., visited Quebec, he describes the
old part of the château as chiefly taken up with the public offices, all
the apartments in it, says he, "are small and ill-contrived; but in the new
part (Haldimand Castle) which stands in front of the other, facing the
square (the ring), they are spacious and tolerably well furnished, but
none of them can be called elegant. This part is inhabited by the
Governor's family. * * * * Every evening during summer, when the weather
is fine, one of the regiments of the garrison parades in the open place
before the château, and the band plays for an hour or two, at which time
the place becomes the resort of numbers of the most genteel people of the
town, and has a very gay appearance." (_Weld's Travels through the States
of North America in_ 1795-6-7, vol. 1, p. 351)

In 1807, when the deadly duel between England and Imperial France was at
its height, Great Britain sent New France as her Viceroy, a military
Governor, equally remarkable for the sternness of his rule and for his
love of display, hence the name of "Little King Craig," awarded to Sir
James Craig. To meet his requirements the House of Assembly voted in 1808,
a sum of £7,000 to repair the Château St. Louis. Sir James took up his
quarters in the interim, in Castle Haldimand. The Château St. Louis
received an additional story and was much enlarged. In 1812 an additional
sum of £7,980 19s 4d was voted to cover the deficit in the repairs. Little
King Craig inhabited Château St. Louis during the winters of 1809-10-11,
occupying Spencer Wood during the summer months. The _Château_ stables
were subsequently converted into a riding school, afterwards into a
theatre, where the exhibition of Harrison's Diorama caused the awful
tragedy of 12th June, 1846. [41] The Earl of Durham, in 1838, struck with
the commanding position of this site, had the charred ruins of the old
Château removed and erected a lofty platform which soon was called after
him "Durham Terrace."

In 1851-2-3-4, Haldimand Castle was repaired at a cost of $13,718.42. In
1854, Hon. Jean Chabot, member for Quebec and Commissioner of Public
Works, had Durham Terrace much enlarged; the adjoining walls were repaired
at an expense of $4,209.92. More expenditure was incurred in 1857. When
the Laval Normal School was installed there, Bishop Langevin, then
Principal, had the wing erected where the chapel stands. The vaulted room
used as a kitchen for the Laval Normal School, was an old powder magazine;
it is the most ancient portion of the building. The present Castle was, by
Order in Council of 14th February, 1871, transferred by the Dominion
authorities to the Government of the Province of Quebec, together with
Durham Terrace, the Sewell Mansion, facing the Esplanade (Lieutenant-
Governor's office), also, the site and buildings of the Parliament House,
on Mountain Hill.

The extension of this lofty and beautiful Terrace, suggested to the City
Council by the City Engineer in his report of 1872, necessarily formed a
leading feature in the splendid scheme of city improvements, originated by
the Earl of Dufferin, with the assistance of Mr. Lynn, an eminent Irish
engineer, and of our City Engineer, le Chevalier Baillairge. An appeal was
made by a true and powerful friend to Quebec (Lord Dufferin) to our
gracious Sovereign, who contributed munificently from her private purse,
for the erection of the new gate, called after her late father, the Duke
of Kent--Kent Gate, in remembrance of his long sojourn (1791-4) in this
city. Large sums were also granted by the Dominion, it is thought, chiefly
through the powerful influence of Lord Dufferin, seconded by Sir H. L.
Langevin; an appeal was also made for help to the City Council and not in
vain; it responded by a vote of $7,500.

The front wall was built at the expense of the Dominion Government, and
occupies part of the site of the old battery, erected on that portion of
the château garden granted to Major Samuel Holland in 1766.

The length of Dufferin Terrace is 1420 feet, and it is 182 feet above the
level of the St. Lawrence. It forms part of the city fortifications. The
site can be resumed by the Commander of the Forces (the Governor-General)
whenever he may deem it expedient for objects within the scope of his
military authority.

Durham Terrace, increased to four times its size, now forms a link in the
Dufferin plans of city embellishment, of which the corner stone was laid
by the Earl of Dufferin on the 18th October, 1878, and was authentically
recognized as "Dufferin Terrace" in April and May, 1879, in the official
records of the City Council; several iron plates were inserted in the
flooring with the inscription, "_Dufferin Terrace, H. Hatch, contractor,
C. Baillairge, engineer._" But a famous name of the past, which many
loved to connect with this spot--that of Louis de Buade, Count de
Frontenac, was not forgotten. The Literary and Historical Society of
Quebec, on the 18th April, 1879, presented to the City Council a petition,
asking among other things, that one of the handsome kiosks on the Terrace

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