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Picturesque Quebec by James MacPherson Le Moine

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with their untrained skill to a region where trees were to be felled, wild
beasts to be slain, the soil to be subdued to furnish them bread, the
whole fabric of social order to be established under new conditions. They
came from the sunny skies of France to the capricious climate where the
summers were fierce and the winters terrible with winds and snows. They
left the polished amenities of an old civilization, for the homely ways of
rude settlers of another race and language. Their lips, which had shaped
themselves to the harmonies of a refined language, which had been used to
speaking such names as Rochefort and Beauvoir and Angoulême, had to
distort themselves into the utterances of words like Manchaug and
Wabquasset and Chaubunagungamang. The short and simple annals of this
heroic and gentle company of emigrants are full of trials and troubles,
and ended with a bloody catastrophe.

'After Plymouth, I do not think there is any locality in New England more
interesting. This little band of French families, [343 ] transported from
the shore of the Bay of Biscay to the wilds of our New England interior,
reminds me of the isolated group of Magnolias which we find surrounded by
the ordinary forest trees of our Massachusetts town of Manchester. It is a
surprise to meet with them, and we wonder how they came there, but they
glorify the scenery with their tropical flowers, and sweeten it with their
fragrance. Such a pleasing surprise is the effect of coming upon this
small and transitory abiding-place of the men and women who left their
beloved and beautiful land for the sake of their religion. The lines of
their fort may become obliterated, 'the perfume of the shrubbery may no
longer be perceived but the ground they hallowed by their footsteps is
sacred and the air around their old Oxford home is sweet with their

This exclusiveness in the selection of settlers for Canada, ever since the
days of the DeCaens, to render the population homogeneous and prevent
religious discord, was extended to Frenchmen, whose only disability, was
their faith, and who did not belong to the national Church, and though the
colony, more than once was at its last gasp, for want of soldiers and
colonists to defend it, it was forbidden ground to the 500,000 industrious
Frenchman, whom the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1682, drove to
England, Holland and Germany, and the English and Dutch colonies in
America. This policy of exclusiveness, was vigorously denounced by the
leading historian of Canada, F. X. Garneau, in 1845.

"The poorly expressed request, for fifteen hundred colonists to take the
place of those who had joined the army, remained unanswered--unattended
to. Though at the very time the Huguenots solicited as a favour permission
to settle in the New World, where they promised to live peaceably under
the shadow of their country's flag--which they could not cease to love--it
was just when they were denied a request, which had it been granted would
have saved Canada and permanently secured it to France. But Colbert's
influence," says Garneau, "at Court had fallen away; he was on his death-
bed. So long as he was in power he had protected the Calvinists, who had
ceased to disturb France and who then were enriching it. His death which
took place in 1684, handed them over to the tender mercy of the Chancellor
Le Tellier and of the fierce Louvois. The _dragonnades_ swept over
the protestant strongholds, awful heralds of the revocation of the edict
of Nantes. The king, said a celebrated writer, exhibited his power by
humbling the Pope and by crushing the Huguenots. He wished the unification
of the Church and of France--the hobby of the great men of the day,
presided over by Bossuet. Madame de Maintenon, a converted Calvinist, and
who had secretly become his wife (1685) encouraged him in this design and
suggested to him the cruel scheme of tearing away children from their
parents, to bring them up in the Roman Catholic faith. The vexatious
confiscations, the galleys, the torture of the wheel, the gibbet,--all
were successively but unsuccessfully resorted to as a means to convert
them. The unhappy Protestants' sole aim was to escape from the band which
tortured them, in vain were they prohibited from quitting the kingdom, and
those who aided them in their flight sent to the galleys--five hundred
thousand escaped to Holland, to Germany, to England, and to the English
colonies in America. They carried thither their wealth, their industry,
and after such a separation--ill blood and thirst for revenge, which
subsequently cost their native country very dear. William III, who more
than once charged the French troops at the heads of French regiments, and
Roman Catholic and Huguenot regiments, were seen, when recognising one
another on the battle-field, to rush on one another with their bayonets,
with an onslaught more ferocious than soldiers of different nationalities
exhibit to one another. How advantageous would not have been an
emigration, strong in numbers and composed of men, wealthy, enlightened,
peaceful, laborious, such as the Huguenots were--to people the shores of
the St. Lawrence, or the fertile plains of the West? At least, they would
not have borne to foreign lands the secret of French manufactures, and
taught other nations to produce goods which they were in the habit of
going and procuring in the ports of France. A fatal policy sacrificed
these advantages to the selfish views of a party--armed by the alliance of
the spiritual and temporal power with an authority, which denied the
breath of life to conscience as well as to intellect. 'If you and yours
are not converted, before such a day, the king's authority will ensure
your conversion,' thus wrote Bossuet to the dissenters. We repeat it, had
this policy not been resorted to, we should not be reduced, we Canadians,
to defend every foot of ground, our language, our laws, and our
nationality, against an invading hostile sea. How will pardon be granted
to fanaticism, for the anguish and suffering inflicted on a whole people,
whose fate has been rendered so painful, so arduous--whose future has been
so grievously jeopardized.

"Louis XIV, who had myriads of dragoons to butcher the Protestants, and
who by his own fault was losing half a million of his subjects--the
monarch who dictated to Europe, could only spare two hundred soldiers to
send to Quebec, to protect a country four times larger than France, a
country which embraced Hudson's Bay, Acadia, Canada, a large portion of
Maine, of Vermont, New York, and the whole Mississippi valley"--
_Garneau's History of Canada_, (Vol. I. p. 492-96--1st edition.)

[See page 107.]


"In one of the many works which the philosopher of Chelsea has given to
the world, we find the assertion of a great truth that history is but the
biography of leading men. The poet of Cambridge also tells us that the
lives of the great are so many models, and that as they have left their
footprints on the sands of time, so may we by following their noble
example render our lives illustrious. These reflections of the philosopher
and poet extend no doubt to those of the fairer sex, in whom exalted
virtue was manifested, and whose devotion in the pursuit of noble deeds
awakens the spirit of emulation in all hearts. From the earliest period of
time heroic women have appeared. The mother of the Maccabees, the mother
of the Gracchi, the grand prophetesses whose actions are recorded in that
sublimest of books, the Bible--these and many others adorn the pages of
history, whether sacred or profane, and afford living, ever-present
proofs, that the pathway of glory and honour may be pursued by even the
weaker members of the human race.

In Canada, youthful though her record may be, there have appeared
actresses on the great stage of humanity, whose virtues appeal for
admiration, whose nobility of soul provokes general reverence, and whose
impress upon the future destinies of the country is of a more profound
nature than may be imagined at first sight.

Foremost among such heroic women, may be regarded the foundress of the
Ursuline Convent in Quebec, the Venerable Mother Mary of the Incarnation.
Gifted by nature, burning with zeal for the welfare of souls, imbued with
the greatest confidence in the mercies of a bountiful Creator, she fully
realized the great idea of Blessed Angela de Merici, that the preservation
of the world from innumerable evils, largely depended upon the correct
training of youth. Born in sunny France, she braved the dangers of the
deep, so that on our virgin soil she might plant the pure, untainted flag
of Christian education; and, now that the Province of Quebec has emerged
from the lowliness of its early condition--now that the settlers by the
banks of the St. Lawrence have become a great people, with a literature
all their own, rich in its very youthful exuberance, with their language
preserved, and the free exercise of their religion guaranteed no less by
the faithful adherence to treaty obligations, than by their own hardy
devotion, we can calmly review the past, and gratefully acknowledge the
blessings bestowed on the country through the instrumentality of that lady
who founded that holy sisterhood in our midst, which daily labours to
honour the Intelligence of God, by the cultivation of intellectual graces.
Few, indeed, are the families in Quebec which have not experienced the
value of the Ursuline community in our city. One of the crowns of
womanhood is gained in Christian education--an education which falls upon
the soil of the soul, like freshening dew, and adorns the heart and mind
with the flowers of virtue. Hence the life of the Venerable Mother Mary
should be carefully studied and pondered over; hence her deeds should be
proclaimed and her saintly legacies preserved, and therefore, it is, that
the writer humbly calls attention to a new work, written by a daughter of
Erin, written lovingly and sweetly in the quiet precincts of the Ursuline
Convent, Blackrock, Cork, and in which may be found the story of the
devoted French woman, whose name is now inseparably linked with that of
Canada, told in chaste language worthy alike of the virtuous theme, and of
the ability which marks the narration. The earlier days of the French
Colony are depicted therein; and with an accuracy no less commendable than
useful. In fact the book is eminently a readable one, the object of the
publication being to extend the knowledge which all of us ought to possess
of one whose life glorified God, and whose advent to our shores was a very


Quebec, 27th January, 1881.

We copy the following from the _Quebec Gazette_, 10th October, 1793:--


"For the information of the curious, the particular benefit of Land
Surveyors, and safety of seafaring people, please to insert in your
_Gazette_, that from critical observation on the variation of the
needle at Quebec, it is found to be on the decrease, or in other words to
be again returning to the Eastward,--a proof of which is, that in 1785,
when the Meridian line on Abraham's Plains was ascertained by me, the
variation was found to be 12 degrees, 35 minutes West; whereas at present
the variation is no more than 12 degrees, 5 minutes West, having in the
space of eight years diminished half a degree.

I am sir,

Your most obedient humble servant.


Quebec, 8th October, 1793.

How do matters now stand, Commander Ashe?


(_To the Editor of the Morning Chronicle._)

DEAR SIR,--"For the information of the curious, the particular benefit of
Land Surveyors, and safety of sea-faring people," I will endeavor to
explain how our compass variation stands.

With regard to the reprint from the _Quebec Gazette_ of 1793, in the
Chronicle of the 23rd instant, in which Major Samuel Holland observes that
he had passed our Maximum Westerly Variation, it is very likely that such
was the case, as I find that Major Sabine in 1818, found the Variation for
London to be 24° 30' West, and in 1822 to have retrograded to 24° 12':
this was not only the case in England, but all over Europe where
observations were taken, so that there is no doubt that the same
disturbing influence was affecting the needle here in 1793. Whatever that
influence is, it must shortly alter. Major Samuel Holland's observations
have affected us in the opposite direction, for in 1860 Captain Bayfield
found the variation for Quebec to be 15° 45' West, with an annual increase
of 5', which would give the present variation as about 17° 0' West. This
agrees very closely with observations taken here last November for
deviation, which with range of only 7° 30', gave a mean result of 17° 3'
9" West. I am, &c,

Commander R. N.

Observatory, Quebec, Feb. 23rd, 1876.


1st. Bell, Louise; 2nd, Olivier Geneviève; 3rd, Pierre Marie; 4th, Marie-
Joseph-Louise-Marguerite; 5th, Jean-Olivier, &c.

"Now, on the gentle breath of morn,
Once more I hear that _chiming_ bell,
As onward, slow, each note is borne,
Like echo's lingering, last farewell."
(_The Evening Bells_, of the General Hospitals:
by ADAM KIDD.--1829.)

"Quebec Bells are an institution of the present and of the past:" so says
every Tourist. To the weary and drowsy traveller, steeped at dawn in that
"sweet restorer, balmy sleep," under the silent eaves of the St. Louis or
Stadacona hotel, this is one of the features of our city life, at times
unwelcome. We once heard a hardened old tourist savagely exclaim,
"Preserve me against the silvery voice of Quebec Evening _Belles_, I
rather like your early Morning Bells." Another tourist, however, in one of
our periodicals closes a lament over Quebec "Bell Ringing," with the
caustic enquiry "Should not Bell Bingers be punished?"

Being more cosmopolitan in our tastes, we like the music of our City Bells
in the dewy morn, without fearing the merry tones of our City _Belles_,
when the silent shades of evening lends them its witchery. There is
certainly as much variety in the names as there is in the chimes of our
Quebec Bells.

Though the Bells of the "ancient capital" are famous in history and song,
Quebec cannot boast of any such monsters of sound as the "Gros Bourdon" of
Montreal--weighing 29,400 lbs., dating from 1847, "the largest bell in
America." The R. C. Cathedral in the upper town, raised in 1874, by His
Holiness, Pius IX to the high position of _Basilica Minor_, the only one
on the continent--owns two bells of antique origin; the Parish Register
traces as follows, their birth and christening. "1774--9th October. The
Churchwardens return thanks to His Lordship Jean 0. Briand, Bishop, for
the present he made of the big bell, which, exclusive of its clapper,
weighs 3,255 lbs. Name, LOUISE, by Messieur Montgolfier, _Grand Vicaire_,
and Mdlle de Léry, representing its Matron. Blessed by Monsigneur Louis
Masriacheau D'Esgley, coadjutor."

"1778. 28th July. Christening of the bells by M. Noel Voyer, on the 22nd
July. Blessed by _Sa Grandeur_, Monseigneur Briand; the first weigh
1,625 lbs.--named OLIVIER GENEVIÈVE--Godfather, _Sa Grandeur_, with
Madame Chanazard wife of M Berthelot 7 yards of white damask given as a
(christening) dress. The second, was called PIERRE MARIE, by M. Panet,
Judge of the Court, and his wife Marie Anne Rottot; said bell weighing
1,268 lbs."

A halo of poetry hovers over some of our bells. About 1829, Adam Kidd, a
son of song, hailing from Spencer Wood,--a friend of the Laird of the
Manor--Hon. H M Percival, wrote some graceful lines on the _Church
Bells_ of the General Hospital Convent. This poem was published at the
_Herald_ and _New Gazette_ office, in Montreal. In 1830, with the _Huron
Chief_, and other poems by Kidd, and by him inscribed to Tom Moore, "the
most popular, most powerful and most patriotic poet of the nineteenth
century, whose magic numbers have vibrated to the heart of nations," says
the Dedication.

A delightful volume has recently been put forth by a Ursuline Nun,
entitled "GLIMPSES OF THE MONASTERY," in which the holy memories of the
cloister blend with exquisite bits of word painting; we find in it a
glowing sketch of the Convent Bells, and of the objects and scenery,
surrounding the "Little World" of the Ursulines. "Marriage Bells" are of
course left out.

The writer therein alludes to that short-lived bell of Madame de la
Peltrie, melted in the memorable fire of the 31st December, 1650, which
the pious lady used to toll, to call "the Neophytes to the waters of
baptism, or the newly made Christians to Holy Mass."

(_See page 113._)

(_From "Trifles from my Diary."_)



Olim truncus eram ficulnus, inutile lignum,
Cum faber, incertus scamnum faceretne Priapum
Maluit esse Deum.
Horace, Sat I. 8.

Henry Ward Beecher begins an amusing sketch of our city with the words,
"Queer old Quebec,--of all the cities on the Continent of America, the
quaintest." He concludes his humorous picture by expressing the wish that
it may remain so without being disturbed by the new-fangled notions of the
day. Some one has observed that its walls, streets, public places,
churches and old monasteries, with the legends of three centuries clinging
to them, give you, when you enter under its massive gates, hoary with age,
[344] the idea of an "old curiosity shop," or, as the name Henry Ward
Beecher well expresses it, "a picture book, turning over a new leaf at
each street." It is not then surprising that the inhabitants should have
resorted not only to the pen of the historian to preserve evergreen and
fragrant the historical ivy which clings to its battlements, but even to
that cheap process, in use in other countries, to immortalize heroes--
signboards and statues--a process recommended by high authority. We read
in that curiously interesting book, "History of Signboards--"

"The Greeks honored their great men and successful commanders by erecting
statues to them; the Romans rewarded their popular favorites with
triumphal entries and ovations; modern nations make the portraits of their
celebrities serve as signs for public-houses:

Vernon, the Butcher Cumberland, Wolfe, Hawke,
Prince Ferdinand, Granby, Burgoyne, Keppel, Howe,
Evil and good have had their tithe of talk,
And filled their signpost then, like Wellesley now."

If Wolfe served as a signboard recently in Britain, he has filled the same
office now close on a century in Canada, and still continues to do so. He
has defied wind and weather ever since the day when the Cholette Brothers
affixed to the house at the north-west corner of St. John and Palace
streets a rough statue of the gallant young soldier in the year 1771, with
one arm extended in the attitude of command, and pointing to the Falls of

Nor has Mr. de Gaspé, the author of the "Canadians of Old," thought it
beneath his pen to indite an able disquisition on its origin, brimful of
wealth for our antiquaries and a great deal more practical in its bearings
than even Jonathan Oldbuck's great Essay on Castrametation. A Three Rivers
antiquarian had attempted to establish that it was Ives Cholette who had
been the sculptor of the statue in question, but our old friend (through
the church registers--and through ancient and irrefutable records) showed
it could neither be Ives Cholette, aged, in 1771, 10 years, nor his
younger brother Hyacinthe, aged then but 8 years, who had designed this
great work of art, but Cholette of another ilk. [345]

In these halycon days of old Quebec, free from municipal taxes, Fenian
scares and labor strikes, when the practical joker [346] and _mauvais
sujets_, bent on a lark, would occasionally take possession, after
night-fall, of some of the chief city thoroughfares, and organize a
masquerade, battering unmercifully with their heavy lanterns. Captain
Pinguet's _hommes de guêt_,--the night patrol--long before Lord Durham's
blue-coated "peelers" were thought of, the historic statue would disappear
sometimes for days together; and after having headed a noisy procession,
decorated with _bonnet rouge_ and one of those antique camloteen cloaks
which our forefathers used to rejoice in, it would be found in the morning
grotesquely propped up, either in the centre of the old Upper Town market,
or in the old Picote cemetery in Couillard street [347], in that fanciful
costume (a three-storied _sombrero_, with eye-glass and _dudeen_) which
rendered so _piquant_ some of the former vignettes on the Union Bank
notes. I can yet recall as one of the most stirring memories of my
childhood, the concern, nay, vexation, of Quebecers generally when the
"General" was missing on the 16th July, 1838, from his sacred niche in
Palace street, and was subsequently triumphantly replaced by the grateful
citizens,--rejuvenated, repainted, revarnished, with the best materials
Halifax could furnish, the "General" having been brought there by the
youngsters of the "Inconstant" frigate, Captain Pring, from Quebec. It
would appear the roystering middies, having sacrificed copiously to the
rosy god, after rising from a masonic dinner in the Albion Hotel, in
Palace street, had noticed the "General" by the pale moonlight, looking
very seedy, and considering that a sea voyage would set him up, had
carried him on board. The General was driven down in a calèche by Colvin
of St. Louis street--a carter--through Palace Gate, standing erect; the
sentry presenting arms, as if he were saluting the officer of the night.
He was safely introduced through a port-hole, the seaman of the watch,
shaking his head knowingly, saying--"One of our swells pretty tight, I
guess." From Halifax "General Wolfe" sailed for Bermuda--thence to
Portsmouth, at both of which places he was jauntily set up as a signboard;
a short time after he was re-shipped to Halifax, packed in a box, with his
extended arm sawn off lying by his side. Fearing, however, the anger of
the Quebec authorities, the "General" was painted afresh and returned by
the "Unicorn" steamer, "Cape Douglas," which plied between the Lower
Ports,--with the "Inconstants'" best regards to their Quebec friends, and
best wishes for the General's health and safety.

The following extract from the journal of the venerable Jas. Thompson, the
last survivor of Wolfe's army, who expired at the ripe age of 98 years--in
1830, throws light on this matter. This anecdote was reduced to writing,
and by request forwarded by him to His Excellency the Earl of Dalhousie,
through his A.D.C. and brother Col. Ramsay. "We had a loyal fellow in
Quebec, one George Hipps, a butcher, who owned that house at the corner of
Palace and John streets, still called 'Wolfe's Corner,' and as it happened
to have a niche, probably for the figure of a saint, [348] he was very
anxious to fill it up, and he thought he could have nothing better than a
statue of General Wolfe; but he did not know how to set about getting one.
At last he found out two French sculptors, who were brothers--of the name
of Cholette, and asked me if I thought I could direct them how to make a
likeness of the General in wood. I said I would, at all events, undertake
it, and accordingly the Cholettes tried to imitate several sketches I gave
them; but they made but a poor job of it after all; for the front face is
no likeness at all, and the profile is all that they could hit upon. The
body gives but a poor idea of the General, who was tall and straight as a
rush. So that after my best endeavors to describe his person, and I knew
it well, for which purpose I attended every day at their workshop which
was in that house in St. Louis street where the Misses Napier are now
(1828) residing, [349] and which is somewhat retired from the line of the
street, the shop itself being on the projecting wing--I say that we made
but a poor "General Wolfe" of it. It has been several times--the house
being only one storey high--pulled down by mischievous persons and broken,
and as often repaired by the several owners of the house; and, much to
their credit be it spoken, it still keeps its ground, and I hope it will
do so until the monument is finished. [350]

"I suppose that the original parts of the statue must be as rotten as a
pear and would be mouldered away if it was not for their being kept so
bedaubed with paint."

Note.--Officers of H.B.M. frigate "Inconstant," Capt. Pring: 1st Lieut.
Hope; Lieutenants and other officers,--Sinclair, Erskine, Curtis,
Connolly, Dunbar, McCreight, Sharpe, Stevens, Hankey, Shore, Barnard,
West, Tonge, Prevost, Amphlett, Haggard, Tottenham, Maxfield, Paget, Kerr,
Herbert, Jones, Montgomery. Mr. James was purser. L. de Tessier Prevost is
now high in command, having distinguished himself in the Indian seas,
capturing pirates: West and others are admirals, (1870).

[_See page 197_.]


Pardevant le Notaire Public en la Province du Bas Canada, résidant à St-
Denis sur la rivière et comté Richelieu, soussigné et témoins enfin
nommés, fut présent Messire Louis Payet prêtre, Curé de la paroisse de St-
Antoine au nord de la rivière Richelieu, lequel a constitué pour son
procureur spécial M. François Bellet, capitaine de bâtiment, résidant en
la ville de Québec, pour vendre pour et au nom du dit constituant et à son
plus grand avantage qu'il pourra faire, une négresse d'environ trente et
une années, appelée Rose, appartenant au dit constituant par achat devant
M. J. Pierre Gautier, notaire à Montréal, en date du mois mars 1795, dont
il s'oblige remettre l'expédition si besoin est à la première Réquisition,
pour le prix et somme que le dit procureur en trouvera du reçu donner
toute quittance valable et raisonable, approuvant d'avance comme alors,
tout ce que ce dit procureur aura fait concernant la dite vente, ce fut
ainsi fait et passé à St-Denis, étude du notaire soussigné, l'an mil sept
cent quatre-vingt seize le deux de septembre avant midi présence des Srs.
Charles Gariépy et Jean-Baptiste Gosselin au dit lieu, témoins à ce
appellé, qui ont signé avec Messire Louis Payet et notaire soussigné,
ainsi signé Charles Gariépy, Jean-Bte. Gosselin, L. Payet, Chs. Michaud
Nre. Pc. à la minute des présentes demeurée en la Garde et possession du
dit notaire soussigné.

Nre. Pc.

Par devant les notaires publics en la province du Bas Canada résidens à
Québec soussignés.

Fut présent M. Francis Bellet demeurant en sa maison, rue sous le Fort, en
cette ville, lequel en vertu de la procuration ci-dessus et précédentes
pages reconnaît et déclare avoir vendu et vendre à M. Thomas Lee du dit
Québec, la nommée Rose, négresse, dénommée et désignée en la dite
obligation, pour prix et somme de cinq cents livres de vingt sols et de la
lui délivrer incessement le dit Sieur acquéreur déclarant la connaître et
l'accepter, et a payé les dites cinq cents livres au dit Sieur vendeur en
billet de la dite somme, ordre du dit sieur Bellet, lequel acquitté, la
présente vente le sera aussi, Québec, neuvième septembre en l'office de M.
Dumas, Notaire, l'an mil sept cent quatre-vingt seize et ont signé,
lecture faite avec les dits notaires

N. Public.
Not. Pub.

[_See page_ 200.]



"At the very moment of its departure, and when the entire city was
rejoicing in the longed-for event--at the very time when the glad news was
flashing over the wires to Montreal and the West, that Nature's barrier to
the uninterrupted navigation of the St. Lawrence was so slowly floating
away--we regret to say that the ice-bridge of 1874 was making itself
memorable yesterday to Quebec in a shape more formidable than its perverse
tenacity or its injurious effects upon trade. It was rioting in a perfect
orgie of destruction, crushing man's handwork in its passage like so much
frail glass in the grasp of a giant. At 3.20 p.m., when the glad
announcement passed from mouth to mouth that the ice was moving, it began
its destructive work. The scene was at Blais Booms and the immediate
neighborhood, where the Government steamers _Napoleon III_ and _Druid_,
the Gulf Ports steamers _Georgia_, _Miramichi_ and _Hadji_ and a large
number of tug steamers and other craft belonging to the St. Lawrence Tow
Boat Company and other parties were in winter quarters and have been in
the habit of so doing for years on account of the superior facilities and
safety offered by the place. Nearly a hundred craft of all kinds,
steamers, ships, schooners, and barges, were here congregated, moored in
many instances together and extending over a line of nearly 300 yards. The
floating ice as it came down, struck the outside craft--a sailing vessel,
we believe--driving it against its neighbor, the _Georgia_, and then
hurrying both of them against the others, jamming them against each other
and against the wharves in inextricable confusion and causing a tremendous
amount of damage, if not irreparable loss. Some were stove in, filled with
water and sunk, only leaving their bows or masts above water to mark where
they had gone down, while others disappeared from view altogether.
Fortunately no lives were lost. The loss and damage to property cannot
fall far short, we believe, of a million of dollars. The following is a
summary of the accident:

Government steamer _Napoleon III_ driven against the Mariner's Chapel
wharf had her side completely stove in; full of water and almost keeled
over, very badly damaged, and will cost a heavy sum to repair. She had
steam up at the time, but could not move out. Broke her cables and lost
her anchors.

Gulf Ports steamer _Georgia_--Hole stove in her side; hold, full of
water. Damage easily repaired.

Gulf Ports SS. _Hadji_--Singular to say, though the boat was in the
very middle of the confused mass, it received no damage worth mentioning.

Gulf Ports SS. _Miramichi_--very slightly damaged. Will be extricated
to-day and proceed to her wharf, to sail for below on Tuesday next.

Government steamer "Druid,"--on her beam ends, slightly damaged.

Steamboat "Napoleon,"--keeled over,

Steamboat "Mersey,"--on her side.

Steamboat "Canada,"--sunk.

Steamboat "Beaver,"--sunk, completely disappeared.

Steamboat "Castor"--disappeared.

Steamboat "Rival"--badly damaged.

Steamboat "Shannon,"--badly damaged.

Steamboat "Rescue,"--sunk, lies under the bows of the "Miramichi."

Steamboat "Conqueror No. 1,"--badly damaged.

A schooner, owned by Mr. Kennedy, of Gaspé, laden with provisions, and
which was detained here last fall, was also sunk and lies near the
"Georgia." In addition two of Mr. H. H. Hall's blocks or piers were
completely carried away by the crushing weight of the ice."--(Quebec

[_See page 317_.]


(_To the Editor of the Morning Chronicle_.)

DEAR SIR,--Would you allow me to supply in your columns additional
information on an incident relating to the siege of Quebec in 1759. By the
following documents, which come to me with every guarantee of reliability
in the writer, it would appear that the gallant General Wolfe, before
expiring on the Plains of Abraham, on the 13th of Sept, 1759, bequeathed
his pistols and sash to one of the surgeons who attended him. Dr. Elihu or
Edward Tudor was a Welshman, born in 1733. He graduated at Yale College,
1750, joined the English army in 1755, was present at the taking of
Quebec, and left the service about 1767, receiving a pension and grant of
land from the English Government. These relics are now in the possession
of Dr. Tudor's grand daughter, Mrs. Strong, at Monkton, awaiting farther

I remain, Dear Sir,

Yours, &c.

J. M. LeMoine.



MONKTON, April 26th, 1875.

J. M. LeMoine, Esq., Literary and Historical Society, Quebec.

SIR,--Please find enclosed statement of Mrs. Strong relative to the
pistols and sash of Gen. Wolfe. You will undoubtedly remember that I wrote
to you last winter, and that you answered asking for something more
authentic. Consequently I drew up a set of questions, leaving after each
question space for answer. Now I return them to you. There is no question
in the minds of people here about the facts as stated by Mrs. Strong. The
authority of the matter is as established here as that Mr. Harrower is
proprietor of Gen. Montgomery's sabre. I should be very happy to receive
one of the books that are being prepared of that era in the history of

I have the honor, sir, of being at your service, G. E. SMITH.


VERGENNES, Vt., 1875.

Dr. Elihu or Edward was descended from Owen Tudor, who came from Wales
with the Puritans, was born 1733, graduated at Yale College 1750, joined
the army 1755, was at the taking of Quebec and the Havana; about 1767; he
was discharged and returned to his native place; he received a pension
during his life, and also a grant of land from the English Government.

The above statement is made by C. W. Strong, of the above firm.


Will Mrs. Strong please answer the following questions:--

What is your maiden name?--Sarah Tudor.

What was your father's name in full and profession?--Edward Tudor,
educated at Philadelphia as Physician, Surgeon and Dentist.

What was your grandfather's name and profession?--Elihu Tudor, Physician
and Surgeon,--generally wrote it _Edward_, as he disliked the name of

When and where was he born?--Feb. 1733, Windsor, Conn.

When and where did he die?--East Windsor, Conn., 1826.

Was he Surgeon on Gen. Wolfe's staff's at Quebec in 1759?--He was.

How do you know that your grandfather Tudor attended upon Gen. Wolfe when
he was wounded on the 13th Sept., 1759, at Quebec?--I have often heard my
grand father relate the circumstances and other interesting reminiscences
of the General.

What is the history or tradition as you have it that Gen. Wolfe gave your
grandfather his pistols?--The history he (my grandfather) gave was only,
that they were given him at the death of Gen. Wolfe.

Describe them--They are rifle breech-loaders, London maker, Flint Locks,
silver mounted, with English coat of arms on butt; the sash was cut up;
Dr. Strong has a piece; it is stained.

Have you them in your possession?--My son, Dr. Edward Strong, of Crown
Point, N. Y., has them.

Have you the sash worn by Surgeon Tudor at the time the General was
killed?--The sash was three yards long, Crimson silk. It was Gen. Wolfe's
sash given to my grandfather.

What is said of stains of blood upon it from the wound that caused Wolfe's
death?--It was rent with the shot, and stained with his blood.



"In a recent issue of the _Journal des Trois Rivières_ appeared a
somewhat interesting paper on the Canadian postal system. From this paper
we learn that on the cession of this country to Great Britain a regular
mail courier was established between the cities of Montreal and Quebec.
The celebrated Benjamin Franklin was the Deputy Postmaster General for the
English colonies from 1750 to 1774. In 1776 this functionary, while giving
evidence before a committee of the British Parliament, stated that, as a
rule, the mail courier kept the route by the water highways, seldom
penetrating into the interior. From his evidence, also, we learn that the
mail communication between Quebec and Montreal was not more frequent than
once a month. For not having established intermediate post-offices between
the two towns, Franklin alleged the great distance between the settlers on
the banks of the St. Lawrence, the isolation of the Canadian villages, and
the excessive difficulty of intercommunication in his day. The fact is,
however, that Benjamin Franklin was a great enemy to Canadian prosperity,
and always looked with aversion upon the people of the newly-acquired
colony. In 1774, war having broken out between the mother-country and the
English colonies, Franklin was deprived of his office, and Mr. Hugh
Finlay, a subordinate of the great republican philosopher, was appointed
Deputy Postmaster General for Canada. Mr. Finlay had been given great
proofs of capacity under the previous _régime_, and being a man of
very high character and probity, he was armed with large discretionary
powers to put the mail system of Canada on a better footing, and to make
its operations more extended and regular. Until 1790, there were added but
two intermediate post-offices between Quebec and Montreal; in the year
following, offices were opened at Three Rivers and Berthier. Every month,
however, a mail messenger was sent by way of Halifax to England. At this
date the local mail betwixt Quebec and Halifax was bi-weekly in summer,
and once a week in winter; the local mail between Quebec and Montreal had
increased to twice a week. In 1800, Mr. Hugh Finlay was succeeded in
office by Mr. George Heriot. This gentleman, being also commissioned as
Deputy Postmaster General for New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, as well as
for the two Canadas, had to oversee the service throughout all these
provinces and to visit them from time to time. In the four first years of
his administration he opened but one new post-office in Lower Canada, and
five in the Upper Province. Matters progressed slowly enough until 1816,
when Mr. David Sutherland succeeded Mr. Heriot. In 1817 be opened six
additional offices of delivery in Lower Canada which made the total number
of offices in operation thirteen. Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island
were placed under the management of independent offices, and in that year
the mails were still expedited but weekly to New Brunswick. In 1824, Mr.
Sutherland was succeeded by Mr. Thomas Allen Stayner, and it was in this
year that New Brunswick was endowed with an independent postal department.
Mr. Stayner administered his important office for the space of twenty-
seven years, with great zeal and giving entire satisfaction to the public.
He greatly increased the number of local offices, and inaugurated many of
the reforms which have since developed into that vast and safe system of
communication with which our people are so familiar. On the 6th of April,
1851, the Canadian Mail Department was transferred from the Imperial to
Provincial control, the first Postmaster General being the Hon. John
Morris. Some idea of the progress made from 1760 to 1851, a period of
ninety years, may be obtained by contrasting the department under Benjamin
Franklin and that over which Mr. Morris was called to preside. The
courier, who made monthly journeys on horseback between the military posts
of Quebec and Montreal, and whose safe arrival at either of those then
distant cities would no doubt cause the utmost satisfaction to the King's
lieges, male and female, had been replaced by the steamboat and soon would
be by the railway; and the two primitive post offices of Canada had
expanded into a network of 601 local offices, transmitting among them
letters to the number of 2,132,000 annually. In 1861 these figures had
attained to 1775 offices, and the number of letters transmitted to
9,400,000; in addition to a weekly line of ocean mail steamers to Europe,
over 1200 miles of railway doing mail service from one end of Canada to
the other, and a magnificent network of telegraphic wire supplementing the
postal system. What the number of offices and of letters carried may have
been for the last year ending July 1867, when the postal systems of the
Dominion were again placed under one head, we have not at hand, but we may
state that during the official term of Hon. Mr. Langevin, now Secretary of
State, the revenue from this source attained almost $900,000.

In the year 1851, the system of cheap postage was tried in Canada, the
rate being reduced from an average one of fifteen cents to a uniform rate
of five cents for prepaid and seven cents for unpaid letters. In the
following year this reform resulted in doubling the number of letters
carried, with the reduction of only one-third of the previous revenue; and
in a short time the receipts not only increased to the former figure but
greatly exceeded it. Under the new system we expect this reform in the
charge for postage will be greatly extended."--(_Quebec Mercury_.)

[_See page 263._]


"_L'Ordre_ newspaper announces the completion of the monument in the
Côte des Neiges Cemetery to the memory of the victims of 1837-38. It
required many efforts and great energy to bring to a completion a work
which had unhappily encountered many difficulties. For some months,
furnished with sums collected either by a special or general subscription,
or the proceeds of concerts and pleasure excursions, the Committee applied
themselves to the work, and on Sunday they went to take possession from
Mr. T. Fahrland, architect, and Mr. L. Hughes, the constructor of the
monument. The inauguration will take place next summer.

Situated on the highest elevation of the Cemetery, this monument commands
the vast resting place of the dead. It is of octagonal shape, 55 feet in
height, the pyramid reposing on a base of 80 by 90 feet. The architecture,
stern and grand, strikes the beholder at a distance, and his admiration
will not cease as he approaches. On the four sides of the base white
marble tablets are set, having neatly engraved on them these inscriptions
(in French):

On the first stone, facing the road, we read:

To the
Political Victims
Religious Souvenir
The 92 Resolutions adopted by the Assembly of Lower Canada,
March 1st, 1834
Subsidies refused by the Assembly of Lower Canada, Feb 23rd, 1836.
Lord Gosford
Disposes of the Public Money notwithstanding the refusal to grant it.
This religious and historical monument has been erected under the auspices
of the _Institut Canadien_ in 1858.

Contractor. Architect

On the second stone:

23rd and 25th Nov., 1837.

Charles Ovide Perrault, Advocate, M.P.P.

Charles St. Germain Benjamin Bouthillier Olivier L'Escaut
François Dufaux Romain dit Mandeville Joseph Comeau
André Mandeville Moïse Pariseau Henri Chaume
Eusèbe Phaneuf Pascal Delisle Louis Dauphinais
Pierre Minet Marie Anne Martel Gabriel Lusignan
Joseph Dudevoir Amable Hébert Toussaint Paquet
Antoine Amiot J. Bte. Hébert Marc Jeannotte
J. Bte. Patenaude Toussaint Loiselle François Dubuc
Cléophas Bourgeois François Dumaine Hypolite Sénécal-Lamoureux
Pierre Emery-Coderre,
And eleven other victims not identified.

On the third stone, facing the city:

By the order of the Court Martial.
The 21st December, 1838,
Joseph Narcisse Cardinal, Notary, M. P. P.
Joseph Duquet, Student at Law.
The 18th January, 1839:
François Marie Thomas Chevalier de Lorimier, Notary.
François Nicholas, Teacher, Amable Daunais, Farmer.
Pierre Rémi Narbonne, Painter. Charles Hendelang, Soldier.

And on the fourth side we read:

15th December, 1837:

Jean Olivier Cherrier, M.D.
(His ashes repose here.)

Joseph Payette Amable Lauzon Alexis Lachance
J. B. L. Lanze Jean Morin Joseph Leduc
Nazaire Filion Jean Doré Eustache Lafleur
Séraphine Doré Joseph Guitard Augustin Doré
François Dubé Pierre Dabeau Pierre Gatien
J. Gauthier dit Larouche Joseph Bonviette J. B. Lebrun
J. B. Campeau J. B. Toupin Louis Robert dit Faché

Their remains as well as those of several other persons, not identified,
rest in the cemeteries of St. Eustache and Ste. Scholastique.

Engagement at Odelltown,
_November_, 1838;

To the Number of Victims found:
Of St. Philippe.

It is a holy and salutary thought, to pray for the dead:
M. LII, Ch. 12, v. 46.

The fine monument has cost $3,000 to $4,000, and many efforts were
required to realize this sum. The execution does great credit to Messrs.
Fehrland and Hughes. The names of the committee who contributed to produce
this result, are as follows: Dr. Coderre, chairman; Mr. R. Trudeau,
treasurer; Mr. C. O. Perrault, secretary; Messrs. L. A. Dessaulles, Henry
Lacroix, A. H. Morin, Joseph Doutre, N. Bourbonnière and Gonzalve
Doutre."--(_Quebec Mercury_.)


(Sentence du Conseil Souverain du Samedy, septième avril 1691.)

(Extrait par T. P. Bédard, archiviste provincial--Québec.)

Le Conseil assemblé ou estoient;

Monsieur le gouverneur et Monsieur l'intendant

Maistres Louis Rouer de Villeray, primier conseiller -+
" Mathieu Damours Deschampen |
" Nicolas Dupont de Neuville + Conseillers
" Jean Baptiste Depeiras |
" Charles Denys de Vitray -+

Et François de la Magdeleine Ruette d'Auteil, procureur général du Roy.

Veu par le Conseil le procès criminel extraordinairement fait et instruit
à la requête du procureur général du Roy, demandeur et accusateur
allencontre de Pierre de Noyan et Guillaume de Lorimier, capitaine dans le
détachement de la marine que sa majesté entretient en ce pays, défendeurs
et accusés. Information faite contre les dits accusés, les 25, 27 et 28
février dernier, décrets d'ajournement personel allencontre deux donné le
cinq mars ensuivant; exploits de signification faite à leur auberge le
neuvième ensuivant; autres exploits de signification faite au quartier où
est la compagnie du dit de Lorimier le 16 ensuivant, et en la ville des 3
R. au domicile du dit de Noyan quartier de sa compagnie du 15 du mesme
mois, arrest du 27 ensuivant rendu sur requête du dit de Lorimier,
certificat du chirurgien major du dit détachement sur réquisitoire du dit
procureur général, le dit arrest portant que le dit sieur Noyan seroit
incessamment interrogé, et ensuite le dit sieur de Lorimier en son
domicile où le conseiller commissaire se transportera à cet effet.
Interrogatoires des dits de Noyan et de Lorimier du 29 du dit mois,
contenant leurs reconnaissances, confessions et dénégations. Conclusions
du dit procureur général, ouy le rapport de Mtre. Jean Baptiste Peiras
conseiller et tout considéré. Le conseil a déclaré et déclare les dits de
Noyan et de Lorimier deument atteints et convaincus de s'estre querellés
et battus sur le champ, l'épée à la main, et s'estre entreblessés.
Pourquoy les a condamnés et condamne à aumosner chacun la somme de
cinquante livres, aplicable moytié à l'Hostel Dieu de cette ville, et
l'autre au bureau des pauvres d'icelle, et aux dépens du procès à taxer
par le conseiller raporteur; deffenses à eux de récidiver, sous telle
peine qu'il apartiendra.

(Signé) Bochart Champigny, Depeiras.


Jacques Cartier landed on the banks of the Saint Charles .. Sept. 14, 1535
Quebec founded by Samuel de Champlain ..................... July 3, 1608
Arrival of the Franciscan Friars (Récollets, Denis Jamay,
Jean Dolbeau, Joseph LeCaron) at Tadousac, in the ship St.
Etienne, Capt. Pontgravé .................................. May 25, 1615
First Mass said in the Lower Town Chapel, by Father Dolbeau. June 26, 1615
Fort St. Louis built at Quebec ............................ 1620-4
Arrival of the First Jesuits .............................. 1625
Quebec surrendered to Admiral Kirk ........................ 1629
Quebec returned to the French ............................. 1633
Death of Champlain the first Governor ..................... Dec. 25, 1635
Settlement formed at Sillery .............................. 1637
A Royal Government formed at Quebec ....................... 1663
Quebec unsuccessfully besieged by Admiral Phipps .......... 1690
Count de Frontenac died ................................... Nov. 28, 1698
Sir Hovenden Walker's armada shipwrecked on Egg Island .... Aug. 23, 1711
Battle of the Plains of Abraham ........................... Sept. 13, 1759
Capitulation of Quebec .................................... Sept. 18, 1759
Battle of Ste. Foye--a French Victory ..................... April 28, 1760
Canada ceded by treaty to England ......................... Feb. 10, 1763
Blockade of Quebec by Generals Montgomery and Arnold ...... Nov. 10, 1775
Death of General Richard Montgomery ....................... Dec. 31, 1775
Retreat of Americans from Quebec .......................... May 6, 1776
Division of Canada into Upper and Lower Canada ............ 1791
First Cholera, (3,500 deaths) ............................. 1832
Second do. 2,500 " ................................. 1834
Destruction by fire of Château St. Louis .................. Jan. 23, 1834
Insurrection in Canada .................................... 1837
Second Insurrection ....................................... 1838
Union of the two Provinces in one ......................... 1841
Great Fire in St. Roch's suburb ........................... May 28, 1845
" " in St. John " ............................. June 28, 1845
Dominion of Canada formed ................................. July 1, 1867
Departure of English troops ............................... 1870-1
Second Centenary of Foundation of Bishopric of Quebec by
Monseigneur Laval Oct. 1, 1674, ........................... 1874
Centenary of Repulse of Arnold and Montgomery before
Quebec, on 31st Dec., 1775 ................................ Dec. 31, 1875
Dufferin Plans of City embellishment, promulgated Christmas day 1875
Departure of the Earl of Dufferin ......................... Oct. 18, 1878
Arrival of the Marquis of Lorne and Princess Louise ....... June 4, 1879
Dufferin Terrace named by " " ........... July 9, 1879
" City Gates--St. Lewis and Kent founded ........... 1879

YEAR_ 1814 _to_ 1876, _INCLUSIVE.



a-PATRICK MURPHY, an Irishman, in height, 5 feet, 8 inches, fair
complexion, sandy hair, and blue eyes, and mark in the head.

b-On the 5th of March, 1814, by warrant from Henry Blackstone, (Coroner
Blackstone was a son of the celebrated English Jurist, Sir Wm Blackstone),
Coroner for the District of Quebec, for the wilful murder of Marie Anne
Dussault, of the Parish of Les Ecuriels, on the 1st of March, 1814.

c-On the 6th of May, 1814 by order of the Court of Oyer and Terminer and
General Gaol Delivery, being on this day convicted of wilful murder of
Marie Anne Dussault, and on 9th of May, 1814, by further order of the
Court of Oyer and Terminer and General Gaol Delivery, being on this day
attained, sentenced to be hanged on Friday, the 20th of May.

d-Executed on Friday, the 20th May, 1814.


a-JAMES WELSH, an Irishman, in height, 5 feet, 10 inches, dark complexion,
black hair, and brown eyes, and no nose.

b-On the 27th of December, 1814, by virtue of a warrant from Henry
Blackstone, Esq., Coroner for the district of Quebec, charged with the
wilful murder of Robert Stephens.

c-On the 16th May, 1815, by order of the Court of Oyer and Terminer and
General Gaol Delivery, held for the District of Quebec, being on this day
convicted of murder, and further ordered by the same court attained,
sentenced to be executed on the 18th of May.

d-On the 18th of May, 1815, executed, according to his sentence.

3 4


b-On the 12th day of September, 1818, by John Fletcher, Esq., charged
before me with suspicion of having feloniously stolen from on board a
vessel in the harbour of Quebec, several chests of Tea of the value of one
hundred pounds, sterling, of the goods and chattels of James Owen.

c-*On the 30th of September, 1818, by the Court of Oyer and Terminer, for
stealing to the value of forty shillings in a vessel on a navigable river,
sentenced to death. Suspended in consequence of former sentence of death.

d-*On the 23rd Oct., 1818, sentence put in execution. +Delivered by the
September Court, 1818.



b-On the 3rd day of July, 1821, by A. Caron, Esq., charged with suspicion
of felony and murder.

c-On the 5th of July, by H. Blackstone, Esq., Coroner, charged with the
wilful murder of Moses McAllister, at the parish of St. Michel, in the
county of Hertford.

c-On the 29th of September, by the Court of King's Bench, convicted of
murder. Sentence: That he be taken to the place from whence be came, and
that he be taken from thence, on Wednesday, the 26th day of September
instant, to the place of execution, and he be then hanged by the neck
'till he be dead; and that his body, when dead, be taken down and
dissected and anatomised.

Respited till the 5th Oct, 1821.

The above sentence of the court executed on the 5th October, 1821.


a-WILLIAM POUNDER, an Irishman; aged 28, height, 5 feet, 6 inches; sallow

b-On the 31st of May, 1823, by virtue of a warrant from T. Fletcher, Esq.,
charged with suspicion of felony and murder.

c-On the 7th of June, 1823, by order of H. Blackstone, Esq., Coroner, and
sentenced to be hanged by the neck until he be dead.

d-Executed on the 10th Oct., 1823 Body given to Dr Fargues.


a-JOHN HART, a Nova Scotian, aged 34, height 5 feet, 9 inches, dark

b-On the 7th of October, 1825, by virtue of a warrant from N.
D'Estimauville, Esq., charged with suspicion of larceny.

c-March term (1826) Six months' imprisonment, and to be whipt, May 6,
between 10 and 12, in the market-place.

d-On the 14th of Jan, 1826, escaped, and was re taken on the 17th, charged
with another offence, for which he was condemned and executed 10th
November, 1826.


a-JOHN BTE MONARQUE, a Canadian, aged [sic]

b-On the 29th of September, 1826, by virtue of a warrant from J. F.
Taschereau, Esq., charged with suspicion of burglary.

c-March term Sentenced to be hanged at Pointe Levi, on the 24th April,

d-Sentence carried into execution on the 24th April, 1827.

9 10


b-On the 12th of November, 1826, by virtue of a warrant from T. A. Young,
Esq., charged with suspicion of burglary.

c-March term. Sentenced to be hanged on the 21st of April, 1827.

d-Sentence executed.


+JOHN DOHARTY, _alias_ John Dougherty

b-On the 15th of September, 1828, by virtue of a warrant from A. G. Chenet
and J. G. Boisseau, Esqrs., charged with stealing a quantity of
merchandize from Jacques Oliva, of St. Thomas.

c-Sentenced to be hanged by the neck, on the 24th October next ensuing, by
the Court of King's Bench, September term, 1828.

+18th of October, 1828, ordered for transportation.

d-24th Oct, 1828, sentence carried into execution.



b-On the 13th of June, 1829, by virtue of a warrant from R. Christie,
Esq., charged with suspicion of burglary.

c-By the Court of King's Bench September term, 1829, sentenced to be
executed on the 31st day of October, 1829.

d-Sentence carried into execution.


a-FRS. MALOUIN, _dit_ FRS. Marois _dit_ Frs. Lafaye, a Canadian.

b-On the 23rd August, 1829, by virtue of a warrant from R. Harrower, Esq.,
charged with murder.

c-26th August, François Malouin _dit_ Marios _dit_ Lafaye, recommitted for
murder under coroner's inquest.

Court of King's Bench, September term, 1829, sentence of death on 30th
September, 1829.

d-Sentence carried into execution.



b-On the 14th of January, 1824, by virtue of a warrant from J. J. Reny,
Esq., charged with inflicting a gunshot wound on Living Lane.

c-By Court of King's Bench, March term, 1834. Sentence, death.

d-4th April, 1834, sentence carried into execution.


a-EDWARD DEVELIN, _alias_ Harvicker

b-On the 30th of November, 1835, by virtue of a warrant from the Coroner,
charged with murder.

c-By Court of King's Bench, March term, 1836. Sentence, death.

d-8th April, 1836, executed pursuant to sentence.


a-JOHN MEEHAN, an Irishman, aged 22

b-On the 12th of Sept., 1863, by virtue of a warrant from C. E. Panet,
charged with murder.

c-Convicted January term, 1864, Queen's Bench. Sentenced to be executed on
Friday, the 22nd of March, 1864, between the hours of 10 and 11 o'clock

d-Sentence carried into execution

QUEBEC GAOL, February 7, 1877.


The members of this Club had their annual meeting on Saturday last to
compete for their "Handicap Medal" over the Cove Field, or Quebec links.
The "Ancient game of Golf" having only recently been introduced into the
country it may not be uninteresting for the information of the uninitiated
to give a general idea of the game. It is played with a ball, weighing 1-
3/4 oz., made of "gutta percha" and a set of clubs of various construction
suitable for the different stages of the game; the play is over an
extended grass common or "Links." At St. Andrew in Scotland, for instance,
the ground "Links" over which the game is played, extends in length about
two miles and the circuit "out and home" is about four miles; over this
space, circular holes of about four inches in diameter are placed, in all
eighteen holes, from a quarter of a mile to one-half or one-third of the
distance apart. The game is interspersed with what in golfing language are
called "hazards," that is sand bunkers and whins, and all the skill
required is to avoid these, reach each hole, and hole the ball in the
fewest possible number of strokes. Of course the distance and number of
holes varies according to the extent of ground available for play in
different localities; at Quebec, for instance, the "round" consists in 14
holes, extending from the racquet court westward to Perrault's Hill, and
making a circuit back to the "home hole" or the point from which the game
started. The game is played by two persons or by four (two of a side)
playing alternately. They commence by each party playing off from a place
called a "tee" near the first hole; the ball must afterwards be played
from wherever it lies and the hole is won by the party holing in fewest
strokes; hereafter the balls are again teed and so on at each hole over
the whole course. All golf clubs as a rule have an annual competition for
a medal or other trophy; sometimes the rule is that all must compete on
equal terms; at others the players are handicapped, that is odds are given
according to the player's supposed skill or want of skill, and in awarding
the prize the odds thus given are deducted from the aggregate score made
by the player--thus, say a player is handicapped or receives the odds of
ten strokes and holes the round in 80, his odds being deducted makes him
stand 70 in the competition; he therefore wins as against another
competitor whose aggregate score is 71, but who received no odds.


His Excellency, the MARQUIS OF LORNE, Governor-General of Canada.

C. Farquharson Smith.

James Stevenson. H. Stanley Smith.
Peter MacNaughton. Herbert M. Price.

_Secretary-Treasurer:_ William P. Sloane.

Beckett, Thos. Macpherson, William M.
Campbell, Colin. MacEwen, Peter.
Cook, William. MacKay, John.
Denistoun, A. Roberts, Jos.
Dobell, Richard R. Ruthven, Hon. E.
De Winton, Lt.-Col., F. W. Richardson, D. B. C.
Foote, John J. Smith, C. Chaloner.
Griffith, W. A. Smith, R. H.
Gibb, James. Stikeman, H.
Gilmour, John D. Scott, T. M.
Hale, E. I. Scott, A. P.
Irvine, Hon. Geo. Scarth, James L.
Irvin, Lt.-Col., D. T., R.A. Sheppard, H. C., A.D.C., Lt.-Gov.
Laird, Thomas U. Thomson, Andrew.
Lindsay, Crawford. Thomson, Geo. H.
Machin, H. T. Taylor, John.
Moffat, W., jun. Hussey, George.
Meredith, Hon. Chief Justice W. C. Young, G. B. Symes.

We may add that a certain historical interest attaches to the Game of
Golf. It was played in early times by two Kings of Scotland, hence the
prefix "Royal;" hence also, perhaps, the custom of players wearing red
coats while at play. In the "Memorials of Edinburgh in the olden time," by
Dr. Daniel Wilson, President of the University College, Toronto, and
Professor of History, we read that King Charles I was engaged in the game
of Golf on Leith links when, in November, 1641, a letter was handed to him
which gave the first news of the Rebellion in Ireland. On reading the
letter, he suddenly called for his coach, and leaving a few of his
attendants in great agitation, he drove to Holyrood palace, from whence he
set out next day for London. This was undoubtedly his last game in
Scotland, and probably the last game of Golf he played.

It will he observed that His Excellency the Marquis of Lorne is Patron of
the Quebec Club. His Excellency is not on the list as a mere figurehead;
he is a golfer, and plays an excellent game, as shewn in the Reports of
medal day games.


Founded In 1876.

Colours: RED and BLACK.

This Club, which counts upwards of 60 members in its ranks, meets weekly
during the snow-shoe season; it has three rendezvous, viz., at Hamels on
the Cap Rouge Road, at Belleau's, on the St. Foye Road, and at
Chamberlain's near Beauport. At these tramps the members amuse themselves
with chess, cards, draughts, singing, &c, to 11 P.M., when supper is
served. The club is conducted on strictly temperance principles.

The Annual Concert of the Club, usually held in the Music Hall, is looked
for by the Quebec public with pleasure In 1881, one of the largest
audiences ever collected in the Music Hall, attended the annual concert.

The Hall was decorated with flags, devices, wreaths, snow-shoes most
ingeniously arranged. It was a most brilliant and enjoyable _soirée._
The various LaCrosse, the Golf and the Snow-shoe Clubs, tend very much to
develop the muscle of our city youths, combining healthy exercise, with
pleasure and health.

Subjoined will be found the names of the Q. S. S. C, for 1881

Ashe, H. Fraser, D. Peters, J. B.
Ashe, F. Gingras, J. Peters, A. H.
Bell, J. L. Green, J. A. Phillips, C. W.
Buchanan, A. H. Holloway, A. Oliver, F.
Boswell, V. Holloway, F. Richardson, J. 0.
Boswell, J. Holt, C. Roche, J, Jr.
Buchanan, N. H. Hurst, H. Rawson, Rev. C. W
Brown, J, Jr. Hague, L. Ramsay, W. T.
Bruneau, L. Hemming, H. Scott, W. B.
Bruneau, J. Harrison, R. M., Jr. Scott, W.
Burroughs, W. Irvine, G. H. Scott, A.
Campbell, B. Joly, E. Smith, R. H., Jr.
Campbell, W. W. Judge, H. E. Scwartz, E.
Campbell, W. N. Jones, E., Jr. Sewell, R. L.
Colley, A. W. King, Wm. Woods, W. C.
Dunn, C. Laird, J., Jr. Woods, H.
Dunn, T. Lelièvre, S. Wilson, E.
Dunbar, J, Jr. Montizambert, W. Welch, R. C.
Doucet, R. E. B. Meredith, F. Whitehead, B.
Fry, H., Jr. Mountain. A. H. Wurtele, C. F.
Forrest, S. Mountain, H. H.
Forrest, H. Myles, P.

R. H. Smith, Jr., President, A. Holloway, Vice-President; H. Woods,

W. B Scott, A. H. Buchanan, P. Myles.

On the 24th March, 1881, a handsome gold locket and chain was presented to
one of the most energetic promoters of the Club, Mr. A. Holloway, with the
following address:--

_To Alfred Holloway, Esquire, from the members of the Quebec Snow-shoe

DEAR SIR,--We, your fellow-members of the Quebec Snow-Shoe Club,
acknowledging the indefatigable zeal yon have always shewn for the
prosperity of the club, beg to offer for your acceptance the accompanying
locket and chain as a small token of regard. It is the spontaneous tribute
of the members in recognition of your many fine qualities as a companion,
and to mark our appreciation of your efforts to make our meetings

The success and pleasure of the many winter tramps were in no small
measure due to the bright and cheerful manner you always displayed in
encouraging and enlivening the journey, and thus your impromptu songs at
our place of meeting, on the route, were inimitable, and were, we assure
you, thoroughly enjoyed. These pleasant and invigorating snow-shoe rambles
and entertainments will ever remain a green spot in our memories.

That the Quebec Snow-Shoe Club may long continue to enjoy the benefit and
influence of your agreeable company is the heartfelt desire of us all.


14th March, 1881.

The locket and chain which were presented to Mr. A. Holloway were made by
Mr. G. Seifert, the locket having upon it a pair of crossed snow-shoes and
tuque with a monogram of the club beautifully raised on the one side, and
on the back, were engraved the following words: "Presented to Mr. Holloway
by the members of Q. S. S. C., 24th March, 1881." The address was
handsomely illuminated by the Nuns of the Good Shepherd Convent, and
reflects great credit upon them for the artistic manner in which it is got



Date of
Commission From To

CHAMPLAIN, Samuel de Oct 15, 1612 Oct 15, 1612 July 20, 1629
CHAMPLAIN, Samuel de (a) ---- --- ---- May 23, 1633 Dec 25, 1635
Châteaufort, Marc
Antoine Bras-de-fer (b) ---- --- ---- Dec 25, 1635 June 11, 1636
Huault de ---- --- ---- June 12, 1636 Aug 19, 1648
D'AILLEBOUST de Coulonge,
Louis ---- --- ---- Aug 20, 1648 Oct 12, 1651
LAUZON, Jean de Jan 17, 1651 Oct 13, 1651 ---- --- 1656
Lauzon-Charny, Charles de ---- --- ---- ---- --- 1658 Sep 12, 1657
D'Ailleboust de Coulonge,
Louis ---- --- ---- Sep 13, 1657 July 10, 1658
D'ARGENSON, Pierre de
Voyer, Vicomte Jan 26, 1657 July 11, 1658 Aug 30, 1661
D'AVAUGOUR, Pierre Dubois,
Baron ---- --- ---- Aug 31, 1661 July 28, 1663
MEZY, Augustin de Saffray May 1, 1663 Sep 15, 1663 May 5, 1665
COURCELLES, Daniel de Remy
de (c) Mar 23, 1665 Sep 12, 1665 ---- --- 1672
FRONTENAC, Louis de Buade,
Comte de Palluau et de Apr 7, 1672 Sep --- 1672 ---- --- 1683
LA BARBE, Le Fèbvre de (d) May 1, 1682 Oct 9, 1682 ---- --- 1685
DENONVILLE, Jacques Rene
de Brisay, Marquis de Jan 1, 1685 July 30, 1685 Oct 14, 1689
FRONTENAC, Louis de Buade,
Comte de Palluau et de May 15, 1689 Oct 15, 1689 Nov 28, 1698
Callières, Louis Hector de ---- --- ---- Nov 29, 1698 Sep 13, 1699
CALLIÈRES, Louis Hector Apr 20, 1699 Sep 14, 1699 May 26, 1703
de (d)
Vaudreuil, Philippe de
Rigaud, Marquis de ---- --- ---- May 27, 1703 Sep 16, 1705
VAUDREUIL, Philippe de
Rigaud, Marquis de (d) Aug 1, 1703 Sep 17, 1705 Oct
10, 1725
Ramesay, Claude de ---- --- ---- ---- --- 1714 ---- --- 1716
Longueuil, Charles LeMoyne,
(1st) Baron de ---- --- ---- ---- --- 1725 ---- --- 1726
Marquis de (d)
La Galissonnière, Rolland Jan 11, 1726 Sep 2, 1726 ---- --- 1747
Michel Barrin, Comte
de (e) June 10, 1747 Sep 19, 1747 Aug 14, 1749
LA JONQUIÈRE, Jacques Pierre
de Taffanel, Marquis de Mar. 15, 1746 Aug 15, 1749 May 17, 1752
Longueuil, Charles
LeMoyne, (2nd) Baron de ---- --- ---- May --- 1752 July --- 1752
Marquis de Mar 1, 1752 July --- 1752 June 24, 1755
de Rigaud, Marquis de Jan. 1, 1755 June 25, 1755 Sep. 8, 1760


From To
AMHERST, General Jeffrey (f) Sep. 8, 1760 ---- -- ----
MURRAY, General James Aug. 10, 1764 June 28, 1766
Irving, Paulus Aemilius June 30, 1766 Sep. 23, 1766
Carleton, Lt. Gov. Guy Sep. 24, 1766 Oct. 25, 1768
CARLETON, Guy (g) Oct. 26, 1768 June 26, 1778
Cramahé, Hon. Hector Theophilus Aug. 9, 1770 Oct. 10, 1774
HALDIMAND, Frederick June 27, 1778 Nov. 15, 1784
Hamilton, Lt. Gov. Henry Nov. 16, 1784 Nov. 1, 1785
Hope, Lt. Gov. Henry Nov. 2, 1785 Oct. 22, 1786
DORCHESTER, Baron (h) Oct. 23, 1786 July 11, 1796
Clarke, Lt. Gov. Alured Aug. 17, 1791 Sep. 24, 1793
Prescott, Lt. Gov. Robert July 12, 1796 Apr. 26, 1797
PRESCOTT, Robert Apr. 27, 1797 July 30, 1799
Milnes, Lt. Gov. Robert Shore (i) July 31, 1799 July 30, 1805
Dunn, Hon. Thomas July 31, 1805 Oct. 23, 1807
CRAIG, Sir James Henry Oct. 24, 1807 June 19, 1811
Dunn, Hon. Thomas June 20, 1811 Sep. 13, 1811
Prevost, Sir George Sep. 14, 1811 July 15, 1812
PREVOST, Sir George July 15, 1812 Apr. 4, 1815
ROTTENBURG, Major Gen. Francis de May 12, 1813 June 13, 1813
GLASGOW, Major Gen. George June 14, 1813 Sep. 25, 1813
Drummond, Sir Gordon Apr. 5, 1815 May 21, 1816
Wilson, Major Gen. John May 22, 1816 July 11, 1816
SHERBROOKE, Sir John Coape (j) July 12, 1816 July 29, 1818
RICHMOND, Charles, Duke of July 30, 1818 Aug. 28, 1819
Monk, Hon. James Sep. 20, 1819 Feb. 7, 1820
Maitland, Sir Peregrine (k) Feb. 8, 1820 Feb. 8, 1820
Monk, Hon. James Feb. 9, 1820 Mar. 16, 1820
Maitland, Sir Peregrine Mar. 17, 1820 June 18, 1820
DALHOUSIE, George, Earl of June 19, 1820 Sep. 7, 1828
Burton, Lt. Gov. Sir. Francis Nathaniel June 7, 1824 Sep. 16, 1825
Kempt, Sir James Sep. 8, 1828 Oct. 19, 1830
Aylmer, Matthew Whitworth Aylmer, Baron Oct. 20, 1830 Feb. 3, 1831
AYLMER, Matthew Whitworth Aylmer, Baron Feb. 4, 1831 Aug. 23, 1835
GOSFORD, Archibald Acheson, Earl of Aug. 24, 1835 Feb. 26, 1838
Colborne, Sir John Nov. 1, 1838 Jan. 16, 1839
DURHAM, John George Lambton, Earl of May 29, 1838 Oct. 31, 1838
Colborne, Sir John Nov. 1, 1838 Jan. 16, 1839
COLBORNE, Sir John Jan. 17, 1839 Oct. 18, 1839
SYDENHAM, Chs Ed. Poulett Thomson, Lord (l) Oct. 18, 1839 Sep. 19, 1841
_Clitherowe_, Major Gen. John (m) Sep. 18, 1841 Sep. 18, 1841
Jackson, Sir Richard Downes Sep. 24, 1841 Jan. 11, 1842
BAGOT, Sir Charles Jan. 12, 1842 Mar. 29, 1843
METCALFE, Sir Charles Theophilus (n) Mar. 30, 1843 Nov. 25, 1845
Cathcart, Charles Murray, Earl of Nov. 26, 1845 Apr. 23, 1846
CATHCART, Charles Murray, Earl of Apr. 24, 1846 Jan. 29, 1847
ELGIN, James Bruce, Earl of Jan. 30, 1847 Dec. 18, 1854
_Rowan_, Major Gen. William (m) May 29, 1849 May 30, 1849
Rowan, Lieut. Gen. William Aug. 23, 1853 June 10, 1854
HEAD, Sir Edmund Walker Dec. 19, 1854 Oct. 24, 1861
Eyre, Sir William June 21, 1857 Nov. 2, 1857
Williams, Sir William Fenwick Oct. 12, 1860 Feb. 22, 1861
Monck, Charles Stanley, Viscount Oct. 25, 1861 Nov. 27, 1861
MONCK, Charles Stanley, Viscount (o) Nov. 28, 1861 Nov. 13, 1868
Michel, Sir John Sep. 30, 1865 Feb. 12, 1866
Windham, Sir Charles Ash Nov. 14, 1868 Nov. 30, 1868
Young, Sir John Dec. 1, 1868 Feb. 1, 1869
YOUNG, Sir John (p) Feb. 2, 1869 June 21, 1872
Doyle, Sir Charles Hastings June 22, 1872 June 24, 1872
DUFFERIN, Sir F. T. Blackwood, Earl of June 25, 1872 Oct. 18, 1878
O'Grady Haly, Lieut. Gen. William Oct. 12, 1874 Nov. 2, 1874
O'Grady Haly, Lieut. Gen. William May 15, 1875 Oct. 22, 1875
O'Grady Haly, Sir William Jan. 21, 1878 Feb. 6, 1878
Macdougall, Sir Patrick L. Oct. 19, 1878 Nov. 24, 1878
LORNE. Sir John D. S. Campbell, Marquis of Nov. 25, 1878 ---- -- ----


Names indented are those of administrators.

Except in the case of administrators, the date of the arrival at Quebec,
wherever I have been able to ascertain it, is that given in the second
column in the list of French Governors.

(a) Quebec was held by the English, under Louis Kirke, from July 20, 1629,
to July 13, 1632, when it was restored to France. The colony was then
governed by Emery de Caen and Duplessis Bochart, until Champlain's return,
May 23, 1633.

(b) The date given in the second column is that of Champlain's death.
Châteaufort's administration began on the day of the interment, probably
the 28th.

(c) The Marquis de Tracy, the King's _Lieutenant-Général_ in America,
arrived at Quebec, June 30, 1665, and was virtually the Governor of Canada
till his departure, August 28, 1667.

(d) The date here given in the second column is that of the registration
of the Governor's commission at Quebec.

(e) La Galissonnière was sent out to administer the Government during the
captivity of La Jonquière, who, on his way from France, had been made
prisoner by the English.

(f) Although Amherst is usually placed first on the list of English
Governors, it is well known that after the capitulation of Montreal be
divided the province into three governments or districts, to each of which
he appointed a Governor, and that he himself very shortly afterwards left
the country and did not return. The Governors of these three districts,
during what is commonly called the period of military rule, from Sept. 8,
1760, to Aug. 10, 1764,
were as follows:

District of Quebec,
Gen. James Murray Sep. 1760 to Aug. 1764.

District of Three Rivers,
Col. Ralph Burton Sep. 1760 to May 1762.
Col. Fred. Haldimand May 1762 to Mar. 1763.
Col. Ralph Burton Mar. 1763 to Oct. 1763.
Col. Fred. Haldimand Oct. 1773 to Aug. 1764.

District of Montreal,
Gen. Thomas Gage Sep. 1760 to Oct. 1763.
Col. Ralph Burton Oct. 1763 to Aug. 1764.

(g) Guy Carleton was made a Knight of the Bath on the 6th of July, 1776.

(h) Sir Guy Carleton was named Lord Dorchester on the 21st of August,

(i) Created a Baronet on the 14th of February, 1801.

(j) On the 12th of July, 1816, Sir John Sherbrooke took the oaths of
office at Quebec, although he had previously, on the 8th of June, been
sworn in at Halifax.

(k) Sir Peregrine Maitland, Governor of Upper Canada, was sworn in at
Quebec, as Administrator of the Government of Lower Canada, on the 8th of
February. He returned to Upper Canada next day; but came back to Quebec
in March, and was again sworn in on the 17th.--_Quebec Mercury_.

(l) The Hon. C. Poulett Thomson was created Baron Sydenham and
Toronto in 1840. The date given in the first column is that of his
assuming the Governorship of Lower Canada, of which province he was the
last Governor. He was sworn in as Governor of the Province of Canada, on
the 10th of February, 1841, when Upper and Lower Canada were united.

(m) Acted merely as Deputy of the Governor for the prorogation of
parliament. The name is retained because it appears on other lists.

(n) Sir Charles Metcalfe was created Baron Metcalfe in January, 1845.

(o) Lord Monck was Governor of the Province of Canada until the first of
July, 1867. On that day, the Dominion of Canada was proclaimed, and he
was sworn in as the first Governor.

(p) Sir John Young was elevated to the peerage, with the title of Lord
Lisgar, on the 8th of October, 1870.


Abenaquis Indians, march with Arnold to Quebec.

Abercrombie, General, defeated by Montcalm.

Abraham, see Plains of.

Agariata, Mohawk chief hanged by De Tracy.

Agricultural society founded, names of members.

Americans, invade Canada;
attack Quebec;
anniversary celebration of;
repulse of;
centenary celebration;
plan of attack upon Quebec;
taken at Detroit and sent to Quebec;
defeated at Detroit.

American flag, historical notice of.

Arms of the Dominion described.

Arnold, Benedict, wounded;
centenary of defeat of;
carried to General Hospital;
account of his assault on Quebec;
anniversary of his defeat;
accompanied by Abenaquis Indians;
imprisoned in Récollet Convent;
his head quarters near the St. Charles;
in possession of environs of Quebec.

Arnoux, A French surgeon, Montcalm carried to his house.

Ashe, Comr. E. D., on variation of Compass at Quebec.

Asylum, Female Orphan;
St Bridget's.

Audubon, visits Quebec.

Aylmer, Lord, erects monument to Wolfe;
his tablet and epitaph to Montcalm.

Baines, Lieut., monument erected to;
verses by Mrs. Campbell.

British North America.

Baron de Longueuil, title recognized by England.

Basilica, the, notice of;
oldest church in North America.

Battlefield Park, a project.

Beatson, Lt. Col, cited;
details of battle of the Plains.

Beauport, occupied by Americans;
entrenchments constructed by Montcalm;
first seigneur of;
Huron Indians move to;
early settlement of;
monument at;
to DeSalaberry;
several Quebecers retire to;
in 1775.

Beauport Flats, why called La Canardière.

Beauport Manor, when built;
said to have been Montcalm's head quarters;
oldest seignioral manor in Canada;
meaning of the inscription discussed.

Bédard, T. P., cited.

Bédard, Mr., imprisoned by Sir Jas. Craig.

Beecher, Henry Ward, description of Quebec.

Bégon, Intendant, arrival of.

Belleau, Sir N. F., Lieut.-Governor.

Bellew, Major Patrick, Lieut. Governor of Quebec, death of.

Bells, of Quebec churches;
"Gros Bourdon," of Montreal, largest in America.

Belmont Retreat.

Berthelot, Amable, cited.

Bigot, Intendant, arrival at Quebec;
character of;
members of his ring;
residence at Charlesbourg;
acquires and enlarges Château Bigot;
notice of;
extent of his frauds;
confined in the Bastille and exiled;
fate of his confederates.

_Bigot, L'Intendant_, a novel, plot of.

Bishop, Roman Catholic, of Quebec, his power threatened.

Blanchet, Mr., imprisoned by Sir Jas. Craig.

Blue House, the, a famous inn.

Books, first printed in Canada.

Bouchette, Joseph, cited.

Bouchette, Captain, conducts Governor Carleton to Quebec.

Bougainville, at Quebec.

Boulle, brother-in law to Champlain,

Bressani, Father, captured by Iroquois,

Brewery, erected by Talon;
converted into prison;
situate near site of Boswell's brewery;
at Sillery.

Bridge, Dorchester, built.

British troops, departure of.

Brown and Gilmore, founders of Quebec Gazette.

_Bruyante_, River, see Etchemin.

Bulmer, J. H., description of Quebec.

Burgoyne, Captain, at Quebec.

Burton, Sir F. N., Lieut.-Governor.

Burying Ground, cholera.
See Cemetery.

Butler, Captain W. F., description of Quebec

Buttes à Nepveu, scene of French victory;
criminals formerly executed there;
La Corriveau executed there.

Cadet, one of Bigot's confederates, notice of

Caldwell, Henry, Receiver-General

Caldwell, Sir John, Receiver-General;
note, his mills at Etchemin.

Calèches, mentioned in 1761.

Canada, colonization of;
Administration of justice in;
slavery in;
society in the last century;
invaded by Americans;
Voltaire's allusion to;
its loss, how viewed in France;
arms of;
seal of;
dates of events in history of;
list of Governors of.

Canadian writers, names of.

_Canadien, Le_ newspaper, its printer imprisoned.

Canardière, La, name given to Beauport Flats.

_Canon de Bronze, Le_.

Cap Blanc.

Cape Diamond, called Mont du Gas;
Pointe à Puiseaux, so called by Champlain.

Cap Rouge;
Roberval winters at;
Jacques Cartier winters at;
Cramahé resides at.

Carcy, Pointe à.

Carignan regiment;
its service in Hungary.

Carillon, battle of.

Carleton, Governor Guy, returns to Quebec.

Carlyle, Thomas, describes capture of Quebec.

Caron, Lieut.-Governor, receives address from Lorette Indians.

Cartier, Jacques, winters on banks of the St. Charles;
names of his ships;
met by Donnacona;
captures and takes to France, two Indians;
passes second winter at Cap Rouge;
account of his voyage to Canada;
his Journal cited;
old print of his departure from Quebec;
list of his officers and crew;
discovery of remains of his vessel, "La Petite Hermine."

Cartier, Sir G. E.

Casgrain, Abbé, cited.

Cathedral, Roman Catholic, destroyed.

Cattle, exportation of, to Europe.

Cavalry, Captain Bell's, troop of;
muster roll of;
statement of last survivor of.

Cayugas, an Iroquois nation.

Cemetery, old;
Mount Hermon;
St. Charles;

Centenary celebration of Montgomery's defeat.

_Cents Associés_, Company of the.

Chambly, Fort, surrendered to Americans;
formerly Fort St. Louis.

Champlain, Samuel de, founder of Quebec;
his dwelling;
surrenders Quebec;
place of interment;
plot against;
returns to Quebec;
place of interment unknown;

Champlain Ward.

Chapel, first which served as parish church.

Chandler, Captain, seigneur of Nicolet.

Charlesbourg, captured by Americans;
American prisoners at;
French retreat towards;
called Bourg Royal;
several Quebecers retire to, in 1775.

Charlevoix, cited.

Château Bigot;
other names of;
probably built by Talon;
acquired by Bigot;
subsequent owners of;
present state of ruins;
how to reach;
Amédée Papineau's account of visit to;
its legend;
refugees from Quebec at, in 1759;
letter written from, during American invasion.

Château St. Louis;
described by Kalm;
by Kirby;
meeting place of Superior Council;
described in Hawkins' "Picture of Quebec";
by Bouchette;
by Parkman;
too small;
foundation of Quebec Agricultural Society in;
described by Weld;
repaired and enlarged;
first meeting of Literary and Historical Society held in;
proposed reconstruction.

Châteauguay battle, of.

Chaudière, Falls of the, how reached;
compared with Montmorency.

Chauveau, P. J. O., description of Quebec;
Quebec fifty years ago;
the battles of the Plains.

_Chien d' Or, Le_.

Cholera, Asiatic, visits Quebec;

Christie, Robert, cited;
his history noticed;
his epitaph.

"Chronicle, Quebec Morning," building.

Church, first in Canada built by Récollets.

French Protestant;
Notre Dame;
Notre Dame des Anges;
Notre Dame de la Garde;
Notre Dame des Victoires;
St. Andrews;
St. Columbia (Sillery);
St. John's;
St. Mathew's;
St. Michael's (Sillery);
St. Roch's;

Citadel, escape of Theller and Dodge from;
proposed capture of.

Clavery, in charge of "La Friponne".

Clubs:--"Beef Steak," first in Quebec;
name changed;
prominent members of;
places of meeting;
"Beaver Club," at Montreal.

Coffin, Colonel cited.

Conroy, Bishop, the Pope's Ablegate.

Convent, first in Canada;
of Jesus-Marie.

Convent Cove, at Sillery.

Corriveau, La, hanged in iron cage;
cage sold to Barnum.

Country seats about Quebec:
Bandon Lodge.
Battlefield Cottage.
Bleak House.
Cap Rouge Cottage.
Castor Ville.
Coucy le-Castel.
Elm Grove.
Ferguson's House.
Highlands, the.
Holland House.
L'Asyle Champêtre.
Montague Cottage.
Morton Lodge.
Mount Lilac.
Sillery House.
Sous les Bois.
Spencer Grange.
Spencer Wood.

Court House burnt;

Book of the day: