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Philippine Folk Tales by Compiled and Annotated by Mabel (Cook) Cole

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is found among the Batak of Palawan and in other parts of Malaysia
as well as in the South Sea, Mongol, Chinese, Siamese, and Hindoo
mythology. Even in Peru we find the belief that an evil spirit in
the form of a beast was eating the moon, and that in order to scare
it the people shouted and yelled and beat their dogs to make them
add to the noise. See Karlson, _Journal of Religious Psychology,_
November, 1914, p. 164.

[137] First recorded by Emerson B. Christie.

[138] A brass box having three compartments, one for lime, one for
the nut, and another for the betel-leaf, which is used in preparing
the nut for chewing.

[139] The Subanun have adopted the Moro dress, which consists
of long trousers and a coat. The tale shows strong Moro influence
throughout. Seven is a mystic and magical number among the Malay. It
is constantly used in divination and magical practices and repeatedly
occurs in their folk-lore. Skeat explains its importance by referring
to the seven souls which each mortal is supposed to possess. See Skeat,
_Malay Magic_, p. 50.

[140] No tales illustrate to better advantage the persistence of old
stories and beliefs than do these of the Moro. They are permeated with
incidents very similar to those still found among the pagan tribes of
the Archipelago, while associated with these are the spirits and demons
of Hindu mythology. Finally we find the semi-historical events recorded
by the Mohammedanized Malay, the ancestors of the tellers of the tales.

[141] First recorded by N.M. Saleeby.

[142] Those great birds are doubtless derived from Indian literature
in which the fabulous bird garuda played such an important part.

[143] A common name in Malay and Sumatran tales.

[144] Probably Solomon of the Old Testament, who is a great historic
figure among the Malay and who plays an important part in their

[145] See note 1, p. 28.

[146] In this case of a semi-historic being, whose father was said to
be the brother of the earthquake and thunder, we have an interesting
blending of mythological and historical facts.

[147] Among Malay people the sultan is the supreme ruler of a district,
while petty rulers are known as datos.

[148] Here, as in the Tinguian lore, we find heroes conversing with
animals and commanding the forces of nature to come to their aid.

[149] This tale told by the Ilocano is well known among both the
Christianized and the wild tribes of the Philippines, and also in
Borneo and Java. However, the Ilocano is the only version, so far as
known, which has the explanatory element: the reason is given here why
monkeys do not eat meat. The turtle is accredited with extraordinary
sagacity and cunning. It is another example of the type of tale showing
the victory of the weak and cunning over the strong but stupid. See
"The Turtle and the Lizard," p. 86.

[150] All the events here given represent present-day occurrences,
and the story appears to have been invented purely to amuse.

[151] The headman of the town.

[152] Here we have an excellent illustration of how a story brought in
by the Spaniards has been worked over into Philippine setting. This
is doubtless the classical story of Midas, but since the ass is
practically unknown in the Philippines, horns (probably carabao
horns) have been substituted for the ass's ears, which grew on Midas'
head. Likewise the bamboo, which grows in abundance, takes the place
of the reeds in the original tale.

[153] A common fancy in Malay legends is the supernatural origin of
a child in some vegetable, usually a bamboo. See note 2, p. 99.

[154] A bird something like a hawk.

[155] See note 1, p. 134.

[156] This is undoubtedly a worked-over story, probably brought in
from Europe. Kings, queens, palaces, etc., were, of course, unknown
to the people before the advent of the Spaniards.

[157] A long knife.

[158] The fermented juice of the cocoanut.

[159] This tale bears a striking resemblance to Grimm's "The Table,
the Ass, and the Stick," _Fairy Tales_.

[160] These Visayan tales reflect old beliefs covered with a veneer
of European ideas. The Visayan still holds to many of the old
superstitions, not because he has reasoned them out for himself,
but because his ancestors believed them and transmitted them to him
in such stories as these.

[161] A very old explanatory tale. In a slightly varying form it is
found in other parts of the Islands.

[162] Here we have an old type of tale explaining where monkeys came
from. See note 2, p. 130.

[163] The blow-gun is a Malayan weapon, which is used extensively in
the Philippines. Among certain wild tribes poisoned darts are blown
through it, but among the Christianized tribes a clay pellet is used.

[164] See note 1, p. 197.

[165] A Spanish coin worth half a cent.

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