Part 3 out of 4
But the Sultan begged him and promised that Bantugan might marry his
daughter with no other gifts at all save the statue of gold. Balatama
put back the statue into his helmet, and the air became calm again
to the great relief of the Sultan and his courtiers. Then Balatama
prepared to return home, promising that Bantugan would come in three
months for the wedding.
All went well with the boy on the way home until he came to the fence
surrounding the stone in the form of a man, and there he was detained
and compelled to remain four months.
Now about this time a Spanish general heard that Bantugan was preparing
to marry the Sultan's daughter, whom he determined to wed himself. A
great expedition was prepared, and he with all his brothers embarked on
his large warship which was followed by ten thousand other ships. They
went to the Sultan's city, and their number was so great that they
filled the harbor, frightening the people greatly.
Then the General's brother disembarked and came to the house of the
Sultan. He demanded the Princess for the General, saying that if the
request were refused, the fleet would destroy the city and all its
people. The Sultan and his courtiers were so frightened that they
decided to give his daughter to the General, the next full moon being
the date set for the wedding.
In the meantime Bantugan had been preparing everything for the
marriage which he expected to take place at the appointed time. But
as the days went by and Balatama did not return, they became alarmed,
fearing he was dead. After three months had passed, Bantugan prepared
a great expedition to go in search of his son, and the great warship
was decorated with flags of gold.
As they came in sight of the Sultan's city, they saw the Spanish
fleet in the harbor, and one of his brothers advised Bantugan not
to enter until the Spaniards left They then brought their ship to
anchor. But all were disappointed that they could not go farther, and
one said, "Why do we not go on? Even if the blades of grass turn into
Spaniards we need not fear." Another said: "Why do we fear? Even if
the cannon-balls come like rain, we can always fight." Finally some
wanted to return to their homes and Bantugan said: "No, let us seek
my son. Even though we must enter the harbor where the Spaniards are,
let us continue our search." So at his command the anchors were lifted,
and they sailed into the harbor where the Spanish fleet lay.
Now at this very time the Spanish general and his brother were with
the Sultan, intending to call upon the Princess. As the brother talked
with one of the sisters of the Princess they moved toward the window,
and looking down they saw Bantugan's ships entering the harbor. They
could not tell whose flags the ships bore. Neither could the Sultan
when he was called. Then he sent his brother to bring his father who
was a very old man, to see if he could tell. The father was kept in
a little dark room by himself that he might not get hurt, and the
Sultan said to his brother:
"If he is so bent with age that he cannot see, talk, or walk, tickle
him in the ribs and that will make him young again; and, my Brother,
carry him here yourself lest one of the slaves should let him fall
and he should hurt himself."
So the old man was brought, and when he looked out upon the ships
he saw that the flags were those of the father of Bantugan who had
been a great friend of his in his youth. And he told them that he and
Bantugan's father years ago had made a contract that their children
and children's children should intermarry, and now since the Sultan
had promised his daughter to two people, he foresaw that great trouble
would come to the land. Then the Sultan said to the General:
"Here are two claimants to my daughter's hand. Go aboard your ships
and you and Bantugan make war on each other, and the victor shall
have my daughter."
So the Spaniards opened fire upon Bantugan, and for three days the
earth was so covered with smoke from the battle that neither could
see his enemy. Then the Spanish general said:
"I cannot see Bantugan or the fleet anywhere, so let us go and claim
But the Sultan said: "We must wait until the smoke rises to make sure
that Bantugan is gone."
When the smoke rose, the ships of Bantugan were apparently unharmed
and the Sultan said:
"Bantugan has surely won, for his fleet is uninjured while yours is
badly damaged. You have lost."
"No," said the General, "we will fight it out on dry land."
So they both landed their troops and their cannon, and a great fight
took place, and soon the ground was covered with dead bodies. And the
Sultan commanded them to stop, as the women and children in the city
were being killed by the cannon-balls, but the General said:
"If you give your daughter to Bantugan we shall fight forever or
until we die."
Then the Sultan sent for Bantugan and said:
"We must deceive the Spaniard in order to get him to go away. Let us
tell him that neither of you will marry my daughter, and then after
he has gone, we shall have the wedding."
Bantugan agreed to this, and word was sent to the Spaniards that the
fighting must cease since many women and children were being killed. So
it was agreed between the Spaniard and Bantugan that neither of them
should marry the Princess. Then they both sailed away to their homes.
Bantugan soon returned, however, and married the Princess, and
on the way back to his home they found his son and took him with
them. For about a week the Spanish general sailed toward his home
and then he, too, turned about to go back, planning to take the
Princess by force. When he found that she had already been carried
away by Bantugan, his wrath knew no bounds. He destroyed the Sultan,
his city, and all its people. And then he sailed away to prepare a
great expedition with which he should utterly destroy Bantugan and
his country as well.
One morning Bantugan looked out and saw at the mouth of the Rio Grande
the enormous fleet of the Spaniards whose numbers were so great that
in no direction could the horizon be seen. His heart sank within him,
for he knew that he and his country were doomed.
Though he could not hope to win in a fight against such great numbers,
he called his headmen together and said:
"My Brothers, the Christian dogs have come to destroy the land. We
cannot successfully oppose them, but in the defense of the fatherland
we can die."
So the great warship was again prepared, and all the soldiers of
Islam embarked, and then with Bantugan standing at the bow they sailed
forth to meet their fate.
The fighting was fast and furious, but soon the great warship of
Bantugan filled with water until at last it sank, drawing with it
hundreds of the Spanish ships. And then a strange thing happened. At
the very spot where Bantugan's warship sank, there arose from the sea a
great island which you can see today not far from the mouth of the Rio
Grande. It is covered with bongo palms, and deep within its mountains
live Bantugan and his warriors. A Moro sailboat passing this island
is always scanned by Bantugan's watchers, and if it contains women
such as he admires, they are snatched from their seats and carried
deep into the heart of the mountain. For this reason Moro women fear
even to sail near the island of Bongos.
When the wife of Bantugan saw that her husband was no more and that
his warship had been destroyed, she gathered together the remaining
warriors and set forth herself to avenge him. In a few hours her
ship was also sunk, and in the place where it sank there arose the
mountain of Timaco.
On this thickly wooded island are found white monkeys, the servants
of the Princess, who still lives in the center of the mountain. On
a quiet day high up on the mountain side one can hear the chanting
and singing of the waiting-girls of the wife of Bantugan.
When the Spaniards discovered the Philippines in the sixteenth century,
they found the tribes along the coasts of the different islands already
somewhat influenced by trade with China, Siam, and the islands to
Under Spanish rule the coast inhabitants, with the exception of the
Moro, soon became converts to Christianity and adopted the dress of
their conquerors, though they retained their several dialects and
many of their former customs. Then, no longer being at war with one
another, they made great advances in civilization, while the hill
tribes have remained isolated, retaining their old customs and beliefs.
The tales of the Christianized tribes include a great mixture of
old ideas and foreign influences obtained through contact with the
The Monkey and the Turtle
A monkey, looking very sad and dejected, was walking along the bank
of the river one day when he met a turtle.
"How are you?" asked the turtle, noticing that he looked sad.
The monkey replied, "Oh, my friend, I am very hungry. The squash of
Mr. Farmer were all taken by the other monkeys, and now I am about
to die from want of food."
"Do not be discouraged," said the turtle; "take a bolo and follow me
and we will steal some banana plants."
So they walked along together until they found some nice plants which
they dug up, and then they looked for a place to set them. Finally
the monkey climbed a tree and planted his in it, but as the turtle
could not climb he dug a hole in the ground and set his there.
When their work was finished they went away, planning what they should
do with their crop. The monkey said:
"When my tree bears fruit, I shall sell it and have a great deal
And the turtle said: "When my tree bears fruit, I shall sell it and
buy three varas of cloth to wear in place of this cracked shell."
A few weeks later they went back to the place to see their plants and
found that that of the monkey was dead, for its roots had had no soil
in the tree, but that of the turtle was tall and bearing fruit.
"I will climb to the top so that we can get the fruit," said the
monkey. And he sprang up the tree, leaving the poor turtle on the
"Please give me some to eat," called the turtle, but the monkey threw
him only a green one and ate all the ripe ones himself.
When he had eaten all the good bananas, the monkey stretched his arms
around the tree and went to sleep. The turtle, seeing this, was very
angry and considered how he might punish the thief. Having decided
on a scheme, he gathered some sharp bamboo which he stuck all around
under the tree, and then he exclaimed:
"Crocodile is coming! Crocodile is coming!"
The monkey was so startled at the cry that he fell upon the sharp
bamboo and was killed.
Then the turtle cut the dead monkey into pieces, put salt on it, and
dried it in the sun. The next day, he went to the mountains and sold
his meat to other monkeys who gladly gave him squash in return. As
he was leaving them he called back:
"Lazy fellows, you are now eating your own body; you are now eating
your own body."
Then the monkeys ran and caught him and carried him to their own home.
"Let us take a hatchet," said one old monkey, "and cut him into very
But the turtle laughed and said: "That is just what I like, I have
been struck with a hatchet many times. Do you not see the black scars
on my shell?"
Then one of the other monkeys said: "Let us throw him into the water,"
At this the turtle cried and begged them to spare his life, but they
paid no heed to his pleadings and threw him into the water. He sank
to the bottom, but very soon came up with a lobster. The monkeys
were greatly surprised at this and begged him to tell them how to
"I tied one end of a string around my waist," said the turtle. "To
the other end of the string I tied a stone so that I would sink."
The monkeys immediately tied strings around themselves as the turtle
said, and when all was ready they plunged into the water never to
come up again.
And to this day monkeys do not like to eat meat, because they remember
the ancient story. 
The Poor Fisherman and His Wife
Many, many years ago a poor fisherman and his wife lived with their
three sons in a village by the sea. One day the old man set his snare
in the water not far from his house, and at night when he went to look
at it, he found that he had caught a great white fish. This startled
the old man very much, for he had never seen a fish like this before,
and it occurred to him that it was the priest of the town.
He ran to his wife as fast as he could and cried:
"My wife, I have caught the priest."
"What?" said the old woman, terrified at the sight of her frightened
"I have caught the priest," said the old man again.
They hurried together to the river where the snare was set, and when
the old woman saw the fish, she cried:
"Oh, it is not the priest but the governor."
"No, it is the priest," insisted the old man, and they went home
trembling with fear.
That night neither of them was able to sleep for thought of the
terrible thing that had happened and wondering what they should do. Now
the next day was a great holiday in the town. At four o'clock in the
morning cannons were fired and bells rang loudly. The old man and
woman, hearing all the noise and not knowing the reason for it,
thought that their crime had been discovered, and the people were
searching for them to punish them, so they set out as fast as they
could to hide in the woods. On and on they went, stopping only to
rest so as to enable them to resume their flight.
The next morning they reached the woods near Pilar, where there also
was a great holiday, and the sexton was ringing the bells to call
the people to mass. As soon as the old man and woman heard the bells
they thought the people there had been notified of their escape,
and that they, too, were trying to catch them. So they turned and
started home again.
As they reached their house, the three sons came home with their one
horse and tied it to the trunk of the caramay tree. Presently the
bells began to ring again, for it was twelve o'clock at noon. Not
thinking what time of day it was, the old man and woman ran out
of doors in terror, and seeing the horse jumped on its back with
the intention of riding to the next town before anyone could catch
them. When they had mounted they began to whip the horse. In their
haste, they had forgotten to untie the rope which was around the
trunk of the caramay tree. As the horse pulled at the rope fruit fell
from the tree upon the old man and woman. Believing they were shot,
they were so frightened that they died. 
The Presidente who had Horns
Once there was a presidente  who was very unjust to his people,
and one day he became so angry that he wished he had horns so that
he might frighten them. No sooner had he made this rash wish, than
horns began to grow on his head.
He sent for a barber who came to his house to cut his hair, and as
he worked the presidente asked:
"What do you see on my head?"
"I see nothing," answered the barber; for although he could see the
horns plainly, he was afraid to say so.
Soon, however, the presidente put up his hands and felt the horns, and
then when he inquired again the barber told him that he had two horns.
"If you tell anyone what you have seen, you shall be hanged," said the
presidente as the barber started away, and he was greatly frightened.
When he reached home, the barber did not intend to tell anyone, for
he was afraid; but as he thought of his secret more and more, the
desire to tell someone became so strong that he knew he could not keep
it. Finally he went to the field and dug a hole under some bamboo,
and when the hole was large enough he crawled in and whispered that
the presidente had horns. He then climbed out, filled up the hole,
and went home.
By and by some people came along the road on their way to market,
and as they passed the bamboo they stopped in amazement, for surely
a voice came from the trees, and it said that the presidente had
horns. These people hastened to market and told what they had heard,
and the people there went to the bamboo to listen to the strange
voice. They informed others, and soon the news had spread all over the
town. The councilmen were told, and they, too, went to the bamboo. When
they had heard the voice, they ran to the house of the presidente. But
his wife said that he was ill and they could not see him.
By this time the horns had grown until they were one foot in length,
and the presidente was so ashamed that he bade his wife tell the
people that he could not talk. She told this to the councilmen when
they came on the following day, but they replied that they must see
him, for they had heard that he had horns, and if this were true he
had no right to govern the people.
She refused to let them in, so they broke down the door. They saw the
horns on the head of the presidente and killed him. For, they said,
he was no better than an animal. 
The Story of a Monkey
One day when a monkey was climbing a tree in the forest in which he
lived, he ran a thorn into his tail. Try as he would, he could not
get it out, so he went to a barber in the town and said:
"Friend Barber, I have a thorn in the end of my tail. Pull it out,
and I will pay you well."
The barber tried to pull out the thorn with his razor, but in doing
so he cut off the end of the tail. The monkey was very angry and cried:
"Barber, Barber, give me back my tail, or give me your razor!"
The barber could not put back the end of the monkey's tail, so he
gave him his razor.
On the way home the monkey met an old woman who was cutting wood for
fuel, and he said to her:
"Grandmother, Grandmother, that is very hard. Use this razor and then
it will cut easily."
The old woman was very pleased with the offer and began to cut with the
razor, but before she had used it long it broke. Then the monkey cried:
"Grandmother, Grandmother, you have broken my razor! You must get a
new one for me or else give me all the firewood."
The old woman could not get a new razor so she gave him the firewood.
The monkey took the wood and was going back to town to sell it,
when he saw a woman sitting beside the road making cakes.
"Grandmother, Grandmother," said he, "your wood is most gone; take
this of mine and bake more cakes."
The woman took the wood and thanked him for his kindness, but when
the last stick was burned, the monkey cried out:
"Grandmother, Grandmother, you have burned up all my wood! Now you
must give me all your cakes to pay for it."
The old woman could not cut more dry wood at once, so she gave him
all the cakes.
The monkey took the cakes and started for the town, but on the way he
met a dog which bit him so that he died. And the dog ate all the cakes.
The White Squash
In a queer little bamboo house in front of a big garden lived a man
and his wife all alone. They had always been kind and good to everyone,
but still they were not happy, because the child for which they longed
had never come to them. Each day for many years they had prayed for
a son or a daughter, but their prayers had been unanswered. Now that
they were growing old they believed that they must always live alone.
In the garden near their house this couple grew fine white squash,
and as the vines bore the year around, they had never been in need
of food. One day, however, they discovered that no new squash had
formed to take the place of those they had picked, and for the first
time in many seasons they had no vegetables.
Each day they examined the vines, and though the big, yellow flowers
continued to bloom and fade, no squash grew on the stems. Finally,
one morning after a long wait, the woman cried out with delight, for
she had discovered a little green squash. After examining it, they
decided to let it ripen that they might have the seeds to plant. They
eagerly watched it grow, and it became a beautiful white vegetable,
but by the time it was large enough for food they were so hungry that
they decided to eat it.
They brought a large knife and picked it, but scarcely had they
started to open it when a voice cried out from within, "Please be
careful that you do not hurt me."
The man and woman stopped their work, for they thought that a spirit
must have spoken to them. But when the voice again called and begged
them to open the squash, they carefully opened it, and there inside
was a nice baby boy.  He could already stand alone and could
talk. And the man and his wife were overjoyed.
Presently the woman went to the spring for a jar of water, and
when she had brought it she spread a mat on the floor and began to
bathe the baby. As the drops of water fell off his body, they were
immediately changed to gold, so that when the bath was finished gold
pieces covered the mat. The couple had been so delighted to have the
baby that it had seemed as if there was nothing more to wish for, but
now that the gold had come to them also they were happier than ever.
The next morning the woman gave the baby another bath, and again
the water turned to gold. They now had enough money to build a large
house. The third morning she brought water for his bath again, but he
grew very sad and flew away. At the same time all the gold disappeared
also, and the man and his wife were left poor and alone.
The Creation Story
When the world first began there was no land, but only the stea and
the sky, and between them was a kite.  One day the bird which
had nowhere to light grew tired of flying about, so she stirred up
the sea until it threw its waters against the sky. The sky, in order
to restrain the sea, showered upon it many islands until it could no
longer rise, but ran back and forth. Then the sky ordered the kite
to light on one of the islands to build her nest, and to leave the
sea and the sky in peace.
Now at this time the land breeze and the sea breeze were married,
and they had a child which was a bamboo. One day when this bamboo was
floating about on the water, it struck the feet of the kite which
was on the beach. The bird, angry that anything should strike it,
pecked at the bamboo, and out of one section came a man and from the
other a woman.
Then the earthquake called on all the birds and fish to see what
should be done with these two, and it was decided that they should
marry. Many children were born to the couple, and from them came all
the different races of people.
After a while the parents grew very tired of having so many idle and
useless children around, and they wished to be rid of them, but they
knew of no place to send them to. Time went on and the children became
so numerous that the parents enjoyed no peace. One day, in desperation,
the father seized a stick and began beating them on all sides.
This so frightened the children that they fled in different directions,
seeking hidden rooms in the house--some concealed themselves in
the walls, some ran outside, while others hid in the fireplace,
and several fled to the sea.
Now it happened that those who went into the hidden rooms of the
house later became the chiefs of the Islands; and those who concealed
themselves in the walls became slaves. Those who ran outside were free
men; and those who hid in the fireplace became negroes; while those
who fled to the sea were gone many years, and when their children
came back they were the white people. 
The Story of Benito
Benito was an only son who lived with his father and mother in a
little village. They were very poor, and as the boy grew older and
saw how hard his parents struggled for their scanty living he often
dreamed of a time when he might be a help to them.
One evening when they sat eating their frugal meal of rice the father
told about a young king who lived in a beautiful palace some distance
from their village, and the boy became very much interested. That
night when the house was dark and quiet and Benito lay on his mat
trying to sleep, thoughts of the young king repeatedly came to his
mind, and he wished he were a king that he and his parents might
spend the rest of their lives in a beautiful palace.
The next morning he awoke with a new idea. He would go to the king and
ask for work, that he might in that way be able to help his father
and mother. He was a long time in persuading his parents to allow
him to go, however, for it was a long journey, and they feared that
the king might not be gracious. But at last they gave their consent,
and the boy started out The journey proved tiresome. After he reached
the palace, he was not at first permitted to see the king. But the
boy being very earnest at last secured a place as a servant.
It was a new and strange world to Benito who had known only the life
of a little village. The work was hard, but he was happy in thinking
that now he could help his father and mother. One day the king sent
for him and said:
"I want you to bring to me a beautiful princess who lives in a land
across the sea. Go at once, and if you fail you shall be punished
The boy's heart sank within him, for he did not know what to do. But
he answered as bravely as possible, "I will, my lord," and left the
king's chamber. He at once set about preparing things for a long
journey, for he was determined to try at least to fulfil the command.
When all was ready Benito started. He had not gone far before he
came to a thick forest, where he saw a large bird bound tightly
"Oh, my friend," pleaded the bird, "please free me from these bonds,
and I will help you whenever you call on me."
Benito quickly released the bird, and it flew away calling back to
him that its name was Sparrow-hawk.
Benito continued his journey till he came to the sea. Unable to find
a way of crossing, he stopped and gazed sadly out over the waters,
thinking of the king's threat if he failed. Suddenly he saw swimming
toward him the King of the Fishes who asked:
"Why are you so sad?"
"I wish to cross the sea to find the beautiful Princess," answered
"Well, get on my back," said the Fish, "and I will carry you across."
So Benito stepped on his back and was carried to the other shore.
Soon he met a strange woman who inquired what it was he sought,
and when he had told her she said:
"The Princess is kept in a castle guarded by giants. Take this magic
sword, for it will kill instantly whatever it touches." And she handed
him the weapon.
Benito was more than grateful for her kindness and went on full of
hope. As he approached the castle he could see that it was surrounded
by many giants, and as soon as they saw him they ran out to seize him,
but they went unarmed for they saw that he was a mere boy. As they
approached he touched those in front with his sword, and one by one
they fell dead. Then the others ran away in a panic, and left the
castle unguarded. Benito entered, and when he had told the Princess
of his errand, she was only too glad to escape from her captivity
and she set out at once with him for the palace of the king.
At the seashore the King of the Fishes was waiting for them, and they
had no difficulty in crossing the sea and then in journeying through
the thick forest to the palace, where they were received with great
rejoicing. After a time the King asked the Princess to become his wife,
and she replied:
"I will, O King, if you will get the ring I lost in the sea as I was
The King immediately thought of Benito, and sending for him he
commanded him to find the ring which had been lost on the journey
from the land of the giants.
It seemed a hopeless task to the boy, but, anxious to obey his master,
he started out. At the seaside he stopped and gazed over the waters
until, to his great delight, he saw his friend, the King of the Fishes,
swimming toward him. When he had been told of the boy's troubles,
the great fish said: "I will see if I can help you," and he summoned
all his subjects to him. When they came he found that one was missing,
and he sent the others in search of it. They found it under a stone
so full that it could not swim, and the larger ones took it by the
tail and dragged it to the King.
"Why did you not come when you were called?" inquired the King Fish.
"I have eaten so much that I cannot swim," replied the poor fish.
Then the King Fish, suspecting the truth, ordered it cut open,
and inside they found the lost ring. Benito was overjoyed at this,
and expressing his great thanks, hastened with the precious ring to
The King, greatly pleased, carried the ring to the Princess and said:
"Now that I have your ring will you become my wife?"
"I will be your wife," replied the Princess, "if you will find my
earring that I lost in the forest as I was journeying with Benito."
Again the King sent for Benito, and this time he commanded him to
find the earring. The boy was very weary from his long journeys, but
with no complaint he started out once more. Along the road through
the thick forest he searched carefully, but with no reward. At last,
tired and discouraged, he sat down under a tree to rest.
Suddenly there appeared before him a mouse of great size, and he was
surprised to find that it was the King of Mice.
"Why are you so sad?" asked the King Mouse.
"Because," answered the boy, "I cannot find an earring which the
Princess lost as we were going through the forest together."
"I will help you," said the Mouse, and he summoned all his subjects.
When they assembled it was found that one little mouse was missing,
and the King sent the others to look for him. In a small hole among
the bamboo trees they found him, and he begged to be left alone,
for, he said, he was so full that he could not walk. Nevertheless
they pulled him along to their master, who, upon finding that there
was something hard inside the mouse, ordered him cut open; and inside
they found the missing earring.
Benito at once forgot his weariness, and after expressing his great
thanks to the King Mouse he hastened to the palace with the prize. The
King eagerly seized the earring and presented it to the Princess,
again asking her to be his wife.
"Oh, my King," replied the Princess, "I have one more request to
make. Only grant it and I will be your wife forever."
The King, believing that now with the aid of Benito he could grant
anything, inquired what it was she wished, and she replied:
"Get me some water from heaven and some from the lower world, and I
shall ask nothing more."
Once more the King called Benito and sent him on the hardest errand
The boy went out not knowing which way to turn, and while he was
in a deep study his weary feet led him to the forest. Suddenly he
thought of the bird who had promised to help him, and he called,
"Sparrowhawk!" There was a rustle of wings, and the bird swooped
down. He told it of his troubles and it said:
"I will get the water for you."
Then Benito made two light cups of bamboo which he fastened to the
bird's legs, and it flew away. All day the boy waited in the forest,
and just as night was coming on the bird returned with both cups
full. The one on his right foot, he told Benito, was from heaven,
and that on his left was from the lower world. The boy unfastened
the cups, and then, as he was thanking the bird, he noticed that the
journey had been too much for it and that it was dying. Filled with
sorrow for his winged friend, he waited and carefully buried it,
and then he hastened to the palace with the precious water.
When the Princess saw that her wish had been fulfilled she asked the
King to cut her in two and pour over her the water from heaven. The
King was not able to do this, so she cut herself, and then as he
poured the water over her he beheld her grow into the most beautiful
woman he had ever seen.
Eager to become handsome himself, the King then begged her to pour
over him the water from the other cup. He cut himself, and she did
as he requested, but immediately there arose a creature most ugly
and horrible to look upon, which soon vanished out of sight. Then
the Princess called Benito and told him that because he had been
so faithful to his master and so kind to her, she chose him for
They were married amid great festivities and became king and queen of
that broad and fertile land. During all the great rejoicing, however,
Benito never forgot his parents. One of the finest portions of his
kingdom he gave to them, and from that time they all lived in great
The Adventures of Juan
Juan was always getting into trouble. He was a lazy boy, and more
than that, he did not have good sense. When he tried to do things,
he made such dreadful mistakes that he might better not have tried.
His family grew very impatient with him, scolding and beating him
whenever he did anything wrong. One day his mother, who was almost
discouraged with him, gave him a bolo  and sent him to the forest,
for she thought he could at least cut firewood. Juan walked leisurely
along, contemplating some means of escape. At last he came to a tree
that seemed easy to cut, and then he drew his long knife and prepared
Now it happened that this was a magic tree and it said to Juan:
"If you do not cut me I will give you a goat that shakes silver from
This pleased Juan wonderfully, both because he was curious to see
the goat, and because he would not have to chop the wood. He agreed
at once to spare the tree, whereupon the bark separated and a goat
stepped out. Juan commanded it to shake its whiskers, and when the
money began to drop he was so delighted that he took the animal and
started home to show his treasure to his mother.
On the way he met a friend who was more cunning than Juan, and when
he heard of the boy's rich goat he decided to rob him. Knowing Juan's
fondness for tuba , he persuaded him to drink, and while he was
drunk, the friend substituted another goat for the magic one. As soon
as he was sober again, Juan hastened home with the goat and told his
people of the wonderful tree, but when he commanded the animal to
shake its whiskers, no money fell out. The family, believing it to
be another of Juan's tricks, beat and scolded the poor boy.
He went back to the tree and threatened to cut it down for lying to
him, but the tree said:
"No, do not cut me down and I will give you a net which you may cast on
dry ground, or even in the tree tops, and it will return full of fish."
So Juan spared the tree and started home with his precious net, but
on the way he met the same friend who again persuaded him to drink
tuba. While he was drunk, the friend replaced the magic net with
a common one, so that when Juan reached home and tried to show his
power, he was again the subject of ridicule.
Once more Juan went to his tree, this time determined to cut it
down. But the offer of a magic pot, always full of rice and spoons
which provided whatever he wished to eat with his rice, dissuaded him,
and he started home happier than ever. Before reaching home, however,
he met with the same fate as before, and his folks, who were becoming
tired of his pranks, beat him harder than ever.
Thoroughly angered, Juan sought the tree a fourth time and was
on the point of cutting it down when once more it arrested his
attention. After some discussion, he consented to accept a stick to
which he had only to say, "Boombye, Boomba," and it would beat and
kill anything he wished.
When he met his friend on this trip, he was asked what he had and
"Oh, it is only a stick, but if I say 'Boombye, Boomba' it will beat
you to death."
At the sound of the magic words the stick leaped from his hands and
began beating his friend until he cried:
"Oh, stop it and I will give back everything that I stole from
you." Juan ordered the stick to stop, and then he compelled the man to
lead the goat and to carry the net and the jar and spoons to his home.
There Juan commanded the goat, and it shook its whiskers until his
mother and brothers had all the silver they could carry. Then they
ate from the magic jar and spoons until they were filled. And this
time Juan was not scolded. After they had finished Juan said:
"You have beaten me and scolded me all my life, and now you are glad
to accept my good things. I am going to show you something else:
'Boombye, Boomba'." Immediately the stick leaped out and beat them
all until they begged for mercy and promised that Juan should ever
after be head of the house.
From that time Juan was rich and powerful, but he never went anywhere
without his stick. One night, when some thieves came to his house,
he would have been robbed and killed had it not been for the magic
words "Boombye, Boomba," which caused the death of all the robbers.
Some time after this he married a beautiful princess, and because of
the kindness of the magic tree they always lived happily. 
Juan Gathers Guavas
One day Juan's father sent him to get some ripe guavas, for a number of
the neighbors had come in and he wanted to give them something to eat.
Juan went to the guava bushes and ate all the fruit he could hold,
and then he decided to play a joke on his father's guests instead
of giving them a feast of guavas. A wasp's nest hung near by. With
some difficulty he succeeded in taking it down and putting it into
a tight basket that he had brought for the fruit. He hastened home
and gave the basket to his father, and then as he left the room where
the guests were seated he closed the door and fastened it.
As soon as Juan's father opened the basket the wasps flew over the
room; and when the people found the door locked they fought to get
out of the windows. After a while Juan opened the door, and when he
saw the swollen faces of the people, he cried.
"What fine, rich guavas you must have had! They have made you all
The Sun and the Moon 
Once upon a time the Sun and the Moon were married, and they had many
children who were the stars. The Sun was very fond of his children,
but whenever he tried to embrace any of them, he was so hot that he
burned them up. This made the Moon so angry that finally she forbade
him to touch them again, and he was greatly grieved.
One day the Moon went down to the spring to do some washing, and
when she left she told the Sun that he must not touch any of their
children in her absence. When she returned, however, she found that
he had disobeyed her, and several of the children had perished.
She was very angry, and picked up a banana tree to strike him,
whereupon he threw sand in her face, and to this day you can see the
dark marks on the face of the Moon.
Then the Sun started to chase her, and they have been going ever
since. Sometimes he gets so near that he almost catches her, but she
escapes, and by and by she is far ahead again. 
The First Monkey
Many years ago at the foot of a forest-covered hill was a small town,
and just above the town on the hillside was a little house in which
lived an old woman and her grandson.
The old woman, who was very industrious, earned their living by
removing the seeds from cotton, and she always had near at hand
a basket in which were cotton and a long stick that she used for
a spindle. The boy was lazy and would not do anything to help his
grandmother, but every day went down to the town and gambled.
One day, when he had been losing money, the boy went home and was
cross because his supper was not ready.
"I am hurrying to get the seeds out of this cotton," said the
grandmother, "and as soon as I sell it, I will buy us some food."
At this the boy fell into a rage, and he picked up some cocoanut
shells and threw them at his grandmother. Then she became angry and
began to whip him with her spindle, when suddenly he was changed into
an ugly animal, and the cotton became hair which covered his body,
while the stick itself became his tail.
As soon as the boy found that he had become an ugly creature he ran
down into the town and began whipping his companions, the gamblers,
with his tail, and immediately they were turned into animals like
Then the people would no longer have them in the town, but drove
them out. They went to the forest where they lived in the trees,
and ever since they have been known as monkeys. 
The Virtue of the Cocoanut
One day a man took his blow-gun and his dog and went to the
forest to hunt. As he was making his way through the thick woods he
chanced upon a young cocoanut tree growing in the ground.
It was the first tree of this kind that he had ever seen, and it
seemed so peculiar to him that he stopped to look at it.
When he had gone some distance farther, his attention was attracted
by a noisy bird in a tree, and he shot it with his blow-gun. By and by
he took aim at a large monkey, which mocked him from another treetop,
and that, too, fell dead at his feet.
Then he heard his dog barking furiously in the distant bushes, and
hastening to it he found it biting a wild pig. After a hard struggle
he killed the pig, and then, feeling satisfied with his success,
he took the three animals on his back and returned to the little plant.
"I have decided to take you home with me, little plant," he said,
"for I like you and you may be of some use to me."
He dug up the plant very carefully and started home, but he had
not gone far when he noticed that the leaves had begun to wilt,
and he did not know what to do, since he had no water. Finally, in
despair, he cut the throat of the bird and sprinkled the blood on the
cocoanut. No sooner had he done this than the plant began to revive,
and he continued his journey.
Before he had gone far, however, the leaves again began to wilt, and
this time he revived it with the blood of the monkey. Then he hastened
on, but a third time the leaves wilted, and he was compelled to stop
and revive it with the blood of the pig. This was his last animal,
so he made all the haste possible to reach home before his plant
died. The cocoanut began to wilt again before he reached his house,
but when he planted it in the ground, it quickly revived, and grew
into a tall tree.
This hunter was the first man to take the liquor called tuba 
from the cocoanut tree, and he and his friends began to drink it. After
they had become very fond of it, the hunter said to his friends:
"The cocoanut tree is like the three animals whose blood gave it life
when it would have died. The man who drinks three or four cups of
tuba becomes like the noisy bird that I shot with my blow-gun. One
who drinks more than three or four cups becomes like the big monkey
that acts silly; and one who becomes drunk is like the pig that sleeps
even in a mud-hole."
One day a man said to his wife: "My wife, we are getting very poor
and I must go into business to earn some money."
"That is a good idea," replied his wife. "How much capital have you?"
"I have twenty-five centavos,"  answered the man; "and I am
going to buy rice and carry it to the mines, for I have heard that
it brings a good price there."
So he took his twenty-five centavos and bought a half-cavan of rice
which he carried on his shoulder to the mine. Arriving there he told
the people that he had rice for sale, and they asked eagerly how much
he wanted for it.
"Why, have you forgotten the regular price of rice?" asked the man. "It
is twenty-five centavos."
They at once bought the rice, and the man was very glad because he
would not have to carry it any longer. He put the money in his belt
and asked if they would like to buy any more.
"Yes," said they, "we will buy as many cavans as you will bring."
When the man reached home his wife asked if he had been successful.
"Oh, my wife," he answered, "it is a very good business. I could not
take the rice off my shoulder before the people came to buy it."
"Well, that is good," said the wife; "we shall become very rich."
The next morning the man bought a half-cavan of rice the same as before
and carried it to the mine and when they asked how much it would be,
"It is the same as before--twenty-five centavos." He received the
money and went home.
"How is the business today?" asked his wife.
"Oh, it is the same as before," he said. "I could not take the rice
off my shoulder before they came for it."
And so he went on with his business for a year, each day buying
a half-cavan of rice and selling it for the price he had paid for
it. Then one day his wife said that they would balance accounts,
and she spread a mat on the floor and sat down on one side of it,
telling her husband to sit on the opposite side. When she asked him
for the money he had made during the year, he asked:
"Why, give me the money you have received," answered his wife;
"and then we can see how much you have made."
"Oh, here it is," said the man, and he took the twenty-five centavos
out of his belt and handed it to her.
"Is that all you have received this year?" cried his wife
angrily. "Haven't you said that rice brought a good price at the
"That is all," he replied.
"How much did you pay for the rice?"
"How much did you receive for it?"
"Oh, my husband," cried his wife, "how can you make any gain if you
sell it for just what you paid for it."
The man leaned his head against the wall and thought. Ever since then
he has been called "Mansumandig," a man who leans back and thinks.
Then the wife said, "Give me the twenty-five centavos, and I will try
to make some money." So he handed it to her, and she said, "Now you go
to the field where the people are gathering hemp and buy twenty-five
centavos worth for me, and I will weave it into cloth."
When Mansumandig returned with the hemp she spread it in the sun,
and as soon as it was dry she tied it into a long thread and put it
on the loom to weave. Night and day she worked on her cloth, and when
it was finished she had eight varas. This she sold for twelve and a
half centavos a vara, and with this money she bought more hemp. She
continued weaving and selling her cloth, and her work was so good
that people were glad to buy from her.
At the end of a year she again spread the mat on the floor and took
her place on one side of it, while her husband sat on the opposite
side. Then she poured the money out of the blanket in which she kept
it upon the mat. She held aside her capital, which was twenty-five
centavos, and when she counted the remainder she found that she
had three hundred pesos. Mansumandig was greatly ashamed when he
remembered that he had not made cent, and he leaned his head against
the wall and thought After a while the woman pitied him, so she gave
him the money and told him to buy carabao.
He was able to buy ten carabao and with these he plowed his fields. By
raising good crops they were able to live comfortably all the rest
of their lives.
Why Dogs Wag their Tails
A rich man in a certain town once owned a dog and a cat, both of
which were very useful to him. The dog had served his master for many
years and had become so old that he had lost his teeth and was unable
to fight any more, but he was a good guide and companion to the cat
who was strong and cunning.
The master had a daughter who was attending school at a convent some
distance from home, and very often he sent the dog and the cat with
presents to the girl.
One day he called the faithful animals and bade them carry a magic
ring to his daughter.
"You are strong and brave," he said to the cat "You may carry the ring,
but you must be careful not to drop it"
And to the dog he said: "You must accompany the cat to guide her and
keep her from harm."
They promised to do their best, and started out. All went well until
they came to a river. As there was neither bridge nor boat, there
was no way to cross but to swim.
"Let me take the magic ring," said the dog as they were about to
plunge into the water.
"Oh, no," replied the cat, "the master gave it to me to carry."
"But you cannot swim well," argued the dog. "I am strong and can take
good care of it."
But the cat refused to give up the ring until finally the dog
threatened to kill her, and then she reluctantly gave it to him.
The river was wide and the water so swift that they grew very tired,
and just before they reached the opposite bank the dog dropped
the ring. They searched carefully, but could not find it anywhere,
and after a while they turned back to tell their master of the sad
loss. Just before reaching the house, however, the dog was so overcome
with fear that he turned and ran away and never was seen again.
The cat went on alone, and when the master saw her coming he called
out to know why she had returned so soon and what had become of her
companion. The poor cat was frightened, but as well as she could she
explained how the ring had been lost and how the dog had run away.
On hearing her story the master was very angry, and commanded that all
his people should search for the dog, and that it should be punished
by having its tail cut off.
He also ordered that all the dogs in the world should join in the
search, and ever since when one dog meets another he says: "Are you
the old dog that lost the magic ring? If so, your tail must be cut
off." Then immediately each shows his teeth and wags his tail to
prove that he is not the guilty one.
Since then, too, cats have been afraid of water and will not swim
across a river if they can avoid it.
The Hawk and the Hen
A hawk flying about in the sky one day decided that he would like to
marry a hen whom he often saw on earth. He flew down and searched
until he found her, and then asked her to become his wife. She at
once gave her consent on the condition that he would wait until she
could grow wings like his, so that she might also fly high. The hawk
agreed to this and flew away, after giving her a ring as an engagement
present and telling her to take good care of it.
The hen was very proud of the ring and placed it around her neck. The
next day, however, she met the cock who looked at her in astonishment
"Where did you get that ring? Do you not know that you promised to
be my wife? You must not wear the ring of anyone else. Throw it away."
And the hen threw away the beautiful ring.
Not long after this the hawk came down bringing beautiful feathers
to dress the hen. When she saw him coming she was frightened and ran
to hide behind the door, but the hawk called to her to come and see
the beautiful dress he had brought her.
The hen came out, and the hawk at once saw that the ring was gone.
"Where is the ring I gave you?" he asked. "Why do you not wear it?"
The hen was frightened and ashamed to tell the truth so she answered:
"Oh, sir, yesterday when I was walking in the garden, I met a large
snake and he frightened me so that I ran as fast as I could to the
house. Then I missed the ring and I searched everywhere but could
not find it."
The hawk looked sharply at the hen, and he knew that she was deceiving
him. Then he said to her:
"I did not believe that you could behave so badly. When you have
found the ring I will come down again and make you my wife. But as
a punishment for breaking your promise, you must always scratch the
ground to look for the ring. And every chicken of yours that I find,
I shall snatch away."
Then he flew away, and ever since all the hens throughout the world
have been scratching to find the hawk's ring.
The Spider and the Fly
Mr. Spider wanted to marry Miss Fly. Many times he told her of his
love and begged her to become his wife, but she always refused for
she did not like him.
One day when she saw Mr. Spider coming again Miss Fly closed all
the doors and windows of her house and made ready a pot of boiling
water. Then she waited, and when Mr. Spider called, begging her
to allow him to enter, she answered by throwing boiling water at
him. This made Mr. Spider very angry and he cried:
"I will never forgive you for this, but I and my descendants will
always despise you. We will never give you any peace."
Mr. Spider kept his word, and even today one can see the hatred of
the spider for the fly.
The Battle of the Crabs
One day the land crabs had a meeting and one of them said:
"What shall we do with the waves? They sing so loudly all the time
that we cannot possibly sleep."
"Well," answered one of the oldest of the crabs, "I think we should
make war on them."
The others agreed to this, and it was decided that the next day all
the male crabs should get ready to fight the waves. They started for
the sea, as agreed, when they met a shrimp.
"Where are you going, my friends?" asked the shrimp.
"We are going to fight the waves," answered the crabs, "for they make
so much noise at night that we cannot sleep."
"I do not think you will succeed," said the shrimp, "for the waves
are very strong and your legs are so weak that even your bodies bend
almost to the ground when you walk." Wherewith he laughed loudly.
This made the crabs very angry, and they pinched the shrimp until he
promised to help them win the battle.
Then they all went to the shore. But the crabs noticed that the eyes
of the shrimp were set unlike their own, so they thought his must be
wrong and they laughed at him and said:
"Friend shrimp, your face is turned the wrong way. What weapon have
you to fight with the waves?"
"My weapon is a spear on my head," replied the shrimp, and just then
he saw a big wave coming and ran away. The crabs did not see it,
however, for they were all looking toward the shore, and they were
covered with water and drowned.
By and by the wives of the crabs became worried because their husbands
did not return, and they went down to the shore to see if they could
help in the battle. No sooner had they reached the water, however,
than the waves rushed over them and killed them.
Some time after this thousands of little crabs appeared near the shore,
and the shrimp often visited them and told them of the sad fate of
their parents. Even today these little crabs can be seen on the shore,
continually running back and forth. They seem to rush down to fight
the waves, and then, as their courage fails, they run back to the
land where their forefathers lived. They neither live on dry land,
as their ancestors did, nor in the sea where the other crabs are,
but on the beach where the waves wash over them at high tide and try
to dash them to pieces.
Pronunciation of Philippine Names
The vowel sounds in the following pronunciations are those used in
_Ilocos Norte_, il-o'kos no'rte
 This incident is strikingly similar to the story in North American
folk-lore of the maiden captured and carried upward by a vine. Several
other points of likeness appear in the lore of Malaysia, Polynesia,
 See Preface, p. vii.
 This incident is unique so far as American or European folk-lore is
concerned, yet it is common in Tinguian tales, while similar stories
are found among the neighboring Ilocano and Igorot tribes of the
Philippines, as well as in Borneo, Java, and India.
 The belief that beauty is capable of radiating great light is
not peculiar to Tinguian tales, for it is also found in the Malay
legends and in those of India. It is not impossible that they had a
 The betel-nut is the nut of the areca palm. It is prepared for
chewing by being cut into quarters, each piece being wrapped in
betel-leaf spread with lime. It produces a blood-red spittle which
greatly discolors the teeth and lips, and it is used extensively
throughout the Philippines. While it appears to have been in common
use among the Tinguian at the time these stories originated, it has
now been displaced by tobacco, except at ceremonies when it is prepared
for chewing; it is also placed on the animals offered for sacrifice to
the spirits. Throughout the tales great significance is given to the
chewing of betel-nuts before names are told or introductions given,
while from the quids and spittle it appears to have been possible to
foretell events and establish relationships.
 Compare with the story of Phaeton in Bulfinch, _The Age of Fable_,
 The Tinguian have no calendar, but reckon time by the recurrence
of the moon.
 It is the present custom of the Tinguian to make numerous
ceremonies for the spirits. These vary in length from a few hours
to seventeen days. During this period animals are slaughtered,
small houses are built, mediums deliver messages from the spirits,
and there is much feasting and dancing.
 When ripe, the betel-nut is covered with a golden husk, and it
is possibly because of this that they were said to be covered with
gold. The present-day Tinguian, in place of sending the betel-nut,
sends a small piece of gold to any relative or friend whom he specially
wishes to induce to attend a ceremony.
 This seems to be peculiar to Tinguian folk-lore.
 Except when she is in mourning a Tinguian woman's arms are always
covered with beads placed strand above strand.
 The parents of a boy choose his bride when the children are very
young. A great celebration is then held, and relatives and friends
of both parties decide on the price to be paid for the girl. Partial
payment is made at once, and the remainder goes over until the marriage
proper takes place, when the boy and girl are about twelve or fourteen
years of age. In this instance Ini-init makes the customary payment
for his bride, though the marriage had already taken place.
 The friends and retainers pound rice and prepare food for all
the guests who attend the ceremony.
 A spirit house is one of the small houses built during a ceremony.
 reference is probably to ancient Chinese jars.
 The custom, which still exists to a certain degree, was to
offer food to a guest before any matter was discussed. In ancient
times this was considered very necessary, as it still is among the
Apayao who live north of the Tinguian. With them to refuse food is
to refuse friendship.
 A drink made of fermented sugar-cane.
 The old jars possessed by the Tinguian today have notches broken
in the rim, one for each generation through whose hands it has passed.
 When the first negotiations are made the boy's parents offer
some gift, nowadays usually a small bead. If this is accepted it
signifies the willingness of the girl's parents to consider the match.
 See note 1, p. 15.
 The music for the dances is made by beating on drums and copper
gongs. A man and a woman enter the circle, each carrying a large square
of cloth on outstretched arms. Keeping time to the music with their
hands and feet, they move about, coming near to each other and then
drawing farther apart The woman follows the movements of the man and
finally places her cloth on his outstretched arms, thus ending the
dance; another couple then takes their place.
 An interesting parallel to this is found in the Dayak legend
of Limbang, where a tree springs from the head of a dead giant; its
flowers are beads; its leaves, cloth; and the fruit, jars. See Roth,
_The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo_, Vol. I, p. 372.
 Throughout the Tinguian tales the characters are frequently
described as changing themselves into oil, centipedes, birds, and
other forms. This power is also found among the heroes of Dayak and
Malay tales. See Roth, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 312; Perham, _Journal
Straits Branch R., Asiatic Society, No. 16_, 1886; Wilkinson, _Malay
Beliefs_, pp. 32, 59 (London, 1906).
 The Tinguian place a tame rooster in an open spot in the forest
and surround him with a line to which slip nooses are attached. The
crowing of this bird attracts wild ones which come to fight him and
are caught in the nooses.
 The water buffalo now used as the beast of burden throughout
 The ordinary dress of the Tinguian man is a clout and a striped
belt, in which he carries his tobacco and small articles. Some of
them also possess striped cotton coats, which they wear on special
 See note 2, p. 12.
 See note 1, p. 13.
 This peculiar idea, which frequently appears in Tinguian tales,
is also found in Javanese literature. See Bezemer, _Volksdichtung
aus Indonesien_, p. 47 (Haag, 1904).
 See note 3, p. 15.
 The powerful deeds of these heroes often resemble the miraculous
achievements of biblical and ancient times.
 See note 2, p. 20.
 The Tinguian of today do not possess soap, but in its place they
use the ashes from rice straw, or not infrequently they soak the bark
from a certain tree in the water in which they are to wash their hair.
 The lawed vine. In ancient Egypt and in India it was a common
belief that friends or relatives could tell from the condition of
a certain tree or vine whether the absent one was well or dead:
if the vine thrived, they knew that all was well, but if it wilted
they mourned for him as dead. It is interesting to find the identical
belief in the northern Philippines.
 The Tinguian stove consists of a bed of ashes in which three
stones are sunk, and on these the pots are placed.
 It appears that these people of ancient times possessed the same
weapons as those of today. The Tinguian ordinarily wears a head-ax
thrust into his belt, and when at work this is his hand tool. When
on a hunt or during warfare he also carries a wooden shield and a
steel-pointed spear from eight to ten feet in length. For attacks at
a distance he depends on the spear, but in a close encounter he uses
his head-ax and shield, the latter being oblong in shape and having
two prongs at one end and three at the other. The two prongs are to be
slipped about the neck of the victim while the head-ax does its work,
or the three prongs may be slipped about the legs in the same way.
 From this and other incidents it is evident that these people
talked with the lightning and thunder. They still have great regard
for the omens derived from these forces; but it is now believed that
thunder is the dog of Kadaklan, the greatest of all the spirits,
and that by the barking of this dog, the god makes known his desires.
 Stories in which animals come to the assistance of human beings
are found in many lands. One of those best known to Europeans is
where the ants sort the grain for Cinderella.
 See note 2, p. 21.
 It was the ancient custom to place the heads of slain enemies at
the gate or around the town, and this practice still prevails with
some of the surrounding tribes. More recently it was the custom to
expose the head at the gate of the town for three days, after which
followed a great celebration when the skulls were broken and pieces
were given to the guests.
 In their beliefs of today the Tinguian recognize many giants,
some with more than one head. In a part of the ritual of one ceremony
we read, "A man opens the door to learn the cause of the barking and
he sees a man, fat and tall, with nine heads."
 A large bamboo pole, with all but the end section cut out,
serves for a water bucket.
 A long bamboo pole, in one end of which a hard-wood point is
inserted. This is thrust into the ground, and in the hole thus made
the grain or cuttings are planted. This old method is still in use
in some sections of the mountains, but on the lowlands a primitive
plow is used to break the soil.
 In European, Asiatic, African, and Malaysian lore we find stones
of beings with star dresses: when they wear the dresses they are stars;
when they take them off they are human. See Cox, _An Introduction to
Folklore_, p. 121 (London, 1904.).
 note 1, p. 9.
 See note 1, p. 12.
 Preface, p. vii.
 It is the custom to have a small bamboo house built from fifteen
to twenty feet from the ground near the rice fields, and in this
someone watches every day during the growing season to see that
nothing breaks in to destroy the grain. Often flappers are placed in
different parts of the field and a connecting string leads from these
to the little house, so that the watcher by pulling this string may
frighten the birds away from the grain.
 See note 1, p. 18.
 Preface, p. vi.
 The nights in the mountains are cold, and it is not at all
uncommon in the early morning to see groups of people with blankets
wrapped tightly about them, squatting around small fires in the yards.
 See note 2, p. 12.
 See note 1, p. 13.
 See note 1, p. 17.
 Compare with the biblical story of the loaves and fishes. For
similar incidents among the Igorot of the Philippines, in Borneo,
and in India, see Jenks, _The Bontoc Igorot_, p. 202; Seidenadel,
_The Language of the Bontoc Igorot_, pp. 491, 41 ff. (Chicago, 1909);
Roth, _The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo_, Vol. I,
p. 319; Tawney, _Katha Sarit Sagara_, Vol. II, p. 3 (Calcutta, 1880);
Bezemer, _Volksdichtung aus Indonesien_, p. 49 (Haag, 1904).
 See note 1, p. 15.
 See note 3, p. 15.
 There appear to have been two classes of spirits, one for whom
the people had the utmost respect and reverence, and another whom
they looked upon as being of service to mortals.
 See note 1, p. 30.
 The word used in the original is langpadan, meaning mountain
rice. This variety requires no irrigation and is planted to some
extent at the present day, but the great bulk of the grain now used
is grown in wonderfully terraced fields on the mountain sides, where
water for irrigating is brought from distant streams through a system
of flume and bamboo tubes. The fact that only the mountain rice is
mentioned in the tales reflects a very ancient life before irrigated
fields were known.
 See note 1, p. 45.
 The labeug is the omen bird and is believed to be the direct
messenger of Kadaklan, the great spirit, to the people.
 See note 1, p. 34.
 See note 1, p. 8.
 See Preface, p. vii.
 Before the bundles of ripened rice can be put into the granary
a ceremony is made for the spirits. The blood of a pig is mixed with
cooked rice and put in the granary as an offering for the spirit who
multiplies the grain, otherwise the crop would run out in a short time.
 See note 1, p. 9.
 The spirit who stands next in importance to Kadaklan, the great
spirit. It was he who taught the people all good things, and finally
he married a woman from Manabo in order to bind himself more closely
to them. See "How the Tinguian Learned to Plant."
 This story is considered by the Tinguian to be of rather recent
origin. They believe that Sayen lived not so very long ago, yet the
stories woven around him are very similar to the ancient ones.
 See "The Alan and the Hunters."
 The Tinguian now use flint and steel for making a flame, but it
is not at all uncommon for them to go to a neighbor's house to borrow
a burning ember to start their own fire.
 The neighboring Ilocano, a Christianized tribe, know the Komow
as a fabulous bird which is invisible, yet steals people and their
 See note 1, p. 59.
 See note 2, p. 20.
 This tale is of special importance to the Tinguian since it
explains how they learned two of the most important things of their
present life--to plant and to cure the sick. It also shows how death
came into the world.
 See note 1, p. 59.
 It is a common sight in a Tinguian village early in the morning
during the dry season to see a number of men armed with spears and
head-axes leaving for the mountains. They usually take with them,
to assist in the chase, a string of half-starved dogs. Often a net
is stretched across the runway of game, and then, while some of the
hunters conceal themselves near by, others seek to drive the game
into the net, where it is speared to death.
 Ancient Chinese jars are found throughout the interior of the
Philippines and are very closely associated with the folk-lore of
the Tinguian. Some of the jars date back to the 10th century, while
many are from the 12th and 14th centuries, and evidently entered the
Islands through pre-Spanish trade. They are held in great value and are
generally used in part payment for a bride and for the settlement of
feuds. For more details see Cole, _Chinese Pottery in the Philippines_,
Pub. Field Museum of Nat. Hist, Vol. XII, No. 1.
 This cave is situated in the mountains midway between Patok and
Santa Rosa. In this vicinity are numerous limestone caves, each of
which has its traditions.
 Cabildo of Domayco, the envied owner of this jar, has refused
great sums offered for its purchase, and though men from other tribes
come bringing ten carabao at one time, they cannot tempt him to sell.
 These beautiful agate beads are still worn by the Tinguian women,
who prize them very highly. They are rarely sold and each is worth
more than a carabao.
 The Alan are supposed to be deformed spirits who live in the
forests. They are as large as people, but have wings and can fly. Their
toes are at the back of their feet, and their fingers point backward
from their wrists.
 The name by which spirits call human beings.
 This treatment of the Alan is typical of that accorded to the
less powerful of the spirits by the Tinguian today. At the ceremonies
they often make fun of them and cheat them in the sacrifices.
 Known to the Tinguian as Banog. This bird occupies much the same
place with the Tinguian as does the garuda in East Indian folk-lore.
 This tale gives to the Tinguian his idea of the future
world. Sogsogot is supposed to have lived only a short time ago,
and his experiences are well known to all the people.
 See note 1, p. 15. Practically this same tale is told by the
neighboring Ilocano, from whom it may have been borrowed; but here
the Tinguian custom of paying a marriage price is introduced.
 This type of story is also found farther to the south, where the
cleverness of the small animal causes him to triumph over the strong.
 The Tinguian house contains neither tables nor chairs. The people
usually squat on the floor, sitting on their heels; if anything is
used as a seat it is a bit of cocoanut shell or a small block of wood.
 Here we have a proverbial tale, one in which the Tinguian
expresses the idea, "Haste makes waste."
 Another version of this tale is found in British North Borneo
in the story of the plandok and the crab, while to European children
it is known as the race between the turtle and the hare.
 The story shows the influence of the Christianized natives,
among whom cock-fighting is a very popular sport. It is found only
among those Tinguian who come into contact with this class.
 Lumawig is the greatest of all spirits and now lives in the
sky, though for a time his home was in the Igorot village of Bontoc,
He married a Bontoc girl, and the stones of their house are still
to be seen in the village. It was Lumawig who created the Igorot,
and ever since he has taken a great interest in them, teaching them
how to overcome the forces of nature, how to plant, to reap and, in
fact, everything that they know. Once each month a ceremony is held in
his honor in a sacred grove, whose trees are believed to have sprung
from the graves of his children. Here prayers are offered for health,
good crops, and success in battle. A close resemblance exists between
Lumawig of the Igorot and Kaboniyan of the Tinguian, the former being
sometimes called Kambun'yan.
 The Bukidnon of Mindanao have the following story: During a
great drought Mampolompon could grow nothing on his clearing except
one bamboo, and during a high wind this was broken. From this bamboo
came a dog and a woman, who were the ancestors of the Moro. See
"The White Squash," note 1, p. 186.
 At the north end of the village of Mayinit are a number of
brackish hot springs, and from these the people secure the salt
which has made the spot famous for miles around. Stones are placed in
the shallow streams flowing from these springs, and when they have
become encrusted with salt (about once a month) they are washed and
the water is evaporated by boiling. The salt, which is then a thick
paste, is formed into cakes and baked near the fire for about half an
hour, when it is ready for use. It is the only salt in this section,
and is in great demand. Even hostile tribes come to a hill overlooking
the town and call down, then deposit whatever they have for trade and
withdraw, while the Igorot take up the salt and leave it in place of
the trade articles.
 The women of Samoki are known as excellent potters, and their
ware is used over a wide area. From a pit on a hillside to the
north of the village they dig a reddish-brown clay, which they mix
with a bluish mineral gathered on another hillside. When thoroughly
mixed, this clay is placed on a board on the ground, and the potter,
kneeling before it, begins her moulding. Great patience and skill
are required to bring the vessel to the desired shape. When it is
completed it is set in the sun to dry for two or three days, after
which it is ready for the baking. The new pots are piled tier above
tier on the ground and blanketed with grass tied into bundles. Then
pine bark is burned beneath and around the pile for about an hour,
when the ware is sufficiently fired. It is then glazed with resin
and is ready to market.
 The mythology of nearly all peoples has a flood story. For the
Tinguian account see note on page 103. For the Bukidnon story see
 A bamboo basket, in which the heads of victims are kept prior
to the head-taking celebration.
 The folk-lore of all countries has some story accounting for
the acquisition of fire. The Tinguian tale is as follows: Once in the
very old times Kaboniyan sent a flood which covered all the land. Then
there was no place for the fire to stay, so it went into the bamboo,
the stones, and iron. That is why one who knows how can still get
fire out of bamboo and stones.
 See note 1, p. 99.
 The magical increase of food is a popular subject with the
Tinguian, appearing in many of their folk-tales. See note 2, p. 48.
 Note the similarity to the story of Moses in this account of
Lumawig striking the rock and water coming out. There is a possibility
that this incident was added to the story after the advent of the
 Usually one or more new coffins can be found in an Igorot
village. They are made from a log split in two lengthwise, each half
being hollowed out. Since their manufacture requires some days, it is
necessary to prepare them ahead of time. After the body is put in, the
cover is tied on with rattan and the chinks sealed with mud and lime.
 A somewhat similar idea is found among the Kulaman of southern
Mindanao. Here when an important man dies he is placed in a coffin,
which resembles a small boat, the coffin being then fastened on
high poles near the sea. See Cole, _Wild Tribes of Davao District,
Mindanao_, Pub. Field Museum of Nat Hist, Vol. XII, No. 2, 1913.
 This story, first recorded by Dr. A.E. Jenks, gives the origin
of the custom of head-hunting, which plays such an important part
in the life of the Igorot. The Igorot claim to have taken heads ever
since Lumawig lived on earth and taught them to go to war, and they
declare that it makes them brave and manly. The return of a successful
war party is the signal for a great celebration.
 This is also the common way of making pottery.
 Here we have a story, recorded by Dr. A.E. Jenks, with a twofold
value: it is told to the children as a warning against stinginess,
and it also explains the origin of the serpent eagle.
 There is no jungle in the greater part of the Igorot country,
the mountains being covered by cogon grass with occasional pine
trees. At a distance these have a strange appearance, for only the
bushy tops are left, the lower branches being cut off for fuel.
 First recorded by Dr. A.E. Jenks.
 Tattooing is a painful process, but Igorot men, women, and
children willingly submit to it for the sake of beauty. The design
is first drawn on the skin with an ink made of soot and water:
then the skin is pricked through the pattern and the soot is rubbed
into the wounds. Various designs appear on the face, arms, stomach,
and other parts of the body, but the most important of all markings
is that on the breast of an Igorot man. This designates him as the
taker of at least one human head, and he is thus shown to be worthy
of the respect of his tribe.
 This story also accounts for the origin of the crow and the
lizard, both of which are common in the Igorot country.
 This story, first recorded by Dr. A.E. Jenks, while it explain
the origin of the little rice bird, also points a moral, namely,
that there is punishment for the disobedient child.
 The common way to pound rice is to place a bundle of the grain
on the ground on a dried carabao hide and pound it with a pestle to
loosen the heads from the straw. When they are free they are poured
into a mortar and again pounded with the pestle until the grain is
separated from the chaff, after which it is winnowed.
 According to the Klemantin myth (Borneo), the sky was raised
when a giant named Usai accidentally struck it with his mallet while
pounding rice. See Hose and McDougall, _Pagan Tribes of Borneo_,
 A somewhat similar belief that a giant crab is responsible for
the tides is widespread throughout Malaysia. The Batak of Palawan now
believe, as also do the Mandaya of eastern Mindanao, that the tides
are caused by a giant crab going in and out of his hole in the sea.
 The similarity of this to the biblical story of the Flood leads
us to suppose that it has come from the neighboring Christianized or
Mohammedanized people and has been worked by the Bukidnon into the
mould of their own thought. However, the flood story is sometimes
found in such a guise that it cannot be accounted for by Christian
influence. See for example, _The Flood Story_ as told in the folk-lore
of the Igorot tribe, on p. 102.
 This celestial myth accounts for a number of constellations which
are of great importance to the Bukidnon. Magbangal appears in the sky
in almost dipper shape, the handle being formed by his one remaining
arm. To the west and nearly above him is a V-shaped constellation which
is believed to be the jaw of one of the pigs which he killed. Still
farther to the west appears the hill on which he hunted, while
three groups of stars which toward dawn seem to be following him are
said to be his hatchet, the bamboo pole in which he carried water,
and his large pet lizard. It is the appearance and position of these
constellations in the sky that show the Bukidnon when it is the time
to clear land for the yearly crops and to plant the grain; and since
this knowledge is of the utmost importance to the people, they feel
that Magbangal does them a lasting service. The hero Lafaang of a
Borneo myth, who is represented by the constellation Orion, lost his
arm while trying to cut down a tree in a manner different from that
prescribed by his celestial wife, the constellation Pegasen. See Hose
and McDougall, _Pagan Tribes of Borneo_, Vol. II, p. 141.
 Long knives.
 Cloth is dyed in various colors by boiling it in water in which
different kinds of leaves or roots have been steeped. But to produce
a bluish-black shade the fabric is partly buried in mud until the
desired color is obtained.
 Monkeys are numerous throughout the Philippines, and it is
doubtless their human appearance and actions that have caused the
different tribes to try to account for their origin from man. Here
we have the most likely way that the Bukidnon can see for their coming.
 This is one of a series of tales dealing with mythical heroes
of former times whose acts of prowess are still recounted by Bukidnon
 A heavy padded hemp coat with a kilt which is supposed to turn
spears. Over the shoulder is worn a sash in which are a few peculiar
stones and charms which are believed to protect its wearer. Warriors
who have taken thirty human lives are permitted to wear a peculiar
crown-shaped headdress with upstanding points.
 See note 1, p. 23.
 This is a good example of the way in which people at a certain
stage try to account for their surroundings. Nearly all consider
themselves the original people. We find the Bagobo no exception
to this. In this tale, which is evidently very old, they account
for themselves and their neighbors, and then, to meet present needs,
they adapt the story to include the white people whom they have known
for not more than two hundred years.
 These are evil spirits who have power to injure people. They
are ugly to look at and go about eating anything, even dead persons. A
young Bagobo described his idea of a buso as follows: "He has a long
body, long feet and neck, curly hair, and black face, flat nose,
and one big red or yellow eye. He has big feet and fingers, but
small arms, and his two big teeth are long and pointed. Like a dog,
he goes about eating anything, even dead persons." Cole, _Wild Tribes
of Davao District_, Field Museum Nat. Hist., Vol. XII, No. 2, p. 107.
 This is evidently an old tale in which the story-teller
introduces modern ideas.
 Here, as is often the case, an origin story has been added to
a tale with which it has no logical connection.
 This story is well known among the Bilaan, who are one of
the tribes least influenced by the Spaniards, and yet it bears so
many incidents similar to biblical accounts that there is a strong
suggestion of Christian influence. It is possible that these ideas
came through the Mohammedan Moro.
 The most powerful of the spirits and the one to whom the people
resort in times of danger.
 A similar story is found in British North Borneo. See Evans,
_Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute_, 1913, p. 423.
 Melu, Fiuweigh, Diwata, and Saweigh.
 An origin story of a very different type from those of the
Bukidnon and Bagobo. While the others show foreign influence, this
appears to be typically primitive.
 The omen bird of the Mandaya. It is believed to be a messenger
from the spirit world which, by its calls, warns the people of danger
or promises them success. If the coo of this bird comes from the
right side, it is a good sign, but if it is on the left, in back,
or in front, it is a bad sign, and the Mandaya knows that he must
change his plans.
 The crab was called Tambanokano.
 An eclipse of the moon. This belief in a monster swallowing the
moon and the wild efforts to frighten it away are very widespread. It