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Philippine Folk Tales by Compiled and Annotated by Mabel (Cook) Cole

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Three Tinguian once went to the mountains to hunt deer. They took
their blankets with them, for they expected to be gone several days,
and the nights in the mountains are cold.

The blankets of two of the men were of the blue-and-white designs
such as are commonly worn by the Tinguian, but that of the third was
covered with red and yellow stripes like the back of a little wild pig.

At night the men rolled up in their blankets and lay down under a
tree to sleep; but while the one in the striped blanket was still
awake two spirits came near and saw him.

"Oh," he heard one spirit say to the other, "here we have something
to eat, for here is a little wild pig."

Then the man quickly took the blanket off one of his sleeping
companions and put his own in its place. Very soon the spirits came
and ate the man under the striped blanket.

Since that time the Tinguian never sleep under that kind of a blanket
if they are where the spirits can get them.

The Alan and the Hunters


Two men once went to hunt wild pig in the mountains, and after some
time they speared and killed one, but they had no fire over which to
singe it.

One man climbed a tree to see if there was a fire near by, and
discovering smoke at some distance, he started toward it. When he
reached the place, he found that the fire was in the house of an Alan,
[82] and he was very much afraid; but creeping up into the house,
he found that the Alan and her baby were fast asleep.

He stepped on tip-toe, but nevertheless the Alan was awakened and
called out:

"Epogow, [83] what do you want?"

"I should like to get some fire," said the man, "for we have killed
a wild pig."

The Alan gave him the fire, and then taking her basket she went with
him to the place where the pig was.

After they had singed the animal, the Alan cut it up with her long
nails and handed the liver to the man, telling him to take it to her
house to feed the baby.

The man started, and on the way he ate the liver. When he reached
the Alan's house he did not know what to do. For some time he looked
around, and then seeing a large caldron of hot water on the fire,
he threw the baby into it and went back.

"Did the baby eat well?" asked the Alan.

"Very well," said the man.

Then she put most of the meat into her basket and started home. As
soon as she had gone, the man told his companion what he had done,
and they were so frightened that they ran to hide.

When the Alan reached home and found the baby dead in the hot water,
she was very angry and started back immediately to find the men, who,
in the meantime, had climbed a high tree that stood near the water.

The Alan looked down into the water, and seeing the reflection of
the men, she reached in her long hand with the fingers that pointed
backward, but when she could not touch them, she looked up and saw
them in the tall tree.

"How did you get up there?" she cried angrily.

"We climbed up feet first," called down the men.

The Alan, determined to get them, caught hold of a vine and started
up the tree feet first, but before she quite reached them, they cut
the vine and she fell to the ground and was killed. [84]

Then the men came down and went to the Alan's house, where they found
a jar full of beads and another of gold, and these they brought with
them when they returned home.

Man and the Alan


A Tinguian was once walking along a trail in the wood when he heard a
strange sound in a large tree near him, and looking up he was startled
to see that it was the home of the Alan--spirits who live in the wood.

He stopped and gazed for a moment at the horrible creatures, large
as people, hanging from the limbs of the tree with their heads down
like bats. They had wings to fly, and their toes were at the back
of their feet, while their long fingers, which pointed backward,
were fastened at the wrist.

"Surely," thought the man, "these terrible beings will eat me if
they can catch me. I will run away as fast as I can while they are
asleep." He tried to run but he was too frightened, and after a few
steps he fell face down on the ground.

At this the Alan began to wail loudly, for they saw him fall and
believed him dead And they came down out of the tree with gold and
beads which they laid on him.

After a while the man gathered courage and, jumping up, he cried as
loudly as he could, "Go away!"

The Alan did not move, but they looked at him and said: "Give us the
one bead _nagaba_ [a peculiar bead of double effect], and you may
have the rest." When the man refused to do this, they were angry and
turned away, crying, "Then we are going to burn your house, for you
are a bad man."

Thereupon the man went home as fast as he could go, but very soon
after that his house burned, for the Alan kept their word.



One day, a long time ago, some men went to the mountains to hunt deer
and wild pig, and among them was one named Sogsogot.

They all went into the thick forest to look for game, but after a
while Sogsogot called his dog and withdrew to an open spot near by,
where he waited for the deer to come out.

While he stood there eagerly watching, a big bird [85] swooped down,
caught him in its claws, and carried him away. Far off over the
mountains the bird soared, until finally it came to a big tree where
it had its nest, and here it left the man and flew away.

Sogsogot's first thought was to make his escape, but he found that
the tree was so tall that he could not get down, and after a time he
ceased his attempts to get away and began to look over his companions
in the nest--two young birds and three little pigs.

By and by he became hungry, so he cut up the three little pigs, and
after he had eaten all he wished he fed the two birds. When this meat
was gone the mother bird brought more pigs and deer, and the man had
all he could eat. Then he fed the little birds, which grew very fast
and soon were able to fly. One day when they were standing on the
edge of the nest Sogsogot caught hold of the birds' legs, and they
fluttered down and carried him safely to the ground.

He hastened home as fast as he could go and told the people of his
wonderful trip. They made a ceremony for the spirits, and all the
people rejoiced that the lost man had returned.

Some time after this Sogsogot went to a hostile town to fight, and
while he was gone his wife died. On the way back to his town he met
the spirit of his wife driving a cow and two pigs, and not knowing
that she was a spirit he asked her where she was going.

"I am not a person any more," she answered him; "I am dead." And when
he wanted to touch her hand, she gave him only her shortest finger. He
begged to go with her so she said, "Go first to our home and get a
white chicken; then follow the footmarks of the cow and pigs."

He did as she commanded him, and after a while he came to a place
where she was bathing in the river. She said to him:

"Now you may come with me to our spirit town. [86] I shall hide you
in the rice-bin and shall bring food to you every day. But at night
the people in the town will want to eat you, and when they come to
the bin you must take some of the feathers of the white chicken and
throw at them."

The man went with her, and when they arrived at the spirit town she
hid him in the rice-bin. At night the people came to eat him, as she
had said they would; but when he threw the chicken feathers at them
they were frightened away.

For two weeks Sogsogot lived in this place, but when the feathers
were nearly gone he was afraid to stay any longer, for every night
the spirits came to eat him. He begged his wife to allow him to go,
and finally she showed him the way home, giving him rice to eat on
his journey.

As soon as the man arrived home and inquired for his wife, the
people told him that she had died and they had buried her under the
house. Then he knew that it was her spirit that had taken him to the
strange town.

The Mistaken Gifts


When Siagon was about eight years old his parents began looking for
a girl who would make a suitable wife. At last when they had decided
on a beautiful maiden, who lived some distance from them, they sent
a man to her parents to ask if they would like Siagon for a son-in-law.

Now when the man arrived at the girl's house the people were all
sitting on the floor eating periwinkle, and as they sucked the meat
out of the shell, they nodded their heads. The man, looking in at
the door, saw them nod, and he thought they were nodding at him. So
he did not tell them his errand, but returned quickly to the boy's
parents and told them that all the people at the girl's house were
favorable to the union.

Siagon's parents were very much pleased that their proposal had been
so kindly received, and immediately prepared to go to the girl's
house to arrange for the wedding.

Finally all was ready and they started for her house, carrying with
them as presents for her parents two carabao, two horses, two cows,
four iron kettles, sixteen jars of basi, two blankets, and two
little pigs.

The surprise of the girl's people knew no bounds when they saw all
this coming to their house, for they had not even thought of Siagon
marrying their daughter. [87]

The Boy who Became a Stone


One day a little boy named Elonen sat out in the yard making a bird
snare, and as he worked, a little bird called to him: "Tik-tik-lo-den"
(come and catch me).

"I am making a snare for you," said the boy; but the bird continued
to call until the snare was finished.

Then Elonen ran and threw the snare over the bird and caught it, and he
put it in a jar in his house while he went with the other boys to swim.

While he was away, his grandmother grew hungry, so she ate the bird,
and when Elonen returned and found that his bird was gone, he was so
sad that he wished he might go away and never come back. He went out
into the forest and walked a long distance, until finally he came to
a big stone and said: "Stone, open your mouth and eat me." And the
stone opened its mouth and swallowed the boy.

When his grandmother missed the boy, she went out and looked
everywhere, hoping to find him. Finally she passed near the stone
and it cried out, "Here he is." Then the old woman tried to open the
stone but she could not, so she called the horses to come and help
her. They came and kicked it, but it would not break. Then she called
the carabao and they hooked it, but they only broke their horns. She
called the chickens, which pecked it, and the thunder, which shook it,
but nothing could open it, and she had to go home without the boy.

The Turtle and the Lizard


A turtle and a big lizard once went to the field of Gotgotapa to steal
ginger, [88] When they reached the place the turtle said to the lizard:

"We must be very still or the man will hear us and come out."

But as soon as the lizard tasted the ginger he was so pleased that
he said:

"The ginger of Gotgotapa is very good."

"Be still," said the turtle; but the lizard paid no attention to the
warning, and called louder than ever:

"The ginger of Gotgotapa is very good."

Again and again he cried out, until finally the man heard him and
came out of the house to catch the robbers.

The turtle could not run fast, so he lay very still, and the man did
not see him. But the lizard ran and the man chased him. When they
were out of sight, the turtle went into the house and hid under a
cocoanut shell upon which the man used to sit. [89]

The man ran after the lizard for a long distance, but he could not
catch him. After a while he came back to the house and sat down on
the shell.

By and by, the turtle called, "Kook." The man jumped up and looked all
around. Unable to tell where the noise came from, he sat down again,

A second time the turtle called, and this time the man looked
everywhere in the house except under the shell, but could not find
the turtle. Again and again the turtle called, and finally the man,
realizing that all his attempts were unsuccessful, grew so excited
that he died.

Then the turtle ran out of the house, and he had not gone far before
he met the lizard again. They walked along together until they saw
some honey in a tree, and the turtle said:

"I will go first and get some of the honey."

The lizard would not wait, but ran ahead, and when he seized the honey,
the bees came out and stung him. So he ran back to the turtle for help.

After a while they came to a bird snare, and the turtle said:

"That is the silver wire that my grandfather wore about his neck."

Then the lizard ran fast to get it first, but he was caught in the
snare and was held until the man came and killed him. Then the wise
turtle went on alone.

The Man with the Cocoanuts


One day a man who had been to gather his cocoanuts loaded his horse
heavily with the fruit. On the way home he _met_ a boy whom he asked
how long it would take to reach the house.

"If you go slowly," said the boy, looking at the load on the horse,
"you will arrive very soon; but if you go fast, it will take you
all day."

The man could not believe this strange speech, so he hurried his
horse. But the cocoanuts fell off and he had to stop to pick them
up. Then he hurried his horse all the more to make up for lost time,
but the cocoanuts fell off again. Many times he did this, and it was
night when he reached home. [90]

The Carabao and the Shell


One very hot day, when a carabao went into the river to bathe, he
met a shell and they began talking together.

"You are very slow," said the carabao to the shell.

"Oh, no," replied the shell. "I can beat you in a race."

"Then let us try and see," said the carabao.

So they went out on the bank and started to run.

After the carabao had gone a long distance he stopped and called,

And another shell lying by the river answered, "Here I am!"

Then the carabao, thinking that it was the same shell with which he
was racing, ran on.

By and by he stopped again and called, "Shell!"

Again another shell answered, "Here I am!"

The carabao was surprised that the shell could keep up with him. But
he ran on and on, and every time he stopped to call, another shell
answered him. But he was determined that the shell should not beat him,
so he ran until he dropped dead. [91]

The Alligator's Fruit


Two women went to gather some wild fruit from a vine which belonged
to the alligator.

"You must be careful not to throw the rind with your teeth marks
on it where the alligator can see it," said one of the women to the
other as they sat eating the fruit.

But the other woman paid no attention and threw the rind showing
teeth marks into the river, where the alligator saw it.

Thus he knew at once who had taken his fruit, and he was very angry. He
went to the house of the woman and called to the people:

"Bring out the woman that I may eat her, for she has eaten my fruit"

"Very well," answered the people. "But sit down and wait a little

Then they put the iron soil-turner into the fire, and when it was
red hot, they took it to the door and said to the alligator:

"Here, eat this first."

He opened his mouth, and they pushed the red hot iron down his throat,
and he died.



Dogedog had always been very lazy, and now that his father and mother
were dead and he had no one to care for him, he lived very poorly. He
had little to eat. His house was old and small and so poor that it
had not even a floor. Still he would rather sit all day and idle away
his time than to work and have more things.

One day, however, when the rainy season was near at hand, Dogedog
began thinking how cold he would be when the storms came, and he felt
so sorry for himself that he decided to make a floor in his house.

Wrapping some rice in a banana leaf for his dinner, he took his long
knife and went to the forest to cut some bamboo. He hung the bundle
of rice in a tree until he should need it; but while he was working
a cat came and ate it. When the hungry man came for his dinner, there
was none left. Dogedog went back to his miserable little house which
looked forlorn to him even, now that he had decided to have a floor.

The next day he went again to the forest and hung his rice in the
tree as he did before, but again the cat came and ate it. So the man
had to go home without any dinner.

The third day he took the rice, but this time he fixed a trap in the
tree, and when the cat came it was caught.

"Now I have you!" cried the man when he found the cat; "and I shall
kill you for stealing my rice."

"Oh, do not kill me," pleaded the cat, "and I will be of some use
to you."

So Dogedog decided to spare the cat's life, and he took it home and
tied it near the door to guard the house.

Some time later when he went to look at it, he was very much surprised
to find that it had become a cock.

"Now I can go to the cock-fight at Magsingal," cried the man. And he
was very happy, for he had much rather do that than work.

Thinking no more of getting wood for his floor, he started out at
once for Magsingal with the cock under his arm. As he was crossing
a river he met an alligator which called out to him:

"Where are you going, Dogedog?"

"To the cock-fight at Magsingal," replied the man as he fondly stroked
the rooster.

"Wait, and I will go with you," said the alligator; and he drew
himself out of the water.

The two walking along together soon entered a forest where they met
a deer and it asked:

"Where are you going, Dogedog?"

"To the cock-fight at Magsingal," said the man.

"Wait and I will go with you," said the deer; and he also joined them.

By and by they met a mound of earth that had been raised by the ants,
and they would have passed without noticing it had it not inquired:

"Where are you going, Dogedog?"

"To the cock-fight at Magsingal," said the man once more; and the
mound of earth joined them.

The company then hurried on, and just as they were leaving the forest,
they passed a big tree in which was a monkey.

"Where are you going, Dogedog?" shrieked the monkey. And without
waiting for an answer he scrambled down the tree and followed them.

As the party walked along they talked together, and the alligator
said to Dogedog:

"If any man wants to dive into the water, I can stay under longer
than he."

Then the deer, not to be outdone, said:

"If any man wants to run, I can run faster."

The mound of earth, anxious to show its strength, said:

"If any man wants to wrestle, I can beat him."

And the monkey said:

"If any man wants to climb, I can go higher."

They reached Magsingal in good time and the people were ready for the
fight to begin. When Dogedog put his rooster, which had been a cat,
into the pit, it killed the other cock at once, for it used its claws
like a cat.

The people brought more roosters and wagered much money, but Dogedog's
cock killed all the others until there was not one left in Magsingal,
and Dogedog won much money. Then they went outside the town and
brought all the cocks they could find, but not one could win over
that of Dogedog.

When the cocks were all dead, the people wanted some other sport,
so they brought a man who could stay under water for a long time,
and Dogedog made him compete with the alligator. But after a while
the man had to come up first Then they brought a swift runner and he
raced with the deer, but the man was left far behind. Next they looked
around until they found a very large man who was willing to contend
with the mound of earth, but after a hard struggle the man was thrown.

Finally they brought a man who could climb higher than anyone else,
but the monkey went far above him, and he had to give up.

All these contests had brought much money to Dogedog, and now he had
to buy two horses to carry his sacks of silver. As soon as he reached
home, he bought the house of a very rich man and went to live in
it. And he was very happy, for he did not have to work any more. [92]



Three or four days' journey to the south and east of the Tinguian live
the Igorot; but so difficult are the trails over the mountains and
through the swift rivers that there is little intercourse between
the two tribes, consequently each believes the other a people to
be feared. Salt, weapons, and jars are sometimes exchanged, but the
customs and beliefs are not similar. Each group leads its own life
and is governed by its own spirits.

From a distance an Igorot village looks like a group of haystacks
nestling among the hills; but viewed more closely, it is found
to consist of houses whose board sides are almost hidden by the
overhanging grass roofs. The upper part of the house is used as a
storehouse, while below, on a ground floor, the family cooks and
eats. In one end there is a tiny boxlike bedroom where the father,
mother, and small children sleep. After they are two or three years
old the girls spend the night in a dormitory, while the boys sleep
in the men's council house.

These people have splendid terraced fields on the mountain sides where
water is brought from the streams through troughs and ditches. Here
both men and women are busy early and late cultivating the rice,
sweet potatoes, and small vegetables on which they live. The men are
head-hunters and ardent warriors, each village demanding a head in
payment for any taken by a hostile village.

Watching over the Igorot, controlling the winds and the rains, and
providing good crops and health for the people, is the Great Spirit,
Lumawig, who lives in the sky. He is believed to have created the
Igorot and even to have lived among them on the earth. He no longer
visits them in person, they say, but each month they perform a ceremony
at which they pray to him to protect them and entreat him to favor
them with health and good crops.

The following tales are told by the fathers and mothers to the children
to teach them how things came to be as they are.

The Creation


In the beginning there were no people on the earth. Lumawig, [93]
the Great Spirit, came down from the sky and cut many reeds. [94] He
divided these into pairs which he placed in different parts of the
world, and then he said to them, "You must speak." Immediately the
reeds became people, and in each place was a man and a woman who could
talk, but the language of each couple differed from that of the others.

Then Lumawig commanded each man and woman to marry, which they did. By
and by there were many children, all speaking the same language as
their parents. These, in turn, married and had many children. In this
way there came to be many people on the earth.

Now Lumawig saw that there were several things which the people on
the earth needed to use, so he set to work to supply them. He created
salt, and told the inhabitants of one place to boil it down and sell
it to their neighbors. But these people could not understand the
directions of the Great Spirit, and the next time he visited them,
they had not touched the salt.

Then he took it away from them and gave it to the people of a place
called Mayinit. [95] These did as he directed, and because of this
he told them that they should always be owners of the salt, and that
the other peoples must buy of them.

Then Lumawig went to the people of Bontoc and told them to get clay
and make pots. They got the clay, but they did not understand the
moulding, and the jars were not well shaped. Because of their failure,
Lumawig told them that they would always have to buy their jars,
and he removed the pottery to Samoki. [96] When he told the people
there what to do, they did just as he said, and their jars were well
shaped and beautiful. Then the Great Spirit saw that they were fit
owners of the pottery, and he told them that they should always make
many jars to sell.

In this way Lumawig taught the people and brought to them all the
things which they now have.

The Flood Story


Once upon a time, when the world was flat and there were no mountains,
there lived two brothers, sons of Lumawig, the Great Spirit. The
brothers were fond of hunting, and since no mountains had formed
there was no good place to catch wild pig and deer, and the older
brother said:

"Let us cause water to flow over all the world and cover it, and then
mountains will rise up." [97]

So they caused water to flow over all the earth, and when it was
covered they took the head-basket [98] of the town and set it for a
trap. The brothers were very much pleased when they went to look at
their trap, for they had caught not only many wild pigs and deer but
also many people.

Now Lumawig looked down from his place in the sky and saw that his
sons had flooded the earth and that in all the world there was just one
spot which was not covered. And he saw that all the people in the world
had been drowned except one brother and sister who lived in Pokis.

Then Lumawig descended, and he called to the boy
and girl, saying:

"Oh, you are still alive."

"Yes," answered the boy, "we are still alive, but we are very cold."

So Lumawig commanded his dog and deer to get fire [99] for the boy
and girl. The dog and the deer swam quickly away, but though Lumawig
waited a long time they did not return, and all the time the boy and
girl were growing colder.

Finally Lumawig himself went after the dog and the deer, and when he
reached them he said:

"Why are you so long in bringing the fire to Pokis? Get ready and
come quickly while I watch you, for the boy and girl are very cold."

Then the dog and the deer took the fire and started to swim through the
flood, but when they had gone only a little way the fire was put out.

Lumawig commanded them to get more fire and they did so, but they
swam only a little way again when that of the deer went out, and
that of the dog would have been extinguished also had not Lumawig
gone quickly to him and taken it.

As soon as Lumawig reached Pokis he built a big fire which warmed the
brother and sister; and the water evaporated so that the world was
as it was before, except that now there were mountains. The brother
and sister married and had children, and thus there came to be many
people on the earth.

Lumawig on Earth


One day when Lumawig, [100] the Great Spirit, looked down from his
place in the sky he saw two sisters gathering beans. And he decided
to go down to visit them. When he arrived at the place he asked them
what they were doing. The younger, whose name was Fukan, answered:

"We are gathering beans, but it takes a long time to get enough,
for my sister wants to go bathing all the time."

Then Lumawig said to the older sister:

"Hand me a single pod of the beans."

And when she had given it to him, he shelled it into the basket and
immediately the basket was full. [101] The younger sister laughed at
this, and Lumawig said to her:

"Give me another pod and another basket."

She did so, and when he had shelled the pod, that basket was full
also. Then he said to the younger sister:

"Go home and get three more baskets."

She went home, but when she asked for three more baskets her mother
said that the beans were few and she could not need so many. Then
Fukan told her of the young man who could fill a basket from one pod
of beans, and the father, who heard her story, said:

"Go bring the young man here, for I think he must be a god."

So Fukan took the three baskets back to Lumawig, and when he had
filled them as he did the other two, he helped the girls carry them
to the house. As they reached their home, he stopped outside to cool
himself, but the father called to him and he went up into the house
and asked for some water. The father brought him a cocoanut shell full,
and before drinking Lumawig looked at it and said:

"If I stay here with you, I shall become very strong."

The next morning Lumawig asked to see their chickens, and when they
opened the chicken-coop out came a hen and many little chicks. "Are
these all of your chickens?" asked Lumawig; and the father assured
him that they were all. He then bade them bring rice meal that he
might feed them, and as the chickens ate they all grew rapidly till
they were cocks and hens.

Next Lumawig asked how many pigs they had, and the father replied
that they had one with some little ones. Then Lumawig bade them fill
a pail with sweet potato leaves and he fed the pigs. And as they ate
they also grew to full size.

The father was so pleased with all these things that he offered his
elder daughter to Lumawig for a wife. But the Great Spirit said he
preferred to marry the younger; so that was arranged. Now when his
brother-in-law learned that Lumawig desired a feast at his wedding,
he was very angry and said:

"Where would you get food for your wedding feast? There is no rice,
nor beef, nor pork, nor chicken,"

But Lumawig only answered, "I shall provide our wedding feast."

In the morning they all set out for Lanao, for Lumawig did not care
to stay any longer in the house with his brother-in-law. As soon as
they arrived he sent out for some tree trunks, but the trees that
the people brought in were so small that Lumawig himself went to the
forest and cut two large pine trees which he hurled to Lanao.

When the people had built a fire of the trees he commanded them to
bring ten kettles filled with water. Soon the water was boiling hot
and the brother-in-law laughed and said:

"Where is your rice? You have the boiling water, but you do not seem
to think of the rice."

In answer to this Lumawig took a small basket of rice and passed
it over five kettles and they were full. Then he called "Yishtjau,"
and some deer came running out of the forest. These were not what he
wanted, however, so he called again and some pigs came. He told the
people that they were each to catch one and for his brother-in-law
he selected the largest and best.

They all set out in pursuit of the pigs and the others quickly caught
theirs, but though the brother-in-law chased his until he was very
tired and hot he could not catch it Lumawig laughed at him and said:

"You chase that pig until he is thin and still you cannot catch it,
though all the others have theirs."

Thereupon he grasped the hind legs of the pig and lifted it. All the
people laughed and the brother-in-law said:

"Of course you can catch it, because I chased it until it was tired."

Lumawig then handed it to him and said, "Here, you carry it." But no
sooner had the brother-in-law put it over his shoulder than it cut
loose and ran away.

"Why did you let it go?" asked Lumawig. "Do you care nothing for it,
even after I caught it for you? Catch it again and bring it here."

So the brother-in-law started out again, and he chased it up stream
and down, but he could not catch it. Finally Lumawig reached down
and picked up the pig and carried it to the place where the others
were cooking.

After they had all eaten and drunk and made their offerings to the
spirits, Lumawig said:

"Come, let us go to the mountain to consult the omen concerning the
northern tribes."

So they consulted the omen, but it was not favorable, and they were
starting home when the brother-in-law asked Lumawig to create some
water, as the people were hot and thirsty.

"Why do you not create water, Lumawig?" he repeated as Lumawig paid
no attention to him. "You care nothing that the people are thirsty
and in need of drink."

Then they quarreled and were very angry and Lumawig
said to the people, "Let us sit down and rest."

While they rested, Lumawig struck the rock with his spear and water
came out. [102] The brother-in-law jumped up to get a drink first, but
Lumawig held him back and said he must be the last to drink. So they
all drank, and when they had finished, the brother-in-law stepped up,
but Lumawig gave him a push which sent him into the rock and water
came from his body.

"You must stay there," said Lumawig, "because you have troubled me
a great deal." And they went home, leaving him in the rock.

Some time after this Lumawig decided to go back to the sky to live,
but before he went he took care that his wife should have a home. He
made a coffin of wood [103] and placed her in it with a dog at her
feet and a cock at her head. And as he set it floating on the water,
[104] he told it not to stop until it reached Tinglayen. Then, if
the foot end struck first, the dog should bark; and if the head end
was the first to strike, the cock should crow. So it floated away,
and on and on, until it came to Tinglayen.

Now a widower was sharpening his ax on the bank of the river, and when
he saw the coffin stop, he went to fish it out of the water. On shore
he started to open it, but Fugan cried out, "Do not drive a wedge,
for I am here," So the widower opened it carefully and took Fugan up
to the town, and then as he had no wife of his own, he married her.

How the First Head was Taken [105]


One day the Moon, who was a woman named Kabigat, sat out in the yard
making a large copper pot. The copper was still soft and pliable like
clay, and the woman squatted on the ground with the heavy pot against
her knees while she patted and shaped it. [106]

Now while she was working a son of Chal-chal, the Sun, came by and
stopped to watch her mould the form. Against the inside of the jar she
pressed a stone, while on the outside with a wooden paddle dripping
with water she pounded and slapped until she had worked down the
bulges and formed a smooth surface.

The boy was greatly interested in seeing the jar grow larger, more
beautiful, and smoother with each stroke, and he stood still for some
time. Suddenly the Moon looked up and saw him watching her. Instantly
she struck him with her paddle, cutting off his head.

Now the Sun was not near, but he knew as soon as the Moon had cut off
his son's head. And hurrying to the spot, he put the boy's head back
on, and he was alive again.

Then the Sun said to the Moon, "You cut off my son's head, and because
you did this ever after on the earth people will cut off each other's

The Serpent Eagle [107]


Once there lived two boys whose mother sent them every day to the
forest to get wood [108] for her fires. Each morning, as they started
out, she gave them some food for their trip, but it was always poor
and there was little of it, and she would say:

"The wood that you brought yesterday was so poor that I cannot give
you much to eat today."

The boys tried very hard to please her, but if they brought nice pine
wood she scolded them, and if they brought large dry reeds she said:

"These are no good for my fire, for they leave too much ashes in
the house."

Try as they would, they failed to satisfy her; and their bodies grew
very thin from working hard all day and from want of enough to eat.

One morning when they left for the mountains the mother gave them a
bit of dog meat to eat, and the boys were very sad. When they reached
the forest one of them said:

"You wait here while I climb the tree and cut off some branches."

He went up the tree and soon called down, "Here is some wood," and
the bones of his arm dropped to the ground.

"Oh," cried his brother, "it is your arm!"

"Here is some more wood," cried the other, and the bones of the other
arm dropped to the ground.

Then he called again, and the bones of his leg fell, then those of his
other leg, and so on till all the bones of his body lay on the ground.

"Take these home," he said, "and tell the woman that here is her wood;
she only wanted my bones."

The younger boy was very sad, for he was alone, and there was no one
to go down the mountain with him. He gathered up the bundle of wood,
wondering meanwhile what he should do, but just as he finished a
serpent eagle called down from the tree tops:

"I will go with you, Brother."

So the boy put the bundle of wood on his shoulder, and as he was
going down the mountain, his brother, who was now a serpent eagle,
flew over his head. When he reached the house, he put down the bundle
and said to his mother:

"Here is your wood."

When she looked at it she was very much frightened and ran out of
the house.

Then the serpent eagle circled round and round above her head and

"Quiukok! quiukok! quiukok! I do not need your food any more."

The Tattooed Men [109]


Once there were two young men, very good friends, who were unhappy
because neither of them had been tattooed. [110] They felt that they
were not as beautiful as their friends.

One day they agreed to tattoo each other. One marked the breast and
back of the other, his arms and legs, and even his face. And when he
had finished, he took soot off the bottom of a cooking-pot and rubbed
it into all the marks; and he was tattooed beautifully.

The one who had done the work said to the other:

"Now, my friend, you are very beautiful, and you must tattoo me."

Then the tattooed one scraped a great pile of black soot off the
cooking-pots, and before the other knew what he was about, he had
rubbed it all over him from the top of his head to the bottom of his
feet; and he was very black and greasy. The one who was covered with
soot became very angry and cried:

"Why do you treat me so when I tattooed you so carefully?"

They began to fight, but suddenly the beautifully tattooed one became
a great lizard which ran away and hid in the tall grass, while the
sooty one became a crow and flew away over the village. [111]

Tilin, The Rice Bird [112]


One day when a mother was pounding out rice to cook for supper,
her little girl ran up to her and cried:

"Oh, Mother, give me some of the raw rice to eat."

"No," said the mother, "it is not good for you to eat until it is
cooked. Wait for supper."

But the little girl persisted until the mother, out of patience, cried:

"Be still. It is not good for you to talk so much!"

When she had finished pounding the rice, the woman poured it into a
rice winnower and tossed it many times into the air. As soon as the
chaff was removed she emptied the rice into her basket and covered it
with the winnower. Then she took the jar upon her head, and started
for the spring to get water.

Now the little girl was fond of going to the spring with her mother,
for she loved to play in the cool water while her mother filled the
jars. But this time she did not go, and as soon as the woman was
out of sight, she ran to the basket of rice. She reached down to
take a handful of the grain. The cover slipped so that she fell,
and was covered up in the basket.

When the mother returned to the house, she heard a bird crying,
"King, king, nik! nik! nik!" She listened carefully, and as the
sound seemed to come from the basket, she removed the cover. To her
surprise, out hopped a little brown rice bird, and as it flew away
it kept calling back:

"Goodbye, Mother; goodbye, Mother. You would not give me any rice
to eat."



About one thousand miles to the south and east of the Tinguian and
Igorot is the Island of Mindanao, which is inhabited by mortals and
immortals entirely unknown to the mountain tribes of the north.

In the northern part of this great island are the Bukidnon--timid,
wild people who, attacked from time to time by the Moro on one side
and the Manobo on the other, have drawn back into scattered homes
in the hills. Here they live in poor dwellings raised high from the
ground. Some even build in trees, their sheltered and secret positions
making them less subject to attack.

They are not a warlike people, and their greatest concern is for the
good will of the numerous spirits who watch over their every act. At
times they gather a little hemp or coffee from the hillside or along
the stream bank and carry it to the coast to exchange for the bright
cloth which they make into gay clothes. But they do not love work,
and the most of their time is spent in resting or attending ceremonies
made to gain the good will of the immortals.

In this country the belief prevails that there are spirits in the
stones, in the baliti trees, in the vines, the cliffs, and even the
caves. And never does a man start on a journey or make a clearing on
the mountain side until he has first besought these spirits not to be
angry with him but to favor him with prosperity and bring good crops.

The greatest of the spirits is Diwata Magbabaya, who is so
awe-inspiring that his name is never mentioned above a whisper. He
lives in the sky in a house made of coins, and there are no windows
in this building, for if men should look upon him they would melt
into water.

About the Gulf of Davao, in the southeastern part of this island,
are a number of small tribes, each differing somewhat from the other
in customs and beliefs. Of these the most influential are the Bagobo
who dwell on the lower slopes of Mt. Apo, the highest peak in the
Philippines. They are very industrious, forging excellent knives,
casting fine articles in brass, and weaving beautiful hemp cloth which
they make into elaborate garments decorated with beads and shell disks.

The men are great warriors, each gaining distinction among his people
according to the number of human lives he has taken. A number of them
dress in dark red suits and peculiar headbands which they are permitted
to wear only after they have taken six lives. Notwithstanding their
bravery in battle, these people fear and have great respect for the
numerous spirits who rule over their lives.

From a great fissure in the side of Mt. Apo, clouds of sulphur fumes
are constantly rising, and it is believed to be in this fissure that
Mandarangan and his wife Darago live--evil beings who look after the
fortunes of the warriors. These spirits are feared and great care
is taken to appease them with offerings, while once a year a human
sacrifice is made to them.

The following tales show something of the beliefs of these and the
neighboring tribes in Mindanao.

How the Moon and the Stars Came to Be

_Bukidnon_ (_Mindanao_)

One day in the times when the sky was close to the ground a spinster
went out to pound rice. [113] Before she began her work, she took
off the beads from around her neck and the comb from her hair, and
hung them on the sky, which at that time looked like coral rock.

Then she began working, and each time that she raised her pestle into
the air it struck the sky. For some time she pounded the rice, and
then she raised the pestle so high that it struck the sky very hard.

Immediately the sky began to rise, [114] and it went up so far that
she lost her ornaments. Never did they come down, for the comb became
the moon and the beads are the stars that are scattered about.

The Flood Story

_Bukidnon_ (_Mindanao_)

A long time ago there was a very big crab [115] which crawled into
the sea. And when he went in he crowded the water out so that it ran
all over the earth and covered all the land.

Now about one moon before this happened, a wise man had told the people
that they must build a large raft. [116] They did as he commanded and
cut many large trees, until they had enough to make three layers. These
they bound tightly together, and when it was done they fastened the
raft with a long rattan cord to a big pole in the earth.

Soon after this the floods came. White water poured out of the hills,
and the sea rose and covered even the highest mountains. The people
and animals on the raft were safe, but all the others drowned.

When the waters went down and the raft was again on the ground,
it was near their old home, for the rattan cord had held.

But these were the only people left on the whole earth.

Magbangal [117]

_Bukidnon_ (_Mindanao_)

Magbangal was a good hunter, and he often went to a certain hill
where he killed wild pigs for food. One night as it was nearing the
planting season, he sat in his house thinking, and after a long time
he called to his wife. She came to him, and he said:

"Tomorrow I shall go to the hill and clear the land for our planting,
but I wish you to stay here."

"Oh, let me go with you," begged his wife, "for you have no other

"No," said Magbangal, "I wish to go alone, and you must stay at home."

So finally his wife agreed, and in the morning she arose early to
prepare food for him. When the rice was cooked and the fish ready
she called him to come and eat, but he said:

"No, I do not want to eat now, but I will return this afternoon and
you must have it ready for me."

Then he gathered up his ten hatchets and bolos, [118] a sharpening
stone, and a bamboo tube for water, and started for the hill. Upon
reaching his land he cut some small trees to make a bench. When it
was finished, he sat down on it and said to the bolos, "You bolos must
sharpen yourselves on the stone." And the bolos went to the stone and
were sharpened. Then to the hatchets he said, "You hatchets must be
sharpened," and they also sharpened themselves.

When all were ready, he said: "Now you bolos cut all the small brush
under the trees, and you hatchets must cut the large trees." So the
bolos and the hatchets went to work, and from his place on the bench
Magbangal could see the land being cleared.

Magbangal's wife was at work in their house weaving a skirt, but
when she heard the trees continually falling she stopped to listen
and thought to herself, "My husband must have found many people to
help him clear our land. When he left here, he was alone, but surely
he cannot cut down the trees so fast. I will see who is helping him."

She left the house and walked rapidly toward the field, but as she
drew nearer she proceeded more slowly, and finally stopped behind
a tree. From her hiding-place, she could see her husband asleep on
the bench, and she could also see that the bolos and hatchets were
cutting the trees with no hands to guide them.

"Oh," said she, "Magbangal is very powerful. Never before have I
seen bolos and hatchets working without hands, and he never told me
of his power."

Suddenly she saw her husband jump up, and, seizing a bolo, he cut
off one of his own arms. He awoke and sat up and said:

"Someone must be looking at me, for one of my arms is cut off."

When he saw his wife he knew that she was the cause of his losing
his arm, and as they went home together, he exclaimed:

"Now I am going away. It is better for me to go to the sky where I
can give the sign to the people when it is time to plant; and you
must go to the water and become a fish."

Soon after he went to the sky and became the constellation Magbangal;
and ever since, when the people see these stars appear in the sky,
they know that it is time to plant their rice.

How Children Became Monkeys

_Bukidnon_ (_Mindanao_)

One day a mother took her two children with her when she went to
color cloth. Not far from her home was a mud hole [119] where the
carabao liked to wallow, and to this hole she carried her cloth,
some dye pots, and two shell spoons.

After she had put the cloth into the mud to let it take up the dark
color, she built a fire and put over it a pot containing water and
the leaves used for dyeing. Then she sat down to wait for the water
to boil, while the children played near by.

By and by when she went to stir the leaves with a shell spoon, some
of the water splashed up and burned her hand, so that she jumped and
cried out. This amused the children and their laughter changed them
into monkeys, and the spoons became their tails. [120]

The nails of the monkeys are still black, because while they were
children they had helped their mother dye the cloth.

Bulanawan and Aguio

_Bukidnon_ (_Mindanao_)

Langgona and his wife had twin boys named Bulanawan and Aguio. One
day, when they were about two years old, the mother took Bulanawan to
the field with her when she went to pick cotton. She spread the fiber
she had gathered the day before on the ground to dry near the child,
and while she was getting more a great wind suddenly arose which
wound the cotton around the baby and carried him away. Far away to
a distant land the wind took Bulanawan, and in that place he grew
up. When he was a man, he became a great warrior. [121]

One day while Bulanawan and his wife were walking along the seashore,
they sat down to rest on a large, flat rock, and Bulanawan fell
asleep. Now Aguio, the twin brother of Bulanawan, had become a great
warrior also, and he went on a journey to this distant land, not
knowing that his brother was there. It happened that he was walking
along the seashore in his war-dress [122] on this same day, and when
he saw the woman sitting on the large, flat rock, he thought her very
beautiful, and he determined to steal her.

As he drew near he asked her to give him some of her husband's
betel-nut to chew, and when she refused he went forward to fight her
husband, not knowing they were brothers. As soon as his wife awakened
him Bulanawan sprang up, seized her, put her in the cuff of his sleeve,
[123] and came forth ready to fight. Aguio grew very angry at this, and
they fought until their weapons were broken, and the earth trembled.

Now the two brothers of the rivals felt the earth tremble although they
were far away, and each feared that his brother was in trouble. One
was in the mountains and he started at once for the sea; the other was
in a far land, but he set out in a boat for the scene of the trouble.

They arrived at the same time at the place of battle, and they
immediately joined in it. Then the trembling of the earth increased
so much that Langgona, the father of Aguio and Bulanawan, sought out
the spot and tried to make peace. But he only seemed to make matters
worse, and they all began fighting him. So great did the disturbance
become that the earth was in danger of falling to pieces.

Then it was that the father of Langgona came and settled the trouble,
and when all were at peace again they discovered that Aguio and
Bulanawan were brothers and the grandsons of the peacemaker.


_Bagobo_ (_Mindanao_)

In the beginning there lived one man and one woman, Toglai and
Toglibon. Their first children were a boy and a girl. When they were
old enough, the boy and the girl went far away across the waters
seeking a good place to live in. Nothing more was heard of them until
their children, the Spaniards and Americans, came back. After the
first boy and girl left, other children were born to the couple,
but they all remained at Cibolan on Mt. Apo with their parents,
until Toglai and Toglibon died and became spirits.

Soon after that there came a great drought which lasted for three
years. All the waters dried up, so that there were no rivers, and no
plants could live.

"Surely," said the people, "Manama is punishing us and we must go
elsewhere to find food and a place to dwell in."

So they started out. Two went in the direction of the sunset, carrying
with them stones from Cibolan River. After a long journey they reached
a place where were broad fields of cogon grass and an abundance of
water, and there they made their home. Their children still live in
that place and are called Magindanau, because of the stones which
the couple carried when they left Cibolan.

Two children of Toglai and Toglibon went to the south, seeking a home,
and they carried with them women's baskets (baraan). When they found a
good spot, they settled down. Their descendants, still dwelling at that
place, are called Baraan or Bilaan, because of the women's baskets.

So two by two the children of the first couple left the land of their
birth. In the place where each settled a new people developed, and
thus it came about that all the tribes in the world received their
names from things that the people carried out of Cibolan, or from
the places where they settled.

All the children left Mt. Apo save two (a boy and a girl), whom hunger
and thirst had made too weak to travel. One day when they were about
to die the boy crawled out to the field to see if there was one
living thing, and to his surprise he found a stalk of sugar-cane
growing lustily. He eagerly cut it, and enough water came out to
refresh him and his sister until the rains came. Because of this,
their children are called Bagobo. [124]


_Bagobo_ (_Mindanao_)

Soon after people were created on the earth, there was born a child
named Lumabet, who lived to be a very, very old man. He could talk
when he was but one day old, and all his life he did wonderful things
until the people came to believe that he had been sent by Manama,
the Great Spirit.

When Lumabet was still a young man he had a fine dog, and he enjoyed
nothing so much as taking him to the mountains to hunt. One day the dog
noticed a white deer. Lumabet and his companions started in pursuit,
but the deer was very swift and they could not catch it. On and on
they went until they had gone around the world, and still the deer
was ahead. One by one his companions dropped out of the chase, but
Lumabet would not give up until he had the deer.

All the time he had but one banana and one camote (sweet potato)
for food, but each night he planted the skins of these, and in the
morning he found a banana tree with ripe fruit and a sweet potato
large enough to eat. So he kept on until he had been around the world
nine times, and he was an old man and his hair was gray. At last he
caught the deer, and then he called all the people to a great feast,
to see the animal.

While all were making merry, Lumabet told them to take a knife and
kill his father. They were greatly surprised, but did as he commanded,
and when the old man was dead, Lumabet waved his headband over him
and he came to life again. Eight times they killed the old man at
Lumabet's command, and the eighth time he was small like a little boy,
for each time they had cut off some of his flesh. They all wondered
very much at Lumabet's power, and they were certain that he was a god.

One morning some spirits came to talk with Lumabet, and after they
had gone he called the people to come into his house.

"We cannot all come in," said the people, "for your house is small
and we are many."

"There is plenty of room," said he; so all went in and to their
surprise it did not seem crowded.

Then he told the people that he was going on a long journey and that
all who believed he had great power could go with him, while all
who remained behind would be changed into animals and buso. [125]
He started out, many following him, and it was as he said. For those
that refused to go were immediately changed into animals and buso.

He led the people far away across the ocean to a place where the earth
and the sky meet. When they arrived they saw that the sky moved up
and down like a man opening and closing his jaws.

"Sky, you must go up," commanded Lumabet.

But the sky would not obey. So the people could not go through. Finally
Lumabet promised the sky that if he would let all the others through,
he might have the last man who tried to pass. Agreeing to this,
the sky opened and the people entered. But when near the last the
sky shut down so suddenly that he caught not only the last man but
also the long knife of the man before.

On that same day, Lumabet's son, who was hunting, did not know that
his father had gone to the sky. When he was tired of the chase, he
wanted to go to his father, so he leaned an arrow against a baliti tree
and sat down on it. Slowly it began to go down and carried him to his
father's place, but when he arrived he could find no people. He looked
here and there and could find nothing but a gun made of gold. [126]
This made him very sorrowful and he did not know what to do until
some white bees which were in the house said to him:

"You must not weep, for we can take you to the sky where your
father is."

So he did as they bade, and rode on the gun, and the bees flew away
with him, until in three days they reached the sky.

Now, although most of the men who followed Lumabet were content to
live in the sky, there was one who was very unhappy, and all the time
he kept looking down on the land below. The spirits made fun of him
and wanted to take out his intestines so that he would be like them
and never die, but he was afraid and always begged to be allowed to
go back home.

Finally Manama told the spirits to allow him to go, so they made a
chain of the leaves of the karan grass and tied it to his legs. Then
they let him down slowly head first, and when he reached the ground
he was no longer a man but an owl. [127]

The Story of the Creation [128]

_Bilaan_ (_Mindanao_)

In the very beginning there lived a being so large that he can not
be compared with any known thing. His name was Melu, [129] and when
he sat on the clouds, which were his home, he occupied all the space
above. His teeth were pure gold, and because he was very cleanly
and continually rubbed himself with his hands, his skin became pure
white. The dead skin which he rubbed off his body [130] was placed
on one side in a pile, and by and by this pile became so large that
he was annoyed and set himself to consider what he could do with it.

Finally Melu decided to make the earth; so he worked very hard in
putting the dead skin into shape, and when it was finished he was so
pleased with it that he determined to make two beings like himself,
though smaller, to live on it.

Taking the remnants of the material left after making the earth he
fashioned two men but just as they were all finished except their
noses, Tau Tana from below the earth appeared and wanted to help him.

Melu did not wish any assistance, and a great argument ensued. Tau
Tana finally won his point and made the noses which he placed on the
people upside down. When all was finished, Melu and Tau Tana whipped
the forms until they moved. Then Melu went to his home above the
clouds, and Tau Tana returned to his place below the earth.

All went well until one day a great rain came, and the people on the
earth nearly drowned from the water which ran off their heads into
their noses. Melu, from his place on the clouds, saw their danger,
and he came quickly to earth and saved their lives by turning their
noses the other side up.

The people were very grateful to him, and promised to do anything
he should ask of them. Before he left for the sky, they told him
that they were very unhappy living on the great earth all alone, so
he told them to save all the hair from their heads and the dry skin
from their bodies and the next time he came he would make them some
companions. And in this way there came to be a great many people on
the earth.

In the Beginning

_Bilaan_ (_Mindanao_)

In the beginning there were four beings, [131] and they lived on an
island no larger than a hat. On this island there were no trees or
grass or any other living thing besides these four people and one
bird. [132] One day they sent this bird out across the waters to
see what he could find, and when he returned he brought some earth,
a piece of rattan, and some fruit.

Melu, the greatest of the four, took the soil and shaped it and beat
it with a paddle in the same manner in which a woman shapes pots of
clay, and when he finished he had made the earth. Then he planted
the seeds from the fruit, and they grew until there was much rattan
and many trees bearing fruit.

The four beings watched the growth for a long time and were well
pleased with the work, but finally Melu said:

"Of what use is this earth and all the rattan and fruit if there are
no people?"

And the others replied, "Let us make some people out of wax."

So they took some wax and worked long, fashioning it into forms,
but when they brought them to the fire the wax melted, and they saw
that men could not be made in that way.

Next they decided to try to use dirt in making people, and Melu and
one of his companions began working on that. All went well till they
were ready to make the noses. The companion, who was working on that
part, put them on upside down. Melu told him that the people would
drown if he left them that way, but he refused to change them.

When his back was turned, however, Melu seized the noses, one by one,
and turned them as they now are. But he was in such a hurry that he
pressed his finger at the root, and it left a mark in the soft clay
which you can still see on the faces of people.

The Children of the Limokon [133]

_Mandaya_ (_Mindanao_)

In the very early days before there were any people on the earth,
the limokon (a kind of dove) [134] were very powerful and could talk
like men though they looked like birds. One limokon laid two eggs, one
at the mouth of the Mayo River and one farther up its course. After
some time these eggs hatched, and the one at the mouth of the river
became a man, while the other became a woman.

The man lived alone on the bank of the river for a long time, but
he was very lonely and wished many times for a companion. One day
when he was crossing the river something was swept against his legs
with such force that it nearly caused him to drown. On examining it,
he found that it was a hair, and he determined to go up the river and
find whence it came. He traveled up the stream, looking on both banks,
until finally he found the woman, and he was very happy to think that
at last he could have a companion.

They were married and had many children, who are the Mandaya still
living along the Mayo River,

The Sun and the Moon

_Mandaya_ (_Mindanao_)

The Sun and the Moon were married, but the Sun was very ugly and
quarrelsome. One day he became angry at the Moon and started to chase
her. She ran very fast until she was some distance ahead of him, when
she grew tired and he almost caught her. Ever since he has been chasing
her, at times almost reaching her, and again falling far behind.

The first child of the Sun and Moon was a large star, and he was like
a man. One time the Sun, becoming angry at the star, cut him up into
small pieces and scattered him over the whole sky just as a woman
scatters rice, and ever since there have been many stars.

Another child of the Sun and Moon was a gigantic crab. [135] He still
lives and is so powerful that every time he opens and closes his eyes
there is a flash of lightning. Most of the time the crab lives in
a large hole in the bottom of the sea, and when he is there we have
high tide; but when he leaves the hole, the waters rush in and there
is low tide. His moving about also causes great waves on the surface
of the sea.

The crab is quarrelsome like his father; and he sometimes becomes so
angry with his mother, the Moon, that he tries to swallow her. [136]
When the people on earth, who are fond of the Moon, see the crab near
her, they run out of doors and shout and beat on gongs until he is
frightened away, and thus the Moon is saved.

The Widow's Son [137]

_Subanun_ (_Mindanao_)

In a little house at the edge of a village lived a widow with her
only son, and they were very happy together. The son was kind to his
mother, and they made their living by growing rice in clearings on
the mountain side and by hunting wild pig in the forest.

One evening when their supply of meat was low, the boy said:

"Mother, I am going to hunt pig in the morning, and I wish you would
prepare rice for me before daylight."

So the widow rose early and cooked the rice, and at dawn the boy
started out with his spear and dog.

Some distance from the village, he entered the thick forest. He walked
on and on, ever on the lookout for game, but none appeared. At last
when he had traveled far and the sun was hot, he sat down on a rock to
rest and took out his brass box [138] to get a piece of betel-nut. He
prepared the nut and leaf for chewing, and as he did so he wondered
why it was that he had been so unsuccessful that day. But even as he
pondered he heard his dog barking sharply, and cramming the betel-nut
into his mouth he leaped up and ran toward the dog.

As he drew near he could see that the game was a fine large pig,
all black save its four legs which were white. He lifted his spear
and took aim, but before he could throw the pig started to run,
and instead of going toward a water course it ran straight up the
mountain. The boy went on in hot pursuit, and when the pig paused he
again took aim, but before he could throw it ran on.

Six times the pig stopped just long enough for the boy to take aim,
and then started on before he could throw. The seventh time, however,
it halted on the top of a large flat rock and the boy succeeded in
killing it.

He tied its legs together with a piece of rattan and was about to
start for home with the pig on his back, when to his surprise a door
in the large stone swung open and a man stepped out.

"Why have you killed my master's pig?" asked the man.

"I did not know that this pig belonged to anyone," replied the widow's
son. "I was hunting, as I often do, and when my dog found the pig I
helped him to catch it"

"Come in and see my master," said the man, and the boy followed him
into the stone where he found himself in a large room. The ceiling and
floor were covered with peculiar cloth that had seven wide stripes
of red alternating with a like number of yellow stripes. When the
master of the place appeared his trousers were of seven colors,
[139] as were also his jacket and the kerchief about his head.

The master ordered betel-nut, and when it was brought they chewed
together. Then he called for wine, and it was brought in a jar so
large that it had to be set on the ground under the house, and even
then the top came so high above the floor that they brought a seat
for the widow's son, and it raised him just high enough to drink
from the reed in the top of the jar. He drank seven cups of wine,
and then they ate rice and fish and talked together.

The master did not blame the boy for killing the pig, and declared that
he wished to make a brother of him. So they became friends, and the
boy remained seven days in the stone. At the end of that time, he said
that he must return to his mother who would be worried about him. In
the early morning he left the strange house and started for home.

At first he walked briskly, but as the morning wore on he went more
slowly, and finally when the sun was high he sat down on a rock to
rest. Suddenly looking up, he saw before him seven men each armed with
a spear, a shield, and a sword. They were dressed in different colors,
and each man had eyes the same color as his clothes. The leader, who
was dressed all in red with red eyes to match, spoke first, asking
the boy where he was going. The boy replied that he was going home
to his mother who would be looking for him, and added:

"Now I ask where you are going, all armed ready for war."

"We are warriors," replied the man in red. "And we go up and down the
world killing whatever we see that has life. Now that we have met you,
we must kill you also."

The boy, startled by this strange speech, was about to answer when he
heard a voice near him say: "Fight, for they will try to kill you,"
and upon looking up he saw his spear, shield, and sword which he had
left at home. Then he knew that the command came from a spirit, so he
took his weapons and began to fight. For three days and nights they
contended, and never before had the seven seen one man so brave. On
the fourth day the leader was wounded and fell dead, and then, one
by one, the other six fell.

When they were all killed, the widow's son was so crazed with fighting
that he thought no longer of returning home, but started out to find
more to slay.

In his wanderings he came to the home of a great giant whose house
was already full of the men he had conquered in battle, and he called
up from outside:

"Is the master of the house at home? If he is, let him come out
and fight."

This threw the giant into a rage, and seizing his shield and his
spear, the shaft of which was the trunk of a tree, he sprang to the
door and leaped to the ground, not waiting to go down the notched
pole which served for steps. He looked around for his antagonist,
and seeing only the widow's son he roared:

"Where is the man that wants to fight? That thing? It is only a fly!"

The boy did not stop to answer, but rushed at the giant with his knife;
and for three days and nights they struggled, till the giant fell,
wounded at the waist.

After that the widow's son stopped only long enough to burn the giant's
house, and then rushed on looking for someone else to slay. Suddenly
he again heard the voice which had bade him fight with the seven men,
and this time it said: "Go home now, for your mother is grieved at
your absence." In a rage he sprang forward with his sword, though he
could see no enemy. Then the spirit which had spoken to him made him
sleep for a short time. When he awoke the rage was spent.

Again the spirit appeared, and it said: "The seven men whom you killed
were sent to kill you by the spirit of the great stone, for he looked
in your hand and saw that you were to marry the orphan girl whom
he himself wished to wed. But you have conquered. Your enemies are
dead. Go home now and prepare a great quantity of wine, for I shall
bring your enemies to life again, and you will all live in peace."

So the widow's son went home, and his mother, who had believed him
dead, was filled with joy at his coming, and all the people in the town
came out to welcome him. When he had told them his story, they hastened
to get wine, and all day they bore jarsful to the widow's house.

That night there was a great feast, and the spirit of the great stone,
his seven warriors, the friendly spirit, and the giant all came. The
widow's son married the orphan girl, while another beautiful woman
became the wife of the spirit of the stone.



About the year 1400 something happened which changed the beliefs and
customs of many of the tribes of the southern Philippines and made
of them a powerful and dreaded people.

It was about this time that Arabian traders and missionaries began
to establish themselves in the Islands, and soon these were followed
by hordes of Mohammedan converts from the islands to the south. Among
the newcomers were men who became powerful rulers, and they, in time,
brought together many of the settlements which formerly had been
hostile to each other and united them under the faith of Islam. Those
who accepted the new faith adopted the dress and many of the customs
of their teachers and came to be known as Moro.

With the possession of firearms, which were introduced by the
newcomers, the Moro grew very daring and were greatly feared by the
other natives. And soon they began to make long trips on the sea
to the north and south, carrying on trade and making many surprise
attacks for loot and slaves.

At the time the Spaniards discovered the Philippines, the Moro
were a terror to the other inhabitants, and they continued to be so
until very recent years. They became ferocious pirates infesting the
southern seas and preying upon the rich trade which the Spaniards
carried on with Mexico. Stone walls and watch towers were built at
advantageous points to guard against them, but bays and creeks which
afforded opportunities for lurking, surprise, and attack continued
to be frequented by the treacherous warriors.

Since American occupation the waters have been made practically
free from their ravages, but on land they have continued to give
trouble. The greater part of the Moro now live in the Sulu Archipelago
and on the Island of Mindanao. They range in degree of civilization
from sea "gypsies," who wander from place to place, living for months
in their rude outrigger boats, to settled communities which live by
fishing and farming, and even by manufacturing some cloth, brass, and
steel. Their villages are near the coast, along rivers, or about the
shores of the interior lakes, the houses being raised high on poles
near or over the water, for they live largely on food from the sea.

Their folk-lore, as will be seen from the following tales, shows
decided influence from Arabia and India, which has filtered in through
the islands to the south. [140]

Mythology of Mindanao [141]


A long, long time ago Mindanao was covered with water, and the sea
extended over all the lowlands so that nothing could be seen but
mountains. Then there were many people living in the country, and all
the highlands were dotted with villages and settlements. For many years
the people prospered, living in peace and contentment. Suddenly there
appeared in the land four horrible monsters which, in a short time,
had devoured every human being they could find.

Kurita, a terrible creature with many limbs, lived partly on land and
partly in the sea, but its favorite haunt was the mountain where the
rattan grew; and here it brought utter destruction on every living
thing. The second monster, Tarabusaw, an ugly creature in the form
of a man, lived on Mt. Matutun, and far and wide from that place he
devoured the people, laying waste the land. The third, an enormous
bird called Pah, [142] was so large that when on the wing it covered
the sun and brought darkness to the earth. Its egg was as large as a
house. Mt. Bita was its haunt, and there the only people who escaped
its voracity were those who hid in caves in the mountains. The fourth
monster was a dreadful bird also, having seven heads and the power
to see in all directions at the same time. Mt. Gurayn was its home
and like the others it wrought havoc in its region.

So great was the death and destruction caused by these terrible animals
that at length the news spread even to the most distant lands, and
all nations were grieved to hear of the sad fate of Mindanao.

Now far across the sea in the land of the golden sunset was a city
so great that to look at its many people would injure the eyes of
man. When tidings of these great disasters reached this distant city,
the heart of the king Indarapatra [143] was filled with compassion,
and he called his brother, Sulayman, [144] begging him to save the
land of Mindanao from the monsters.

Sulayman listened to the story, and as he heard he was moved with pity.

"I will go," said he, zeal and enthusiasm adding to his strength,
"and the land shall be avenged."

King Indarapatra, proud of his brother's courage, gave him a ring and
a sword as he wished him success and safety. Then he placed a young
sapling by his window [145] and said to Sulayman:

"By this tree I shall know your fate from the time you depart from
here, for if you live, it will live; but if you die, it will die also."

So Sulayman departed for Mindanao, and he neither walked nor used a
boat, but he went through the air and landed on the mountain where
the rattan grew. There he stood on the summit and gazed about on all
sides. He looked on the land and the villages, but he could see no
living thing. And he was very sorrowful and cried out:

"Alas, how pitiful and dreadful is this devastation!"

No sooner had Sulayman uttered these words than the whole mountain
began to move, and then shook. Suddenly out of the ground came the
horrible creature, Kurita. It sprang at the man and sank its claws
into his flesh. But Sulayman, knowing at once that this was the
scourge of the land, drew his sword and cut the Kurita to pieces.

Encouraged by his first success, Sulayman went on to Mt. Matutun
where conditions were even worse. As he stood on the heights viewing
the great devastation there was a noise in the forest and a movement
in the trees. With a loud yell, forth leaped Tarabusaw. For a moment
they looked at each other, neither showing any fear. Then Tarabusaw
threatened to devour the man, and Sulayman declared that he would kill
the monster. At that the animal broke large branches off the trees
and began striking at Sulayman who, in turn, fought back. For a long
time the battle continued until at last the monster fell exhausted
to the ground and then Sulayman killed him with his sword.

The next place visited by Sulayman was Mt. Bita. Here havoc was present
everywhere, and though he passed by many homes, not a single soul
was left. As he walked along, growing sadder at each moment, a sudden
darkness which startled him fell over the land. As he looked toward
the sky he beheld a great bird descending upon him. Immediately he
struck at it, cutting off its wing with his sword, and the bird fell
dead at his feet; but the wing fell on Sulayman, and he was crushed.

Now at this very time King Indarapatra was sitting at his window,
and looking out he saw the little tree wither and dry up.

"Alas!" he cried, "my brother is dead"; and he wept bitterly.

Then although he was very sad, he was filled with a desire for revenge,
and putting on his sword and belt he started for Mindanao in search
of his brother.

He, too, traveled through the air with great speed until he came to
the mountain where the rattan grew. There he looked about, awed at
the great destruction, and when he saw the bones of Kurita he knew
that his brother had been there and gone. He went on till he came to
Matutun, and when he saw the bones of Tarabusaw he knew that this,
too, was the work of Sulayman.

Still searching for his brother, he arrived at Mt. Bita where the
dead bird lay on the ground, and as he lifted the severed wing he
beheld the bones of Sulayman with his sword by his side. His grief
now so overwhelmed Indarapatra that he wept for some time. Upon
looking up he beheld a small jar of water by his side. This he knew
had been sent from heaven, and he poured the water over the bones,
and Sulayman came to life again. They greeted each other and talked
long together. Sulayman declared that he had not been dead but asleep,
and their hearts were full of joy.

After some time Sulayman returned to his distant home, but Indarapatra
continued his journey to Mt. Gurayn where he killed the dreadful bird
with the seven heads. After these monsters had all been destroyed
and peace and safety had been restored to the land, Indarapatra began
searching everywhere to see if some of the people might not be hidden
in the earth still alive.

One day during his search he caught sight of a beautiful woman at a
distance. When he hastened toward her she disappeared through a hole
in the ground where she was standing. Disappointed and tired, he sat
down on a rock to rest, when, looking about, he saw near him a pot
of uncooked rice with a big fire on the ground in front of it. This
revived him and he proceeded to cook the rice. As he did so, however,
he heard someone laugh near by, and turning he beheld an old woman
watching him. As he greeted her, she drew near and talked with him
while he ate the rice.

Of all the people in the land, the old woman told him, only a very
few were still alive, and they hid in a cave in the ground from whence
they never ventured. As for herself and her old husband, she went on,
they had hidden in a hollow tree, and this they had never dared leave
until after Sulayman killed the voracious bird, Pah.

At Indarapatra's earnest request, the old woman led him to the cave
where he found the headman with his family and some of his people. They
all gathered about the stranger, asking many questions, for this
was the first they had heard about the death of the monsters. When
they found what Indarapatra had done for them, they were filled
with gratitude, and to show their appreciation the headman gave his
daughter to him in marriage, and she proved to be the beautiful girl
whom Indarapatra had seen at the mouth of the cave.

Then the people all came out of their hiding-place and returned to
their homes where they lived in peace and happiness. And the sea
withdrew from the land and gave the lowlands to the people.

The Story of Bantugan


Before the Spaniards occupied the island of Mindanao, there lived
in the valley of the Rio Grande a very strong man, Bantugan, whose
father was the brother of the earthquake and thunder. [146]

Now the Sultan of the Island [147] had a beautiful daughter whom
Bantugan wished to marry, but the home of the Sultan was far off,
and whoever went to carry Bantugan's proposal would have a long and
hazardous journey. All the head men consulted together regarding who
should be sent, and at last it was decided that Bantugan's own son,
Balatama, was the one to go. Balatama was young but he was strong and
brave, and when the arms of his father were given him to wear on the
long journey his heart swelled with pride. More than once on the way,
however, his courage was tried, and only the thought of his brave
father gave him strength to proceed.

Once he came to a wooden fence which surrounded a stone in the form of
a man, and as it was directly in his path he drew his fighting knife
to cut down the fence. Immediately the air became as black as night
and stones rained down as large as houses. This made Balatama cry, but
he protected himself with his father's shield and prayed, calling on
the winds from the homeland until they came and cleared the air again.

Thereupon Balatama encountered a great snake [148] in the road,
and it inquired his errand. When told, the snake said:

"You cannot go on, for I am guard of this road and no one can pass."

The animal made a move to seize him, but with one stroke of his
fighting knife the boy cut the snake into two pieces, one of which
he threw into the sea and the other into the mountains.

After many days the weary lad came to a high rock in the road,
which glistened in the sunlight. From the top he could look down
into the city for which he was bound. It was a splendid place with
ten harbors. Standing out from the other houses was one of crystal
and another of pure gold. Encouraged by this sight he went on, but
though it seemed but a short distance, it was some time before he at
last stood at the gate of the town.

It was not long after this, however, before Balatama had made known his
errand to the Sultan, and that monarch, turning to his courtiers, said:

"You, my friends, decide whether or not I shall give the hand of my
daughter to Bantugan in marriage."

The courtiers slowly shook their heads and began to offer objections.

Said one, "I do not see how Bantugan can marry the Sultan's daughter
because the first gift must be a figure of a man or woman in pure

"Well," said the son of Bantugan, "I am here to learn what you want
and to say whether or not it can be given."

Then a second man spoke: "You must give a great yard with a floor of
gold, which must be three feet thick."

"All this can be given," answered the boy.

And the sister of the Princess said: "The gifts must be as many as
the blades of grass in our city."

"It shall be granted," said Balatama.

"You must give a bridge built of stone to cross the great river,"
said one.

And another: "A ship of stone you must give, and you must change into
gold all the cocoanuts and leaves in the Sultan's grove."

"All this can be done," said Balatama. "My uncles will give all save
the statue of gold, and that I shall give myself. But first I must
go to my father's town to secure it."

At this they were angry and declared that he had made sport of them
and unless he produced the statue at once they would kill him.

"If I give you the statue now," said he, "there will come dreadful
storms, rain, and darkness."

But they only laughed at him and insisted on having the statue,
so he reached in his helmet and drew it forth.

Immediately the earth began to quake. A great storm arose, and stones
as large as houses rained until the Sultan called to Balatama to put
back the statue lest they all be killed.

"You would not believe what I told you," said the boy; "and now I am
going to let the storm continue."

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