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Philippine Folk-Tales by Carla Kern Bayliss, Berton L. Maxfield, W. H. Millington,

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The next day the cock met the hen. When he saw the ring around her neck
he was very much surprised and said: "Where did you get that ring? I
think you are not true to me. Do you not remember your promise to be
my mate? Throw away that ring." So she did.

At the end of a week the eagle came with beautiful feathers to dress
the hen. When she saw him she became frightened and hid behind the
door. The eagle entered, crying: "How are you, my dear hen? I am
bringing you a beautiful dress," and he showed it to the hen. "But
where is your ring? Why do you not wear it?" The hen could not at
first answer, but after a little she tried to deceive the eagle, and
said: "Oh, pardon me, sir! Yesterday as I was walking in the garden
I met a large snake, and I was so frightened that I ran towards the
house. When I reached it I found that I had lost the ring, and I
looked everywhere for it; but alas! I have not yet found it."

The eagle looked keenly at the hen and said: "I would never have
believed that you would behave so badly. I promise you that, whenever
you have found my ring, I will come down again and take you for my
mate. As a punishment for breaking your promise you shall always
scratch the ground and look for the ring, and all your chickens that
I find I will snatch away from you. That is all. Good-by." Then he
flew away.

And ever since, all the hens all over the world have been scratching
to find the eagle's ring.

Note.--The bird of whom this story is told is the dapay, or brahman
kite. It is larger than most of our hawks and is more like the eagle
in appearance, although not very large.


The Spider and the Fly.

Mr. Spider was once in love with Miss Fly. Several times he declared
his love, but was always repelled, for Miss Fly disliked his business.

One day, when she saw him coming, she closed the doors and windows
of her house and made ready a pot of boiling water.

Mr. Spider called to be allowed to enter the house, but Miss Fly's
only answer was to throw the boiling water at him.

"Well!" cried Mr. Spider, "I and my descendants shall be avenged upon
you and yours. We will never give you a moment's peace."

Mr. Spider did not break his word, for to this day we see his hatred
of the fly.


The Battle of the Crabs.

One day the land crabs had a meeting. One of them said: "What shall
we do with the waves? They sing all the time so loudly that we cannot
possibly sleep well at night." "Do you not think it would be well
for all of us males to go down and fight them?" asked the eldest of
the crabs. "Yes," all replied. "Well, to-morrow all the males must
get ready to go."

The next day they started to go down to the sea. On the way they met
the shrimp. "Where are you going, my friends?" asked the shrimp. The
crabs answered: "We are going to fight the waves, because they will
not let us sleep at night."

"I don't think you will win the battle," said the shrimp. "The waves
are very strong, while your legs are so weak that your bodies bend
almost to the ground when you walk," and he laughed. The crabs were
so angry at his scorn that they ran at the shrimp and pinched him
until he promised to help them in the battle.

When they reached the shore, the crabs looked at the shrimp and said:
"Your face is turned the wrong way, friend shrimp," and they laughed
at him, for crabs are much like other people, and think they are the
only ones who are right. "Are you ready to fight with the waves? What
weapon have you?"

"My weapon," replied the shrimp, "is a spear on my head." Just then
he saw a large wave coming, and ran away; but the crabs, who were
all looking towards the shore, did not see it, and were killed.

The wives of the dead crabs wondered why their husbands did not come
home. They thought the battle must be a long one, and decided to go
down and help their husbands. As they reached the shore and entered
the water to look for their husbands, the waves killed them.

A short time afterwards, thousands of little crabs, such as are now
called fiddlers, were found near the shore. When these children were
old enough to walk, the shrimp often visited them and related to them
the sad fate of their parents. And so, if you will watch carefully
the fiddlers, you will notice that they always seem ready to run back
to the land, where their forefathers lived, and then, as they regain
their courage, they rush down, as if about to fight the waves. But
they always lack the courage to do so, and continually run back and
forth. They live neither on dry land, as their ancestors did, nor in
the sea, like the other crabs, but up on the beach, where the waves
wash over them at high tide and try to dash them to pieces.


The Meeting of the Plants.

Once upon a time plants were able to talk as well as people, and to
walk from place to place. One day King Molave, the strongest tree,
who lived on a high mountain, called his subjects together for a
general meeting.

Then every tree put itself in motion towards the designated spot, each
doing its best to reach it first. But the buri palm was several days
late, which made the king angry, and he cursed it in these terms:--

"You must be punished for your negligence, and as king I pass upon
you this sentence: You shall never see your descendants, for you
shall die just as your seeds are ready to grow."

And from that day the buri palms have always died without seeing
their descendants.


Who Brings the Cholera?

The Filipinos, being for the most part ignorant of the laws of hygiene,
attribute the cholera to any cause rather than the right one. In
general, they believe it to be caused by some evil-minded men, who
poison the wells, or, sometimes, by evil spirits, as the following
story will show.

Tanag was a poor man who lived in a town in the interior of one of
the Philippine Islands. He had nothing to eat, nor could he find
any work by which he might earn his food, and so he determined to
emigrate. At that time the cholera was at its height.

As Tanag was rather old, he walked so slowly that in a day he had
gone but three miles. At sunset he was crossing a sheltered bridge
over a smooth brook near the sea, and determined to rest and spend
the night there.

During the early part of the night he was all right, but later it
occurred to him that he might be seen and killed by the ladrones,
who often passed that way.

Below the bridge was a raft of bamboo poles, and he thought it would
be wise to get down there, where he could not so easily be seen. But
there were many mosquitoes over the water, so that he was unable to
sleep. He determined, however, to stay there until day dawned.

At about four o'clock he heard a heavy step upon the floor of the
bridge, and by the moonlight he could see that the new-comer was a
huge giant with a long club.

A little later another giant came, and Tanag, full of fear, heard
the following dialogue:--

"Did you kill many people?"

"Yes, I put my poison on the food, and in a short time those who ate
of it were attacked by the cholera and died. And how are you getting
along yourself?"

"At first I killed many people with my poison, but now I am
disappointed, because they have found out the antidote for it."

"What is that?"

"The root of the balingay tree boiled in water. It is a powerful
antidote against the poison I use. And what is the antidote against

"Simply the root of the alibutbut tree boiled in water. Luckily,
no one has discovered this antidote, and so many people will die."

In the morning Tanag saw the giants going to the shore, where many
people were fishing with their nets. The giants flung their poison
on the fish, and then disappeared from Tanag's sight.

Tanag believed that the cholera was caused by the two giants, who
poisoned the food and water by sprinkling poison on them, and he did
not doubt that the roots of the balingay and alibutbut trees would
prove to be the antidotes to the poison. So he gathered the roots
and cooked them and advertised himself as a doctor.

In fact he cured many people and earned so much money that he soon
became rich.


Masoy and the Ape. [6]

Masoy was a poor man who lived on a farm some miles from the town. His
clothing was very poor, and his little garden furnished him scarcely
enough to live on. Every week day he went to town to sell his fruits
and vegetables and to buy rice. Upon his return he noticed each day
that some one had entered the garden in his absence and stolen some
of the fruit. He tried to protect the garden by making the fence
very strong and locking the gate; but, in spite of all he could do,
he continued to miss his fruit.

At length Masoy conceived the happy idea of taking some pitch and
moulding it into the shape of a man. He put a bamboo hat on it and
stood it up in one comer of the garden. Then he went away.

As soon as he was gone, the robber, who was none other than a huge ape,
climbed the fence and got in.

"Oh!" he said to himself, "I made a mistake! There is Masoy
watching. He did not go away as I thought. He is here with a big bamboo
hat, but he could not catch me if he tried. I am going to greet him,
for fear he may consider me impolite."

"Good morning, Masoy," he said. "Why do you not answer me? What
is the matter with you? Oh! you are joking, are you, by keeping
so silent? But you will not do it again." On saying this, the ape
slapped the man of pitch with his right hand, and of course it stuck,
and he could not get it loose.

"For heaven's sake," cried the ape, "let me go. If you do not, I will
slap you with my other hand." Then he struck him with the other hand,
which, of course, stuck fast also.

"Well, Masoy," cried the ape, "you have entirely exhausted my
patience! If you don't let go of me at once, I shall kick you." No
sooner said than done, with a result which may easily be imagined.

"Masoy," cried the now enraged ape, "if you have any regard for your
own welfare, let me go, for if you don't, I still have one leg left
to kill you with." So saying, he kicked him with the remaining foot,
getting so tangled up that he and the tar man fell to the ground,
rolling over and over.

Then Masoy came, and, when he saw the ape, he said: "So you are
the robber who has stolen my fruit! Now you will pay for it with
your life."

But the ape cried, "Oh, spare my life, and I will be your slave

"Do you promise not to steal my fruit again?"

"I do, and I will serve you faithfully all my life."

Masoy agreed to spare him.

From that time on the ape worked very hard for his master. He sold
the fruit and bought the rice and was honest and industrious. One
day, on his way to market, he happened to find a small piece of gold
and another of silver. At that time this country was not ruled by
any foreign power, but each tribe was governed by its own datto or
chief. The chief was naturally the bravest and richest of the tribe.

The chief of Masoy's tribe had a very beautiful daughter. The ape
schemed to have her marry his master. Now he hit upon a plan. He
went to the chief's house and asked for a ganta, which is a measure
holding about three quarts and used for measuring rice.

"My master," he said, "begs you to lend him a ganta to measure his
gold with."

The chief was astonished at such an extraordinary request, and asked:
"Who is your master?"

"Masoy, who owns many gantas of gold and silver, acres upon acres of
land; and uncountable heads of cattle," was the reply.

The ape carried the ganta home, and there he stuck the piece of gold
he had found on the inside of the bottom of the measure, and then
returned it to the chief.

"Oh, ape!" said the datto, "your master has forgotten to take out
one piece of gold. Take it and give it back to him."

"Never mind, sir," answered the ape, "he has so much gold that that
small piece is nothing to him. You may keep it."

Some weeks afterward, the ape went again to borrow the chief's ganta.

"What do you want it for now?" asked the chief.

"To measure my master's silver with," was the answer. So he carried
it home, stuck inside the piece of silver he had found, and returned
it. The chief found the piece of silver and offered to return it,
but was answered as before, that it did not matter.

The chief believed all that the ape said, but was puzzled to know how
such a rich man could be living in his territory without his having
heard of him.

After a few days the ape, considering the way well prepared for his
plans, called upon the datto and said: "My master requests you to
give him your daughter in marriage. I am authorized to make all the
arrangements with you for the wedding, if you consent to it."

"Very well," answered the chief, "but before we arrange matters I
wish to see my future son-in-law. Ask him to come to see me, and I
will receive him in a manner befitting his rank."

The ape returned home and said to Masoy, who knew nothing at all of
the negotiations with the chief: "I have good news for you. The chief
wants to see you, for he intends to give you his daughter in marriage."

"What are you chattering about?" answered Masoy. "Have you lost
your senses? Don't you know that I am too poor to marry the chief's
daughter? I have not even decent clothes to wear and no means of
getting any."

"Do not worry about the clothes. I will get them for you somewhere,"
replied the ape.

"And how shall I talk? You know that I am ignorant of city ways."

"Oh, Masoy, don't trouble about that! Just answer 'Yes' to the
questions they ask you and you will be all right."

Finally Masoy consented to go, and went down to the river to wash
off the dirt and grime. A rich merchant was bathing some distance up
the river, and the ape slipped along the bank, stole the merchant's
clothes, hat, and shoes, and running back swiftly to his master,
bade him put them on. Masoy did so, and found himself, for the first
time in his life, so well dressed that he no longer hesitated about
going to the chief's house. When they arrived there they found that
the chief was expecting them and had made a big feast and reception
in honor of his future son-in-law. The chief began to talk about the
wedding and said:

"Shall we have the wedding in your palace, Masoy?"

"Yes," answered Masoy.

"You have a large palace, I suppose, have n't you, sir?"

"Yes," was the reply.

"Don't you think it would be well for us to go there this afternoon?"

"Yes," was again the reply.

Meanwhile the ape had disappeared. He went along the road towards home
and said to all the people he met: "The datto will be along this way
pretty soon and when he asks you to whom all these farms and cattle
belong, you must say that they are Masoy's, for otherwise he will
kill you."

The ape knew that in a certain spot stood an enchanted palace invisible
to men. He went to the place, and just where the front of the house
appeared whenever it was visible, he began to dig a ditch. The witch
who lived in the house appeared and asked: "What are you ditching
there for, Mr. Ape?"

"Oh, madam," was his answer, "have n't you heard the news? The chief
is coming this way soon, and is going to have all witches and the
low animals like myself put to death. For this reason I am digging
a pit to hide myself in."

"Oh, Mr. Ape!" said the witch, "let me hide myself first, for I am
not able to dig for myself, and you are. Do me this favor, please."

"I should be very impolite, if I refused to do a favor for a lady,"
said the ape. "Come down, but hurry, or you will be too late."

The witch hurried as fast as she could and got down into the pit. Then
the ape threw stones down on her until she was dead. The house then
became free from enchantment and always visible.

The ape then returned to the chief's house and reported that all was
ready for the wedding. So the chief, Masoy, and the bride, escorted
by a large number of people, set out for Masoy's palace. On the way
they saw many rich farms and great herds of cattle. The chief asked
the people who the owner of these farms and cattle was. The answer
always was that they belonged to Masoy. Consequently the chief was
greatly impressed by Masoy's great wealth.

The chief greatly admired the palace and considered himself fortunate
to have such a son-in-law. That night the wedding took place, and
Masoy lived many years in the palace with his wife, having the ape
and a great number of slaves to serve him.


Arnomongo and Iput-Iput.

(The Ape and the Firefly.)

One evening the firefly was on his way to the house of a friend, and as
he passed the ape's house, the latter asked him: "Mr. Fire-fly, why do
you carry a light?" The firefly replied: "Because I am afraid of the
mosquitoes." "Oh, then you are a coward, are you?" said the ape. "No,
I am not," was the answer. "If you are not afraid," asked the ape,
"why do you always carry a lantern?" "I carry a lantern so that when
the mosquitoes come to bite me I can see them and defend myself,"
replied the firefly. Then the ape laughed aloud, and on the next day
he told all his neighbors that the firefly carried a light at night
because he was a coward.

When the firefly heard what the ape had said, he went to his house. It
was night and the ape was asleep, but the firefly flashed his light
into his face and awakened him. The firefly was very angry and said:
"Why did you spread the report that I was a coward? If you wish to
prove which of us is the braver, I will fight you on the plaza next
Sunday evening."

The ape inquired: "Have you any companions?" "No," replied the
fire-fly, "I will come alone." Then the ape laughed at the idea of
such a little creature presuming to fight with him, but the firefly
continued: "I shall be expecting you on the plaza about six o'clock
next Sunday afternoon." The ape replied: "You had better bring some one
to help you, as I shall bring my whole company, about a thousand apes,
each as big as myself." This he said, thinking to frighten the strange
little insect, who seemed to him to be crazy. But the firefly answered:
"I shall not need any companions, but will come alone. Good-by."

When the firefly had gone, the ape called together his company, and
told them about the proposed fight. He ordered them to get each one
a club about three feet long and to be on the plaza at six o'clock
the next Sunday evening. His companions were greatly amazed, but as
they were used to obeying their captain, they promised to be ready
at the appointed time and place.

On Sunday evening, just before six o'clock, they assembled on the
plaza, and found the firefly already waiting for them. Just then
the church bells rang the Angelus, so the firefly proposed that they
should all pray. Immediately after the prayer, the firefly signified
that he was ready to begin. The ape had drawn up his company in line,
with himself at the head. Suddenly the firefly lighted upon the ape's
nose. The ape next in line struck at the firefly, but succeeded only
in striking the captain such a terrible blow on the nose as to kill
him. The firefly meanwhile, seeing the blow coming, had jumped upon
the nose of the second ape, who was killed by the next in line just
as the captain had been killed; and so on down the whole line, until
there was but one ape left. He threw down his club and begged the
firefly to spare him. The firefly graciously allowed him to live, but
since that time the apes have been in mortal terror of the fireflies.


The Snail and the Deer. [7]

The deer made fun of the snail because of his slowness, so the latter
challenged the former to a race. "We will race to the well on the other
side of the plaza," said the snail. "All right," replied the deer.

On the day of the race the deer ran swiftly to the well, and when
he got there he called, "Mr. Snail, where are you?" "Here I am,"
said the snail, sticking his head up out of the well. The deer
was very much surprised, so he said: "I will race you to the next
well." "Agreed," replied the snail. When the deer arrived at the
next well, he called as before, "Mr. Snail, where are you?" "Here
I am," answered the snail. "Why have you been so slow? I have been
here a long time waiting for you." The deer tried again and again,
but always with the same result; until the deer in disgust dashed
his head against a tree and broke his neck.

Now the first snail had not moved from his place, but he had many
cousins in each of the wells of the town and each exactly resembled
the other. Having heard the crows talking of the proposed race, as
they perched on the edge of the wells to drink, they determined to
help their cousin to win it, and so, as the deer came to each well,
there was always a snail ready to stick his head out and answer,
"Here I am" to the deer's inquiry.


Story of Ca Matsin and Ca Boo-Ug. [8]

One day a turtle, whose name was Ca Boo-Ug, and a monkey, Ca Matsin,
met on the shore of a pond. While they were talking, they noticed a
banana plant floating in the water.

"Jump in and get it," said Ca Matsin, who could not swim, "and we will
plant it, and some day we will have some bananas of our own." So Ca
Boo-Ug swam out and brought the plant to shore.

"Let's cut it in two," said Ca Matsin. "You may have one half and I
will take the other, and then we shall each have a tree."

"All right," said Ca Boo-Ug; "which half will you take?"

Ca Matsin did not think the roots looked very pretty, and so he
chose the upper part. Ca Boo-Ug knew a thing or two about bananas,
so he said nothing, and each took his part and planted it. Ca Boo-Ug
planted his in a rich place in the garden, but Ca Matsin planted his
in the ashes in the fireplace, because it was easy, and then, too,
he could look at it often and see how pretty it was.

Ca Matsin laughed as he thought how he had cheated Ca Boo-Ug, but
soon his part began to wither and die, and he was very angry.

With Ca Boo-Ug it was different. Before long his tree began to
put forth leaves, and soon it had a beautiful bunch of bananas on
it. But he could not climb the tree to get the bananas, so one day
he went in search of Ca Matsin, and asked him how his banana-tree
was getting along. When Ca Matsin told him that his tree was dead,
Ca Boo-Ug pretended to be very much surprised and sorry, and said:--

"My tree has a beautiful bunch of bananas on it, but I cannot climb
up to get them. If you will get some of them for me, I will give
you half."

Ca Matsin assented, and climbed the tree. When he got to the top, he
pulled a banana, ate it, and threw the skin down to Ca Boo-Ug. Then
he ate another, and another, throwing the skins down on Ca Boo-Ug's
head. When he had eaten all he wanted, he jumped out of the tree and
ran away to the woods, laughing at Ca Boo-Ug. Ca Boo-Ug did not say
anything, but just sat down and thought what he should do to get even
with Ca Matsin. Finally, he gathered a lot of bamboo sticks and planted
them around the tree with the sharp points up, covering them with
leaves so that they could not be seen. Then he sat down and waited.

As soon as Ca Matsin got hungry again, he went around to Ca Boo-Ug's
garden to get some more bananas. Ca Boo-Ug seemed glad to see him,
and when Ca Matsin asked for some bananas, replied:--

"All right, you may have all you want, but on one condition. When
you jump out of the tree you must not touch those leaves. You must
jump over them."

As soon as Ca Matsin heard that he must not jump on the leaves, that
was just what he wanted to do. So when he had eaten all the bananas
he wanted, he jumped out of the tree on to the leaves as hard as he
could jump, and was killed by the sharp bamboo points.

Then Ca Boo-Ug skinned him and cut him up and packed the meat in a
jar of brine and hid it in the mud on the bank of the pond.

In the dry season the banana-trees all died and the cocoanut-trees
bore no fruit, so a troop of monkeys came to Ca Boo-Ug and asked him
if he would give them something to eat.

"Yes, I have some nice meat in a jar which I will give you, but if
I do, you must promise to eat it with your eyes shut."

They were very hungry, so they gave the required promise, and Ca
Boo-Ug gave them the meat. All kept their eyes shut except one,
a little baby, and like all babies, he was very curious and wanted
to see what was going on. So he opened one eye and peeped at a bone
which he had in his hand, then he called out:--

"Oh, see what I have found! Here is the little finger of my brother,
Ca Matsin!"

Then all the monkeys looked, and when they found that Ca Boo-Ug had
killed a member of their tribe they were very angry, and looked for
Ca Boo-Ug, in order to kill him. But they could not find him, for
as soon as he saw what had happened he had hidden under a piece of
cocoanut shell which was lying on the ground.

The chief monkey sat upon the cocoanut shell, while he was planning
with his companions how they should catch Ca Boo-Ug, but of
course he did not know where he was, so he called out: "Where's Ca
Boo-Ug? Where's Ca Boo-Ug?"

Ca Boo-Ug was so tickled when he heard the monkey ask where he was that
he giggled. The monkeys heard him, and looked all around for him, but
could not find him. Then they called out: "Where's Ca Boo-Ug? Where's
Ca Boo-Ug?" This time Ca Boo-Ug laughed out loud, and the monkeys
found him. Then they began to plan how they should punish him.

"Let's put him into a rice mortar and pound him to death," said
one. "Aha!" said Ca Boo-Ug, "that's nothing! My mother beat me so
much when I was little that now my back is so strong that nothing
can break it."

When the monkeys found out that Ca Boo-Ug was not afraid of being
pounded in a rice mortar, they determined to try something else.

"Let's make a fire on his back and burn him up," suggested
another. "Oh, ho!" laughed Ca Boo-Ug, "that's nothing. I should think
that you could tell by the color of my shell that I have had a fire
lighted on my back many times. In fact, I like it, as I am always
so cold."

So the monkeys decided that they would punish Ca Boo-Ug by throwing
him into the pond and drowning him.

"Boo-hoo!" cried Ca Boo-Ug, "don't do that! You will surely kill
me. Please don't do that! Boo-hoo! Boo-hoo!"

Of course when the monkeys found that Ca Boo-Ug did not wish to be
thrown into the pond, they thought they had found just the way to kill
him. So, in spite of his struggles, they picked him up and threw him
far out into the pond.

To their surprise and chagrin, Ca Boo-Ug stuck his head out of the
water and laughed at them, and then turned around and swam off.

When the monkeys saw how they had been deceived, they were very
much disappointed, and began to plan how they could catch Ca Boo-Ug
again. So they called to a big fish, named Botete, that lived in
the pond:

"Botete! Drink all you can of the water in the pond and help us
find the bag of gold that we hid in it. If you will help us find it,
you shall have half of the gold."

So Botete began to drink the water, and in a little time the pond
was nearly dry. Then the monkeys determined to go down into the pond
and look for Ca Boo-Ug. When he saw them coming, Ca Boo-Ug called
to Salacsacan, the kingfisher, who was sitting on a branch of a tree
which hung over the water:--

"Salacsacan! Salacsacan! Botete has drunk all the water in the pond,
and if there is no water there will be no fish for you to catch. Fly
down now and peck a hole in Botete, and let the water out, before the
fish are all dead." So Salacsacan flew down and pecked a hole in the
side of Botete, and the water rushed out and drowned all the monkeys.

When Ca Boo-Ug saw that the monkeys were all dead, he crawled up on
the bank, and there he lived happily ever after.

Another version ends as follows:--

When the monkeys saw how they had been deceived, they were very
much disappointed and began to plan how they could catch Ca Boo-Ug
again. They decided to drink all the water in the pond, and then they
could catch Ca Boo-Ug before he could escape. So they drank and drank,
until they all burst.

When Ca Boo-Ug saw that the monkeys were all dead, he crawled up on
the bank, and there he lived happily ever after.

W. H. Millington and Berton L. Maxfield.

Brooklyn, N.Y.


Tagalog Folk-Tales.


Juan Gathers Guavas. [9]

The guavas were ripe, and Juan's father sent him to gather enough
for the family and for the neighbors who came to visit them. Juan
went to the guava bushes and ate all that he could hold. Then he
began to look around for mischief. He soon found a wasp nest and
managed to get it into a tight basket. He gave it to his father
as soon as he reached home, and then closed the door and fastened
it. All the neighbors were inside waiting for the feast of guavas,
and as soon as the basket was opened they began to fight to get out
of the windows. After a while Juan opened the door and when he saw
his parents' swollen faces, he cried out, "What rich fine guavas
those must have been! They have made you both so very fat."


Juan Makes Gulay of his own Child.

After Juan was married about a year a baby was born, and he and
his wife loved it very much. But Juan was always obedient to his
wife, being a fool, and when she told him to make gulay or stew he
inquired of her of what he should make it. She replied of anac, [10]
meaning anac hang gabi. [11] Then she went away for a while, and when
she returned Juan had the gulay ready. She asked for the baby and
was horrified to learn that Juan had made a stew of his own child,
having taken her words literally.


Juan Wins a Wager for the Governor.

Juan was well known for a brave man, though a fool, and the priest and
the governor wished to try him on a wager. The governor told him that
the priest was dead, and ordered him to watch the body in the church
that night. The priest lay down on the bier before the altar, and
after Juan came the priest arose. Juan pushed him down again and ran
out of the church and secured a club. Returning, he said to the priest,
"You are dead; try to get up again and I will break you to pieces." So
Juan proved himself to be a brave man, and the governor won his wager.


Juan Hides the Salt.

Juan's father came into possession of a sack of salt, which used to
be very precious and an expensive commodity. He wished it hidden in a
secure place and so told Juan to hide it till they should need it. Juan
went out and after hunting for a long time hid it in a carabao wallow,
and of course when they went to fetch it again nothing was left but
the sack.


The Man in the Shroud.

Juan, being a joker, once thought to have a little fun at others'
expense, so he robed himself in a shroud, placed a bier by the
roadside, set candles around it, and lay down so that all who went by
should see him and be frightened. A band of robbers went by that way,
and seeing the corpse, besought it to give them luck. As it happened,
they were more than usually fortunate, and when they returned they
began to make offerings to him to secure continuance of their good
fortune. As the entire proceeds of their adventures were held in
common, they soon began to quarrel over the offerings to be made. The
captain became angry, and drew his sword with a threat to run the
corpse through for causing so much dissension among his men.

This frightened the sham dead man to such a degree that he jumped up
and ran away, and the robbers, who were even more frightened than he,
ran the other way, leaving all their plunder.

Juan then returned and gathered all the money and valuables left
behind by the robbers, and carried them home. Now he had a friend
who was very curious to know how he came into possession of so much
wealth, and so Juan told him, only he said nothing about robbers,
but told his friend, whose name was Pedro, that the things were the
direct reward of God for his piety.

Pedro, being afraid of the woods, decided to lie just inside the church
door; besides, that being a more sacred place, he felt sure that God
would favor him even more than Juan. He arranged his bier with the
candles around him, and lay down to await the shower of money that
should reward his devotions. When the sacristan went to the church
to ring the bell for vespers, he saw the body lying there, and not
knowing of any corpse having been carried in, he was frightened
and ran to tell the padre. The padre, when he had seen the body,
said it was a miracle, and that it must be buried within the church,
for the sanctification of the edifice.

But Pedro, now thoroughly frightened, jumped off the bier and ran away,
and the priest and the sacristan ran the other way, so the poor man
never received the reward for his piety, and the church was deprived
of a new patron saint.


The Adventures of Juan.

Juan was lazy, Juan was a fool, and his mother never tired of scolding
him and emphasizing her words by a beating. When Juan went to school
he made more noise at his study than anybody else, but his reading
was only gibberish.

His mother sent him to town to buy meat to eat with the boiled rice,
and he bought a live crab which he set down in the road and told to
go to his mother and be cooked for dinner. The crab promised, but as
soon as Juan's back was turned ran in the other direction.

Juan went home after a while and asked for the crab, but there was
none, and they ate their rice without ulam. [12] His mother then
went herself and left Juan to care for the baby. The baby cried and
Juan examined it to find the cause, and found the soft spot on its
head. "Aha! It has a boil. No wonder it cries!" And he stuck a knife
into the soft spot, and the baby stopped crying. When his mother came
back, Juan told her about the boil and that the baby was now asleep,
but the mother said it was dead, and she beat Juan again.

Then she told Juan that if he could do nothing else he could at least
cut firewood, so she gave him a bolo and sent him to the woods.

He found what looked to him like a good tree and prepared to cut it,
but the tree was a magic tree and said to Juan, "Do not cut me and I
will give you a goat that shakes silver money from its whiskers." Juan
agreed, and the bark of the tree opened and the goat came out, and
when Juan told him to shake his whiskers, money dropped out. Juan was
very glad, for at last he had something he would not be beaten for. On
his way home he met a friend, and told him of his good fortune. The
man made him dead drunk and substituted another goat which had not
the ability to shake money from its whiskers, and when the new goat
was tried at home poor Juan was beaten and scolded.

Back he went to the tree, which he threatened to cut down for lying
to him, but the tree said, "No, do not kill me and I will give you
a magic net which you may cast even on dry ground or into a tree-top
and it will return full of fish," and the tree did even so.

Again he met the friend, again he drank tuba [13] until he was dead
drunk, and again a worthless thing was substituted, and on reaching
home he was beaten and scolded.

Once more Juan went to the magic tree, and this time he received a
magic pot, always full of rice; and spoons always full of whatever
ulam might be wished, and these went the way of the other gifts,
to the false friend.

The fourth time he asked of the tree he was given a magic stick
that would without hands beat and kill anything that the owner
wished. "Only say to it 'Boombye, boomba,' and it will obey your word,"
said the tree.

When Juan met the false friend again, the false friend asked him what
gift he had this time. "It is only a stick that if I say, 'Boombye,
boomba,' will beat you to death," said Juan, and with that the stick
leaped from his hand and began to belabor the wicked man. "Lintic na
cahoy ito ay! [14] Stop it and I will give you everything I stole from
you." Juan ordered the stick to stop, but made the man, bruised and
sore, carry the net, the pot, and the spoons, and lead the goat to
Juan's home. There the goat shook silver from his beard till Juan's
three brothers and his mother had all they could carry, and they dined
from the pot and the magic spoons until they were full to their mouths.

"Now," said Juan, "you have beaten me and called me a fool all my life,
but you are not ashamed to take good things when I get them. I will
show you something else. Boombye, boomba!" and the stick began to
beat them all. Quickly they agreed that Juan was head of the house,
and he ordered the beating to stop.

Juan now became rich and respected, but he never trusted himself
far from his stick day or night. One night a hundred robbers came
to break into the house, to take all his goods, and kill him, but
he said to the stick, "Boombye, boomba!" and with the swiftness of
lightning the stick flew around, and all those struck fell dead till
there was not one left. Juan was never troubled again by robbers,
and in the end married a princess and lived happily ever after.


The Aderna Bird.

There was once a king who greatly desired to obtain an aderna bird,
which is possessed of magical powers, has a wonderful song, and talks
like men. This king had a beautiful daughter, and he promised her to
any one who would bring him an aderna bird. Now the quest for the
aderna bird is very dangerous, because, if the heart is not pure,
the man who touches the bird becomes stone, and the bird escapes.

There were in that country three brothers, Juan, Diego, and Pedro,
and they all agreed to set out together to catch the aderna bird. Afar
in the mountains they saw him, and Diego, being the eldest, had first
chance, and he caught the aderna bird, but being of impure life he
became a stone, and the bird flew away over the mountains.

Juan and Pedro pursued it over the rocky way till at last they saw
it again, and Pedro, being the next eldest, essayed to catch it. He,
too, being a bad man, was turned into stone and the aderna bird flew
over another mountain, and Juan, undaunted, followed alone.

When at last he saw the aderna bird he made a trap with a mirror with
a snare in front and soon caught the bird. He made a cage for it and
started on his homeward journey. When he reached the stone which was
his brother Pedro, he begged the bird to undo its work and make him
a man again, and the bird did so. Then the two went on to where Diego
was, and again Juan entreated the bird to set the other brother free,
and the bird did so.

But Pedro and Diego, far from being grateful for what Juan had done
for them, bound him, choked him, beat him, and left him for dead far
from any road or any habitation, and went on their way to the king
with the aderna bird, expecting for one the hand of the princess and
for the other a rich reward.

But the aderna bird would not sing. Said the king, "O Aderna Bird,
why do you not sing?" The bird replied, "O Mighty King, I sing only
for him who caught me." "Did these men catch you?" "No, O King, Juan
caught me, and these men have beaten him and stolen me from him." So
the king had them punished, and waited for the coming of Juan.

Juan meanwhile had freed himself from his bonds, and wandered sore
and hungry and lame through the forest. At last he met an old man
who said to him, "Juan, why do you not go to the king's house, for
there they want you very much?" "Alas," said Juan, "I am not able
to walk so far from weakness, and I fear I shall die here in the
forest." "Do not fear," said the old man, "I have here a wonderful
hat that, should you but whisper to it where you wish to go, in a
moment you are transported there through the air."

So the old man gave him the hat, and Juan put it on and said, "Hat,
if this be thy nature, carry me across the mountains to the king's
palace." And the hat carried him immediately into the presence of
the king. Then the aderna bird began to sing, and after a time Juan
married the princess, and all went well for the rest of their lives.


The Story of Juan and the Monkey.

Juan was a farmer, a farmer so poor that he had only one shirt and
one pair of trousers. Juan was much annoyed by monkeys, who stole his
corn. So he set a trap and caught several of them. These he killed
with a club until he came to the last, which said to him, "Juan,
don't kill me and I will be your servant all your life." "But I will,"
said Juan. "You are a thief and do not deserve to live." "Juan, let me
live, and I will bring you good fortune, and if you kill me you will
be poor all your life." The monkey talked so eloquently that Juan let
himself be persuaded, and took the monkey home with him. The monkey
was true to his word, and served Juan faithfully, cooking, washing,
and hunting food for him, and at night going to distant fields and
stealing maize and palay which he added to Juan's little store.

One day the monkey said to Juan, "Juan, why do you not marry?" Said
Juan, "How can I marry? I have nothing to keep a wife." "Take my
advice," said the monkey, "and you can marry the king's daughter." Juan
took the monkey's advice and they set out for the king's palace. Juan
remained behind while the monkey went up to the palace alone. Outside
he called, as the custom is, "Honorable people!" and the king said,
"Come in." The king said, "Monkey, where do you walk?" and the monkey
said, "Mr. King, I wish to borrow your salop. My master wishes to
measure his money." The king lent him the salop (a measure of about
two quarts), and the monkey returned to Juan. After a few hours he
returned it with a large copper piece cunningly stuck to the bottom
with paste. The king saw it and called the monkey's attention to it,
but the monkey haughtily waved his hand, and told the king that a
single coin was of no consequence to his master.

The next day he borrowed the salop again and the coin stuck in the
bottom was half a peso, and the third day the coin was a peso, but
these he assured the king were of no more consequence to his master
than the copper. Then the king told the monkey to bring his master
to call, and the monkey promised that after a few days he would.

They went home, and as Juan's clothes must be washed, Juan went to
bed while the monkey washed and starched them, pulling, pressing,
and smoothing them with his hands because he had no iron.

Then they went to call on the king, and the king told Juan that he
should marry the princess as soon as he could show the king a large
house, with a hundred head of cattle, carabao, horses, sheep, and
goats. Juan was very despondent at this, though he was too brave to
let the king know his thoughts, he told his troubles to the monkey,
who assured him that the matter was very easy.

The next day they took a drum and a shovel and went into the mountains,
where there was a great enchanter who was a very wealthy man and also
an asuang. They dug a great hole and then Juan hid in the woods and
began to beat his drum, and the monkey rushed up to the enchanter's
house and told him the soldiers were coming, and that he would hide
him. So the enchanter went with the monkey to the hole and the monkey
pushed him in and began with hands and feet to cover him up. Juan
helped, and soon the enchanter was dead and buried. Then they went
to the house and at the first door they opened they liberated fifty
people who were being fattened for the enchanter's table. These
people were glad to help Juan convey all the money, cattle, and all
the enchanter's wealth to the town. Juan built a house on the plaza,
married the princess, and lived happily ever after, but his friend the
monkey, having so well earned his liberty, he sent back to the woods,
and their friendship still continued.


Juan the Drunkard who Visited Heaven.

There was once a man named Juan, who was a drunkard. One day when
he was drunker than usual he decided to visit his dead friends in
heaven. He took no baggage except two long bamboo buckets full of tuba,
which he carried one over each shoulder. He walked and walked for at
least a week, until he came to a place where they sold tuba. There he
filled his buckets, promising to pay on his return, and set out again.

After walking a long time he came to a city with a wall around it,
and at the gate sat an old man with a long beard and with keys at his
girdle whom he knew at once as St. Peter. "Good-morning, St. Peter,"
said Juan. "I would like to see some of my friends that I think are
here." "Who are you?" asked St. Peter, getting up angrily. "I am Juan
and I have come a long way to see some of my friends. Won't you let me
look?" "No," said St. Peter, "I won't. You are drunk." "Well, then,
only be so good as to let me take just a little peep." So St. Peter
opened the gate just the least bit, but Juan was not satisfied, so he
said, "Good St. Peter, open the gate just a little wider for me to
see with both eyes." Then he persuaded St. Peter to let him put his
head in, and then by a little firmness he slipped in, still carrying
his buckets of tuba.

St. Peter ordered him to come out, but he started down a street he
saw, or rather a road, for there were no houses there. "Stop!" said
St. Peter, "that road won't take you to your friends. Go the other
way." And Juan did so.

After he had gone on for some time, he found that he was surrounded by
devils who began to torment him, but he defended himself succesfully
against them, and by giving them part of his tuba bribed them to tell
him where to find his friends. To his friends he gave the remainder
of his tuba and then set out to find God himself.

Being ushered into the Divine Presence, he knelt humbly and said,
"Lord, I beg thee to tell me how long I shall live." The Lord looked
at him and said, "I have not sent for you; why are you here?" Juan
bowed more humbly than before, and replied, "O Most High, I have come
to see some of my dead friends, and I would like also to know how
long I shall live on earth." So God told him that he had still a long
earthly life before him and never to come again until he was sent for.

So Juan left the heavenly city and passed back through St. Peter's
gate, and at last, after a weary journey, came to earth again. And
Juan lived a long and happy life and drank more tuba than ever.


The Juan who Visited Heaven.

There was once an old couple who always prayed for a child, for they
had always been childless. No matter how it looked, whether deformed
or ugly, they must have a child. So after a short time they saw that
their prayers would be answered, and in the course of nature a child
was born, but the mother died at the birth.

The new-born child ran to the church, climbed into the tower, and
began to hammer on the bells. The priest, hearing the noise, sent the
sacristan to see what was the matter. The sacristan went, and seeing
there a little child, asked what he was doing and told him to stop, for
the priest would be angry; but the ringing of the bells went on. Then
the priest went up. "Little boy," he said, "what is your name?" "Juan,"
said the child. "Why are you ringing the church bells?" "Because my
mother is dead." "When did she die?" "Only now." "If you stop ringing
the bells she shall have a fine funeral and you shall live with me
and be as my son," said the priest. "Very well, sir, if you will let
me stay in the church all I wish." To this the priest assented. The
dead woman was buried with all the pomp of music, candles, and bells,
and the boy went to live in the convent. Always after his school was
done he would be in the church. The father did everything that was
possible for him, for he knew that he was not a natural child.

After a time the padre sent for him to get his dinner, but he would
not leave the church, so the priest had a good dinner cooked and
sent it down to the church, but he told the sacristan to watch the
church and see what happened. The sacristan watched and soon saw the
statue of Jesus eating with the boy. This he told the padre, and the
child's dinner was always sent to the church after that. One day not
long after he went to the priest and said, "Master, my friend down at
the church wants me to go away with him." "Where are you going?" "My
friend wants me to go to heaven with him."

The priest consented and the little boy and the Lord Jesus went
away together. As they walked the little boy saw that two roads ran
along together, one thorny and the other smooth. Asked the boy of
his companion, "Friend, why is this road where we walk so thorny,
and that other yonder so smooth?" Said the Lord, "Hush, child, it
is not fitting to disturb the peace of this place, but I will tell
you. This is the path of the sinless and is thorny, but that smooth
way yonder is the way of the sinners and never reaches heaven."

Again they came to a great house filled with young men and women who
were all working hammering iron. Said the little boy, "Who are those
who labor with the hammer?" "Hush, child, they are the souls of those
who died unmarried."

They journeyed on, and on one side were bush pastures filled with poor
cattle while on the opposite side of the road were pastures dry and
bare where the cattle were very fat. The child inquired the meaning
of the mystery. The Lord answered him, "Hush, child! These lean cattle
in the rich pastures are the souls of sinners, while those fat cattle
on dry and sunburnt ground are the souls of sinless ones."

After a while they crossed a river, one part of which was ruby red and
the other spotless white. "Friend, what is this?" asked the boy. "Hush,
child, the red is the blood of your mother whose life was given for
yours, and the white is the milk which she desired to give to you,
her child," said the Lord.

At last they came to a great house having seven stories, and there on
a table they saw many candles, some long, some short, some burned
out. Said Juan, "Friend, what are all these candles?" "Hush,
child, those are the lives of your friends." "What are those
empty candlesticks?" "Those are your mother and your uncle, who are
dead." "Who is this long one?" "That is your father, who has long to
live." "Who is this very short one?" "That is your master, who will
die soon." "May I put in another?" "Yes, child, if you wish." So he
changed it for a long one, and with his heavenly companion he returned
to earth.

There he told his master, the padre, all that he had seen and heard and
how he had changed the candles; and he and his master lived together
a very long time. And in the fulness of time the padre died, but Juan
went to heaven one day with his Lord and never returned.


The Sad Story of Juan and Maria.

Juan and Maria were orphans. When Juan was about eight years old and
Maria was about four their father died. The mother went into the hemp
fields to earn a living for her family by stripping the fibre from
the hemp, which is very hard work, so hard that she died worn out in
a month or two afterward.

Juan and Maria were then taken into the family of an uncle, their
mother's brother, and little Juan began to work for his little
sister's and his own living, by transplanting the tender shoots of
the banana. Maria often accompanied him, as the children were much
attached to each other. One day when they were out in the field Maria
saw a beautiful bird which seemed very tame and tried to catch it,
but the bird ran into the woods, and although she could come very
close to it she could not catch it. On and on she went until she
was almost ready to drop, her tiny feet leaving no trace, but still
she followed the bird. Just at night she saw an old man with a very
kind face, who came toward her, and putting the bird under one arm
and taking Maria on his shoulder, he set off toward his house, which
did not seem to be very far off. Arriving there he said to his wife,
"See, wife, what good fortune I have had today." Seeing the child,
his wife threw up her hands in thanksgiving and cried, "Thanks be to
God, we have a child at last in our old age."

Poor Juan, torn with fear, hunted the woods for days, but could not
find his little sister. Convinced at last that his search was hopeless,
he went home and worked hard and in a few years became a rich man. Then
he began to consider where he could find a suitable wife. It was told
him that there was an old couple beyond three ranges of mountains
who had a beautiful daughter, and to her he determined to go.

Maria had likewise grown up, and now she was the most beautiful
damsel in many days' journey. When Juan set out on his search, it
was to the house of Maria's foster parents that he was bound.

Arriving there, he called to those within, "Honorable people," and the
old man said, "Come in;" but Juan remained without until the third
invitation. Passing within, he likewise would not sit down till he
had been asked three times.

Seating himself on a bench, he told the old man that he had come to
marry his daughter, and the old man told him he might if he could show
that he had enough money. As Juan was rich, this did not take long
to do, and after a few days Juan and Maria were married, not knowing
their relationship. They lived happily together, and a daughter was
born to them. This child, like her mother, was very beautiful.

One day, as the little girl was playing by the river, a crab came to
the edge of the water and said,--

"Beautiful art thou,
More beautiful than any other,
But thou art the child
Of sister and brother."

Horrified, the child ran to her mother, and then the parents began
to talk over the events of their childhood and found that they were
indeed sister and brother.

They went to Maria's foster father to ask what they must do, and he
told them they must live apart; and then they went to the archbishop,
who told them that they might live lawfully together, as the sacrament
of marriage was above all, but, after much thought, they decided that
they must live apart, and Maria went back to her foster father.

Thus by a sinless crime were their lives saddened forever.


The Fifty-one Thieves.

There were once two brothers, Juan and Pedro. Pedro was rich and was
the elder, but Juan was very poor and gained his living by cutting
wood. Juan became so poor at last that he was forced to ask alms
from his brother, or what was only the same thing, a loan. After
much pleading, Pedro gave his brother enough rice for a single meal,
but repenting of such generosity, went and took it off the fire,
as his brother's wife was cooking it, and carried it home again.

Juan then set out for the woods, thinking he might be able to find
a few sticks that he could exchange for something to eat, and went
much farther than he was accustomed to go. He came to a road he did
not know and followed it for some distance to where it led to a great
rocky bluff and there came to an end.

Juan did not know exactly what to think of such an abrupt ending
to the roadway, and sat down behind a large rock to meditate. As he
sat there a voice within the cliff said, "Open the door," and a door
in the cliff opened itself. A man richly dressed came out, followed
by several others, whom he told that they were going to a town at a
considerable distance. He then said, "Shut the door," and the door
closed itself again.

Juan was not sure whether any one else was inside, but he was no
coward and besides he thought he might as well be murdered as starved
to death, so when the robbers had ridden away to a safe distance
without seeing him, he went boldly up to the cliff and said, "Open
the door." The door opened as obediently to him as to the robber,
and he went in. He found himself inside a great cavern filled with
money, jewels, and rich stuffs of every kind.

Hastily gathering more than enough gold and jewels to make him rich,
he went outside, not forgetting to say, "Close the door," and went
back to his house.

Having hidden all but a little of his new wealth, he wished to change
one or two of his gold pieces for silver so that he could buy something
to eat. He went to his brother's house to ask him for the favor,
but Pedro was not at home, and his wife, who was at least as mean as
Pedro, would not change the money. After a while Pedro came home, and
his wife told him that Juan had some money; and Pedro, hoping in turn
to gain some advantage, went to Juan's house and asked many questions
about the money. Juan told him that he had sold some wood in town and
had been paid in gold, but Pedro did not believe him and hid himself
under the house to listen. At night he heard Juan talking to his wife,
and found out the place and the password. Immediately taking three
horses to carry his spoils, he set out for the robbers' cave.

Once arrived, he went straight to the cliff and said, "Open the door,"
and the door opened immediately. He went inside and said, "Close the
door," and the door closed tight. He gathered together fifteen great
bags of money, each all he could lift, and carried them to the door
ready to put on the horses. He found all the rich food and wine of
the robbers in the cave, and could not resist the temptation to make
merry at their expense; so he ate their food and drank their fine
wines till he was foolishly drunk. When he had reached this state,
he began to think of returning home. Beating on the door with both
hands, he cried out, "Open, beast. Open, fool. May lightning blast
you if you do not open!" and a hundred other foolish things, but
never once saying, "Open the door."

While he was thus engaged, the robbers returned, and hearing them
coming he hid under a great pile of money with only his nose sticking
out. The robbers saw that some one had visited the cave in their
absence and hunted for the intruder till one of them discovered him
trembling under a heap of coin. With a shout they hauled him forth
and beat him until his flesh hung in ribbons. Then they split him into
halves and threw the body into the river, and cut his horses into bits,
[15] which they threw after him.

When Pedro did not return, his wife became anxious and told Juan
where he had gone. Juan stole quietly to the place by night, and
recovered the body, carried it home, and had the pieces sewn together
by the tailor.

Now the robbers knew that they had been robbed by some one else, and
so, when Pedro's body was taken away, the captain went to town to see
who had buried the body, and by inquiring, found that Juan had become
suddenly rich, and also that it was his brother who had been buried.

So the captain of the robbers went to Juan's house, where he found
a ball going on. Juan knew the captain again and that he was asking
many questions, so he made the captain welcome and gave him a great
deal to eat and drink. One of the servants came in and pretended
to admire the captain's sword till he got it into his own hands;
and then he began to give an exhibition of fencing, making the sword
whirl hither and thither and ending with a wonderful stroke that made
the captain's head roll on the floor.

A day or two later, the lieutenant also came to town, and began to make
inquiries concerning the captain. He soon found out that the captain
had been killed in Juan's house, but Juan now had soldiers on guard
at his door, so that it was necessary to use strategy. He went to
Juan and asked if he could start a "tienda," or wine-shop, and Juan,
who recognized the lieutenant, said, "Yes." Then the lieutenant went
away, soon returning with seven great casks, in each of which he had
seven men.

These he stored under Juan's house until such time as Juan, being
asleep, could be killed with certainty and little danger. When
this was done, he went into the house, intending to make Juan drunk
and then kill him as Juan had the captain. Juan, however, got the
lieutenant drunk first, and soon his head, like the captain's, rolled
on the floor.

The soldiers below, like all soldiers, wished to have a drink from
the great casks, and so one of them took a borer and bored into one of
the casks. As he did so, a voice whispered, "Is Juan asleep yet?" The
soldier replied, "Not yet," and went and told Juan. The casks by
his order were all put into a boat, loaded with stones and chains,
and thrown into the sea. So perished the last of the robbers.

Juan, being no longer in fear of the robbers, often went to their
cave, and helped himself to everything that he wanted. He finally
became a very great and wealthy man. [16]


The Covetous King and the Three Children.

There were once three orphan children, the oldest of whom was perhaps
ten years old, and the others but little things, almost babies. They
had a tiny little tumble-down house to live in, but very little to
eat. Said the eldest to his little brother and sister, "I will go
yonder on the sands laid bare by the falling tide, and it may be that
I shall find something that we can eat." The little children begged
to go, too, and they all set out over the sands. Soon they found
a large living shell. "Thanks be to God," said the boy, for he was
well instructed, "we shall have something to eat." "Take me home,
but do not cook me," said the shell, "and I will work for you." Now
this was probably the Holy Virgin herself, in the form of a shell,
who had taken pity on the poor children. They took the shell home,
and there it spoke again. "Put me into the rice pot, cover me up,
and you shall turn out plenty of boiled rice for all of you." And
they did so, and the boiled rice came from the pot. "Now put me
into the other pot, and take out ulam." And they took out ulam in
abundance. "Have you a clothes chest?" asked the shell; but there
was none, so they put it into a box, and the box became filled with
clothing. Then the shell filled the spare room with rice, and last
of all filled another large box with money.

Now the king of this city was a cruel man, and he sent for the children
and told them that they must give up their money, their rice and all
to him and be poor again. "O dear king," said the oldest child, "will
you not leave us a little for our living?" "No," replied the king,
"I will give you as much boiled rice as you need, and you ought to
be glad that you get it."

So the king sent ten soldiers to move the rice and the money, but,
as soon as they got it to the king's house, it returned to the
children. The soldiers worked a whole week without getting a grain
of rice or a piece of money to stay in the king's house. Then because
they were about to die from fatigue, the king sent ten more, and these
too failed. Then the king went himself, but when he tried to move
the money he fell down dead. The children, relieved from persecution,
lived long and happy lives and were always rich and influential people.


The Silent Lover.

A long time ago, when the world was young, there lived a very bashful
young man. Not far from his house there lived the most beautiful young
woman in the world. The young woman had many suitors but rejected all,
wishing only for the love of the bashful young man. He in his turn
was accustomed to follow her about, longing for courage to declare his
love, but bashfulness always sealed his lips. At last, despairing of
ever making his unruly tongue tell of his passion, he took a dagger
and, following her to the bathing place on the river bank, he cut
out his own heart, cast it at her feet, and fell down lifeless. The
girl fled, terrified, and a crow pounced upon the heart, and carried
it to a hollow dao-tree, when it fell from his beak into the hollow
and there remained. But the love for the girl was so strong in the
heart that it became reanimated and clothed again with humanity in the
form of a little child. A hunter, pursuing the wild boar with dogs,
found the child crying from hunger at the foot of the dao-tree and,
being childless, took it home, and he and his old wife cared for it
as their own. The young woman, knowing now the love of the young man,
lived for his memory's sake, a widow, rejecting all suitors.

But from the child was never absent the image of his loved one, and at
last his love so wrought on his weak frame that he sickened. Knowing
that his end was near, he begged of his foster mother that, after his
death, she should leave him, and not be surprised if she could not
find him on her return. He also asked that on the third day she should
take whatever she should find in a certain compartment of the great
chest and give it to the girl without price. All this she promised,
realizing fully that this was not a natural child.

At last he died, and when his foster mother left the body, his great
love reanimated the body and it crept into the chest, becoming there
transformed into a beautifully carved casket of fragrant wood.

Obedient to his wishes, on the third day the old woman carried the
casket to the girl, giving it to her without price.

When the girl took the casket into her hands, its charm fascinated
her, and she clasped it tight and covered it with kisses. At last the
spell was broken by the magic of her kisses, and the casket whispered
softly to her, "I am thy true love. I was the heart of him who killed
himself for love of thee, and I was the youth who died for love of
thee, but at last I am contented. In life and death we shall never
more be separated." And it was so, for the woman lived to a great
age, carrying the casket always with her, inhaling its fragrance [17]
with her kisses, and when she died it was buried with her.


The Priest, the Servant Boy, and the Child Jesus.

There was once a priest who had for his servant a very good boy. One
day the padre wanted the boy, and, after looking everywhere for him,
went to church. Opening the door quietly, he looked in and there he
saw that the statue of the child Jesus had left its shrine and was
down on the floor talking and playing with the boy. The priest slipped
softly away and ordered a very fine dinner cooked for the lad. When
the boy returned to the convent, the padre asked him where he had
been. "I have been down to the church playing with a friend." "Very
well, there is your dinner. If you play with your friend again, ask
him if I shall go to glory in heaven when I am dead." The boy took
his dinner to the church and ate, sharing it With the child Jesus.

"Tell me, friend," said he to his heavenly companion, "will my master,
the priest, go to glory in heaven?"

"No," said the child Jesus, "because he has neglected his father and
mother." When the boy carried these words to the priest he became
very sad, and asked the lad to inquire whether he might atone for his
wrong by doing good to other old people. "No," came the answer. "It
must be his father and mother who shall receive their dues, and it
may be that he shall enter heaven alive."

So the priest sent for his poor old father and mother, and lavished
on them every care, suffering no one else to do the least thing for
them. At last the old people died, and the priest was very sad. Then
one night, as he slept, came soft and very beautiful music around about
and within the convent, and the boy awoke the priest to listen. "Oh,"
said the padre, "it is perhaps the angels come to carry us alive to
heaven." And it was so. The angels carried the boy and the priest,
his master, to be in glory in heaven.


The Story of Juan del Mundo de Austria and the Princess Maria.

There was once a king who had three very beautiful daughters, Princess
Clara, Princess Catalina, and Princess Maria.

This king was sick for a long time with a dreadful disease, and
although he spent much money on medicines and doctors he was only
worse instead of better.

At last he sent word to all his people proclaiming that whoever would
cure him might have one of the princesses to marry.

After several days one of the heralds returned, saying he had met
a snake who inquired if the king would give his daughter to a snake
to wife if he were cured. The king called his daughters and asked if
they would be willing to marry a snake.

Said Princess Clara, "I will be stung by a snake till I am dead before
I give my virginity to a snake." Said Princess Catalina, "I may be
beaten to death with sticks, but I will not give my virginity to a
snake." Said Princess Maria, "Father, so you be but well, I care
not what becomes of me. If a snake can cure you, I am willing to
marry him."

So the king's message was carried to the snake, and the king was made
well. The snake and the princess were married, and set off through
the forest together. After a long journey they came to a house in the
forest, and there the snake and the beautiful Maria lived together
many days. But the snake, being very wise, saw that the princess ate
little and cried very much, and asked her why it was so. She told
him that it was hard for her to live with a snake. "Very well," said
the snake, and went into a house near by; after a little there came
out a handsome man with silken clothes, and rings on his fingers,
who told her that he was her husband, that he was known among men as
Don Juan del Mundo de Austria, and that he was king of all the beasts,
being able to take the form of any of them at will.

They passed many happy days together till the time came for the great
feast at the court of Princess Maria's father. Don Juan told her that
she might go, but that she must on no account tell his name or rank,
otherwise when she came to their trysting-place by the seashore she
would not find him. He gave her a magic ring by means of which she
might obtain anything she wanted, and left her close to her own city.

When she arrived at home her sisters were greatly surprised to see
her looking well, happy, and much more finely dressed than when she
went away, but her father was very glad to see her. The elder sisters
often asked her the secret of her husband's identity, but her answer
was always the same, "Did you not both see that I married a snake? Who
else could it be." The wicked women then determined to make her tell,
whether she wished or not, and so they asked her to walk with them
in a secluded garden.

Then they took sticks and set upon her, beating her and telling her
that she must tell who her husband was. The poor little princess
defended herself a long time, saying that if she told she would never
see him again, but finally, when she was nearly dead from beating,
she told them that her husband was Don Juan de Austria. Then she was
beaten for not telling the truth, but her tormentors finally desisted
and she went to her father and told him all.

He did not wish her to return to the forest and begged her to remain
with him, but she insisted.

When she arrived at the trysting-place, Don Juan was not there, but
she set out bravely, asking of her ring whatever she needed for food,
drink, and clothing. Wherever she went she inquired of the beasts
and birds the whereabouts of her husband, Don Juan de Austria, and,
when they knew who she was, they worshipped her and did all that
was required.

After many days of wandering she came to a place where there was a
giant, who was about to eat her, but when he knew her for Don Juan's
wife he worshipped her and sent her on her way. Soon she was found by
a young giantess who, too, was about to eat her, but when she learned
that Maria was the wife of Don Juan she carried her to her own house
and hid her, saying that she must be cared for a while until her
parents should return, for they might eat her without asking who she
was. When the old giant and his wife came back, they told her that
she must stay with them for a while, until they could find out about
the whereabouts of Don Juan, when they would help her further.

They were very good to her, for, said they, "Don Juan is not only
king of the animals but of the giants and monsters of every kind."

Then the giants took her to Don Juan's city and found her a place in
the house of an old childless couple, and there she made her home. But
Don Juan had taken another wife, the Lady Loriana, and the new wife saw
the old and desired her for a servant. So the Princess Maria became
a servant of her rival, and often sat in old rags under the stairs
at her work, while her faithless husband passed her without seeing her.

The poor girl was torn with jealousy and spent much time thinking
about how she might win her husband again. So she asked the ring for
a toy in the form of a beautiful little chick, just from the egg.

The Lady Loriana saw the pretty toy and begged for it. "No," said
Maria, "unless you grant me a little favor, that I may sleep on the
floor to-night in your room." So Loriana, suspecting no deceit, agreed.

That night Maria wished on her ring that Loriana might be overcome with
sleep, and again that her own rags might be transformed into royal
raiment and that her tiara should glitter on her forehead. Then she
went to the head of the bed and called Don Juan. At first he would
not answer, then, without turning to look at the speaker, he bade
her go away, as his wife would be angry. "But that is not your wife,
Don Juan," said Maria; "I am your true wife, Maria. Look at my dress
and the jewels on my forehead--my face, the ring on my finger." And
Don Juan saw that she was indeed the deserted wife, and after he had
heard the sad story of her wanderings he loved her afresh. The next day
at noon-time Maria was not to be found, although Dona Loriana looked
everywhere. At last she looked into Don Juan's room, and there, locked
in each other's arms fast asleep, were Don Juan and Princess Maria.

Loriana aroused them, angrily saying to Maria, "Why do you wish
to steal my husband? You must leave this house at once." But Maria
resisted saying, "No, he is not your husband but mine, and I will
not give him up." And so they quarrelled long and bitterly, but at
last agreed to be judged by the council.

There each told her story, and Maria showed Don Juan's enchanted ring,
which worked its wonders for her but would not obey the Lady Loriana.

When the matter was decided, it was the judgment of all, including
the Archbishop, that Maria was the lawful wife, but that she and Don
Juan must go away and never return.

So Don Juan and the Princess Maria went away and lived long and


The Artificial Earthquake.

There was once in another town a man who had three daughters, all very
beautiful. But one of them had an admirer, who by some means excited
the old man's wrath, and the daughter was sent to a distant place.

This in turn made the young man angry, and he determined to have
revenge. He took a strong rope and attached it to one of the corner
upright posts of the house, and waiting till it was dark and still
inside, he hid behind a tree and began to pull the rope, alternately
hauling and slacking.

"Oh!" said one of the girls, "there is an earthquake." [18]

The old man jumped up and, seizing his crucifix, began to recite
the prayers against earthquakes. But the trembling kept up. For more
than an hour the old man prayed to all the saints in the calendar,
but the earthquake still shook the house.

Then the earthquake stopped a moment, and a voice called him to
come outside. His daughters begged him not to go, for said they,
"You never can stand such a terrible earthquake." Taking his saw,
his axe, and his long bolo, the old man went down, only to find
everything quiet outside. He began to explore the surroundings of
the house to see if he could find the cause of the disturbance, and
fell over the rope. With that he began to curse and swear, saying,
"May lightning blast the one of ill-omened ancestry who has shaken
my house, frightened my family, and broken my bones," and many other
harsh things, but he got no answer but a laugh, and the young man
had his revenge.


The Queen and the Aeta Woman.

There was once a king who was sick unto death. Though he was already
married to a beautiful and charming woman, he promised to marry any
woman who could save his life or recall him after death. Then he died
and after his death the queen was superintending the preparations
for burial and getting ready the collation for the mourners. While
she was busy, an Aeta (Negrito) woman, black, ill-favored, dirty,
and smelling like a goat went into the room. Kneeling by the body,
she began pulling out pins from the flesh, and soon the king awoke,
but his mind was lost. He clasped the Aeta woman to him and showered
on her terms of endearment, thinking that she was the queen, while
all the time the real queen was without.

Seeing how matters stood, the Aeta woman called the queen, "Maria,
Maria, bring food for the king," and she forced the queen to obey
her and work as a slave in the kitchen, while she wore the queen's
robes and lay on the queen's couch. Of course this made a scandal,
but no one could interfere until at last a soldier passed through the
kitchen and seeing the queen's face red with the fire and noting her
beauty, he called the king's attention to her. Then the king remembered
Maria and that she was the real queen, and that the other was only a
hideous Aeta usurper, and he had the Aeta woman tied in a sack with
stones and thrown into the sea.


The Child Saint.

Once there was a child who was different from other children. She
was very quiet and patient, and never spoke unless she was spoken
to. Her mother used to urge her to play in the streets with the other
children, but she always preferred to sit in the corner quietly and
without trouble to any one. When the time came for the child to enter
school, she begged her mother to get her a book of doctrines and let
her learn at home. So her mother got a book of doctrines for her,
and she was able to read at once without being taught. Day after day
she sat in the corner reading her books and meditating.

When she became a little larger she asked to have a little room built
away from the house, where she might remain free from the intrusion
of any earthly thought.

Her mother had this done, and there in the tight little room with no
one to see her she sat. She never tasted the food or drink placed at
her door, and finally her mother, becoming alarmed, made a tiny hole
and peeped through the wall. There sat the child reading her book,
with a huge man standing beside her, and all manner of beasts and
serpents filling the little room.

More frightened than ever, the mother ran to the priest, who told
her that those were devils tempting the child, but not to fear, for
she would certainly become a saint. And it was so, for afterwards the
evil shapes were gone. Then the priest and the people built a costly
shrine and placed her in it, and there the people used to go and ask
her to intercede for them. But at last the shrine was found empty,
and surely she was taken alive into heaven and is now a saint.


Tagalog Babes in the Woods.

Once upon a time there was a cruel father who hated his twin children,
Juan and Maria, and drove them from the house on every occasion.

The children used to live on the grains of rice that fell through
the bamboo floor, and such food as their mother could smuggle to them.

At last, when they were about six years old, their father took them
off into the forest and left them without food or drink. They wandered
for three days, being preserved by such fruits and leaves as they
could gather.

Finally poor Maria said she could go no farther, but that she would
die. Juan cut a mountain bamboo and from its hollow joints gave Maria
a refreshing drink. Then he climbed a tree and in the distance saw
a house. After much exertion they reached it and called out, "Tauo
po." [19] A voice from within said, "Come in, children." They went in
and found a table set, but no one was there, though the same voice
said, "Eat and drink all you want." They did so, and after saying,
"Thank you, good-by," they started to go away, but again they were
bidden to stay. So they stayed on for a long time until Juan was a
young man and Maria a young woman. From a great chest that stood in
the corner they took out new clothing as their old wore out, and the
chest was never empty, and there was always food in the magic dishes
on the table.


The King, the Princess, and the Poor Boy.

There was once a king who loved his daughter very much, so much in
fact that he did not wish her to marry; so he built for her a secret
house or vault under the ground, and there he kept her away from all
but her parents and her maid servants.

There was also an old man in the same city who had a son. The old man
said to his son, "Come, lad, let us go into the country and plant crops
that we may live," for they were very poor. After they had worked a
short time in the country, the old man died and the boy returned to
the king's city and then went up and down the street crying, "Oh! who
will buy me for a slave, that I may bury my father?" A kind-hearted
rich man saw him and inquired his troubles, and the boy told him that
he was greatly grieved because his father was dead and he had no money
for the funeral. The rich man told him not to grieve, that his father
would be buried with all the ceremonies given to any one. After the
funeral the boy went to live with the rich man as his servant, and
served him faithfully; so faithfully, indeed, that the rich man, who
was childless, adopted him and gave him every advantage of education.

One day the boy wrote a sentence and placed it in the window, "You may
hide your treasure with every care, and watch it well, but it will be
spent at last." Now the boy had no idea of any hidden meaning in this
sentence, but the king chanced to pass that way and read it. Angrily
he called the rich man to his carriage, and demanded of him what
it meant. "I do not know, most exalted king," said the rich man,
"I have only now seen it. It must have been written by a poor boy to
whom I have given shelter since his father died." "Drive him away,"
said the king; "if he comes back he shall be put to death."

So the rich man with a heavy heart, for he loved the boy, sent him
out into the world. The boy wandered far and long, till at last he
came to a house. He called out to those within, "Honorable people,"
and heard them answer, "Come in." Inside there was no one but only
two statues, and one of these spoke, bidding him return to his own
town and beg of his master princely clothing, a princely carriage,
all gilt, and a music box that could play many tunes.

So the poor boy returned to his master, who sent for the tradesmen
and tailors and had them make all manner of princely clothing.

Then he got into his carriage and drove around for a while, till
he met a boy. To the boy he gave the music box and a piece of money
and told him to play it everywhere but to sell it to nobody, and to
report to him if any one wanted it. So the boy got into the carriage
and took the music box with him, while the poor boy went back to the
rich man's house.

Soon the king saw the beautiful carriage and heard the sweet music of
the music box. The king asked the boy who the owner was, and wished
to buy them. The boy told the king that he must tell his employer,
and soon the carriage and the music box were sent to the king for
a present.

The king was much pleased, for he knew the princess would be delighted,
so he had the carriage and the music box taken into her vault, and
played on the music box a long time. After he had gone, out stepped
the poor boy from a secret compartment of the carriage, and knelt
before her telling his love in gentle tones. She listened to him,
much frightened at first, but later more composedly, till at last
she gave him her heart and promised him her hand.

When the king came in again he found them sitting holding each other's
hands. He demanded in a loud voice, "Who are you? Why are you here? How
did you come?" To this the boy modestly replied, saying that he had
come concealed in the carriage, and told the king that "You may hide
your treasure with every care, and watch it well, but it will be spent
at last." But the princess entreated for him, and finally the king
gave his consent to their marriage, and they lived happily ever after.


Hidden Treasure.

There were once a husband and his wife who were very poor. They had
a little plot of ground that helped to sustain them, but as the man
was sick the woman went to work alone.

As she was weeding in the fields she found a malapad, [20] and after
a little she found another, and so on until she had a sec-apat. [21]
With this she returned home and bought rice, but she was afraid to
tell her husband lest he be jealous.

The next day she went to work and on this day she found a silver
peso. As she reached the edge of the field a voice spoke to her saying,
"Tell no one of your good fortune, not even your husband, and you shall
have more treasure." Afterwards she went to the field, and daily she
found a peso until she had five pesos, which she hid in a safe place.

On the seventh day she went to the field, but found nothing. She went
to the edge of the field to boil her rice, and was blowing her fire
when she heard the same voice again saying, "Never mind boiling your
rice, but dig there under your pallok, [22] and you will find more
than enough. Tell no one, not even your husband, of what you find." She
dug down and there she found a great jar filled to the brim with gold
pieces. She took one or two, and hastily covered up the rest and went
home. Like a good wife she disliked to keep a secret from her husband,
and finally she took him off to a quiet place and told him of their
good fortune.

He, overjoyed, could not restrain himself and went into the village
and told every one of the treasure trove. Then they went to dig it up,
but it was no longer there. Even the gold and the five pesos already
saved and hid in another secret place were gone, and they were as
poor as they had been before.

How foolish they were to disobey the command of the voice!


The Battle of the Enchanters. [23]

There was once a poor boy who was very ambitious to learn, and with
the consent of his parents he bound himself to an enchanter who was
a very wise man. The boy remained with him for a very long time,
until at last his master sent him home, saying that he could teach
him nothing more. The boy went home, but there he found nothing in
the way of adventure, so he proposed to his father that he should
become a horse, which his father could sell for twenty pesos to his
late teacher. He cautioned his father that, as soon as he received
the money for the horse, he should drop the halter as if by accident.

The young man then became a horse, and his father took him to the
enchanter, who gave him twenty pesos. As soon as the money was in the
father's hand, he dropped the halter, and the horse at once became
a bird which flew away. The enchanter metamorphosed himself into a
hawk and followed. The bird was so hard pressed by the hawk that it
dived into the sea and became a fish. The hawk followed and became a
shark. The fish, being in danger from the shark, leaped out on to the
dry ground and took the shape of a crab, which hid in a spring where
a princess was bathing. The shark followed in the shape of a cat,
which began to search under the stones for the crab, but the crab
escaped by changing itself into a ring on the finger of the princess.

Now it chanced that the father of the princess was very sick, and
the enchanter went to the palace and offered to cure him for the
ring on the finger of the princess. To this the king agreed, but the
ring begged the princess not to give him directly to the enchanter,
but to let him fall on the floor. The princess did this, and as the
ring touched the floor it broke into a shower of rice. The enchanter
immediately took the form of a cock and industriously pecked at the
grains on the floor. But as he pecked, one of the grains changed to
a cat which jumped on him and killed him.

The young man then resumed his own form, having proven himself a
greater man than his master.

Fletcher Gardner.

Bloomington, Ind.


A Filipino (Tagalog) Version of Aladdin.

Once on a time a poor boy and his mother went far from their home
city to seek their fortune. They were very poor, for the husband
and father had died, leaving them little, and that little was soon
spent. The boy went into the market-place to seek for work, and a
travelling merchant, seeing his distress, spoke to him and asked
many questions. When he had inquired the name of the boy's father,
he embraced him with many kind words, and told him that he was the
father's long-lost brother, and that as he had no children of his
own the boy should be his heir and for the present live with him
as his son. He sent the boy to call his mother, and when she came
he kissed her with many words of endearment, and would have it that
she was his sister-in-law, though she told him that her husband had
no brother. He treated her well and made her many presents, so that
she was forced to believe he really was her brother-in-law.

The merchant then invited the boy to go for a visit with him, promising
that the mother should soon follow. Mother and son consented, and
the merchant set off with his nephew in the afternoon. They went
far and came to a mountain which they crossed, and then to a second,
which seemed very high to the poor boy so that he begged to rest. The
man would not allow this, and when the boy cried, beat him till he
agreed to do whatever he was told. They crossed this mountain also,
and came to a third, and on the very top they stopped. The merchant
drew a ring from his own finger and put it on that of the boy. Then
he drew a circle around the boy and told him not to be frightened at
what would happen, but to stretch out his arms three times, and that
the third time the ground would open, and that then he must descend
and get a tabo [24] that he would find, and that with that in their
hands they could quickly return. The boy, from fear of the man, did
as he was told, and when the ground opened, went down into the cave
and got the tabo. As he reached up his hand to be pulled from the
cave, the man took the ring from his finger, and told him to hand
up the vessel, but the boy, now much frightened, refused unless he
were first helped out himself. That the man would not do, and after
much talk drew another circle around the cave-mouth, bade it close,
and left the boy a prisoner in most evil plight.

Alone and helpless for three days in the underground darkness,
the boy was a prey to awful fear, but at the end of the third day,
having by accident rubbed slightly the tabo with his hand, at once
a great sinio [25] or multo [26] stood before him, saying that he
was the slave of the tabo, and that all things earthly were within
his power. At once mindful of his mother, he told the multo to take
him home, and in the winking of an eye, still carrying the tabo in
his hand, he stood before his mother. He found her very hungry and
sorrowful, and recounted all that had happened and again rubbed the
tabo lightly. The multo reappeared and the good woman hid her face
for terror at the sight, but the lad bade the multo bring him a dinner
for them both on a service of silver with everything to match.

After they had dined well for several days on the remnants of the
food, the boy went to the market and sold the spoons that the multo
had brought for two gold pieces, and on that they lived a long time:
and as from time to time their money became exhausted, he sold more,
till at last there was nothing left. Then, as he had become a young
man, he required the multo to bring him a great chest of money,
and soon became known as a very rich and generous person.

Now there was in that city a woman who had a very handsome daughter
whom she wished to marry to the young man, and by way of opening the
matter, she and her daughter went one day to try to buy some of the
rich table ware which he had, or at least so they pretended. The young
man was not of a mind for that kind of alliance, and so told the old
woman to rub the magic vessel. She did so and the multo at once whisked
her inside. The daughter also went in to inquire for her mother, and
as she admiringly touched the tabo the multo made her prisoner, and the
two became the slaves of the young man and were never heard of again.

A variant of this tale has been printed in Tagalog. It has probably
reached the Phillppines through the medium of Spanish.

Fletcher Gardner.

Bloomington, Ind.


Some Games of Filipino Children.


This is a game used by older persons to amuse small children, exactly
as our game of the "Five Little Pigs."

The child is grasped by the wrist with the left hand of the elder,
who repeats "Ang ama, ang ina, ang kaka, ang ali, ang nono, toloy,
os-os sa kili-kili mo." That is, "The father (thumb), the mother
(forefinger), the elder brother (middle finger), the elder sister
(ring finger), the grandparent (little finger) straight up to your
armpit." The armpit is then tickled. Os-os is a verb meaning "to go
up stream." This is a common game among the Tagalogs of Mindoro Island.


The game of marbles is played with conical shells, propelled by laying
on the ground and striking with the ulnar side of the index finger,
which is snapped from the thumb against it. The goal is a hole in the
ground, in which the stakes, usually consisting of other shells of
the same kind, are deposited. The "taw" is a straight line some six
or eight feet away. If a shell is struck, the owner of the striking
shell has another shot, and the owner of the shell struck shoots from
where he lies. He seems to incur no penalty.

This is a common game on Mindoro, and is played usually at the
beginning of the dry season.


Translated, the name means, "Play at hiding." It is played exactly
as "I spy" and the counting out beforehand is similar. There is a
considerable number of counting-out rhymes to be heard, only one of
which I am able to give entire. It is in Filipino Spanish. "Pim, pim,
serapim, agua, ronda, San Miguel, arcangel."

In English, "Phim, phim, seraphim, water, the night patrol,
St. Michael, the archangel."


This game is played by marking out in the dust or sand a parallelogram,
which is subdivided into a varying number of compartments. A small
stone is put into the first subdivision, and the player, standing
on one foot, kicks it into each in turn. If it goes out of bounds he
is allowed to kick it back, so long as the other foot does not reach
the ground. A failure to complete the circuit entails a loss of turn,
and on the next round the player begins again at the first compartment.


Is played with pebbles or shells. I am unable to give the special
movements, which resemble very much our own game. I suspect that it
is of Spanish origin.

Fletcher Gardner.

Indianapolis, Ind.


Bagobo Myths

By Laura Watson Benedict

The following stories were obtained from the Bagobo people, one of
the groups of pagan Malays in southeastern Mindanao, Philippine
Islands. Their habitat is on the eastern folds of the Cabadangan
mountain-range, in the vicinity of Mount Apo, the highest peak,

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