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One Thousand Questions in California Agriculture Answered by E.J. Wickson

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in unsanitary fashion, running through the separator will do little, if
any, good. Nevertheless, the separator does remove more than just the
solid particles of dirt. The purifying comes by leaving behind the
separator slime, so called, the slimy material left behind after a good
deal of milk has been run through. In fact, some creameries separate
milk, only to mix milk and cream again, largely for the purpose of
removing the impurities found in the slime. In this slime are not only
the impurities that fall into the milk, but also some of the fibrous
matter that is part of the milk, and this gathers, being pulled out by
gravity as are the fat particles, it seems to gather with it a few more
bacteria than remain in the milk itself. Material in real solution, as
sugar is in solution in water, naturally is practically unaffected by
separation. You are, therefore, right to the extent that you cannot
produce unsanitary milk and clean it with the separator, but your
neighbor is right to the extent that the separator does remove some
impurities and is used just for that purpose. There is also in the dairy
trade a centrifugal milk clarifier which is constructed in somewhat
similar manner to a cream separator, but acts differently on the milk in
not interfering with cream rising by gravity when separated cream and
milk are mixed after cleaning.

Butter Going White.

I bought some butter and during the warm weather it melted. About 40 or
50 per cent was white, while the balance was yellow and went to the top.
When the butter remelted, the yellow portion melted, leaving the white
portion retaining its shape. The white portion did not taste like
ordinary butter. The butter made from our cows' cream melted at a higher
temperature, but did not have a white portion. Why did our butter not
act like the creamery butter?

Samples of butter have occasionally been sent to this office that have
turned white on the outside, and since the white part has a very
disagreeable, tallowy flavor, people think that tallow or oleomargarine
has been mixed with it, but we have never been able to find any foreign
substance in any of the samples. We have found that some of the best
brands of butter will turn white first on the outside and the white
color will gradually go deeper if the butter is exposed to a current of
air or if left in the sun a short time - F. W. Andreason, State Dairy

What Is "Butter-fat?"

I would like to know what "butter-fat" means. I have asked farmers this
question and no one seems to know. I suppose all parties dealing with
creameries understand what the standard of measure or weight of
butter-fat is, but it is my guess that there are thousands of farmers
whom, if they were asked this question, would not know. We, of course,
know that butter is sold by the pound and cream by the pint, quart or
gallon, but what is butter-fat sold by?

Butter-fat is the yellow substance which forms the larger part of
butter. Besides, this fat butter is composed of 16 per cent or less of
water and small amounts of salt, and other substances of which milk is
composed. From 80 to 85 per cent or so of ordinary butter is the fat
itself. It is sold by weight. The cream from which butter is made is
taken to the creamery and weighed, not measured. A small sample is
tested by the so-called Babcock test to determine the exact percentage
of fat, and payment mode on this basis. For instance, if 1,00 pounds of
cream is one-third butter-fat, the dairyman receives pay for 33 1/3
pounds of this substance. If it is only one-quarter fat, he receives pay
for 25 pounds. Ordinary cream varies within these limits, but may be
much richer or thinner. Cream after the butterfat is removed is much
like skimmed milk, although it has less water in it.

Why Would Not Butter Come?

What is the trouble with cream that you churn on from Monday until
Saturday, then have to give up in despair and turn it out to the hogs?
We warmed it, and we cooled it, and used a dairy thermometer, but
nothing would do.

If the cream was in churnable condition otherwise, the probability is
that it was too cool when you started churning. It should be about 62

Drying a Persistent Milker.

My cow is to come fresh about the middle of next mouth, and in the last
two weeks her milk has changed in some way so that the cream makes very
yellow butter and comes to butter nearly as quick as when the cow was
fresh. Would it best for her to go entirely dry before coming fresh, or
will it be all right if she does not entirely dry up?

If your cow has been able to pick up any special amount of grass since
the rains came it might add to the color of the butter. A cow's milk
also gets richer toward the end of her lactation period, which may make
a richer cream and make the butter come quickly There does not seem to
be anything to worry about. The cow would probably do better if she
could become entirely dry before calving, but unless you can easily dry
her up it would be dangerous to try to force her to do so.

Butter-fat in Sweet and Sour Cream.

The creamery wagon takes our cream every other day. Without ice it is
almost impossible to keep the cream sweet during the hot weather. By the
time the wagon gets here, several hours after the fourth milking, the
cream is quite sour. Does sour cream test lower than sweet cream! Is any
butter-fat lost due to evaporation in dry weather?

The test of sour cream will be as accurate as of sweet cream, if
properly made, but it is rather more difficult to make; or rather, to
get the material into condition to work well. There is no fat lost by

Cream That Won't Whip.

When I sell my cream from the separator they say they cannot whip it.
Can you tell me if there is any way that I can make the cream whip?

There appears to be no good reason for blaming the separator for your
difficulty with the cream. Possibly the cream may be too thin, as thin
cream is sometimes difficult to whip. There is also the possibility that
the fat globules in the cream may be rather small, but that will be the
fault of the cows, not of the separator. Another reason why the cream
may not whip well may be that it is used too quickly. If the milk is all
right, the cream not too thin and it is permitted to stand for 12 hours
or so there should be no trouble with it. Occasionally when cream is
pasteurized it will not whip well. In these cases, or any other that may
develop, the application of lime water to the cream at the rate of 1
gallon to 60 will remove the difficulty.

What Is Certified Milk?

What process has milk to go through to be called "certified," and what
demand is there for it?

Certified milk is simply milk that is produced and marketed under
prescribed sanitary conditions. The dairies are inspected periodically
by representatives of some medical society or other organization to see
that all regulations are observed, who certify that this is done; hence
the name. Milk from other dairies is prohibited by law from being sold
under the name "certified milk." Among the requirements in its
production are that the cows must be free from tuberculosis and
otherwise perfectly healthy, the stable to have a concrete floor which
is washed out after each milking, the milkers to have special clothes
for milking, etc. The milk is cooled and bottled immediately after
milking, and kept at a low temperature until it reaches the consumer, to
prevent the entrance of dirt of any kind or the development of the few
bacteria that must gain entrance before it is bottled. To produce such
milk requires much expensive apparatus and much more labor than to
produce ordinary milk, and as a result it sells for a much higher price,
both to distributor and consumer, so that the market for it is rather

Jersey Shorthorn Cross.

If I cross Registered Shorthorns with a Jersey bull, what dairying value
will the progeny have?

This makes an excellent cross. Even beef-strain Shorthorns have lots of
milking power if it is developed and the Jersey cross will bring it out
in the progeny. The cows have excellent milking qualities and give very
rich milk. They also have a big frame and fine constitution. About the
finest cows in Humboldt county were of this cross although Jersey bulls
have been used so long that the Shorthorn blood is almost eliminated.
The first "improved" cattle in California and the first cross made for
dairy purposes was Jersey bulls upon grade Shorthorn cows. Later the
Holstein Friesians became popular and they and their grades are now most

A Free Martin.

I have a Jersey cow who has just had twin calves, a heifer and a bull.
The heifer was born about five minutes before the bull and seems to be
the stronger. My neighbors tell me to fatten both for the butcher, for
they say the heifer will be barren. The mother is a young cow, as this
is her second calf. Kindly inform if this is one of nature's laws or if
there is a possibility of the heifer turning out all right?

The probability is that it will be better to veal the heifer than to
raise her, as most heifer calves twinned with a bull are free martins,
or animals of mixed sex and no good for breeding purposes or for
profitable milk production. If the bull is a good animal, he probably
will be all right, as this twinning does not seem to affect a bull calf,
though it does the heifer. It does not always happen that the heifer is
worthless for breeding, but the probability is so great that you had
better have her killed and be done with it.

What Is a "Grade"?

Does the term "grade" mean an animal whose sire is a thoroughbred and
whose dam is a scrub, or just one who is selected from others because of
her good points or those of her mother?

Roughly speaking, a grade animal is one having more or less pure-bred
blood, but not enough, or otherwise too irregular, for registry under
the rules of the association of the breed to which it has affiliation.
It does not refer to selection without use of a pure-blood sire at some
point in the ancestry, but this is not a distinction of much moment, for
it is hard to find animals which have not borrowed something from some
cross with pure blood, though remote. The terms high and low grade are
sometimes used to signify amount of pure blood recognizable by form and
other characters or remembered by owners or their neighbors. Generally
speaking, a grade is anything not entitled to registry, though
ordinarily it refers to the offspring of a pure-bred sire and a cow of
another or of no breed. The offspring of a pure-bred cow and a scrub
bull would also be a grade.

Breeding a Young Mare.

I have a beautiful colt 22 months old that will weigh 1200 or 1300
pounds; very compactly built, and has extra health, life and vigor. I
want this colt for a broodmare. Would you advise breeding at two or
three years old?

Authorities agree at placing the age from two to three years, according
to the development of the animal and other circumstances.

"To Breed in the Purple."

What is meant by breeding a sow in the purple? I have seen this
statement used many times by breeders who advertised "sows safe in pig
bred in the purple."

To be "bred in the purple" means to be of royal or princely parentage.
It originally was used in reference to the nobility of Europe, as purple
was the insignia of royal blood, due to the fact that purple was the
rarest and most costly color and only the rich and noble could buy it.
When used in referring to live stock, it signifies that the animal in
question has a long line of blooded ancestry.

Cows for Hill Country.

What breed of dairy cows do you think would be preferable to keep for
butter, at an altitude of about 1800 feet, in Nevada county - Jerseys,
Guernseys or Ayrshires? I do not mean to have them to rustle for their
own living, but to feed them well, house and care for them in all
weather, particularly in stormy weather.

The best breed for a man is the one he likes best, providing it has been
bred for the purposes he desires to attain. All the breeds you mention
are suited to the scheme you outline.

Foothill Dairying.

Is there any risk to run in taking cows to an altitude of 2000 from a
much lower one?

There is no quarrel between a cow and a mountain. Ever since the
settlement of the State cows have been driven directly from the valley
up to the mountain meadow pastures, both for butter and for beef-making,
in the summer time. The foothill elevation you mention is only a
starting to elevations of 6000 feet and more to which cattle are driven
every season.

Bad-Tempered Jerseys.

Jersey bulls are apt to become vicious after a time; is it so to the
same extent with bulls of the other named breeds?

The Jersey bull is conceded to be crosser and more dangerous than other
bulls, but no bull should ever be allowed to have a chance at a man.
Never consider a bull gentle and you will be safe with him.

Breeding in Line.

Is it right and proper to breed a pedigreed registered bull to his
daughter, who is the offspring of a grade cow? If it is not right,
explain why. If it can be done, will the offspring be physically perfect
and an improvement, or will it have poorer qualities than its sire and
mother? If this inbreeding can be done successfully, how long can it be
carried on, or, in other words, how long could one bull be bred back
into his own offspring? Can a herd be perfected in this way?

It is right and proper to breed a registered sire to his daughter, who
is the offspring of a grade cow. The first cross is all right and the
offspring ought to be physically perfect. This is a first step in what
we call line breeding, but in line breeding proper, both animals must be
pure bloods and registered, having ancestors on both sides which have a
long line of good individuals with strong constitutions and true to
type. To do this, one must have a perfect ideal in mind. This line
breeding is what has developed the breeds today up to the high standard
of perfection. Breeding sire to daughter, if followed along these lines,
will be all right; at least, it was so in the case of Amos Cruickshank,
the great shorthorn breeder. You cannot successfully breed back on the
daughter's offspring, but if you use a straight out-cross on the
daughter's offspring you can again use this sire on her produce with
marked success. In the case of a grade cow and registered sire, there
are two things which will make you either lose or win with one cross,
and that is regarding the breeding of your sire. If he is just an
ordinary-bred fellow it will be a hit-and-miss game, but if he is from a
long line of good ancestors on his dam's side, you can very materially
improve the, herd, because always keep in mind the female produce from
the sire's dam will grow with age toward the sire's dam. So if your
first cross from your first sire is all right, use a straight out-cross
bull, but be sure he is what he ought to be, and then you can use your
old bull back on his heifers. Of course, a man practicing this breeding
ought to be a thorough stockman and a first-class judge of live stock. -
W. M. Carruthers.

Whitewashes for Stock Buildings.

I desire whitewash recipes which have given durable results on

It is so desirable to make outbuildings neat and clean, and so important
to keep trees from sunburning, etc., that a durable whitewash as cheaply
and easily made as possible is very important. The following are
commended: No. 1 - To half a bucketful of unslaked lime add 2 handfuls
of common salt, and soft soap at the rate of 1 pound to 15 gallons of
the wash. Slake slowly, stirring all the time. This quantity makes 2
bucketfuls of very adhesive wash, which is not affected by rain. No. 2 -
Whitewash requires some kind of grease in it to make it most durable.
Any kind of grease, even though it be old and partly spoiled, will
answer all right, though tallow is best. The grease imparts to the
whitewash an oil property the same as in good paint. Tallow will stay
right on the job for years, and the cheapest of it will do. In order to
prepare this grease and get it properly incorporated into the white
wash, it is necessary to put the grease in a vessel on the stove, and
boil it into a part of the whitewash so as to emulsify it and get it
into such condition that it can be properly incorporated with the
whitewash mixture. No. 3 - For every barrel of fresh lime, add 16 pounds
of tallow, 16 pounds of salt and 4 pounds of glue, dissolved. Mix all
together and slack; keep covered, and let stand a few days before using.
Add water to bring the right consistency to spread readily. For nice
inside work strain it. When less than a barrel of lime is used, the
quality of the wash does not seem so good. It is better to apply hot,
but it does well cold.

Government Whitewash.

What is the government recipe for whitewash?

"Take a half bushel of well-burned, unslaked lime, slake it with boiling
water, cover during the process to keep in steam, strain the liquid
through a fine sieve or strainer, and add to it 7 pounds of salt,
previously dissolved in warm water; 3 pounds of ground rice boiled to a
thin paste and stirred in while hot; half a pound of Spanish whiting and
1 pound of glue, previously dissolved by soaking in cold water, and then
hanging over in a small pot hung in a larger one filled with water. Add
5 gallons of hot water to the mixture, stir well and let it stand for a
few days, covered from dirt. It should be applied hot, for which purpose
it can be kept in a portable furnace. A pint of this mixture, if
properly applied, will cover a square yard."

Whitewash for Spray Pump.

Can you give a recipe for a durable whitewash which can be prepared
simply and in large quantities? The whitewash will be applied with a
spray pump.

To 25 pounds of lime, whole, slacking with 6 gallons of water, add 6
pounds of common salt and 1 1/2 pounds of brown sugar. Stir and mix well
and allow to cool. When cool stir in 1 ounce of ultramarine blue. Then
add 2 gallons of water, and sprinkle and stir in 2 pounds of Portland
cement. If two coats are to be applied, add 1 more gallon of water.
Strain for work on smooth surface.

Buttermilk Paint

How is paint made with buttermilk for farm buildings?

One gallon buttermilk, 3 pounds of Portland cement, and sufficient
coloring matter to give the desired shade. Apply as soon as made, and
stir a great deal while being applied. It is said to dry in about 6
hours and to be a good preservative for fences, barns and other

Trespassing Live Stock.

Is there a fence law in this State? In other words, do I have to fence
against my neighbors' stock, or does the law require him to care for his
stock and keep it off my property?

The old "no-fence law" which was enacted during the troubles between
wheat growers and stock rangers has been put out of commission by more
recent legislation. The trespassing live stock is liable for damage, but
just how to proceed to protect yourself you should learn from a local
lawyer who knows statutes and your county ordinances also.

Rat-Proof Granary.

How can I make a rat-proof granary for alfalfa meal and barley?

Omit all boarding of the sides below the floor level and place a heavy
inverted pan, milk pan, between the top of each of the supporting posts
and the floor beams. Care should be taken that the diagonal bracing of
the underpinning or posts does not allow a rat to secure a foot hold
near enough the floor to permit of gnawing through.

Concrete Stable Floor.

Is a concrete floor good for a horse stable?

Concrete floors are satisfactorily used for horse stables, provided the
floor is ribbed or otherwise roughened in a way to reduce the danger of
slipping. Some stablemen have stall floors made that way. Some use a
wooden grating over the concrete in places where the horses have to
stand for any length of time. Others soften the standing by free use of

Silo-Heating Not Dangerous.

Is there any danger of a barn burning from spontaneous combustion due to
a silo being built in the barn?

There is no danger of the silo overheating and setting fire to a barn.
When the ensilage is curing, it often gets warm, but never anywhere near
the point of combustion.

To Make Shingles Durable.

What is the best material with which to coat the shingles on my barn

The best coating is a wood preservative, the principal ingredient of
which is creosote. There are several reliable brands of preservatives
and stains that may be had at a cost of about half that of paint. We
must remark also the natural durability of redwood shingles in this
climate if the roof has a good pitch. We reshingled our house roof after
20 years of use and found the shingles so sound that we turned them and
shingled the sides and roof of a shed with them where they promise to be
good for another score of years.

Best Breed of Hogs.

What is the best breed of hogs for pen feeding, shutting them up in
small pens from the time they are little pigs and feeding them mostly on
skim milk and slops?

There is no best breed. It is a matter of personal preference. Any of
the breeds are all right to pen up and feed. The principal thing is to
see that the hogs are all pure bred and have not been crossed too often
to cause deterioration. Choose one breed of hogs and keep them as pure
as possible and you will have no trouble in raising them. All the breeds
are good; but some are fancied more than others. Dark-colored hogs are
preferred in California because less liable to sunburn.

Part VI. Feeding Farm Animals

Feed for Plow-Horses.

While doing heavy plowing, how many pounds of rolled barley per day
should I feed to keep 1300-pound horses in good condition? If I feed
part oat hay and part alfalfa hay, together with rolled barley, what
ration would be ample?

A ration used by the California Experiment Station was 12 pounds of
alfalfa hay, 11 pounds of wheat hay and 7 pounds of crushed barley for
1000 pounds of horse at hard work. The larger the horse the less food
for the amount of work he does in proportion to his size, so multiplying
these figures by 1.2 would bring a person somewhere near the ration for
a 1300-pound horse, and an approximation is as close as one can come to
any general ration. Probably more alfalfa and less of the other feeds
could well be given, since many farmers are succeeding in feeding
alfalfa exclusively.

Vetch for Horses.

Does vetch make good feed for horses? Will vetch produce a heavier crop
than grain? When is the best time to sow vetch for hay, and what is the
best variety?

Vetch makes excellent stock feed whether used as hay or as pasturage.
Vetch falls to the ground so badly that it is very difficult to cut hay
from it unless some grain is planted to hold it up. Oats make an
excellent hold-up crop and is more generally used. A half a bushel of
vetch seed is mixed with a bushel of oats and this is enough to plant an
acre. Some growers, however, prefer a bushel of vetch as that makes the
stand much heavier.

Sorghum Feeding.

Can I allow milk cows to pasture on growing Kaffir and Egyptian corn
during the summer? Which one is the best for pasture and milk?

There is no difference between Kaffir corn and Egyptian corn so far as
feeding goes. They are both sorghums. There is a danger in pasturing on
young sorghums, because stock is often killed from overeating it, and
they are quite apt to do this when they come upon it from dry feed. If
you cut and wilt the young sorghum, or if it is fed sparingly with hay,
etc., it becomes innocent of injury. After the sorghum has obtained
considerable growth, it also loses its dangerous character.

Salting Hay.

What kind of salt is used for salting hay, how much to use and how to
apply it?

Any good commercial salt such as is used for pork or beef packing is
satisfactory for salting hay. A good handful to the ton, scattering it
as the hay is stocked is as good a formula as can be had.


What is stover? How is it cut and handled?

Stover is corn fodder after the ears are taken off. The best time to cut
the corn for stover is immediately after the kernel becomes dented and
the leaves or blades commence to dry. Immediately after the ears are
taken off, the stalks should be cut and stacked. The size of the shock
depends upon the climate. If it is a foggly climate and stalks are
green, it is better to make a smaller shock, but in the interior valley
where the weather is warm it is best to make large shocks, so that the
stacks will not dry up very rapidly.

Feed for Cows.

What shall I feed cows when they are fresh and when they are dry!

When they commence to freshen, give some green feed, such as alfalfa or
corn; if possible, also give, say, two or three pounds of barley or
bran, and gradually increase this for two or three weeks until six or
seven pounds of bran or barley is being fed. Also give a small amount of
hay. Bran may be rather expensive feeding and a substitute is being
used. Take four parts of barley to one of bran and mix. With barley at
its low price, this makes rather inexpensive feeding. Another substitute
is to take the chopped alfalfa hay and barley. These are mixed
thoroughly together and moistened. After the cow freshens and gives her
full flow of milk, let her eat all the alfalfa hay she wants. A good
ration is about 15 to 20 pounds of hay, 6 or 7 pounds of barley or bran
and about 10 pounds of roots such as beets or mangels. When the cow is
dry, pasture is the best food, supplemented with some green food.

Sorghum Silage.

Will Egyptian corn make good ensilage and at what time should it be cut
to make the best feed for dairy cows?

Sorghum makes good silage. It must be cut while surely juicy enough, for
it is a little more apt to dry out than Indian corn.

Barley for Hay Feeding.

Should the barley for hog feeding be rolled, ground or fed whole, dry or
wet? Also, how much should be fed and how often to get best results?

To obtain the best results, the barley should be ground into a meal (not
too fine) and have the hulls screened or floated out. This is best fed
when made into a thick slop. Some good feeders believe in letting it
stand until fermentation sets up, that is, gets a little sour. We prefer
a sweet to a sour feed. However, hogs will do well on either, provided
there is no change from sour to sweet. The change is the bad part. Hogs
should be fed just the amount that they will clean up well, and no more.
A hog should always be ready for his feed at feeding time. We would not
feed oftener than twice a day: night and morning. - Chas. Goodman.

Sugar Beets and Silage.

Will sugar beets keep in a silo and how sugar beets rank as a hog feed?

Sugar beets would probably keep all right if stored in a silo just as
they might if kept in any other receptacle, but it is not necessary to
store beets for stock-feeding in this State. They can be taken from the
field, or from piles made under open sheds in which the beets may be put
because more convenient for feeding than to take them from the field in
the rainy season. Beets put whole into a silo would not make silage. For
that purpose they would need to be reduced to a pulp, but there is no
object in going to the expense of that operation where beets will keep
so well in their natural condition and where there is no hard freezing
to injure them. Beet pulp silage is made from beets which are put
through a pulping process for the purpose of extraction of the sugar
and, therefore, best pulp silage is only made in connection with
beet-sugar factories and is a by-product thereof which is proving of
large value for feeding purposes.

Feeding Value of Spelt.

What is the food value of spelt? It is a Russian variety of wheat, and
yet, I am informed, it has about the same value as a stock food that
barley has.

We have no analysis of spelt at hand. It is presumably like that of
barley, as you suggest, because the spelt has an adhering chaff as
barley has. This fact makes it better for feeding than wheat, not in
nutritive content, but because the chaff tends to distribute the starchy
material, making it more easily digestible; just as barley and oats are
better than ordinary wheat for stock feeding.

Concentrates and Corn Stalks.

Is it necessary to feed mulch cows any hay or concentrated feed in
addition to green corn stalks?

It is necessary. Green corn is an excellent thing for milch cows, but it
is a very unbalanced ration and needs alfalfa or something else to
balance it up. Green corn, for example, contains only about one per cent
of digestible protein and 11.5 per cent of digestible carbohydrates and
0.4 per cent fat, or a nutritive ratio of about 1 to 12 1/2. A proper
ration would be about 1 to 6 or 7, or less. To balance this up alfalfa
can be fed better than anything else in California, for that is very
rich in protein and the cheapest supply of protein that there is. If you
give the cows a good supply of alfalfa hay with the green corn, you will
have an ideal combination.

Dry Sorghum Fodder.

Is Egyptian corn fodder good for cows? I have been told it would dry up
the milk. I have several acres and would like to feed it if it is not

Dry sorghum fodder is counted about the poorest roughage that one would
think of harvesting. It is much less valuable than Indian corn fodder.
Egyptian corn is one of the non-saccharine sorghums which are valuable
both for grain or for green feeding. We never heard of direct
milk-drying effect, though such a result might be expected from feeding
such innutritive material, which is also difficult of digestion. If fed
for roughness it should be in connection with concentrated foods like
bran or oil meal or with green alfalfa. No cow can give much milk when
the feed is hardly nutritive enough to keep her alive.

There seems to be, however, much difference in the dry fodders from
different varieties of sorghum. One grower writes: "Kaffir corn is the
only variety within our knowledge of which the fodder is of much value.
We consider the fodder much more preferable than that of the ordinary
Indian corn, and our stock eat it much more readily than the sweet
sorghum. However, it requires a much longer season in which to ripen
than does any of the other varieties, for which reason it is less
desirable to plant in midsummer."

Steers on Alfalfa.

How much alfalfa hay will a two or three-year-old steer eat per day, and
about what is the gain in weight per day?

A steer will clean up about 33 pounds per day. Steers will make about 1
1/2 pounds gain in weight per day.

Concentrates with Alfalfa.

I have a good supply of alfalfa hay and have been feeding this as a
straight feed for my dairy cows. They are not, however, doing as well as
they should and I am looking for some good feed to go with it.

You could probably get better returns by feeding about a pound of
cocoanut meal and three of dried beet pulp than by any other combination
of concentrates with straight alfalfa. If you are producing market milk
or butter prices justify it, more concentrates could profitably be fed.
It is an expensive proposition to build up a properly balanced ration
with alfalfa and concentrates alone, and unless market milk is being
sold, it usually does not pay. The cheapest way to provide a balanced
ration is not by concentrates, but by wheat or other grain straw, and
let the cows eat all they care for. This is very cheap and helps to
balance a ration with green or dry alfalfa hay, is usually cheap, and is
fine for cows. Both are much less expensive than concentrates.

Chopping Hay for Horses.

What saving may be made by chopping all oat hay when fed to horses?

There is no particular saving in chopping hay unless the horses are
worked very hard and for very long hours, as is often the case with
express horses in the cities, or unless the power for cutting is very
cheap and feed high. The idea is that, except in unusual cases as above
mentioned, the horses can do their own grinding cheaper than it can be
done by power. Somewhat less hay is wasted when fed cut than when fed
long, but if they are not fed too much long hay they will waste very

Grain for Horses.

What is the best formula for feeding work horses with oat hay, alfalfa,
barley (crushed) and corn as rations?

Feed one-half oat hay and one-half alfalfa hay, about 1 to 1 1/2 pounds
per day for each 100 pounds live weight of the horse. Add to this from
3/4 to 1 pound of rolled barley or corn for each 100 pounds live weight.
If the corn is on the cob, four-fifths of its weight is corn; that is to
say, 5 pounds of corn on the cob has 4 pounds of grain.

Feeding Cut Alfalfa Hay.

Would alfalfa hay, cut, say, from one-half to three inches in length be
better than whole hay for hogs, cattle and horses, and if it is better,
should it be fed wet or dry?

Cattle and horses do much better when fed chopped alfalfa hay than when
fed whole hay. They can eat the required amount in much less time and
with less exertion. For cattle and horses the hay should be cut about
one inch long and fed dry. There is no advantage in chopping alfalfa hay
for hogs unless it is mixed with ground grain and made into slop. - L.
P. Denny.

Storing Cut Alfalfa Hay.

We are planning on cutting our next season's crop of alfalfa with a feed
cutter and storing it in a barn for winter feeding.

The hay must, of course, be thoroughly cured, because of the great
danger of heating in a tight mass. A. Balfour says: "I have been cutting
alfalfa into a barn for wo seasons. It is absolutely necessary to have
the sides and floor tight, and it is easier to feed it if it is in a
loft. The hay is best stacked first, and must be thoroughly cured."

Alfalfa Grinding.

Is the curing of alfalfa for grinding different from ordinary; has it to
be chopped before grinding, and what is the cost of grinding?

Alfalfa hay should be cut when the very first blossoms commence to
appear. At this point the plant contains the greatest amount of protein;
from that time on until seed time, the protein diminishes and fiber
increases. To make meal, hay should be well cured, have gone through the
sweat, and should be dry, or as near dry as possible. It mills easier
when dry and makes a finer product. It should be cured so as to retain
the green color. To grind it, it is not necessary to cut it before
grinding, it mills better if ground just as it comes from the stack. The
cost of milling hay varies with the size of the machine, condition of
hay, whether dry or damp, or whether tough or tender. With larger plants
of a capacity of four to five tons per hour, it costs about 45 cents a
ton to put it in the sack, exclusive of the cost of sacks; and with
smaller, it runs from that on up to $1 to $2 per ton.

Feeding Calves.

How soon can calves be weaned and not hinder their growth? After
weaning, what would you advise to feed them?

After the calf has once nursed, it should be taken away from its mother,
but fed its mother's milk for a few days, depending on the vigor of the
calf. Commence to add skim-milk after a week or ten days, adding a small
amount at first and increasing it daily until the calf is on an entirely
skim-milk diet. The milk must be sweet, it must be as warm as its
mother's milk and the calf must not have too much of it. Four quarts at
a feed twice a day is sufficient for the average sized calf for the
first month, then increase it accordingly. Add a spoonful of ground
flaxseed to each feed and teach the calf to eat a little grain as soon
as possible. Ground barley is the most economical feed to balance a
ration containing so much skim-milk. If calves show a tendency to
looseness of the bowels, feed less milk, and when this does not remedy
the trouble, heat some skim-milk to boiling and when it is cooled to a
proper temperature feed this to the calf. A good grain ration to feed
calves along with skim-milk is ground barley with green alfalfa hay.
When the milk is cut off, feed barley and bran soaked with molasses
water. Put a pint of molasses in a pail of water and dampen feed with
it. This amount will dampen three bushels of feed. - W. M. Carruthers.

Winter Feed for Sheep.

What would be the best to sow for sheep pasture - barley, oats, rye, vetch
or rape?

Of the grains, rye is usually found to be best for quick winter growth,
and rye and vetches sown together are very satisfactory, because the rye
holds the vetches up so that the whole growth can be more successfully
handled with the mower, and if grown that way and fed green in a corral,
a very large amount of good feed can be secured. Sufficient experiments
have not yet been made with rape to fully demonstrate its value. Even if
it grew well, it would be inferior in nutritive value to vetches and

Balanced Rations.

What is a balanced ration for milk cows and brood sows?

When plenty of alfalfa is available many dairymen feed that alone. It is
better to feed a little corn, grain hay, beet pulp or the beets
themselves to balance up the ration. Some of the best concentrates to
feed to offset alfalfa hay are ground barley and dried beet pulp. The
same thing can be said about the sows. They will consume about 10 pounds
of chopped alfalfa per day and all the skim-milk that is likely to be
given them. Not more than eight pounds of concentrates need be fed, of
which one-fifth may be bran, the same amount, or more, of cocoanut oil
cake, and the rest corn or barley. With plenty of skim-milk and alfalfa,
but little grain or other concentrates will be needed. A few beets will
also go well with alfalfa.

Pasture and Cover Crop.

I am thinking of sowing burr clover with rye to be plowed under in the
spring. Is it good policy to sow rye with clover?

Burr clover and rye would be very satisfactory for sowing, after the
rains, to secure a winter growth for plowing under in March or April, or
earlier if the growth should be large enough to warrant. Such a cover
crop can be pastured lightly to advantage.

Cutting Corn for Silage.

What is the best time to cut corn for the silo? What length is it cut?
Is water put on it when it is put in the silo?

The best time to cut corn for the silo is just as the kernels are
beginning to glaze. It is cut with a proper ensilage cutter into half or
three-quarter inch lengths. No water is used, unless the corn should be
unusually dry, with shriveled leaves; in that case, the use of water to
compensate for the loss of moisture in the stalks and leaves is

Fall and Winter Pasturage.

What do you advise for planting in the fall for winter pasture in the
Sacramento valley? Are field peas suitable?

The common California field pea, called Niles pea, the Canadian pea, the
common vetch (which is sometimes called the Oregon vetch because the
seed is largely grown in that State) are all suitable for fall planting
and winter growth because they are not injured by ordinary valley
frosts. Aside from legumes, you can get winter feed from fall-sown rye,
Essex rape or kale.

Summer Pasture for Hogs.

I want to pasture hogs in the San Joaquin valley this spring and summer.
Have water for irrigation, but will not have time to get alfalfa started
sufficient to pasture.

Sorghum can be planted with pumpkins or some root crop between the rows.
The root crop or the pumpkins could be used in the later summer, while
the sorghums could come between the natural grasses of the early spring
and the root crops. A strictly pasturage scheme is to sow wheat or
barley and turn the hogs on this, so that they will eat within certain
prescribed limits. In order to do this, the field needs a shifting
fence, so that the hogs can be driven from one section to another -
never letting the hogs eat too closely, as they will kill off the stand.

Size of a Silo.

I am planning to build a silo 8 feet high and 10 feet across. Will
ensilage (corn, oats) keep well in a silo of those dimensions?

The silo you are intending to build is too shallow, and would hold only
a very small amount of silage. There would be several inches loss of
silage before you could start feeding, and you would have to feed at
least two and probably three inches off per day in order to keep the
food from spoiling. Sixty inches of silage would thus only last about
twenty days. Also, the deeper a silo is, the tighter the ensilage is
packed and the more will be contained in a cubic foot. The following
table will give suggestions as to dimensions:

Diameter. Height. Capacity. Diameter. Height. Capacity.
10 feet 25 feet 36 tons 14 feet 34 feet 115 tons
10 " 28 " 42 " 15 " 34 " 131 "
11 " 29 " 60 " 16 " 35 " 158 "
12 " 32 " 73 " 20 " 35 " 258 "
13 " 33 " 83 "

A cow can consume four tons of silage in 180 days and more or less as
you care to feed, so by figuring out how long you will probably feed,
you can see the size of silo to build at once.

Soiling Crops in California.

What are the dates for planting crops to be used for soiling in your

We are using Indian corn and sorghums of various kinds for soiling to a
certain extent. There is also some cutting and carrying of alfalfa,
although most of the alfalfa is pastured. Dates of planting depend upon
the frost-free period; sometimes beginning in April, and successive
planting for later growth as water may be available for irrigation.
There are places where one can see standing corn and sorghum untouched
by frost as late as December 1. In other locations the growth of these
plants have to be made between May and September. We have also
winter-soiling practiced to a small extent in this State and for that
purpose rye and barley sown at the beginning of the rainy season are
used to some extent.

Brewer's Grains for Cows.

Are sprouted barley grains that may be had from breweries good for milch
cows? Will it increase the milk, or will it dry up the cows?

Professor Henry, in his standard work on "Feeds and Feedings," says:
"Fresh brewer's grains constitute one of the best feeds for the dairy
cow. She is fond of them and they influence most favorably the flow of
milk. Fed while fresh in reasonable quantities, supplemented by bright
hay or corn fodder for dry feed, the grains being kept in tight
feed-boxes which can be kept clean, and with other conditions favorable
to the healthfulness of the cow, no valid objection can be raised
against this form of feed. From 20 to 30 pounds of wet grains should
constitute a day's allowance."

Feeding Pumpkins.

What is the proper way to feed pumpkins to cows? Some say to cut them in
halves; while others say they must be chopped fine enough so that the
cows cannot choke on them. Some tell me the seeds tend to dry the cows
up, and should not be fed with pumpkins.

Pumpkins should be either cut in halves or broken in large fragments so
that the stock can get a bite at them or else should be chopped fine,
and we could never see the advantage of going to that trouble. Cutting
into medium-sized pieces is dangerous because of the temptation to
swallow them whole and thus getting choked. It is not necessary to
remove the seeds.

Feeding a Family Cow.

What shall I feed family Jersey cow in addition to alfalfa hay to insure
a good supply of milk?

One of the best things to feed in addition to alfalfa hay is a couple of
quarts of middling or bran twice a day, with which is mixed a cup of
molasses with enough water to make a nice paste. Dried beet pulp is
exceptionally good with alfalfa, if it is available, this also to be
moistened before feeding.

Rolled Barley for Cows.

Will rolled barley hurt milk cows, say two light feeds a day? Will it
not do about as much good as the same amount of bran?

Certainly not and otherwise will be good if not used in excess to
encourage fattening. Bran is a better feed for milk because it has a
higher protein content.

Horse Beans and Pie-melons.

Would it pay me to raise horse beans for fattening hogs? Horse beans do
well. Would citrons do well there without irrigation, and would they be
better than stock-beets for hog feed?

We do not promise anyone that anything will pay. Horsebeans are good
with other feeds for hogs. Theoretically, they will balance well with
pie-melons and beets, and both the latter will produce well on good land
with proper cultivation in the valley you mention. Theoretically, also,
we would rather have beets than pie-melons. The hogs will tell you the

Horse Beans.

Are "horse beans" a leguminous crop and how does their feeding value for
hogs compare to cowpeas and Canadian field peas?

They surely are legumes, and they resemble so closely in composition the
other legumes which you mention that their feeding value would be
practically the same.

Storing Stock Beets.

What is the best method of storing stock beets and stock carrots in this
climate? We can let them remain in the ground and grow until February or
March and would like to preserve them for feeding as long as possible.

Stock beets and carrots can be stored in California without recourse to
covering with ground or use of a cellar. They keep very well during the
winter if piled under cover in such a way as to keep cool and dry.

Kale for Cow Feed.

What is kale worth for cow feed as compared with alfalfa, also can it be
cut and cured the same as alfalfa and what variety is the best?

Kale is very similar to cabbage in growth, and for feeding purposes. For
cow feed it would have about three-fourths the amount of digestible
nutrients as green alfalfa, but would have an added value on account of
its succulency. It would go especially well with alfalfa hay. The Jersey
or Thousand-Headed kale is considered the standard for stock or poultry
feed. It is always fed fresh and is not made into hay.

What Kind of Beet for Stock?

Which would be most valuable to plant on river-bottom land for cattle
and hog feed, sugar beets or mangels?

Grow a large stock of beet by all means - either a mangel or a tankard.
Usually you will get more weight than with sugar beets; the cost of
harvesting is far less, and the nutritive contents high enough.

Keeping Pumpkins.

What is the best way of storing pumpkins, under ordinary farm
conditions, in a climate such as we have here in northern California? I
have no facilities for cold storage.

All you have to do in this climate to keep pumpkins is to keep them out
of reach of the stock. They do not need storage of any kind, but will
keep in good condition during the late autumn and winter months in any
open-air place where they may be convenient for feeding purposes. In
parts of California where there is hard ground freezing, protection must
be given by covering with boards or straw or any other material
available. We have no need for root cellars or cold storage, for our
winter temperatures are neither high nor low enough to hurt them.

Grape Pomace as Hog Feed.

What is the value of grape pomace as a hog feed?

It has been sold for 50 cents a ton as it comes from the press at the
winery and when a person has not got any surplus of other feeds, it is
evidently worth that and then some. The only way to feed it is to put it
up in a big pile and let the hogs take it as they want it. It will help
keep them growing through the winter provided they have other feed with
it that might not be sufficient without the pomace.

Proper Feeding of Young Pigs.

If I put two 50-pound shoats to an acre of barley that will yield 10 or
12 sacks of grain, how many months could they be kept there to
advantage, and what gain could I expect them to make in that time?

If the pigs have been properly fed and were of good stock, they should
have attained a weight of 50 pounds at three or four months of age. Pigs
in this condition would be more likely to lose than gain turned on a dry
barley field, even if the yield were double what you state. Barley is an
excellent fattener for mature hogs, but is a poor food for young growing
pigs. Young pigs should have a balanced ration, which may be defined as
a little of almost all kinds of feed and not all of any one kind. We
have pigs running on a barley field such as you describe, and in
addition to the barley we feed them once a day a slop composed of wheat
middling and bran in equal parts by measurement, to which we add about 8
per cent tankage, and they seem to be moving along nicely. Without the
slop we don't think they would hold their own. - Chas. Goodman.

Pie-melons and Pigs.

I have 14 sows which were fed almost entirely on pie-melons and milk,
not much of the latter. Out of the 14, only 3 sows have saved any pigs;
the rest lost all the young they had. Four or five sows that for the
last three weeks have had no melons, nothing but green grass and a
little whole barley each day, are saving their pigs all right.

Pie-melons are poor feed and pigs which are not given anything better
ought to fail. "Green grass and a little whole barley" is much better
feed than pie-melons. Pie-melons are useful fed with alfalfa hay or some
richer food.

Wheat or Barley for Hogs.

Which would be the better grain for me to buy for hog feed; wheat at
$1.30 per hundred, or barley at $1? Would it be worth paying 10 cents a
hundred for rolling, and then haul the grain 8 miles by wagon?

Wheat is only considered about 10 per cent more valuable as a hog feed
than barley, so that in your case, barley at $1 is the cheaper. In
Bulletin 80 of the Oregon Station it was found that crushed wheat was 29
per cent more efficient than the whole grain, and it is safe to say that
barley will run about the same, enough so at any rate to pay the extra
10 cents a hundred for crushing and the hauling.

Grain and Pasture for Pigs.

What is the most profitable amount of grain to feed to spring pigs while
on alfalfa pasture, from the time of weaning to the time of marketing?

We doubt the profit of feeding whole grain to hogs of any age while on
green pasture. On almost all kinds of land they will get enough grit to
keep their teeth sore, hence they will not masticate the grain
thoroughly. Perfect mastication is very essential. We would feed the
pigs all the slop that they would clean up good twice a day. The slop to
be composed of equal parts of corn, barley meal ground fine, and wheat
middlings mixed with milk. There is nothing in all the world like milk
for growing pigs. If milk is not to be had, we would add from 5 to 10
per cent meat meal, which we consider next to milk. If whole grain is to
be used, it should be thoroughly cooked on account of the pigs' teeth
not being in condition to chew the hard grain. - Chas. Goodman.

Growing Pigs on Roots and Barley.

We can raise all kinds of root crops, such as carrots, sugar beets,
rutabagas, etc., and cow peas and pumpkins do wonderfully well. Will
hogs do well an that kind of diet, especially if given a little barley
with it?

The plants that you mention are good for hog feeding and can be used to
advantage with a little barley as you suggest. None of these plants are,
however, rich in protein as alfalfa and the other clovers are. The
reason why we get such a rapid and satisfactory growth of young hogs in
California is due to the fact that they are largely kept on alfalfa and
rapid growth is the product of a sufficient protein content in the
fodder. Both common field peas and cowpeas do not possess this element,
and if you can grow them they will serve as a substitute for the other
legumes, such as alfalfa. If you are feeding skim-milk, which is rich in
protein, roots and grain will go well with that.

Wheat and Barley for Feeding.

What is the difference in the feeding value of wheat and barley for hogs
and horses?

There is very little difference in the chemical composition of wheat and
barley. In their physical condition there is much difference, chiefly
because of the adhering chaff of the barley, which makes it more
digestible because it separates the starchy mass and enables the gastric
juice to work upon the particles more readily and quickly. Oats also
have this character. This is very important in the case of horses, which
can quickly be put out of condition by feeding wheat. For hogs and
chickens it makes much less difference, and the absence of the chaff
gives a greater amount of nutritive matter to the ton, so that wheat is
worth more at the same ton price. But look out about giving horses too
much wheat.

Part VII. Diseases of Animals

This division is largely compiled from the writings of Dr. E. J. Creely
of the San Francisco Veterinary College.

Abscess of Parotid Gland.

My horse has had a bad cold and it has a large lump on its neck which
keeps running and does not seem to get any better; it has been running
for two weeks.

This horse has an abscess of the parotid gland and the abscess should be
opened large enough so that the finger can be introduced to break down
adhesions, so that proper drainage can be established, after which wash
out with a 5 per cent solution of permanganate of potash. As this is a
dangerous location for a layman to interfere with, owing to the
branching of the carotid artery, pneumogastric nerve and jugular vein,
it should be done by a qualified veterinarian.

Forage Poisoning.

Last fall one of our horses was taken ill and had a swollen jaw. He died
soon and we supposed that he had been kicked and died of lockjaw. This
spring another was taken ill. He began dragging around, making an effort
to eat and drink, but not being able to swallow much. Something seemed
wrong with his throat and his hind legs. In two or three days he got
down, seeming to have no strength in his back. He kept struggling for
two days, not being able to swallow much; so we put him out of his
misery. Since then two others have gone off the same way.

The trouble is due to forage poisoning, caused by the eating food
infested with poisonous moulds. The symptoms are inability to swallow
(paralysis of the muscles of deglutition) and paresis of the hind and
forequarters. When the symptoms become advanced, treatment is of little
avail. However, further troubles can be prevented by ascertaining the
food which is infested with this mould. Ofttimes, however, such food may
be apparently clean to the eye. Make a complete change of food and a
thorough cleaning of your stable and corrals of all old fodder which
might be in the mangers, or in any accessible place. Very frequently old
food which is left in the bottom of mangers becomes mouldy, and horses
picking for grain which might be left in it, eat considerable quantities
of this spoiled fodder, get poisoned.

For a Scabby Swelling.

One of my cows has a swelling on her hind leg with little scabs on it,
first it was on the front leg. It is as big as your hand.

Use the following, applied once daily: Olive oil, 1 pint; turpentine, 2
ounces; oil cedar, 2 ounces; lysol, 1 ounce; mix and apply.

An Easement in Bloat.

What can be done for bloating?

It does not seem to be generally known that to put a bridle on a cow or
put a stick in her mouth and tie tightly with a string or strap up over
her head, so as to keep her jaws working, will relieve bloat. We have
given common soda and salt with good results to our milk cows. Take a
whip and run her around the corral, after giving the soda. This
treatment causes the wind to pass off.

Fatal Skin Disease.

About two months ago a horse was turned out in pasture. Several of the
horses in the pasture started to lose their hair. It seemed to fall away
from the hide, and leave the skin exposed. The horse that was newly
turned to pasture got the same disease and died. The other horses did
not die. The hair on the horse that had died had fallen off from the
sides and hind legs.

This is gangrenous dermatis, a gangrenout inflammation of the skin. It
is due to mould, must or vegetable fungi. Remove to a new pasture, give
food free from the fungi, and apply the following ointment to the skin:
Lanoline, 8 ounces; zinc oxide, 1 ounce; Pearson's Creoline, 1/2 ounce;
tannin, 3 drachms; mix and apply once daily.

Shoulder Injury on Mare.

A young mare that bruised her shoulder on the point with collar. It was
lanced and now has a hard lump or callous, about three inches in
diameter. What is best to do? She is not lame, but it would interfere
with the collar.

Get a qualified veterinarian to operate and entirely remove the growth
or you may use the following mixture to see if it will not cause it to
partly absorb and then use a dutch collar or a specially padded collar:
Compound tinct. iodine, 4 ounces; sulphuric ether, 2 ounces; oil cedar,
2 ounces; turpentine, 4 ounces; mix and apply once daily until

Horse with Worms.

What is the best remedy for a horse that has worms? I would like to
know, as I have a horse that is getting poor with this trouble.

Mix 1/2 pound pulverized and dried iron sulphate and 1/2 pound
bicarbonate of soda, and give one teaspoonful each morning until the
medicine is gone. After the last dose give the following: Turpentine, 2
ounces; fluid extract male fern, 1/2 ounce; Pearson's Creolins, 1 ounce;
raw linseed oil, 1 pint. Mix and give all at one dose. To improve the
general condition one may give artificial Carlsbad salts, 1
tablespoonful in each feed, and each dose to have added to it 3 to 5
grains arsenious acid. If plenty rock salt is allowed for horses to
lick, they will be protected against intestinal parasites to a slight
but useful degree.

Is It Mange?

We have a horse five years old that is always scratching and biting
himself as if he had mange or lice. He seems to itch more on his
shoulders and front legs than any other place. We have washed him with a
carbolic wash, also with a tea made from tobacco, but so far have been
unable to stop it. He often bites his legs below the knees until he
takes off all the hair and part of the skin. None of the other horses
are, troubled, although this horse has been troubled for three years.

Apply the following: Lysol, 1 ounce; kerosene, 4 ounces; formalin, 2
drachms; cotton seed oil, 9 ounces. Mix and apply once daily after
washing with hot sheep dip solution 10 to 100.

Horse with Itch.

For about a year my horse has been itching so badly that he has rubbed
off all the hair on certain parts of his body. Lately he bites his tail.

Whitewash the stall once weekly, scrub the harness, brushes, combs and
every stable appliance that he has come in contact with. Don't use the
same appliance on other animals that you use on this horse. Use the
following mixture once daily on affected spots: Milk of sulphur, 4
ounces; tincture of iodine, 4 ounces; turpentine, 4 ounces; kerosene, 16
ounces; cottonseed oil, 120 ounces.

For a Bowel Trouble.

What can I do to relieve a horse that balls up on alfalfa at the time of
the first symptoms? I have been bothered considerably with this, and
although I know the symptoms, I can never seem to relieve the pain
before the veterinary is called.

Give the following prescription: Fluid extract Cannabis Indica, 3
ounces; sulphuric ether, 2 ounces; spirits turpentine, 3 ounces; oil
peppermint, 10 drops; raw linseed oil, 24 ounces. Mix. Give one-half at
once, balance in one hour. If not relieved give several hotwater
soap-sud injections.

Abnormal Thirst of Horse.

I have a horse with an abnormal desire for water. I notice that in
drinking she always wants more than the others. I also notice she
perspires more freely in the harness and even will sweat in the barn at

Your horse has kidney affection, probably due to feeding hay rich in
alkalines. Treatment: Change the feed and give 1 quart of thick flaxseed
tea three times daily.


Kindly recommend a treatment for a horse troubled with scours. He is on
dry feed, but the trouble continues.

Give very little water mornings and while worked, but give plenty at
night. Feed dry rolled oats, oat hay, one handful of whole flaxseed at
night, and the following powder: Bismuth subgalate, 4 ounces; iron
sulphate, dessicated, 8 ounces; bismuth subnitrate, 8 ounces. Mix, and
give a heaping teaspoonful each morning.

Depraved Appetite.

I have a colt about one year old that continually delights in chewing up
harness, ropes, chews on the manger and, in fact, anything it can get a
hold of.

This is a condition caused by something being lacking in the system
(lime, salts, etc.). Give plenty of salt, good food, grain, etc. Get
this prescription: Iron sulphate, 2 ounces; soda syposulphate, 4 ounces;
Gentian root pulv., 2 ounces; ginger, 1 ounce. Mix and give teaspoonful

Good Dentist Needed.

I have an old horse which has always been fat and quite full of life
until right lately. Now he is getting thin and looks bad. He eats his
food all right. I had his teeth fixed a few weeks ago. The man said they
were bad and he fixed them as well as he could.

There is probably an excessively long molar projecting into a cavity and
the projecting molar should be cut off by a qualified veterinarian. The
horse will begin to pick up and grow fat almost as soon as the condition
is relieved. Most horse owners will permit every person with a float to
ruin a horse's mouth without inquiring whether the dentist possesses
proper qualifications as certified by a State license and diploma.

Kidney Trouble.

My horse has some trouble in passing water. What can I give him that may
be put in the mash? I don't think his trouble is due all to old age, for
it didn't come on gradually.

Give gran. sal nitre: a teaspoonful daily in water is good to stimulate
the kidneys.

For Chronic Indigestion.

I have given my horse condition powders for indigestion, but her hair is
rough still. Do you advise feeding on the road when a horse leaves the
stable at 10 a. m., traveling continually for thirty miles, returning
5:30 p. m., being fed at 7 a. m.?

A great majority of condition powders contain resin and antimony. While
a slight amount may be beneficial, continued use results in affection of
the kidneys by over-stimulation. Give the following for indigestion:
Bismuth subintrate, 1 ounce; powdered pepsine, 1 ounce; soda bi
carbonate, 12 ounces; carbonate iron, 2 ounces. Mix and give a heaping
teaspoon twice daily. By all means feed your horse three times daily and
water as often as you can. It is unnecessary to warn you that the horse
must not be overheated when you give the noonday feed.

Wound Sore.

My colt got its hind leg cut on barbed wire some weeks ago. There is a
hole about an inch and one-half deep in the center of the sore which
will not heal. The inside of the sore does not seem very tender, but the
leg stays swollen all of the time and is somewhat feverish.

This is probably a fistulous track that should be curetted by a
veterinarian, after which the following formula could be used to heal:
Acetanilide, 1/2 ounce; zinc oxide, 1/4 ounce; bismuth subgalate, 1 1/4
ounce. Mix and apply on cotton and bandage once daily after washing.

Warts on Horse.

How can warts be removed from a horse's hide?

We use sulphuric acid. The results were favorable from the very start.
The warts rapidly shrunk away and finally disappeared entirely. The acid
is applied to the crown of the wart with a small swab or similar
instrument, and only in sufficient quantities to wet the crown surface
of the wart. It should be applied about three times a week until the
wart is well reduced. Don't use too much acid, and don't keep up the
application too long - A. F. Etter.

Kidney Trouble in Horse.

What is the remedy for a horse that stops often to urinate while

The horse is affected by an irritation of the kidneys. Give 1 quart of
flaxseed tea daily, change the food and give 1 drachm of C. P.
hydro-chloric acid in one bucket of drinking water.

Castration of Colt.

Which is the correct and best way to castrate a yearling colt, with an
emasculator or a blade, and when is the proper time?

An emasculator is the only instrument to use in castrating. The object
in using any instrument is to prevent a hemorrhage, and nothing works
with so much certainty and quickness. The A. Hausman and Dunn
emasculator is recommended. The proper time is when the weather is mild,
the grass at its best and the colt in good condition.

For a Chronic Cough.

We have a mare seven years old that is troubled with a chronic cough,
and at times shows symptoms of heaves, and also has occasionally a white
foamy discharge from the nostrils. She is a greedy eater and drinker and
her excreta is often very offensive.

If she expels flatus when she coughs, this would indicate a
predisposition to heaves. Wet all food, as dry or dusty food aggravates
the cough. Give the following: Spirits camphor, 4 ounces; Fl. Ext.
belladonna, 2 ounces; neutral oil, 8 ounces; oil eucalyptus, 2 ounces.
Mix and give tablespoonful three times daily.

Chronic Indigestion.

I have a mare eleven years old. Give her plenty of oats, hay, grain and
a little alfalfa hay three nights per week and leave salt where she can
get at it, but she is falling off and her hair does not lie down
properly. She eats well and her system seems to be in good condition.
Have had her teeth attended to so she chews her food well.

This condition is caused by the animal not being able to properly
masticate the food. Have your dentist examine the mouth again, or you
can carefully examine the feces and see if it shows whole grain, or long
pieces of hay.

For Short-Wind or Heaves.

I have a mare that has something wrong with her wind. About six months
ago I noticed her wind was not good and she had a slight cough, and
about a week later, while working her, she seemed to choke down and
almost died before she got her wind, and since then she sometimes takes
those spells should she trot off briskly for a short distance.

Give two 3/2-ounce doses of Fowler's solution arsenic daily. Dusty or
musty hay will aggravate the symptoms. Thoroughly shake out the dust and
wet the hay. Feed hay only at night. Give the animal as little feed and
water as possible before being put to work. Continue this treatment one
month if necessary. The following is a case of experience with this
treatment: For a remedial agent we began to use Fowler's Solution of
Arsenic, in two teaspoonful doses at first. once a day, put in the water
with which the hay was moistened. These doses were given for a few days,
then skipped for a day, then continued for five or six days again. This
treatment has been continued. At times when the trouble was most severe,
giving a great spoonful at a dose, twice a day for two days, then
stopping for a day or two, always being sure to mix it with the water
which the hay is moistened, so that it shall be taken into the stomach
very slowly. This course of treatment has served to so relieve the
disease that nature has nearly or quite overcome it.


I have a 1500-pound 3-year-old colt with small brittle feet that has
side bone coming on left front foot caused by driving him barefoot on
the road two or three months ago.

A good blister of the following once every six weeks for three times
will stop the side-bones from growing. Side-bones on a draft horse are
not considered an unsoundness; in light fast drivers it is an incurable
blemish causing lameness. Side-bones cannot be removed. Use this
blister: Simple cerate, 4 ounces; cantharides, 3 drachms; bin iodide
mercury, 2 drachms. Mix thoroughly and apply after clipping hair.

Fungus Poisoning.

One of my mares, every evening after a full day's work harrowing, stands
for an hour or so with her head to the ground, shaking it frequently and
not touching the feed till the spell was over. She does not seem to be
any worse off, and in the morning seems to be in good shape.

This is due to a mold or fungus in the earth or hay. Let them have
access to plenty of water during the day. In the morning feed give a
handful of sodium hyposulphate.

Treatment for Horse's Feet.

The soles of the fore feet of a fine 4-year-old horse, weight 1350, are
rather spongy and grow down faster than the hoof, sometimes causing
slight lameness. He is not on soft pasture, but is stabled all the time.
Now have bar shoes on him. What treatment do you recommend?

Use leather, tar and okum and a dish-shoe.

For a Cleft Hoof.

I have a horse with a cracked hoof. One hind foot has been in a bad
condition, the other seems to be beginning to crack. Can anything be
done by feeding or otherwise to toughen the hoofs and render them less
liable to crack?

Apply the following: Honey, 2 ounces; yellow wax, 4 ounces; tar, 2
ounces; olive oil, 8 ounces. Melt, mix and apply once daily.

Stiff Joints.

I have a horse that was bruised on the ankle about two years ago. This
is now producing an enlargement of the bone and stiffness of the joint.

Apply the following liniment: Sulphuric ether, 1 ounce; tinct. iodine, 1
ounce; pulv. camphor, 1 ounce; alcohol, ounces; turpentine, 2 ounces;
oil of cedar, 2 ounces.

Treatment for Nail Puncture.

Our horse got a nail in his foot. It was a wire nail, rusty, entering
about one inch from the point of the frog, and just puncturing far
enough to reach a sensitive part of the hoof. It occurred six days ago;
the nail was pulled at once, the hoof cut open, and thoroughly cleaned
with turpentine (the first thing we could get), then later filled with
iodine. Since then I have kept on a flaxseed poultice.

The treatment with turpentine and iodine was proper and should prove a
success. If the foot becomes tender and inflamed, it will be because all
dirt was not removed from the wound, and the poultice should be taken
off, all foreign matter removed from the wound, and the treatment
repeated. In case of similar accidents, other disinfectants could be
used in place of turpentine or iodine.

Pregnancy of Mare.

Is there any way to tell when a mare is in foal? I have had a
veterinarian and he could not tell me.

There is no very good way to tell whether a mare is in foal for some
time. Practically speaking, the safest way to do is to have her bred
every time she comes in heat until she takes the stallion no longer.
Even then some mares will come in heat a couple of times after getting
in foal. If the sexual excitement speedily subsides and the mare
persistently refuses the stallion for a month, she is probably pregnant,
though not surely so. Also if a vicious mare becomes gentle after
service it is an excellent indication of pregnancy; likewise pregnant
mares will very often put on fat rapidly after conception and will be
unable and unwilling to do as hard work as before. Enlargement of the
abdomen, especially in its lower third, with slight falling in beneath
the loins and hollowness of the back are significant symptoms, though
they may be entirely absent. Swelling and firmness of the udder, with
the smoothing out of its wrinkles, is a suggestive sign, even though it
appears only at intervals during gestation. A steady increase of weight
(1 1/4 pounds daily) about the fourth or fifth month is a useful
indication of pregnancy. The further along the mare is in gestation the
more pronounced the symptoms become. In the early stages it is naturally
much more difficult to detect, especially with the great differences in
different mares. Cessation of heat and changes of disposition are about
the best signs in early stages.

Diseased Uterus of Mare.

I have a brood mare that has given me two fine colts, but for the last
two years I have not been able to get her with foal. She takes service
and then refuses service for three or four months, and about the time I
come to the conclusion that she is safe with foal she will pass off
great quantities of mattery substance. I have had her thoroughly washed
out with Lysol previous to breeding, but so far she has repeated this
performance each time about three or four months after service.

This is a disease of the ovaries or uterus; perhaps mumification of a
foetus. Irrigate with a normal salt solution (teaspoon salt to each pint
of warm water) only daily. Insert the solution through the neck of the
womb into the uterus. Give internally 1/2 ounce daily of Fowler's
Solution of Arsenic.

Deep-Seated Abscess.

I have a mule which has a swelling on the throat about where the
throatlatch touches. It just seems to be swollen hard and not sore. I am
using caustic liniment to fester it so it will come to a head and I can
open it, but the liniment does not seem to do much good. The mule is
losing flesh and does not eat much.

This mule should be operated upon at once by a qualified veterinarian.
The application of liniments or blisters are useless; the knife only
will effect a cure. The fact that the mule is losing flesh makes the
case serious.

Cure for Cocked Ankles.

I have a 4-year-old mare that has cocked ankles, and would like to know
what treatment to give her.

Cocked ankles are due to an inflammation of the tendons back of the
ankle and a drawing up or contraction in consequence. Put on heel calks
one inch, no toe, to rest and relieve the back tendons from strain.
Apply the following liniment at night, after which put on cold-water
swabs and let them remain all night: Soap liniment, 8 ounces; tincture
iodine, 2 ounces; oil cedar, 4 ounces; sulphuric ether, 2 ounces. Mix
and apply once daily.


Which is the best way to dehorn cows and calves?

The best time to dehorn cows is in the spring, before the fly season
starts. It is best not to have a cow too far along in calf before
dehorning, as she is very apt to lose her calf. It is also better to
dehorn before your cows freshen, because when cows are milking and are
dehorned they will go back in their milk a great deal for the first
month after the dehorning has taken place. Calves can be dehorned by
blistering the little buttons before they adhere to the skull. This is
very simple and not painful. First clip the hair about the horns and wet
the little loose button and apply caustic potash, in stick form, by
rubbing it on the damp horn. Remember, this must be done before the horn
adheres to the skull. Also remember not to use water enough to run the
lye away from the button and rub until the skin reddens. Also, look out
to keep your end of the potash stick dry or you may dehorn the tips of
your fingers.

Paralysis During Pregnancy.

I have a cow that will freshen in a few days. About six days ago she
seemed weak in her hind legs and on going downhill would drag or stumble
for 10 or 12 feet, then catch herself and go on rather wobbly.

Pregnant animals about to bring forth their young sometimes show a
paralysis or loss of power in their hind parts due to pressure of
foetus. Nature corrects this after birth.

Bloody Milk.

What can be done to stop bloody milk?

Milk each teat in a separate glass jar, let stand to ascertain which
teat the red specks are coming from, then milk the teats clean and
inject the infected teat with equal parts of hydrogen dioxide and water.
After a few hours inject 4 drachms of ferric chloride in 1 ounce of
water. Then milk clean.

To Cleanse Cows.

My cows are healthy and calves all right, but seem to have trouble

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