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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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90% of imports. During the period 1982-86 the industrial sector grew at an
annual average rate of 5.3%, but its contribution to GDP was only 5% in
1988. Despite major investment in the tourist industry, which accounts for
about 25% of GDP, growth has stagnated since 1983. A sluggish growth rate of
1.5% during 1985-90 has led to large budget deficits, declining incomes, and
balance-of-payments difficulties. Preliminary estimates for FY92 show a
moderate increase in the growth rate based on increased exports, tourism,
and government investment outlays.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $260 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
2.7% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$540 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
over 16% (1988 est.)
Budget:
revenues $96 million; expenditures $88 million, including capital
expenditures of $33 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$16 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
vanilla, cloves, perfume oil, copra, ylang-ylang
partners:
US 53%, France 41%, Africa 4%, FRG 2% (1988)
Imports:
$41 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
rice and other foodstuffs, cement, petroleum products, consumer goods
partners:
Europe 62% (France 22%), Africa 5%, Pakistan, China (1988)
External debt:
$196 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -6.5% (1989 est.); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
16,000 kW capacity; 25 million kWh produced, 50 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries: perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry, construction materials,
soft drinks
Agriculture:
accounts for 40% of GDP; most of population works in subsistence agriculture
and fishing; plantations produce cash crops for export - vanilla, cloves,
perfume essences, copra; principal food crops - coconuts, bananas, cassava;
world's leading producer of essence of ylang-ylang (for perfumes) and
second-largest producer of vanilla; large net food importer

*Comoros, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-89), $10 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $435 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $22 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $18
million
Currency:
1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Comoran francs (CF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January 1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11
(1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988)); note - linked to the
French franc at 50 to 1 French franc
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Comoros, Communications

Highways:
750 km total; about 210 km bituminous, remainder crushed stone or gravel
Ports:
Mutsamudu, Moroni
Airports:
total:
4
usable:
4
with permanent-surface runways:
4
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications:
sparse system of radio relay and high-frequency radio communication stations
for interisland and external communications to Madagascar and Reunion; over
1,800 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, no TV

*Comoros, Defense Forces

Branches:
Comoran Defense Force (FDC)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 108,867; fit for military service 65,106 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

*Congo, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Gabon and Zaire
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
342,000 km2
land area:
341,500 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
total 5,504 km, Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African Republic 467
km, Gabon 1,903 km, Zaire 2,410 km
Coastline:
169 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
long section with Zaire along the Congo River is indefinite (no division of
the river or its islands has been made)
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October);
constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate
astride the Equator
Terrain:
coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
Natural resources:
petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, natural
gas
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
29%
forest and woodland:
62%
other:
7%
Irrigated land:
40 km2 (1989)
Environment:
deforestation; about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe
Noire, or along the railroad between them

*Congo, People

Population:
2,388,667 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.44% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
40.68 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
16.28 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
112.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
48.04 years
male:
46.3 years
female:
49.84 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.38 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Congolese or Congo
Ethnic divisions:
south:
Kongo 48%
north:
Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%
center:
Teke 17%, Europeans 8,500 (mostly French)
Religions:
Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%
Languages:
French (official), African languages (Lingala and Kikongo are the most
widely used)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
57%
male:
70%
female:
44%
Labor force:
79,100 wage earners
by occupation:
agriculture 75%, commerce, industry, and government 25%
note:
51% of population of working age; 40% of population economically active
(1985)

*Congo, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of the Congo
conventional short form:
Congo
local long form:
Republique Populaire du Congo
local short form:
Congo
former:
Congo/Brazzaville
Digraph:
CF
Type:
republic
Capital:
Brazzaville
Administrative divisions:
9 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza,, Brazzaville*, Cuvette,
Kouilou,, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool,
Sangha
Independence:
15 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
8 July 1979, currently being modified
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law
National holiday:
Congolese National Day, 15 August (1960)
Political parties and leaders:
Congolese Labor Party (PCT), headed by former president Denis
SASSOU-NGUESSO; Union for Democratic Renewal (URD) - a coalition of
opposition parties; Panafrican Union for Social Development (UPADS)
Other political or pressure groups:
Union of Congolese Socialist Youth (UJSC); Congolese Trade Union Congress
(CSC); Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women (URFC); General Union of
Congolese Pupils and Students (UGEEC)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 2-16 August 1992 (next to be held August 1997); results -
President Pascal LISSOUBA won with 61% of the vote
National Assembly:
last held 24 June-19 July 1992; results - (125 total) UPADS 39, MCDDI (part
of URD coalition) 29, PCT 19; more than a dozen smaller parties split the
remaining 38 seats
note:
National Assembly dissolved in November 1992; next election to be held May
1993
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) was dissolved on NA
November 1992
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

*Congo, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Pascal LISSOUBA (since August 1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Claude Antoine DA COSTA (since December 1992)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Roger ISSOMBO
chancery:
4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone:
(202) 726-5500
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador James Daniel PHILLIPS
embassy:
Avenue Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville
mailing address:
B. P. 1015, Brazzaville, or Box C, APO AE 09828
telephone:
(242) 83-20-70
FAX:
[242] 83-63-38
Flag:
red, divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the
upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red; uses the
popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

*Congo, Economy

Overview:
Congo's economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts, a
beginning industrial sector based largely on oil, supporting services, and a
government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. A reform
program, supported by the IMF and World Bank, ran into difficulties in
1990-91 because of problems in changing to a democratic political regime and
a heavy debt-servicing burden. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay
of the economy, providing about two-thirds of government revenues and
exports. In the early 1980s rapidly rising oil revenues enabled Congo to
finance large-scale development projects with growth averaging 5% annually,
one of the highest rates in Africa. During the period 1987-91, however,
growth has slowed to an average of roughly 1.5% annually, only half the
population growth rate. The new government, responding to pressure from
businessmen and the electorate, has promised to reduce the bureaucracy and
government regulation but little has been accomplished as of early 1993.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
0.6% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,070 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-0.6% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $765 million; expenditures $952 million, including capital
expenditures of $65 million (1990)
Exports:
$1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
crude oil 72%, lumber, plywood, coffee, cocoa, sugar, diamonds
partners:
US, France, other EC countries
Imports:
$704 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
foodstuffs, consumer goods, intermediate manufactures, capital equipment
partners:
France, Italy, other EC countries, US, Germany, Spain, Japan, Brazil
External debt:
$4.1 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.2% (1989); accounts for 33% of GDP; includes petroleum
Electricity:
140,000 kW capacity; 315 million kWh produced, 135 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
petroleum, cement, lumbering, brewing, sugar milling, palm oil, soap,
cigarette
Agriculture:
accounts for 13% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); cassava accounts
for 90% of food output; other crops - rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables; cash
crops include coffee and cocoa; forest products important export earner;
imports over 90% of food needs
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $63 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $2.5 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $15 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $338
million

*Congo, Economy

Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Congo, Communications

Railroads:
797 km, 1.067-meter gauge, single track (includes 285 km that are privately
owned)
Highways:
11,960 km total; 560 km paved; 850 km gravel and laterite; 5,350 km improved
earth; 5,200 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide 1,120 km of commercially
navigable water transport; the rest are used for local traffic only
Pipelines:
crude oil 25 km
Ports:
Pointe-Noire (ocean port), Brazzaville (river port)
Airports:
total:
44
usable:
41
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
16
Telecommunications:
services adequate for government use; primary network is composed of radio
relay routes and coaxial cables; key centers are Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire,
and Loubomo; 18,100 telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 4 TV; 1
Atlantic Ocean satellite earth station

*Congo, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 534,802; fit for military service 272,051; reach military
age (20) annually 24,190 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Cook Islands, Header

Affiliation:
(free association with New Zealand)

*Cook Islands, Geography

Location:
Oceania, 4,500 km south of Hawaii in the South Pacific Ocean, about halfway
between Hawaii and New Zealand
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
240 km2
land area:
240 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than 1.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
120 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 nm or the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
4%
permanent crops:
22%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other:
74%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to typhoons from November to March

*Cook Islands, People

Population:
18,903 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.18% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
23.4 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-6.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.14 years
male:
69.2 years
female:
73.1 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.32 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Cook Islander(s)
adjective:
Cook Islander
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European 7.7%, Polynesian and
other 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%
Religions:
Christian (majority of populace members of Cook Islands Christian Church)
Languages:
English (official), Maori
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
5,810
by occupation:
agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%, industry 15%, other 4% (1981)

*Cook Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Cook Islands
Digraph:
CW
Type:
self-governing parliamentary government in free association with New
Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand
retains responsibility for external affairs, in consultation with the Cook
Islands
Capital:
Avarua
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
none (became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on 4 August
1965 and has the right at any time to move to full independence by
unilateral action)
Constitution:
4 August 1965
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
Constitution Day, 4 August
Political parties and leaders:
Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY; Democratic Tumu Party, Vincent INGRAM;
Democratic Party, Terepai MAOATE; Cook Islands Labor Party, Rena JONASSEN;
Cook Islands People's Party, Sadaraka SADARAKA
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Elections:
Parliament:
last held 19 January 1989 (next to be held by January 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (24 total) Cook Islands Party 12,
Democratic Tumu Party 2, opposition coalition (including Democratic Party)
9, independent 1
Executive branch:
British monarch, representative of the UK, representative of New Zealand,
prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament; note - the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on
traditional matters, but has no legislative powers
Judicial branch:
High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Representative of the UK Sir
Tangaroa TANGAROA (since NA); Representative of New Zealand Adrian SINCOCK
(since NA) Head of Government:
Prime Minister Geoffrey HENRY (since 1 February 1989); Deputy Prime Minister
Inatio AKARURU (since NA February 1989)
Member of:
AsDB, ESCAP (associate), ICAO, IOC, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)

*Cook Islands, Government

US diplomatic representation:
none (self-governing in free association with New Zealand)
Flag:
blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large
circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island) centered in the
outer half of the flag

*Cook Islands, Economy

Overview:
Agriculture provides the economic base. The major export earners are fruit,
copra, and clothing. Manufacturing activities are limited to a
fruit-processing plant and several clothing factories. Economic development
is hindered by the isolation of the islands from foreign markets and a lack
of natural resources and good transportation links. A large trade deficit is
annually made up for by remittances from emigrants and from foreign aid.
Current economic development plans call for exploiting the tourism potential
and expanding the fishing industry.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $40 million (1988 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5.3% (1986-88 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,200 (1988 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $33.8 million; expenditures $34.4 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
$4.0 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
copra, fresh and canned fruit, clothing
partners:
NZ 80%, Japan
Imports:
$38.7 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber
partners: NZ 49%, Japan, Australia, US
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
14,000 kW capacity; 21 million kWh produced, 1,170 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
fruit processing, tourism
Agriculture:
export crops - copra, citrus fruits, pineapples, tomatoes, bananas;
subsistence crops - yams, taro
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$128 million
Currency:
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.9490 (January 1993), 1.8584 (1992),
1.7266 (1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Cook Islands, Communications

Highways:
187 km total (1980); 35 km paved, 35 km gravel, 84 km improved earth, 33 km
unimproved earth
Ports:
Avatiu
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 or over) totaling 1,464 GRT/2,181 DWT
Airports:
total:
7
usable:
7
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
5
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 11,000 radio receivers; 17,000 TV
receivers (1989); 2,052 telephones; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Cook Islands, Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

*Coral Sea Islands, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of Australia)

*Coral Sea Islands, Geography

Location:
Oceania, just off the northeast coast of Australia in the Coral Sea
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
less than 3 km2
land area:
less than 3 km2
comparative area:
NA
note:
includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea area of about
1 million km2, with Willis Islets the most important
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
3,095 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (mostly grass or scrub cover)
Irrigated land: 0 km2
Environment:
subject to occasional tropical cyclones; no permanent fresh water; important
nesting area for birds and turtles

*Coral Sea Islands, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are 3 meteorologists

*Coral Sea Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Coral Sea Islands Territory
conventional short form:
Coral Sea Islands
Digraph:
CR
Type:
territory of Australia administered by the Ministry for Arts, Sport, the
Environment, Tourism, and Territories
Capital:
none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Independence:
none (territory of Australia)
Flag:
the flag of Australia is used

*Coral Sea Islands, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

*Coral Sea Islands, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorages only

*Coral Sea Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly by the Royal
Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities of visitors

*Costa Rica, Geography

Location:
Central America, between Nicaragua and Panama
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America
Area:
total area:
51,100 km2
land area:
50,660 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
note:
includes Isla del Coco
Land boundaries:
total 639 km, Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km
Coastline:
1,290 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November)
Terrain:
coastal plains separated by rugged mountains
Natural resources:
hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land:
6%
permanent crops:
7%
meadows and pastures:
45%
forest and woodland:
34%
other:
8%
Irrigated land:
1,180 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent
flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active volcanoes;
deforestation; soil erosion

*Costa Rica, People

Population:
3,264,776 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.38% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
26.07 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
3.57 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
11.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.49 years
male:
75.56 years
female:
79.52 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.11 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Costa Rican(s)
adjective:
Costa Rican
Ethnic divisions:
white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Indian 1%, Chinese 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
Spanish (official), English; spoken around Puerto Limon
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
93%
male:
93%
female:
93%
Labor force:
868,300
by occupation:
industry and commerce 35.1%, government and services 33%, agriculture 27%,
other 4.9% (1985 est.)

*Costa Rica, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Costa Rica
conventional short form:
Costa Rica local long form:
Republica de Costa Rica
local short form:
Costa Rica
Digraph:
CS
Type:
democratic republic
Capital:
San Jose
Administrative divisions:
7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Alajuela, Cartago,
Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose
Independence:
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Constitution:
9 November 1949
Legal system:
based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in
the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Political parties and leaders:
National Liberation Party (PLN), Carlos Manuel CASTILLO Morales; Social
Christian Unity Party (PUSC), Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier; Marxist
Popular Vanguard Party (PVP), Humberto VARGAS Carbonell; New Republic
Movement (MNR), Sergio Erick ARDON Ramirez; Progressive Party (PP), Isaac
Felipe AZOFEIFA Bolanos; People's Party of Costa Rica (PPC), Lenin CHACON
Vargas; Radical Democratic Party (PRD), Juan Jose ECHEVERRIA Brealey
Other political or pressure groups:
Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers (CCTD; Liberation Party
affiliate); Confederated Union of Workers (CUT; Communist Party affiliate);
Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers (CATD; Communist Party
affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; National Association for Economic
Development (ANFE); Free Costa Rica Movement (MCRL; rightwing militants);
National Association of Educators (ANDE)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held February 1994); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (57 total) PUSC 29, PLN 25, PVP/PPC 1, regional
parties 2
President:
last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held February 1994); results - Rafael
Angel CALDERON Fournier 51%, Carlos Manuel CASTILLO 47%
Executive branch:
president, two vice presidents, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

*Costa Rica, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Rafael Angel CALDERON Fournier (since 8 May 1990); First Vice
President German SERRANO Pinto (since 8 May 1990); Second Vice President
Arnoldo LOPEZ Echandi (since 8 May 1990)
Member of:
AG (observer), BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU,
LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Gonzalo FACIO Segreda
chancery:
Suite 211, 1825 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 234-2945 through 2947
consulates general:
Albuquerque, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Diego,
San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate:
Buffalo
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Luis GUINOT, Jr.
embassy:
Pavas Road, San Jose
mailing address:
APO AA 34020
telephone:
[506] 20-39-39
FAX:
(506) 20-2305
Flag:
five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width), white, and
blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk on the hoist side of the red
band

*Costa Rica, Economy

Overview:
In 1992 the economy grew at an estimated 5.4%, up from the 2.5% gain of 1991
and the gain of 1990. Increases in agricultural production (on the strength
of good coffee and banana crops) and in nontraditional exports are
responsible for much of the growth. In 1992 consumer prices rose by 17%,
below the 27% of 1991. The trade deficit of $100 million was substantially
below the 1991 deficit of $270 million. Unemployment is officially reported
at 4.0%, but much underemployment remains. External debt, on a per capita
basis, is among the world's highest.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $6.4 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5.4% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,000 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
17% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $1.1 billion; expenditures $1.34 billion, including capital
expenditures of $110 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar
partners:
US 75%, Germany, Guatemala, Netherlands, UK, Japan
Imports:
$1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment, petroleum
partners:
US 45%, Japan, Guatemala, Germany
External debt:
$3.2 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.0% (1991); accounts for 19% of GDP
Electricity:
927,000 kW capacity; 3,612 million kWh produced, 1,130 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
food processing, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer,
plastic products
Agriculture:
accounts for 17% of GDP and 70% of exports; cash commodities - coffee, beef,
bananas, sugar; other food crops include corn, rice, beans, potatoes;
normally self-sufficient in food except for grain; depletion of forest
resources resulting in lower timber output
Illicit drugs:
illicit production of cannabis on small scattered plots; transshipment
country for cocaine from South America
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $935 million;
Communist countries (1971-89), $27 million
Currency:
1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos

*Costa Rica, Economy

Exchange rates:
Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1 - 137.72 (January 1993), 134.51 (1992),
122.43 (1991), 91.58 (1990), 81.504 (1989), 75.805 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Costa Rica, Communications

Railroads:
950 km total, all 1.067-meter gauge; 260 km electrified
Highways:
15,400 km total; 7,030 km paved, 7,010 km gravel, 1,360 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
about 730 km, seasonally navigable
Pipelines:
petroleum products 176 km
Ports:
Puerto Limon, Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puntarenas
Merchant marine:
1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,878 GRT/4,506 DWT
Airports:
total:
162
usable:
144
with permanent-surface runways:
28
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
8
Telecommunications:
very good domestic telephone service; 292,000 telephones; connection into
Central American Microwave System; broadcast stations - 71 AM, no FM, 18 TV,
13 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Costa Rica, Defense Forces

Branches:
Civil Guard, Rural Assistance Guard
note:
constitution prohibits armed forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 851,713; fit for military service 573,854; reach military
age (18) annually 31,987 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $22 million, 0.5% of GDP (1989)

*Cote d'Ivoire, Header

Affiliation:
(also known as Ivory Coast)

*Cote d'Ivoire, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Ghana and Liberia
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
322,460 km2
land area:
318,000 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
total 3,110 km, Burkina 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km, Liberia 716 km,
Mali 532 km
Coastline:
515 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 m depth
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry
(November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to
October)
Terrain:
mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
Natural resources:
petroleum, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper
Land use:
arable land:
9%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures:
9%
forest and woodland:
26%
other:
52%
Irrigated land:
620 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; severe deforestation

*Cote d'Ivoire, People

Population: 13,808,447 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.5% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
46.88 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
15.07 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
3.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
97 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
48.97 years
male:
46.98 years
female:
51.03 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.73 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Ivorian(s)
adjective:
Ivorian
Ethnic divisions:
Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%, Agni, foreign Africans
(mostly Burkinabe about 2 million), non-Africans 130,000 to 330,000 (French
30,000 and Lebanese 100,000 to 300,000)
Religions:
indigenous 63%, Muslim 25%, Christian 12%
Languages:
French (official), 60 native dialects Dioula is the most widely spoken
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
54%
male:
67%
female:
40%
Labor force:
5.718 million
by occupation:
over 85% of population engaged in agriculture, forestry, livestock raising;
about 11% of labor force are wage earners, nearly half in agriculture and
the remainder in government, industry, commerce, and professions
note:
54% of population of working age (1985)

*Cote d'Ivoire, Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
conventional short form:
Cote d'Ivoire
local long form:
Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
local short form:
Cote d'Ivoire
former:
Ivory Coast
Digraph:
IV
Type:
republic multiparty presidential regime established 1960
Capital:
Yamoussoukro
note:
although Yamoussoukro has been the capital since 1983, Adibjan remains the
administrative center; foreign governments, including the United States,
maintain presence in Abidjan
Administrative divisions:
49 departments (departements, singular - (departement); Abengourou, Abidjan,
Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou,
Bongouanou, Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa, Danane,
Daoukro, Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou,
Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota, Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne,
Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro, Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou, Tanda,
Tingrela, Tiassale, Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula
Independence:
7 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
3 November 1960
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review in the
Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 7 December
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party of the Cote d'Ivoire (PDCI), Dr. Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY;
Ivorian Popular Front (FPI), Laurent GBAGBO; Ivorian Worker's Party (PIT),
Francis WODIE; Ivorian Socialist Party (PSI), Morifere BAMBA; over 20
smaller parties
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held October 1995); results -
President Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY received 81% of the vote in his first
contested election; he is currently serving his seventh consecutive
five-year term
National Assembly:
last held 25 November 1990 (next to be held November 1995); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (175 total) PDCI 163, FPI 9, PIT 1,
independents 2
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

*Cote d'Ivoire, Government

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Dr. Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY (since 27 November 1960)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Alassane OUATTARA (since 7 November 1990)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Charles GOMIS
chancery:
2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 797-0300
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Hume A. HORAN
embassy:
5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan
mailing address:
01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan
telephone:
[225] 21-09-79 or 21-46-72
FAX:
[225] 22-32-59
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; similar
to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green
(hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is
green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France

*Cote d'Ivoire, Economy

Overview:
Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest producers and exporters of
coffee, cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil. Consequently, the economy is
highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for coffee and
cocoa and to weather conditions. Despite attempts by the government to
diversify, the economy is still largely dependent on agriculture and related
industries. The agricultural sector accounts for over one-third of GDP and
about 80% of export earnings and employs about 85% of the labor force. A
collapse of world cocoa and coffee prices in 1986 threw the economy into a
recession, from which the country had not recovered by 1990. Continuing low
prices for commodity exports, an overvalued exchange rate, a bloated
public-sector wage bill, and a large foreign debt hindered economic recovery
in 1991. The government, which has sponsored various economic reform
programs, especially in agriculture, projected an increase of 1.6% in GNP in
1992.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $10 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate:
-0.6% (1991)
National product per capita:
$800 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
14% (1985)
Budget:
revenues $2.3 billion; expenditures $3.6 billion, including capital
expenditures of $274 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$2.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
cocoa 30%, coffee 20%, tropical woods 11%, petroleum, cotton, bananas,
pineapples, palm oil, cotton
partners:
France, FRG, Netherlands, US, Belgium, Spain (1985)
Imports:
$1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
food, capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
partners:
France 29%, other EC 29%, Nigeria 16%, US 4%, Japan 3% (1989)
External debt:
$15 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6% (1990); accounts for 11% of GDP
Electricity:
1,210,000 kW capacity; 1,970 million kWh produced, 150 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
foodstuffs, wood processing, oil refinery, automobile assembly, textiles,
fertilizer, beverage
Agriculture:
most important sector, contributing one-third to GDP and 80% to exports;
cash crops include coffee, cocoa beans, timber, bananas, palm kernels,
rubber; food crops - corn, rice, manioc, sweet potatoes; not self-sufficient
in bread grain and dairy products
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis; mostly for local consumption; some
international drug trade; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin to
Europe

*Cote d'Ivoire, Economy

Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $356 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $5.2 billion
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Cote d'Ivoire, Communications

Railroads:
660 km (Burkina border to Abidjan, 1.00-meter gauge, single track, except 25
km Abidjan-Anyama section is double track)
Highways:
46,600 km total; 3,600 km paved; 32,000 km gravel, crushed stone, laterite,
and improved earth; 11,000 km unimproved
Inland waterways:
980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons
Ports:
Abidjan, San-Pedro
Merchant marine:
7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 71,945 GRT/ 90,684 DWT; includes 1 oil
tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 3 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off
Airports:
total:
42
usable:
37
with permanent-surface runways:
7
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
15
Telecommunications:
well-developed by African standards but operating well below capacity;
consists of open-wire lines and radio relay microwave links; 87,700
telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 17 FM, 13 TV, 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station; 2 coaxial submarine cables

*Cote d'Ivoire, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, Military
Fire Group
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 3,131,016; fit for military service 1,624,401; reach
military age (18) annually 145,827 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $200 million, 2.3% of GDP (1988)

*Croatia, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula, bordering the Adriatic Sea,
between Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Map references:
Africa, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
56,538 km2
land area:
56,410 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total 1,843 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina (east) 751 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina
(southeast) 91 km, Hungary 292 km, Serbia and Montenegro 254 km (239 km with
Serbia; 15 km with Montenego), Slovenia 455 km
Coastline:
5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
12 nm
exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Serbian enclaves in eastern Croatia and along the western Bosnia and
Herzegovinian border; dispute with Slovenia over fishing rights in Adriatic
Climate:
Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot
summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
Terrain:
geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains
and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline, and islands
Natural resources:
oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural asphalt,
silica, mica, clays, salt
Land use:
arable land:
32%
permanent crops:
20%
meadows and pastures:
18%
forest and woodland: 15%
other:
15%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
air pollution from metallurgical plants; damaged forest; coastal pollution
from industrial and domestic waste; subject to frequent and destructive
earthquakes

*Croatia, Geography

Note:
controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish
Straits

*Croatia, People

Population:
4,694,398 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.07% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
11.38 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
10.73 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.19 years
male:
69.7 years
female:
76.89 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.66 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Croat(s)
adjective:
Croatian
Ethnic divisions:
Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%, Slovenian 0.5%, others
8.1%
Religions:
Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%, Protestant 1.4%, others
and unknown 9.8%
Languages:
Serbo-Croatian 96%, other 4%
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
1,509,489
by occupation:
industry and mining 37%, agriculture 16% (1981 est.), government NA%, other

*Croatia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Croatia
conventional short form:
Croatia
local long form:
Republika Hrvatska
local short form:
Hrvatska
Digraph:
HR
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Zagreb
Administrative divisions:
100 districts (opcine, singular - opcina) Beli Manastir, Biograd (Biograd Na
Moru), Bielovar, Bjelovar, Brac, Buje, Buzet, Cabar, Cakovec, Cazma, Cres
Losinj, Crikvenica, Daruvar, Delnice, Djakovo (Dakovo), Donja Stubica, Donji
Lapac, Dordevac, Drnis, Dubrovnik, Duga Resa, Dugo Selo, Dvor, Garesnica,
Glina, Gospic, Gracac, Grubisno Polje, Hvar, Imotski, Ivanec, Ivanic-Grad,
Jastrebarsko, Karlovac, Klanjec, Knin, Koprivnica, Korcula, Kostajnica,
Krapina, Krizevci, Krk, Kutina, Labin, Lastovo, Ludbreg, Makarska, Metkovic,
Nova Gradiska, Novi Marof, Novska, Obrovac, Ogulin, Omis, Opatija,
Orahovica, Osijek, Otocac, Ozalj, Pag, Pazin, Petrinja, Ploce (Kardeljevo),
Podravska Slatina, Porec, Pregrada, Pukrac, Pula, Rab, Rijeka, Rovinj,
Samobor (part of Zagreb), Senj, Sesvete, Sibenik, Sinj, Sisak, Slavonska
Pozega, Slavonski Brod, Slunj, Split (Solin, Kastela), Titova Korenica,
Trogir, Valpovo, Varazdin, Vinkovci, Virovitica, Vukovar, Vis, Vojnic,
Vrborsko, Vrbovec, Vrgin-Most, Vrgorac, Zabok, Zadar, Zagreb (Grad Zagreb),
Zelina (Sveti Ivan Zelina), Zlatar Bistrica, Zupanja
Independence:
NA June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
Constitution:
adopted on 2 December 1991
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)
Political parties and leaders: Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), Stjepan MESIC, chairman of the
executive
council; Croatian People's Party (HNS), Savka DABCEVIC-KUCAR, president;
Croatian Christian Democratic Party (HKDS), Ivan CESAR, president; Croatian
Party of Rights, Dobroslav PARAGA; Croatian Social Liberal Party (HSLS),
Drazen BUDISA, president; Croatian Peasant Party (HSS), leader NA; Istrian
Democratic Assembly (IDS), leader NA; Social-Democratic Party (SDP), leader
NA; Croatian National Party (PNS), leader NA
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Suffrage:
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Elections:
President:
last held 4 August 1992 (next to be held NA); Franjo TUDJMAN reelected with
about 56% of the vote; Dobroslav PARAGA 5%
House of Parishes:
last held 7 February 1993 (next to be held NA February 1997); seats - (68
total; 63 elected, 5 presidentially appointed) HDZ 37, HSLS 16, HSS 5, IDS
3, SDP 1, PNS 1

*Croatia, Government

Chamber of Deputies:
last held NA August 1992 (next to be held NA August 1996); seats - (138
total) 87 HDZ
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, deputy prime ministers, cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or House of Parishes
(Zupanije Dom) and a lower house or Chamber of Deputies (Predstavnicke Dom)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Constitutional Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Franjo TUDJMAN (since 30 May 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Nikica VALENTIC (since NA April 1993); Deputy Prime Ministers
Mate GRANIC, Vladimir SEKS, Borislav SKEGRO (since NA)
Member of:
CEI, CSCE, ECE, ICAO, IMO, IOM (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Peter A. SARCEVIC
chancery:
2356 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 543-5586
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
embassy:
Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb
mailing address: AMEMB Unit 25402, APO AE 09213-5080
telephone:
[38] (41) 444-800
FAX:
[38] (41) 440-235
Flag:
red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms (red and
white checkered)

*Croatia, Economy

Overview:
Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic of Croatia, after
Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area, with a per capita
output roughly comparable to that of Portugal and perhaps one-third above
the Yugoslav average. Croatian Serb Nationalists control approximately one
third of the Croatian territory, and one of the overriding determinants of
Croatia's long-term political and economic prospects will be the resolution
of this territorial dispute. Croatia faces monumental problems stemming
from: the legacy of longtime Communist mismanagement of the economy; large
foreign debt; damage during the fighting to bridges, factories, powerlines,
buildings, and houses; the large refugee population, both Croatian and
Bosnian; and the disruption of economic ties to Serbia and the other former
Yugoslav republics, as well as within its own territory. At the minimum,
extensive Western aid and investment, especially in the tourist and oil
industries, would seem necessary to salvage a desperate economic situation.
However, peace and political stability must come first. As of June 1993,
fighting continues among Croats, Serbs, and Muslims, and national boundaries
and final political arrangements are still in doubt.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $26.3 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-25% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$5,600 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
50% (monthly rate, December 1992)
Unemployment rate:
20% (December 1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$2.9 billion (1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 30%, other manufacturers 37%, chemicals
11%, food and live animals 9%, raw materials 6.5%, fuels and lubricants 5%
partners:
principally the other former Yugoslav republics
Imports:
$4.4 billion (1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 21%, fuels and lubricants 19%, food and
live animals 16%, chemicals 14%, manufactured goods 13%, miscellaneous
manufactured articles 9%, raw materials 6.5%, beverages and tobacco 1%
partners:
principally other former Yugoslav republics
External debt:
$2.6 billion (will assume some part of foreign debt of former Yugoslavia)
Industrial production:
growth rate -29% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
3,570,000 kW capacity; 11,500 million kWh produced, 2,400 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig
iron and rolled steel products, aluminum reduction, paper, wood products
(including furniture), building materials (including cement), textiles,
shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food processing and
beverages

*Croatia, Economy

Agriculture:
Croatia normally produces a food surplus; most agricultural land in private
hands and concentrated in Croat-majority districts in Slavonia and Istria;
much of Slavonia's land has been put out of production by fighting; wheat,
corn, sugar beets, sunflowers, alfalfa, and clover are main crops in
Slavonia; central Croatian highlands are less fertile but support cereal
production, orchards, vineyards, livestock breeding, and dairy farming;
coastal areas and offshore islands grow olives, citrus fruits, and
vegetables
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
1 Croatian dinar (CD) = 100 paras
Exchange rates:
Croatian dinar per US $1 - 60.00 (April 1992)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Croatia, Communications

Railroads:
2,592 km of standard guage (1.435 m) of which 864 km are electrified (1992);
note - disrupted by territorial dispute
Highways:
32,071 km total; 23,305 km paved, 8,439 km gravel, 327 km earth (1990); note
- key highways note disrupted because of territorial dispute
Inland waterways:
785 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 670 km, petroleum products 20 km, natural gas 310 km (1992); note
- now disrupted because of territorial dispute
Ports:
coastal - Rijeka, Split, Kardeljevo (Ploce); inland - Vukovar, Osijek,
Sisak, Vinkovci
Merchant marine:
18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 77,074 GRT/93,052 DWT; includes 4
cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 10 passenger ferries, 2 bulk, 1 oil tanker; note
- also controlled by Croatian shipowners are 198 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
under flags of convenience - primarily Malta and St. Vincent - totaling
2,602,678 GRT/4,070,852 DWT; includes 89 cargo, 9 roll-on/ roll-off, 6
refrigerated cargo, 14 container, 3 multifunction large load carriers, 51
bulk, 5 passenger, 11 oil tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 6 service vessel
Airports:
total:
75
usable:
72
with permanent-surface runways:
15
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
10
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
5
Telecommunications:
350,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 14 AM, 8 FM, 12 (2 repeaters) TV;
1,100,000 radios; 1,027,000 TVs; NA submarine coaxial cables; satellite
ground stations - none

*Croatia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,177,029; fit for military service 943,259; reach military
age (19) annually 32,873 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
337-393 billion Croatian dinars, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion
of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate
could produce misleading results

*Cuba, Geography

Location:
in the northern Caribbean Sea, 145 km south of Key West (Florida)
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
110,860 km2
land area:
110,860 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
total 29 km, US Naval Base at Guantanamo 29 km
note:
Guantanamo is leased and as such remains part of Cuba
Coastline:
3,735 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
US Naval Base at Guantanamo is leased to US and only mutual agreement or US
abandonment of the area can terminate the lease
Climate:
tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy
season (May to October)
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains in the
southeast
Natural resources:
cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica, petroleum
Land use:
arable land:
23%
permanent crops:
6%
meadows and pastures:
23%
forest and woodland:
17%
other:
31%
Irrigated land:
8,960 km2 (1989)
Environment:
averages one hurricane every other year
Note:
largest country in Caribbean

*Cuba, People

Population:
10,957,088 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
17.08 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
10.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.72 years
male:
74.59 years
female:
78.99 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.83 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Cuban(s)
adjective:
Cuban
Ethnic divisions:
mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%
Religions:
nominally Roman Catholic 85% prior to Castro assuming power
Languages:
Spanish
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
94%
male:
95%
female:
93%
Labor force:
4,620,800 economically active population (1988); 3,578,800 in state sector
by occupation:
services and government 30%, industry 22%, agriculture 20%, commerce 11%,
construction 10%, transportation and communications 7% (June 1990)

*Cuba, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Cuba
conventional short form:
Cuba
local long form:
Republica de Cuba
local short form:
Cuba
Digraph:
CU
Type:
Communist state
Capital:
Havana
Administrative divisions:
14 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality*, (municipio
especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La
Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las, Tunas, Matanzas,
Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa
Clara
Independence:
20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from 1898
to 1902)
Constitution:
24 February 1976
Legal system:
based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist legal
theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953)
Political parties and leaders:
only party - Cuban Communist Party (PCC), Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary
Suffrage:
16 years of age; universal
Elections:
National Assembly of People's Power:
last held December 1986 (next to be held February 1993); results - PCC is
the only party; seats - (510 total; after the February election, the
National Assembly will have 590 seats) indirectly elected from slates
approved by special candidacy commissions
Executive branch:
president of the Council of State, first vice president of the Council of
State, Council of State, president of the Council of Ministers, first vice
president of the Council of Ministers, Executive Committee of the Council of
Ministers, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly of the People's Power (Asamblea Nacional del
Poder Popular)
Judicial branch:
People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo Popular)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers
Fidel CASTRO Ruz (Prime Minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976
when office was abolished; President since 2 December 1976); First Vice
President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of
Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976)

*Cuba, Government

Member of:
CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal
participation since 1962), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Principal Officer Alfonso FRAGA Perez (since August 1992)
chancery:
2630 and 2639 16th Street NW, US Interests Section, Swiss Embassy,
Washington, DC 20009 telephone:
(202) 797-8518 or 8519, 8520, 8609, 8610
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Principal Officer Alan H. FLANIGAN
US Interests Section:
USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada entre L Y M, Vedado Seccion, Havana
mailing address:
USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada Entre L Y M, Vedado, Havava
telephone:
32-0051, 32-0543
FAX:
no service available at this time
note:
protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland - US Interests Section, Swiss
Embassy
Flag:
five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with white;
a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white
five-pointed star in the center

*Cuba, Economy

Overview:
Since Castro's takeover of Cuba in 1959, the economy has been run in the
Soviet style of government ownership of substantially all the means of
production and government planning of all but the smallest details of
economic activity. Thus, Cuba, like the former Warsaw Pact nations, has
remained in the backwater of economic modernization. The economy contracted
by about one-third between 1989 and 1992 as it absorbed the loss of $4
billion of annual economic aid from the former Soviet Union and much smaller
amounts from Eastern Europe. The government implemented numerous energy
conservation measures and import substitution schemes to cope with a large
decline in imports. To reduce fuel consumption, Havana has cut back bus
service and imported approximately 1 million bicycles from China,
domesticated nearly 200,000 oxen to replace tractors, and halted a large
amount of industrial production. The government has prioritized domestic
food production and promoted herbal medicines since 1990 to compensate for
lower imports. Havana also has been shifting its trade away from the former
Soviet republics and Eastern Europe toward the industrialized countries of
Latin America and the OECD.
National product:
GNP - exchange rate conversion - $14.9 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-15% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,370 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $12.46 billion; expenditures $14.45 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
Exports:
$2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
sugar, nickel, shellfish, tobacco, medical products, citrus, coffee
partners:
Russia 30%, Canada 10%, China 9%, Japan 6%, Spain 4% (1992 est.)
Imports:
$2.2 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals
partners:
Russia 10%, China 9%, Spain 9%, Mexico 5%, Italy 5%, Canada 4%, France 4%
(1992 est.)
External debt:
$6.8 billion (convertible currency, July 1989)

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