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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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Constitution:
22 December 1989, suspended 3 December 1990; Provisional National Charter 1
March 1991; national conference drafting new constitution to submit to
referendum January 1993
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
11 August
Political parties and leaders:
Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS; former dissident group), Idriss DEBY,
chairman
note:
President DEBY has promised political pluralism, a new constitution, and
free elections by September 1993; numerous dissident groups; 26 opposition
political parties
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Suffrage:
universal at age NA
Elections:
National Consultative Council:
last held 8 July 1990; disbanded 3 December 1990
President:
last held 10 December 1989 (next to be held NA); results - President Hissein
HABRE was elected without opposition; note - the government of then
President HABRE fell on 1 December 1990, and Idriss DEBY seized power on 3
December 1990; national conference opened 15 January 1993; election to
follow by end of year
Executive branch:
president, Council of State (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Consultative Council (Conseil National Consultatif) was
disbanded 3 December 1990 and replaced by the Provisional Council of the
Republic, with 30 members appointed by President DEBY on 8 March 1991
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal

*Chad, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State:
Col. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Joseph YODOYMAN (since NA August 1992)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU,
OIC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Kombaria Loumaye MEKONYO
chancery:
2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:
(202) 462-4009
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard W. BOGOSIAN
embassy:
Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address:
B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone:
[235] (51) 62-18, 40-09, or 51-62-11
FAX:
[235] 51-33-72
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to
the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of Andorra, which has a
national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield centered in the yellow
band; design was based on the flag of France

*Chad, Economy

Overview:
The climate, geographic location, and lack of infrastructure and natural
resources make Chad one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world.
Its economy is burdened by the ravages of civil war, conflict with Libya,
drought, and food shortages. In 1986 real GDP returned to its 1977 level,
with cotton, the major cash crop, accounting for 48% of exports. Over 80% of
the work force is employed in subsistence farming and fishing. Industry is
based almost entirely on the processing of agricultural products, including
cotton, sugarcane, and cattle. Chad is highly dependent on foreign aid, with
its economy in trouble and many regions suffering from shortages. Oil
companies are exploring areas north of Lake Chad and in the Doba basin in
the south. Good crop weather led to 8.4% growth in 1991.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
8.4% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$215 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2%-3% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $115 million; expenditures $412 million, including capital
expenditures of $218 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$193.9 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
cotton 48%, cattle 35%, textiles 5%, fish
partners:
France, Nigeria, Cameroon
Imports:
$294.1 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial goods 20%, petroleum
products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; note - excludes military equipment
partners:
US, France, Nigeria, Cameroon
External debt:
$492 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 12.9% (1989 est.); accounts for nearly 15% of GDP
Electricity:
40,000 kW capacity; 70 million kWh produced, 15 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
cotton textile mills, slaughterhouses, brewery, natron (sodium carbonate),
soap, cigarettes
Agriculture:
accounts for about 45% of GDP; largely subsistence farming; cotton most
important cash crop; food crops include sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice,
potatoes, manioc; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, camels; self-sufficient
in food in years of adequate rainfall
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $198 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.5 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $28 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $80
million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

*Chad, Economy

Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Chad, Communications

Highways:
31,322 km total; 32 km bituminous; 7,300 km gravel and laterite; remainder
unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
2,000 km navigable
Airports:
total:
69
usable:
55
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
24
Telecommunications:
fair system of radiocommunication stations for intercity links; broadcast
stations - 6 AM, 1 FM, limited TV service; many facilities are inoperative;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Chad, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (includes Ground Forces, Air Force, and Gendarmerie), Republican Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,246,617; fit for military service 647,908; reach military
age (20) annually 52,870 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $58 million, 5.6% of GDP (1989)

*Chile, Geography

Location:
Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean between Argentina
and Peru
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
756,950 km2
land area:
748,800 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
note:
includes Isla de Pascua (Easter Island) and Isla Sala y Gomez
Land boundaries:
total 6,171 km, Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km
Coastline: 6,435 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
short section of the southern boundary with Argentina is indefinite; Bolivia
has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama
area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water
rights; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory)
partially overlaps Argentine and British claims
Climate:
temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south
Terrain:
low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east
Natural resources:
copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum
Land use:
arable land:
7%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
16%
forest and woodland:
21%
other:
56%
Irrigated land:
12,650 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to severe earthquakes, active volcanism, tsunami; Atacama Desert one
of world's driest regions; desertification
Note:
strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
(Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

*Chile, People

Population:
13,739,759 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.54% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
20.9 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
5.55 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
15.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
74.15 years
male:
71.16 years
female:
77.29 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.51 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Chilean(s)
adjective:
Chilean
Ethnic divisions:
European and European-Indian 95%, Indian 3%, other 2%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish
Languages:
Spanish
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
93%
male:
94%
female:
93%
Labor force:
4.728 million
by occupation:
services 38.3% (includes government 12%), industry and commerce 33.8%,
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 19.2%, mining 2.3%, construction 6.4%
(1990)

*Chile, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Chile
conventional short form:
Chile
local long form:
Republica de Chile
local short form:
Chile
Digraph:
CI
Type:
republic
Capital:
Santiago
Administrative divisions:
13 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez
del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador
General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena,
Maule, Region Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso
note:
the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica
Independence:
18 September 1810 (from Spain)
Constitution:
11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30 July 1989
Legal system:
based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes
influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative acts
in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 18 September (1810)
Political parties and leaders:
Concertation of Parties for Democracy consists mainly of four parties: PDC,
PPD, PR, PS; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle;
Party for Democracy (PPD), Sergio BITAR; Radical Party (PR), Carlos GONZALEZ
Marquez; Sociaistl Party (PS), German CORREA; Independent Democratic Union
(UDI), Jovino NOVOA; National Renovation (RN), Andree ALLAMAND;
Center-Center Union (UCC), Francisco Juner ERRAZURIZ; Communist Party of
Chile (PCCh), Volodia TEITELBOIM; Allende Leftist Democratic Movement
(MIDA), Mario PALESTRO
Other political or pressure groups:
revitalized university student federations at all major universities
dominated by opposition political groups; labor - United Labor Central (CUT)
includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor
confederations; Roman Catholic Church
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120 total) Concertation of Parties for
Democracy 71 (PDC 38, PPD 17, PR 5, other 11), RN 29, UDI 11, right-wing
independents 9
President:
last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993); results -
Patricio AYLWIN (PDC) 55.2%, Hernan BUCHI 29.4%, other 15.4%

*Chile, Government

Senate:
last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (46 total, 38 elected) Concertation of
Parties for Democracy 22 (PDC 13, PPD 5, PR 2, PSD 1, PRSD 1), RN 6, UDI 2,
right-wing independents 8
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consisting of an upper house
or Senate (Senado) and a lower house or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
Diputados)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Patricio AYLWIN Azocar (since 11 March 1990)
Member of:
CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES,
LAIA, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNMOGIP, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Patricio SILVA Echenique
chancery:
1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 785-1746
consulates general:
Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Curtis W. KAMMAN
embassy:
Codina Building, 1343 Agustinas, Santiago
mailing address:
APO AA 34033
telephone:
[56] (2) 671-0133
FAX:
[56] (2) 699-1141
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square
the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band;
the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center; design was based
on the US flag

*Chile, Economy

Overview:
The government of President AYLWIN, which took power in 1990, retained the
economic policies of PINOCHET, although the share of spending for social
welfare has risen steadily. In 1991 growth in GDP recovered to 6% (led by
consumer spending) after only 2% growth in 1990. The pace accelerated in
1992 as the result of strong investment and export growth, and GDP rose
10.4%. Nonetheless, inflation fell further, to 12.7%, compared with 27.3% in
1990 and 18.7% in 1991. The buoyant economy spurred a 25% growth in imports,
and the trade surplus fell in 1992, although international reserves
increased. Inflationary pressures are not expected to ease much in 1993, and
economic growth is likely to approach 7%.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $34.7 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate: 10.4% (1992)
National product per capita:
$2,550 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12.7% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
4.9% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $10.9 billion; expenditures $10.9 billion, including capital
expenditures of $1.2 billion (1993)
Exports:
$10 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
copper 41%, other metals and minerals 8.7%, wood products 7.1%, fish and
fishmeal 9.8%, fruits 8.4% (1991)
partners:
EC 32%, US 18%, Japan 18%, Brazil 5% (1991)
Imports:
$9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
capital goods 25.2%, spare parts 24.8%, raw materials 15.4%, petroleum 10%,
foodstuffs 5.7%
partners:
US 21%, EC 18%, Brazil 9%, Japan 8% (1991)
External debt:
$16.9 billion (year end 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 14.56% (1992); accounts for 34% of GDP
Electricity:
5,769,000 kW capacity; 22,010 million kWh produced, 1,630 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood
and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
Agriculture:
accounts for about 9% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); major
exporter of fruit, fish, and timber products; major crops - wheat, corn,
grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, deciduous fruit; livestock products -
beef, poultry, wool; self-sufficient in most foods; 1991 fish catch of 6.6
million metric tons; net agricultural importer
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $521 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.6 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $386 million

*Chile, Economy

Currency:
1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1 - 384.04 (January 1993), 362.59 (1992), 349.37
(1991), 305.06 (1990), 267.16 (1989), 245.05 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Chile, Communications

Railroads:
7,766 km total; 3,974 km 1.676-meter gauge, 150 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge, 3,642 km 1.000-meter gauge; 1,865 km 1.676-meter gauge and 80 km
1.000-meter gauge electrified
Highways:
79,025 km total; 9,913 km paved, 33,140 km gravel, 35,972 km improved and
unimproved earth (1984)
Inland waterways:
725 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas 320 km
Ports:
Antofagasta, Iquique, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, Valparaiso, San Antonio,
Talcahuano, Arica
Merchant marine:
31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 445,330 GRT/756,018 DWT; includes 8
cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 oil tanker, 3
chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas tanker, 3 combination ore/oil, 8 bulk; note
- in addition, 1 naval tanker and 1 military transport are sometimes used
commercially
Airports:
total:
396
usable:
351
with permanent-surface runways:
48
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
13
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
57
Telecommunications:
modern telephone system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities;
768,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 159 AM, no FM, 131 TV, 11
shortwave; satellite ground stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3
domestic

*Chile, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army of the Nation, National Navy (including Naval Air, Coast Guard, and
Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros of Chile (National Police),
Investigative Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 3.653 million; fit for military service 2,722,479; reach
military age (19) annually 119,434 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1 billion, 3.4% of GDP (1991 est.)

*China, Header

Affiliation:
(also see separate Taiwan entry)

*China, Geography

Location:
East Asia, between India and Mongolia
Map references:
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
9,596,960 km2
land area:
9,326,410 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than the US
Land boundaries:
total 22,143.34 km, Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, Hong
Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km,
Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,673 km, Nepal
1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest)
40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km
Coastline:
14,500 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
claim to shallow areas of East China Sea and Yellow Sea
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
boundary with India; bilateral negotiations are under way to resolve
disputed sections of the boundary with Russia; boundary with Tajikistan
under dispute; a short section of the boundary with North Korea is
indefinite; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with
Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; maritime
boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands
occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims
Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto, as does Taiwan, (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu
Tai)
Climate:
extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Terrain:
mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills
in east
Natural resources:
coal, iron ore, petroleum, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese,
molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, world's
largest hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
31%
forest and woodland:
14%
other:
45%
Irrigated land:
478,220 km2 (1991 - Chinese statistic)

*China, Geography

Environment:
frequent typhoons (about five times per year along southern and eastern
coasts), damaging floods, tsunamis, earthquakes; deforestation; soil
erosion; industrial pollution; water pollution; air pollution;
desertification
Note:
world's third-largest country (after Russia and Canada)

*China, People

Population:
1,177,584,537 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.1% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
18.29 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.34 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
52.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.74 years
male:
66.78 years
female:
68.8 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.85 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Chinese
Ethnic divisions:
Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol,
Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%
Religions:
Daoism (Taoism), Buddhism, Muslim 2-3%, Christian 1% (est.)
note:
officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic
Languages:
Standard Chinese (Putonghua) or Mandarin (based on the Beijing dialect), Yue
(Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese),
Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic divisions entry)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
73%
male:
84%
female:
62%
Labor force:
567.4 million
by occupation:
agriculture and forestry 60%, industry and commerce 25%, construction and
mining 5%, social services 5%, other 5% (1990 est.)

*China, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
People's Republic of China
conventional short form:
China
local long form:
Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form:
Zhong Guo
Abbreviation:
PRC
Digraph:
CH
Type:
Communist state
Capital:
Beijing
Administrative divisions:
23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu,, singular and
plural), and 3 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural);, Anhui, Beijing Shi**, Fujian, Gansu,,
Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan,, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi,
Jilin, Liaoning,
Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai Shi**, Shanxi,, Sichuan, Tianjin
Shi**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang, note:
China considers Taiwan its 23rd province
Independence: 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221 BC; Qing or Ch'ing
Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912; People's Republic
established 1 October 1949)
Constitution:
most recent promulgated 4 December 1982
Legal system:
a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary
civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal codes in effect since 1
January 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil,
administrative, criminal, and commercial law
National holiday:
National Day, 1 October (1949)
Political parties and leaders:
Chinese Communist Party (CCP), JIANG Zemin, general secretary of the Central
Committee (since 24 June 1989); eight registered small parties controlled by
CCP
Other political or pressure groups:
such meaningful opposition as exists consists of loose coalitions, usually
within the party and government organization, that vary by issue
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
National People's Congress:
last held March 1993 (next to be held March 1998); results - CCP is the only
party but there are also independents; seats - (2,977 total) (elected at
county or xian level)
President:
last held 27 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - JIANG Zemin was
nominally elected by the Eighth National People's Congress
Executive branch:
president, vice president, premier, four vice premiers, State Council

*China, Government

Legislative branch:
unicameral National People's Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui)
Judicial branch:
Supreme People's Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993); Vice President RONG Yiren
(since 27 March 1993)
Chief of State and Head of Government (de facto):
DENG Xiaoping (since NA 1977)
Head of Government:
Premier LI Peng (Acting Premier since 24 November 1987, Premier since 9
April 1988) Vice Premier ZHU Rongji (since 8 April 1991); Vice Premier ZOU
Jiahua (since 8 April 1991); Vice Premier QIAN Qichen (since 29 March 1993);
Vice Premier LI Lanqing (29 March 1993)
Member of:
AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM
(observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UN Security
Council, UNTAC, UNTSO, UN Trusteeship Council, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador LI Daoyu
chancery:
2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 328-2500 through 2502
consulates general:
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador J. Stapleton ROY
embassy:
Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, Beijing
mailing address:
100600, PSC 461, Box 50, Beijing or FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone:
[86] (1) 532-3831
FAX:
[86] (1) 532-3178
consulates general:
Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang
Flag:
red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow
five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the
flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

*China, Economy

Overview:
Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has been trying to move the
economy from the sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more
productive and flexible economy with market elements, but still within the
framework of monolithic Communist control. To this end the authorities have
switched to a system of household responsibility in agriculture in place of
the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and
plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale
enterprise in services and light manufacturing, and opened the foreign
economic sector to increased trade and joint ventures. The most gratifying
result has been a strong spurt in production, particularly in agriculture in
the early 1980s. Industry also has posted major gains, especially in coastal
areas near Hong Kong and opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment and
modern production methods have helped spur production of both domestic and
export goods. Aggregate output has more than doubled since 1978. On the
darker side, the leadership has often experienced in its hybrid system the
worst results of socialism (bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of
capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has
periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals and
thereby lessening the credibility of the reform process. In 1991, and again
in 1992, output rose substantially, particularly in the favored coastal
areas. Popular resistance, changes in central policy, and loss of authority
by rural cadres have weakened China's population control program, which is
essential to the nation's long-term economic viability.
National product: GNP $NA
National product real growth rate:
12.8% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.4% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
2.3% in urban areas (1992)
Budget:
deficit $16.3 billion (1992)
Exports:
$85.0 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
textiles, garments, telecommunications and recording equipment, petroleum,
minerals
partners:
Hong Kong and Macau, Japan, US, Germany, South Korea, Russia (1992)
Imports:
$80.6 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
specialized industrial machinery, chemicals, manufactured goods, steel,
textile yarn, fertilizer
partners:
Hong Kong and Macau, Japan, US, Taiwan, Germany, Russia (1992)
External debt:
$69.3 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 20.8% (1992)
Electricity:
158,690,000 kW capacity; 740,000 million kWh produced, 630 kWh per capita
(1992)

*China, Economy

Industries:
iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles, petroleum,
cement, chemical fertilizers, consumer durables, food processing
Agriculture:
accounts for 26% of GNP; among the world's largest producers of rice,
potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, and pork; commercial crops
include cotton, other fibers, and oilseeds; produces variety of livestock
products; basically self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 13.35 million
metric tons (including fresh water and pond raised) (1991)
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of opium in at least 18 provinces and administrative
regions; bulk of production is in Yunnan Province; transshipment point for
heroin produced in the Golden Triangle
Economic aid:
donor - to less developed countries (1970-89) $7.0 billion; US commitments,
including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $220.7 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA
and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $13.5 billion
Currency:
1 yuan (Y) = 10 jiao
Exchange rates:
yuan (Y) per US$1 - 5.7640 (January 1993), 5.5146 (1992), 5.3234 (1991),
4.7832 (1990), 3.7651 (1989), 3.7221 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*China, Communications

Railroads:
total about 64,000 km; 54,000 km of common carrier lines, of which 53,400 km
are 1.435-meter gauge (standard) and 600 km are 1.000-meter gauge (narrow);
11,200 km of standard gauge common carrier route are double tracked and
6,900 km are electrified (1990); an additional 10,000 km of varying gauges
(0.762 to 1.067-meter) are dedicated industrial lines
Highways:
about 1,029,000 km (1990) total; 170,000 km (est.) paved roads, 648,000 km
(est.) gravel/improved earth roads, 211,000 km (est.) unimproved earth roads
and tracks
Inland waterways:
138,600 km; about 109,800 km navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 9,700 km (1990); petroleum products 1,100 km; natural gas 6,200 km
Ports:
Dalian, Guangzhou, Huangpu, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Xingang,
Zhanjiang, Ningbo, Xiamen, Tanggu, Shantou
Merchant marine:
1,478 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 14,029,320 GRT/21,120,522 DWT;
includes 25 passenger, 42 short-sea passenger, 18 passenger-cargo, 6
cargo/training, 811 cargo, 11 refrigerated cargo, 81 container, 18
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 multifunction/barge carrier, 177 oil tanker, 11
chemical tanker, 263 bulk, 3 liquefied gas, 1 vehicle carrier, 9 combination
bulk, 1 barge carrier; note - China beneficially owns an additional 227
ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling approximately 6,187,117 DWT that operate
under Panamanian, British, Hong Kong, Maltese, Liberian, Vanuatu, Cypriot,
Saint Vincent, Bahamian, and Romanian registry
Airports:
total:
330
usable:
330
with permanent-surface runways:
260
with runways over 3,500 m:
fewer than 10
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
90
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
200
Telecommunications:
domestic and international services are increasingly available for private
use; unevenly distributed internal system serves principal cities,
industrial centers, and most townships; 11,000,000 telephones (December
1989); broadcast stations - 274 AM, unknown FM, 202 (2,050 repeaters) TV;
more than 215 million radio receivers; 75 million TVs; satellite earth
stations - 4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 INMARSAT,
and 55 domestic

*China, Defense Forces

Branches:
People's Liberation Army (PLA), PLA Navy (including Marines), PLA Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 343,361,925; fit for military service 190,665,512; reach
military age (18) annually 10,844,047 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GNP

*Christmas Island, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of Australia)

*Christmas Island, Geography

Location:
in the Indian Ocean, between Australia and Indonesia
Map references:
Southeast Asia
Area:
total area:
135 km2
land area:
135 km2
comparative area:
about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
138.9 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12 nm
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau
Natural resources:
phosphate
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
almost completely surrounded by a reef
Note:
located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

*Christmas Island, People

Population:
1,685 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
-2.44% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
NA years
male:
NA years
female:
NA years
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman
Nationality:
noun:
Christmas Islander(s)
adjective:
Christmas Island
Ethnic divisions:
Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no indigenous population
Religions:
Buddhist 36.1%, Muslim 25.4%, Christian 17.7% (Roman Catholic 8.2%, Church
of England 3.2%, Presbyterian 0.9%, Uniting Church 0.4%, Methodist 0.2%,
Baptist 0.1%, and other 4.7%), none 12.7%, unknown 4.6%, other 3.5% (1981)
Languages:
English
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
all workers are employees of the Phosphate Mining Company of Christmas
Island, Ltd.

*Christmas Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of Christmas Island
conventional short form:
Christmas Island
Digraph:
KT
Type:
territory of Australia
Capital:
The Settlement
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
none (territory of Australia)
Constitution:
Christmas Island Act of 1958
Legal system:
under the authority of the governor general of Australia
National holiday:
NA
Political parties and leaders:
none
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general of Australia, administrator, Advisory
Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
none
Judicial branch:
none
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Administrator M. J. GRIMES (since NA)
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation:
none (territory of Australia)
Flag:
the flag of Australia is used

*Christmas Island, Economy

Overview:
Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity, but in
December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine as no longer
economically viable. Plans have been under way to reopen the mine and also
to build a casino and hotel to develop tourism, with a possible opening date
during the first half of 1992.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
phosphate
partners:
Australia, NZ
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
consumer goods
partners:
principally Australia
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
11,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced, 17,800 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
phosphate extraction (near depletion)
Agriculture:
NA
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4837 (January 1993), 1.3600 (1992),
1.2836 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Christmas Island, Communications

Highways:
adequate road system
Ports:
Flying Fish Cove
Airports:
total:
1
useable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439:
1
Telecommunications:
4,000 radios (1982); broadcasting stations - 1 AM, 1 TV

*Christmas Island, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia

*Clipperton Island, Header

Affiliation:
(possession of France)

*Clipperton Island, Geography

Location:
in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km southwest of Mexico
Map references:
World
Area:
total area:
7 km2
land area:
7 km2
comparative area:
about 12 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
11.1 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by Mexico
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
coral atoll
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (all coral)
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
reef about 8 km in circumference

*Clipperton Island, People

Population:
uninhabited

*Clipperton Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Clipperton Island
local long form:
none
local short form:
Ile Clipperton
former:
sometimes called Ile de la Passion
Digraph: IP
Type:
French possession administered by France from French Polynesia by High
Commissioner of the Republic
Capital:
none; administered by France from French Polynesia
Independence:
none (possession of France)

*Clipperton Island, Economy

Overview:
The only economic activity is a tuna fishing station.

*Clipperton Island, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only

*Clipperton Island, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

*Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of Australia)

*Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Geography

Location:
in the Indian Ocean, 1,070 km southwest of Indonesia, about halfway between
Australia and Sri Lanka
Map references:
Southeast Asia
Area:
total area:
14 km2
land area:
14 km2
comparative area:
about 24 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
note:
includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline:
2.6 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
pleasant, modified by the southeast trade wind for about nine months of the
year; moderate rain fall
Terrain:
flat, low-lying coral atolls
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation

*Cocos (Keeling) Islands, People

Population:
593 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.53% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
NA years
male:
NA years
female:
NA years
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/women
Nationality:
noun:
Cocos Islander(s)
adjective:
Cocos Islander
Ethnic divisions:
West Island:
Europeans
Home Island:
Cocos Malays
Religions:
Sunni Muslims
Languages:
English
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA

*Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands
conventional short form:
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Digraph:
CK
Type:
territory of Australia
Capital:
West Island
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
none (territory of Australia)
Constitution:
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955
Legal system:
based upon the laws of Australia and local laws
National holiday:
NA
Political parties and leaders:
NA
Suffrage:
NA
Elections: NA
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general of Australia, administrator, chairman of
the Islands Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral Islands Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Administrator B. CUNNINGHAM (since NA); Chairman of the Islands Council Haji
WAHIN bin Bynie (since NA)
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territory of Australia)
US diplomatic representation:
none (territory of Australia)
Flag:
the flag of Australia is used

*Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Economy

Overview:
Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash crop. Copra and
fresh coconuts are the major export earners. Small local gardens and fishing
contribute to the food supply, but additional food and most other
necessities must be imported from Australia.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
copra
partners:
Australia
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
foodstuffs
partners:
Australia
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
1,000 kW capacity; 2 million kWh produced, 2,980 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
copra products
Agriculture:
gardens provide vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4837 (January 1993), 1.3600 (1992),
1.2836 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Communications

Ports:
none; lagoon anchorage only
Airports:
total:
1
useable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
250 radios (1985); linked by telephone, telex, and facsimile communications
via satellite with Australia; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV

*Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia

*Colombia, Geography

Location:
Northern South America, between Panama and Venezuela
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
1,138,910 km2
land area:
1,038,700 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than three times the size of Montana
note:
includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank
Land boundaries:
total 7,408 km, Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900
km, Venezuela 2,050 km
Coastline:
3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela;
territorial dispute with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San Andres y
Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank
Climate:
tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Terrain:
flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes mountains, eastern
lowland plains
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds
Land use:
arable land:
4%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
29%
forest and woodland:
49%
other:
16%
Irrigated land:
5,150 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; deforestation; soil damage from
overuse of pesticides; periodic droughts
Note:
only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and
Caribbean Sea

*Colombia, People

Population:
34,942,767 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.83% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
23.4 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
4.82 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
29.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
71.72 years
male:
68.99 years
female:
74.53 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.54 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Colombian(s)
adjective:
Colombian
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Indian 3%, Indian
1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
Spanish
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
87%
male:
88%
female:
86%
Labor force:
12 million (1990)
by occupation:
services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)

*Colombia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Colombia
conventional short form:
Colombia local long form:
Republica de Colombia
local short form:
Colombia
Digraph:
CO
Type:
republic; executive branch dominates government structure
Capital:
Bogota
Administrative divisions:
23 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento), 5 commissariats*, (comisarias, singular
- comisaria), 4 intendancies** (intendencias, singular, - intendencia), and 1 special district***,
(distrito especial); Amazonas*,, Antioquia, Arauca**, Atlantico, Bogota***, Bolivar, Boyaca,,
Caldas, Caqueta,
Casanare**, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia*, Guaviare*,, Huila, La Guajira,
Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo**,, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y
Providencia**, Santander, Sucre, Tolima,, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes*, Vichada*, note:
the Constitution of 5 July 1991 states that the commissariats and
intendancies are to become full departments and a capital district (distrito
capital) of Santa Fe de Bogota is to be established by 1997
Independence:
20 July 1810 (from Spain)
Constitution:
5 July 1991
Legal system:
based on Spanish law; judicial review of executive and legislative acts;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Party (PL), Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo, president; Social Conservative
Party (PCS), Misael PASTRANA Borrero; National Salvation Movement (MSN),
Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado; Democratic Alliance M-19 (AD/M-19) is headed by 19th
of April Movement (M-19) leader Antonio NAVARRO Wolf, coalition of small
leftist parties and dissident liberals and conservatives; Patriotic Union
(UP) is a legal political party formed by Revolutionary Armed Forces of
Colombia (FARC) and Colombian Communist Party (PCC), Carlos ROMERO
Other political or pressure groups:
three insurgent groups are active in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed Forces
of Colombia (FARC), Manuel MARULANDA and Alfonso CANO; National Liberation
Army (ELN), Manuel PEREZ; and dissidents of the recently demobilized
People's Liberation Army (EPL), Francisco CARABALLO
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
President:
last held 27 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - Cesar GAVIRIA
Trujillo (Liberal) 47%, Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado (National Salvation Movement)
24%, Antonio NAVARRO Wolff (M-19) 13%, Rodrigo LLOREDA (Conservative) 12%

*Colombia, Government

Senate:
last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held March 1994); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (102 total) Liberal 58, Conservative 22, AD/M-19
9, MSN 5, UP 1, other 7
House of Representatives:
last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held March 1994); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (161 total) Liberal 87, Conservative 31, AD/M-19
13, MSN 10, UP 3, other 17
Executive branch:
president, presidential designate, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of a nationally elected upper chamber
or Senate (Senado) and a nationally elected lower chamber or House of
Representatives (Camara de Representantes)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justical), Constitutional Court,
Council of State
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo (since 7 August 1990)
Member of:
AG, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL,
PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jaime GARCIA Parra
chancery:
2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 387-8338
consulates general:
Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan
(Puerto Rico)
consulates:
Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Los Angeles, and Tampa
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Morris D. BUSBY
embassy:
Calle 38, No. 8-61, Bogota
mailing address:
P. O. Box A. A. 3831, Bogota or APO AA 34038
telephone:
[57] (1) 285-1300 or 1688
FAX:
[57] (1) 288-5687
consulate:
Barranquilla
Flag:
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar
to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of
arms superimposed in the center

*Colombia, Economy

Overview:
Economic development has slowed gradually since 1986, but growth rates
remain high by Latin American standards. Conservative economic policies have
kept inflation and unemployment near 30% and 10%, respectively. The rapid
development of oil, coal, and other nontraditional industries in recent
years has helped to offset the decline in coffee prices - Colombia's major
export. The collapse of the International Coffee Agreement in the summer of
1989, a troublesome rural insurgency, energy rationing, and drug-related
violence have dampened growth. The level of violence, in Bogota in
particular, surged to higher levels in the first quarter of 1993, further
delaying the economic resurgence expected from government reforms. These
reforms center on fiscal restraint, trade and investment liberalization,
financial and labor reform, and privatization of state utilities and
commercial banks.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $51 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3.3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,500 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
25% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
10% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $5.0 billion; current expenditures $5.1 billion, capital
expenditures $964 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$7.4 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
petroleum, coffee, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers
partners:
US 44%, EC 21%, Japan 5%, Netherlands 4%, Sweden 3% (1991)
Imports:
$5.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities:
industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals,
paper products
partners:
US 36%, EC 16%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 3%, Japan 3% (1991)
External debt:
$17 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate -0.5% (1991); accounts for 20% of GDP
Electricity:
10,193,000 kW capacity; 36,000 million kWh produced, 1,050 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals,
metal products, cement; mining - gold, coal, emeralds, iron, nickel, silver,
salt
Agriculture:
growth rate 3% (1991 est.) accounts for 22% of GDP; crops make up two-thirds
and livestock one-third of agricultural output; climate and soils permit a
wide variety of crops, such as coffee, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa
beans, oilseeds, vegetables; forest products and shrimp farming are becoming
more important

*Colombia, Economy

Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis, coca, and opium; about 37,500 hectares of coca
under cultivation; the world's largest processor of coca derivatives into
cocaine; supplier of cocaine to the US and other international drug markets
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.6 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.3 billion,
Communist countries (1970-89), $399 million
Currency:
1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1 - 820.08 (January 1993), 759.28 (1992),
633.05 (1991), 502.26 (1990), 382.57 (1989), 299.17 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Colombia, Communications

Railroads:
3,386 km; 3,236 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track (2,611 km in use), 150 km
1.435-meter gauge
Highways:
75,450 km total; 9,350 km paved, 66,100 km earth and gravel surfaces
Inland waterways:
14,300 km, navigable by river boats
Pipelines:
crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural gas 830 km; natural
gas liquids 125 km
Ports:
Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Covenas, San Andres, Santa Marta,
Tumaco
Merchant marine:
27 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 227,719 GRT/356,665 DWT; includes 9
cargo, 3 oil tanker, 8 bulk, 7 container
Airports:
total:
1,233
usable:
1,059
with permanent-surface:
69
with runways over 3,659 m:
1 with runways 2,440-2,459 m:
9
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
200
Telecommunications:
nationwide radio relay system; 1,890,000 telephones; broadcast stations -
413 AM, no FM, 33 TV, 28 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations
and 11 domestic satellite earth stations

*Colombia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, including Marines), Air
Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana), National Police (Policia Nacional)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 9,428,358; fit for military service 6,375,944; reach
military age (18) annually 356,993 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $630 million, 1.3% of GDP (1993 est.)

*Comoros, Geography

Location:
in the extreme northern Mozambique Channel, about two-thirds of the way
between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
2,170 km2
land area:
2,170 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
340 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claims French-administered Mayotte
Climate:
tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)
Terrain:
volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use: arable land:
35%
permanent crops:
8%
meadows and pastures:
7%
forest and woodland:
16%
other:
34%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; cyclones possible during rainy
season
Note:
important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

*Comoros, People

Population:
511,651 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.54% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
46.75 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
11.31 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
81.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
57.35 years
male:
55.23 years
female:
59.55 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.86 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Comoran(s)
adjective:
Comoran
Ethnic divisions:
Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14%
Languages:
Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend of Swahili and
Arabic)
Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
48%
male:
56%
female:
40%
Labor force:
140,000 (1982)
by occupation:
agriculture 80%, government 3%
note:
51% of population of working age (1985)

*Comoros, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
conventional short form:
Comoros
local long form:
Republique Federale Islamique des Comores
local short form:
Comores
Digraph:
CN
Type:
independent republic
Capital:
Moroni
Administrative divisions:
three islands; Njazidja (Grand Comore), Nzwani (Anjouan), and Mwali (Moheli)
note:
there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni, Moroni, and
Mutsamudu
Independence:
6 July 1975 (from France)
Constitution:
7 June 1992
Legal system:
French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 July (1975)
Political parties and leaders:
over 20 political parties are currently active, the most important of which
are; Comoran Union for Progress (UDZIMA), Omar TAMOU; Islands' Fraternity
and Unity Party (CHUMA), Said Ali KEMAL; Comoran Party for Democracy and
Progress (PCDP), Ali MROUDJAE; Realizing Freedom's Capability (UWEZO),
Mouazair ABDALLAH; Democratic Front of the Comoros (FDR), Moustapha CHELKH;
Dialogue Proposition Action (DPA/MWANGAZA), Said MCHAWGAMA; Rally for Change
and Democracy (RACHADE), Hassan HACHIM; Union for Democracy and
Decentralization (UNDC), Mohamed Taki Halidi IBRAHAM; Maecha Bora, leader
NA; MDP/NGDC (expansion NA), leader NA; Comoran Popular Front (FPC), Mohamed
HASSANALI, Mohamed El Arif OUKACHA, Abdou MOUSTAKIM (Secretary General)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Federal Assembly:
last held November-December 1992 (next to be held NA March 1997); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (42 total) UNDC 7, CHUMA 3, ADP 2,
MDP/NGDC 5, FDC 2, MAECHA BORA 2, FPC 2, RACHADE 1, UWEZO 1, MWANGAZA 1, 16
other seats to smaller parties
President:
last held 11 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996); results - Said Mohamed
DJOHAR (UDZIMA) 55%, Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim (UNDC) 45%
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers (cabinet), prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral Federal Assembly (Assemblee Federale)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

*Comoros, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Said Mohamed DJOHAR (since 11 March 1990); Prime Minister Ibrahim
HALIDI (since 1 January 1992)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Amini Ali MOUMIN
chancery:
(temporary) at the Comoran Permanent Mission to the UN, 336 East 45th
Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone:
(212) 972-8010
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Kenneth N. PELTIER
embassy:
address NA, Moroni
mailing address:
B. P. 1318, Moroni
telephone:
[269] 73-22-03, 73-29-22
FAX:
no service available at this time
Flag:
green with a white crescent placed diagonally (closed side of the crescent
points to the upper hoist-side corner of the flag); there are four white
five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the
crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the four
stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali, Njazidja,
Nzwani, and Mayotte (which is a territorial collectivity of France, but
claimed by the Comoros)

*Comoros, Economy

Overview:
One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of several islands
that have poor transportation links, a young and rapidly increasing
population, and few natural resources. The low educational level of the
labor force contributes to a low level of economic activity, high
unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical
assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the
leading sector of the economy. It contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the
labor force, and provides most of the exports. The country is not
self-sufficient in food production, and rice, the main staple, accounts for

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