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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $318 million; expenditures $326 million, including capital
expenditures of $150 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$91.7 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
coffee 81%, tea, hides, and skins
partners:
EC 83%, US 5%, Asia 2%
Imports:
$246 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
capital goods 31%, petroleum products 15%, foodstuffs, consumer goods
partners:
EC 57%, Asia 23%, US 3%
External debt:
$1 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
real growth rate 11.0% (1991 est.); accounts for about 5% of GDP
Electricity:
55,000 kW capacity; 105 million kWh produced, 20 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imports;
public works construction; food processing
Agriculture:
accounts for 60% of GDP; 90% of population dependent on subsistence farming;
marginally self-sufficient in food production; cash crops - coffee, cotton,
tea; food crops - corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc; livestock
- meat, milk, hides and skins
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $71 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.2 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $32 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $175
million
Currency:
1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes

*Burundi, Economy

Exchange rates:
Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1 - 235.75 (January 1993), 208.30 (1992), 181.51
(1991), 171.26 (1990), 158.67 (1989), 140.40 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Burundi, Communications

Highways:
5,900 km total; 400 km paved, 2,500 km gravel or laterite, 3,000 km improved
or unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
Lake Tanganyika
Ports:
Bujumbura (lake port) connects to transportation systems of Tanzania and
Zaire
Airports:
total:
5
usable:
4
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
sparse system of wire, radiocommunications, and low-capacity microwave radio
relay links; 8,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Burundi, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,283,308; fit for military service 670,381; reach military
age (16) annually 62,700 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $28 million, 3.7% of GDP (1989)

*Cambodia, Geography

Location:
Southeast Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand and Vietnam
Map references: Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
181,040 km2
land area:
176,520 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Land boundaries:
total 2,572 km, Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km
Coastline:
443 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
offshore islands and three sections of the boundary with Vietnam are in
dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam not defined
Climate:
tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to October); dry season (December to
March); little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Natural resources:
timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower
potential
Land use:
arable land:
16%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
3%
forest and woodland:
76%
other:
4%
Irrigated land:
920 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
a land of paddies and forests dominated by Mekong River and Tonle Sap
Note:
buffer between Thailand and Vietnam

*Cambodia, People

Population:
9,898,900 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
4.41% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
45.52 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
16.57 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
15.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
111.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
49.06 years
male:
47.6 years
female:
50.6 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.81 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Cambodian(s)
adjective:
Cambodian
Ethnic divisions:
Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%
Religions:
Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%
Languages:
Khmer (official), French
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
35%
male:
48%
female:
22%
Labor force:
2,500,000 to 3,000,000
by occupation:
agriculture 80% (1988 est.)

*Cambodia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Cambodia
Digraph:
CB
Type:
transitional government currently administered by the Supreme National
Council (SNC), a body set up under United Nations' auspices, in preparation
for an internationally supervised election in 1993 and including
representatives from each of the country's four political factions
Capital:
Phnom Penh
Administrative divisions:
20 provinces (khet, singular and plural); Banteay Meanchey, Batdambang,
Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal,
Kaoh Kong, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Phnum Penh, Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey
Veng, Rotanokiri, Siemreab-Otdar Meanchey, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
Independence:
9 November 1949 (from France)
Constitution:
a new constitution will be drafted after the national election in 1993
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
NGC:
Independence Day, 17 April (1975)
SOC:
Liberation Day, 7 January (1979)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Kampuchea (DK, also known as the Khmer Rouge) under KHIEU
SAMPHAN; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party (CPP) under
CHEA SIM; Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) under SON SANN;
National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative
Cambodia (FUNCINPEC) under Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH; Liberal Democratic
Party (LDP) under SAK SUTSAKHAN
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
UN-supervised election for a 120-member constituent assembly based on
proportional representation within each province is scheduled for 23-27 May
1993; the assembly will draft and approve a constitution and then transform
itself into a legislature that will create a new Cambodian Government
Executive branch:
a 12 member Supreme National Council (SNC), chaired by Prince NORODOM
SIHANOUK, composed of representatives from each of the four political
factions; faction names and delegation leaders are: State of Cambodia (SOC)
- HUN SEN; Democratic Kampuchea (DK or Khmer Rouge) - KHIEU SAMPHAN; Khmer
People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) - SON SANN; National United Front
for an Independent, Peaceful, Neutral, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC)
- Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH
Legislative branch:
pending a national election in 1993, the incumbent SOC faction's unicameral
National Assembly is the only functioning national legislative body
Judicial branch:
Supreme People's Court pending a national election in 1993, the incumbent
SOC faction's Supreme People's Court is the only functioning national
judicial body

*Cambodia, Government

Leaders: Chief of State:
SNC - Chairman Prince NORODOM SIHANOUK, under UN supervision
Head of Government:
NGC - vacant, but will be determined following the national election in
1993; SOC - Chairman of the Council of Ministers HUN SEN (since 14 January
1985)
Member of:
AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTERPOL, ITU, LORCS, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
the Supreme National Council (SNC) represents Cambodia in international
organizations
US diplomatic representation:
US representative:
Charles TWINNING
mission:
27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh
mailing address:
Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone:
(855) 23-26436 or (855) 23-26438
FAX:
(855) 23-26437
Flag:
SNC - blue background with white map of Cambodia in middle; SOC - two equal
horizontal bands of red (top) and blue with a gold stylized five-towered
temple representing Angkor Wat in the center

*Cambodia, Economy

Overview:
Cambodia remains a desperately poor country whose economic recovery is held
hostage to continued political unrest and factional hostilities. The
country's immediate economic challenge is an acute financial crisis that is
undermining monetary stability and preventing disbursement of foreign
development assistance. Cambodia is still recovering from an abrupt shift in
1990 to free-market economic mechanisms and a cutoff in aid from former
Soviet bloc countries; these changes have severely impacted on public sector
revenues and performance. The country's infrastructure of roads, bridges,
and power plants has been severely degraded, now having only 40-50% of
prewar capacity. The economy remains essentially rural, with 90% of the
population living in the countryside and dependent mainly on subsistence
agriculture. Statistical data on the economy continue to be sparse and
unreliable.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$280 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
250-300% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $120 million; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of
$NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$59 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
natural rubber, rice, pepper, wood
partners:
Vietnam, USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, India
Imports:
$170 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
international food aid; fuels, consumer goods, machinery
partners:
Vietnam, USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, India
External debt:
$717 million (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
35,000 kW capacity; 70 million kWh produced, 9 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining
Agriculture:
mainly subsistence farming except for rubber plantations; main crops - rice,
rubber, corn; food shortages - rice, meat, vegetables, dairy products,
sugar, flour
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $725 million; Western (non-US
countries) (1970-89), $300 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.8
billion
Currency:
1 riel (CR) = 100 sen

*Cambodia, Economy

Exchange rates:
riels (CR) per US$1 - 2,800 (September 1992), 500 (December 1991), 560
(1990), 159.00 (1988), 100.00 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Cambodia, Communications

Railroads:
612 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned
Highways:
13,351 km total; 2,622 km bituminous; 7,105 km crushed stone, gravel, or
improved earth; 3,624 km unimproved earth; some roads in disrepair
Inland waterways:
3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 meters; 282 km navigable to
craft drawing 1.8 meters
Ports:
Kampong Saom, Phnom Penh
Airports:
total:
15
usable:
9
with permanent-surface runways:
5
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
service barely adequate for government requirements and virtually
nonexistent for general public; international service limited to Vietnam and
other adjacent countries; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV

*Cambodia, Defense Forces

Branches:
SOC:
Cambodian People's Armed Forces (CPAF)
Communist resistance forces:
National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge)
non-Communist resistance forces:
Armee National Kampuchea Independent (ANKI) which is sometimes anglicized as
National Army of Independent Cambodia (NAIC), Khmer People's National
Liberation Armed Forces (KPNLAF)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,883,679; fit for military service 1,033,168; reach
military age (18) annually 74,585 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Cameroon, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Equatorial Guinea
and Nigeria
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
475,440 km2
land area:
469,440 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries: total 4,591 km, Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km, Congo 523
km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km, Nigeria 1,690 km
Coastline:
402 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
50 nm
International disputes:
demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has
led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification
by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; boundary commission, created with
Nigeria to discuss unresolved land and maritime boundaries, has not yet
convened
Climate:
varies with terrain from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north
Terrain:
diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center,
mountains in west, plains in north
Natural resources:
petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land:
13%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
18%
forest and woodland:
54%
other:
13%
Irrigated land:
280 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous gases; deforestation;
overgrazing; desertification
Note:
sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa

*Cameroon, People

Population:
12,755,873 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.9% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
40.66 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
11.63 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
78.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:
56.66 years
male:
54.65 years
female:
58.74 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.88 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Cameroonian(s)
adjective:
Cameroonian
Ethnic divisions:
Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%,
Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African
less than 1%
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16%
Languages:
24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
54%
male:
66%
female:
43%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
agriculture 74.4%, industry and transport 11.4%, other services 14.2% (1983)
note:
50% of population of working age (15-64 years) (1985)

*Cameroon, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Cameroon
conventional short form:
Cameroon
former:
French Cameroon
Digraph:
CM
Type:
unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties
legalized 1990)
Capital:
Yaounde
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord,
Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest
Independence:
1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French administration)
Constitution:
20 May 1972
Legal system:
based on French civil law system, with common law influence; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 20 May (1972)
Political parties and leaders:
Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (CPDM), Paul BIYA, president, is
government-controlled and was formerly the only party, but opposition
parties were legalized in 1990
major opposition parties:
National Union for Democracy and Progress (UNDP)
major oppositon parties:
Social Democratic Front (SDF)
major opposition parties:
Cameroonian Democratic Union (UDC); Union of Cameroonian Populations (UPC)
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Suffrage:
20 years of age; universal
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held 1 March 1992 (next scheduled for March 1997); results - (180
seats) CPDM 88, UNDP 68, UPC 18, MDR 6
President:
last held 11 October 1992; results - President Paul BIYA reelected with
about 40% of the vote amid widespread allegations of fraud; SDF candidate
John FRU NDI got 36% of the vote; UNDP candidate Bello Bouba MAIGARI got 19%
of the vote
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)

*Cameroon, Government

Head of Government:
Prime Minister Simon ACHIDI ACHU (since 9 April 1992)
Member of:
ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Paul PONDI
chancery:
2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 265-8790 through 8794
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Harriet ISOM
embassy:
Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
mailing address:
B. P. 817, Yaounde
telephone:
[237] 234-014
FAX:
[237] 230-753
consulate:
Douala
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow with a
yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia

*Cameroon, Economy

Overview:
Because of its offshore oil resources, Cameroon has one of the highest
incomes per capita in tropical Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious
problems facing other underdeveloped countries, such as political
instability, a top-heavy civil service, and a generally unfavorable climate
for business enterprise. The development of the oil sector led rapid
economic growth between 1970 and 1985. Growth came to an abrupt halt in 1986
precipitated by steep declines in the prices of major exports: coffee,
cocoa, and petroleum. Export earnings were cut by almost one-third, and
inefficiencies in fiscal management were exposed. In 1990-92, with support
from the IMF and World Bank, the government has begun to introduce reforms
designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture,
and recapitalize the nation's banks. Nationwide strikes organized by
opposition parties in 1991, however, undermined these efforts.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $11.5 billion (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,040 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
25% (1990 est.)
Budget:
revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $2.4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $422 million (FY90 est.)
Exports:
$1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum products 51%, coffee, beans, cocoa, aluminum products, timber
partners:
EC (particularly France) about 50%, US, African countries
Imports:
$1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
machines and electrical equipment, food, consumer goods, transport equipment
partners:
EC about 60%, France 41%, Germany 9%, African countries, Japan, US 4%
External debt:
$6 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6.4% (FY87); accounts for 30% of GDP
Electricity:
755,000 kW capacity; 2,190 million kWh produced, 190 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
petroleum production and refining, food processing, light consumer goods,
textiles, sawmills
Agriculture:
the agriculture and forestry sectors provide employment for the majority of
the population, contributing nearly 25% to GDP and providing a high degree
of self-sufficiency in staple foods; commercial and food crops include
coffee, cocoa, timber, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, livestock,
root starches
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $479 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $4.75 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $29 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $125
million

*Cameroon, Economy

Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Cameroon, Communications

Railroads:
1,003 km total; 858 km 1.000-meter gauge, 145 km 0.600-meter gauge
Highways:
about 65,000 km total; includes 2,682 km paved, 32,318 km gravel and
improved earth, and 30,000 km of unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
2,090 km; of decreasing importance
Ports: Douala
Merchant marine:
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,122 GRT/33,509 DWT
Airports:
total:
59
usable:
51
with permanent-surface runways:
11
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
6
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
51
Telecommunications:
good system of open wire, cable, troposcatter, and microwave radio relay;
26,000 telephones, 2 telephones per 1,000 persons, available only to
business and government; broadcast stations - 11 AM, 11 FM, 1 TV; 2 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

*Cameroon, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Naval Infantry), Air Force, National Gendarmerie,
Presidential Guard
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,844,280; fit for military service 1,432,563; reach
military age (18) annually 125,453 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $219 million, less than 2% of GDP (1990 est.)

*Canada, Geography

Location:
Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific
Ocean north of the US
Map references:
Arctic Region, North America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
9,976,140 km2
land area:
9,220,970 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than US
Land boundaries:
total 8,893 km, US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
Coastline:
243,791 km
Maritime claims: continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
maritime boundary disputes with the US; Saint Pierre and Miquelon is focus
of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and France
Climate:
varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Terrain:
mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
Natural resources:
nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber,
wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
5%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
3%
forest and woodland:
35%
other:
57%
Irrigated land:
8,400 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
80% of population concentrated within 160 km of US border; continuous
permafrost in north a serious obstacle to development
Note:
second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between
Russia and US via north polar route

*Canada, People

Population:
27,769,993 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.28% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
14.48 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.35 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
5.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.98 years
male: 74.54 years
female:
81.6 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.84 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Canadian(s)
adjective:
Canadian
Ethnic divisions:
British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other European 20%, indigenous
Indian and Eskimo 1.5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 46%, United Church 16%, Anglican 10%, other 28%
Languages:
English (official), French (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
13.38 million
by occupation:
services 75%, manufacturing 14%, agriculture 4%, construction 3%, other 4%
(1988)

*Canada, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Canada
Digraph:
CA
Type:
confederation with parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Ottawa
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New, Brunswick,
Newfoundland, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario,, Prince Edward Island, Quebec,
Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*, Independence:
1 July 1867 (from UK)
Constitution:
amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to Canada 17 April 1982;
charter of rights and unwritten customs
Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based
on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
Canada Day, 1 July (1867)
Political parties and leaders:
Progressive Conservative Party, Brian MULRONEY; Liberal Party, Jean
CHRETIEN; New Democratic Party, Audrey McLAUGHLIN; Reform Party, Preston
MANNING; Bloc Quebecois, Lucien BOUCHARD
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Commons:
last held 21 November 1988 (next to be held by November 1993); results -
Progressive Conservative Party 43%, Liberal Party 32%, New Democratic Party
20%, other 5%; seats - (295 total) Progressive Conservative Party 159,
Liberal Party 80, New Democratic Party 44, Bloc Quebecois 9, independents 3
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of an upper house or Senate
(Senat) and a lower house or House of Commons (Chambre des Communes)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Raymond John HNATYSHYN (since 29 January 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Kim CAMBELL was chosen to replace Brian MULRONEY on 13 June
1993

*Canada, Government

Member of:
ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB
(non-regional), COCOM, CP, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state),
FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, ONUSAL,
PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WIPO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador John DE CHASTELAIN
chancery:
501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
telephone:
(202) 682-1740
FAX:
(202) 682-7726
consulates general:
Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles,
Minneapolis, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Seattle
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate Governor James J. BLANCHARD
embassy:
100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa
mailing address:
P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430
telephone:
(613) 238-5335 or (613) 238-4470
FAX:
(613) 238-5720
consulates general:
Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and Vancouver
Flag:
three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width, square), and
red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

*Canada, Economy

Overview:
As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles
the US in per capita output, market-oriented economic system, and pattern of
production. Since World War II the impressive growth of the manufacturing,
mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural
economy into one primarily industrial and urban. In the 1980s, Canada
registered one of the highest rates of real growth among the OECD nations,
averaging about 3.2%. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force,
and modern capital plant, Canada has excellent economic prospects. However,
the continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking
areas has observers discussing a possible split in the confederation; foregn
investors have become edgy.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $537.1 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
0.9% (1992)
National product per capita:
$19,600 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.5% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
11.5% (December 1992)
Budget:
revenues $111.8 billion; expenditures $138.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY90 est.)
Exports:
$124.0 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas,
aluminum, motor vehicles and parts; telecommunications equipment
partners:
US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China
Imports:
$118 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer goods,
electronic computers; telecommunications equipment and parts
partners:
US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea
External debt:
$247 billion (1987)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1% (1992); accounts for 34% of GDP
Electricity:
109,340,000 kW capacity; 493,000 million kWh produced, 17,900 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products,
transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products, petroleum and natural
gas
Agriculture:
accounts for about 3% of GDP; one of the world's major producers and
exporters of grain (wheat and barley); key source of US agricultural
imports; large forest resources cover 35% of total land area; commercial
fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons, of which 75% is
exported

*Canada, Economy

Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of
hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of
high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a transit point for heroin
and cocaine entering the US market
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $7.2 billion
Currency:
1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.2776 (January 1993), 1.2087 (1992),
1.1457 (1991), 1.1668 (1990), 1.1840 (1989), 1.2307 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Canada, Communications

Railroads:
146,444 km total; two major transcontinental freight railway systems -
Canadian National (government owned) and Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger
service - VIA (government operated); 158 km is electrified
Highways:
884,272 km total; 712,936 km surfaced (250,023 km paved), 171,336 km earth
Inland waterways:
3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway
Pipelines:
crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km
Ports:
Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), Saint John's
(Newfoundland), Toronto, Vancouver
Merchant marine:
63 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 454,582 GRT/646,329 DWT; includes 1
passenger, 3 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 8 cargo, 2 railcar
carrier, 1 refrigerated cargo, 7 roll-on/roll-off, 1 container, 24 oil
tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 9 bulk; note - does not
include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes
Airports:
total:
1,420
useable:
1,142
with permanent-surface runways:
457
with runways over 3,659 m:
4
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
30
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
330
Telecommunications:
excellent service provided by modern media; 18.0 million telephones;
broadcast stations - 900 AM, 29 FM, 53 (1,400 repeaters) TV; 5 coaxial
submarine cables; over 300 earth stations operating in INTELSAT (including 4
Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and domestic systems

*Canada, Defense Forces

Branches:
Canadian Armed Forces (including Land Forces Command, Maritime Command, Air
Command, Communications Command, Training Command), Royal Canadian Mounted
Police (RCMP)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 7,444,767; fit for military service 6,440,927; reach
military age (17) annually 191,884 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $11.3 billion, 2% of GDP (FY92/93)

*Cape Verde, Geography

Location:
in the southeastern North Atlantic Ocean, 500 km west of Senegal in Western
Africa
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
4,030 km2
land area:
4,030 km2 comparative area:
slightly larger than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
965 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; warm, dry, summer; precipitation very erratic
Terrain:
steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
Natural resources:
salt, basalt rock, pozzolana, limestone, kaolin, fish
Land use:
arable land:
9%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
6%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
85%
Irrigated land:
20 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure visibility;
volcanically and seismically active; deforestation; overgrazing
Note:
strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south
sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air
refueling site

*Cape Verde, People

Population:
410,535 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.03% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
47.02 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
9.43 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-7.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 59.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
62.18 years
male:
60.3 years
female:
64.15 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.41 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Cape Verdean(s)
adjective:
Cape Verdean
Ethnic divisions:
Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs
Languages:
Portuguese, Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West African words
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population:
66%
male:
NA
female:
NA
Labor force:
102,000 (1985 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture (mostly subsistence) 57%, services 29%, industry 14% (1981)
note:
51% of population of working age (1985)

*Cape Verde, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Cape Verde
conventional short form:
Cape Verde
local long form:
Republica de Cabo Verde
local short form:
Cabo Verde
Digraph:
CV
Type:
republic
Capital:
Praia
Administrative divisions: 14 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo,
Maio,
Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz,
Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal
Independence:
5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Constitution:
7 September 1980; amended 12 February 1981, December 1988, and 28 September
1990 (legalized opposition parties)
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
Independence Day, 5 July (1975)
Political parties and leaders:
Movement for Democracy (MPD), Prime Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and
chairman; African Party for Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV), Pedro Verona
Rodrigues PIRES, chairman
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
People's National Assembly:
last held 13 January 1991 (next to be held January 1996); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (79 total) MPD 56, PAICV 23; note - this
multiparty Assembly election ended 15 years of single-party rule
President:
last held 17 February 1991 (next to be held February 1996); results -
Antonio Monteiro MASCARENHAS (MPD) received 72.6% of vote
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, deputy minister, secretaries of state, Council of
Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral People's National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional Popular)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justia)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Antonio Monteiro MASCARENHAS (since 22 March 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho VEIGA (since 13 January
1991)

*Cape Verde, Government

Member of:
ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN (Cape
Verde assumed a nonpermanent seat on the Security Council on 1 January
1992), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Carlos Alberto Santos SILVA
chancery:
3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 965-6820 consulate general:
Boston
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Joseph SEGARS
embassy:
Rua Hoji Ya Henda 81, Praia
mailing address:
C. P. 201, Praia
telephone:
[238] 61-56-16 or 61-56-17
FAX:
[238] 61-13-55
Flag:
a new flag of unknown description reportedly has been adopted; previous flag
consisted of two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a
vertical red band on the hoist side; in the upper portion of the red band is
a black five-pointed star framed by two corn stalks and a yellow clam shell;
uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of
Guinea-Bissau, which is longer and has an unadorned black star centered in
the red band

*Cape Verde, Economy

Overview:
Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor natural resource base, a
serious, long-term drought, and a high birthrate. The economy is service
oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services accounting for 60%
of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas,
agriculture's share of GDP is only 16%; the fishing sector accounts for 4%.
About 90% of food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster
and tuna, is not fully exploited. In 1988 fishing represented only 3.5% of
GDP. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by remittances
from emigrants and foreign aid. Economic reforms launched by the new
democratic government in February 1991 are aimed at developing the private
sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $310 million (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
$800 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.7% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
25% (1988)
Budget:
revenues $104 million; expenditures $133 million, including capital
expenditures of $72 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$5.7 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
fish, bananas, hides and skins
partners: Portugal 40%, Algeria 31%, Angola, Netherlands (1990 est.)
Imports:
$120 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial products, transport equipment
partners:
Sweden 33%, Spain 11%, Germany 5%, Portugal 3%, France 3%, Netherlands, US
(1990 est.)
External debt:
$156 million (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 18% (1988 est.); accounts for 4% of GDP
Electricity:
15,000 kW capacity; 15 million kWh produced, 40 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
fish processing, salt mining, clothing factories, ship repair, construction
materials, food and beverage production
Agriculture:
accounts for 20% of GDP (including fishing); largely subsistence farming;
bananas are the only export crop; other crops - corn, beans, sweet potatoes,
coffee; growth potential of agricultural sector limited by poor soils and
scanty rainfall; annual food imports required; fish catch provides for both
domestic consumption and small exports
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY75-90), $93 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $586 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $12 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $36
million

*Cape Verde, Economy

Currency:
1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1 - 75.47 (January 1993), 73.10 (1992),
71.41 (1991), 64.10 (November 1990), 74.86 (December 1989), 72.01 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Cape Verde, Communications

Ports:
Mindelo, Praia
Merchant marine:
7 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,717 GRT/19,000 DWT
Airports:
total:
6
usable:
6
with permanent-surface runways:
6 with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
interisland microwave radio relay system, high-frequency radio to Senegal
and Guinea-Bissau; over 1,700 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 6 FM, 1
TV; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Cape Verde, Defense Forces

Branches:
People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP) (including Army and Navy),
Security Service
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 75,431; fit for military service 44,358 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Cayman Islands, Header

Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

*Cayman Islands, Geography

Location:
in the northwestern Caribbean Sea, nearly halfway between Cuba and Honduras
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
260 km2
land area:
260 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
160 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool, relatively
dry winters (November to April)
Terrain:
low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs
Natural resources:
fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
8%
forest and woodland:
23%
other:
69%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
within the Caribbean hurricane belt
Note:
important location between Cuba and Central America

*Cayman Islands, People

Population:
30,440 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
4.35% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
15.32 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
33.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
77.1 years
male:
75.37 years
female:
78.81 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.48 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Caymanian(s)
adjective:
Caymanian
Ethnic divisions: mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various ethnic groups 20%
Religions:
United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican, Baptist, Roman
Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant denominations
Languages:
English
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population:
98%
male:
98%
female:
98%
Labor force:
8,061
by occupation:
service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%, construction 12.5%, finance and
investment 6.7%, directors and business managers 5.9% (1979)

*Cayman Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Cayman Islands
Digraph:
CJ
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
George Town
Administrative divisions:
8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West
End, Western
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
1959, revised 1972
Legal system:
British common law and local statutes
National holiday:
Constitution Day (first Monday in July)
Political parties and leaders:
no formal political parties
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Legislative Assembly:
last held November 1992 (next to be held November 1996); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (15 total, 12 elected)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly
Judicial branch:
Grand Court, Cayman Islands Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Governor and President of the Executive Council Michael GORE (since NA May
1992)
Member of:
CARICOM (observer), CDB, INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC
Diplomatic representation in US:
as a dependent territory of the UK, Caymanian interests in the US are
represented by the UK
Flag:
blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the
flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple and turtle above a shield with
three stars (representing the three islands) and a scroll at the bottom
bearing the motto HE HATH FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

*Cayman Islands, Economy

Overview:
The economy depends heavily on tourism (70% of GDP and 75% of export
earnings) and offshore financial services, with the tourist industry aimed
at the luxury market and catering mainly to visitors from North America.
About 90% of the islands' food and consumer goods needs must be imported.
The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest standards of living in the region.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $670 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
4.4% (1991)
National product per capita:
$23,000 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
7% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $141.5 million; expenditures $160.7 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1991)
Exports:
$1.5 million (f.o.b., 1987 est.)
commodities:
turtle products, manufactured consumer goods
partners:
mostly US
Imports:
$136 million (c.i.f., 1987 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, manufactured goods
partners: US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan
External debt:
$15 million (1986)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
74,000 kW capacity; 256 million kWh produced, 8,780 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction, building materials,
furniture making
Agriculture:
minor production of vegetables, fruit, livestock; turtle farming
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $26.7 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $35 million
Currency:
1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1 - 1.20 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Cayman Islands, Communications

Highways:
160 km of main roads
Ports:
George Town, Cayman Brac
Merchant marine:
29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 307,738 GRT/468,659 DWT; includes 1
passenger-cargo, 8 cargo, 8 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 oil tanker, 2 chemical
tanker, 1 liquefied gas carrier, 4 bulk, 2 combination bulk; note - a flag
of convenience registry
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
35,000 telephones; telephone system uses 1 submarine coaxial cable and 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station to link islands and access
international services; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, no TV

*Cayman Islands, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Central African Republic, Geography

Location:
Central Africa, between Chad and Zaire
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
622,980 km2
land area:
622,980 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
total 5,203 km, Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Congo 467 km, Sudan 1,165
km, Zaire 1,577 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers
Terrain:
vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in northeast and
southwest
Natural resources:
diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
5%
forest and woodland:
64%
other:
28%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; poaching has
diminished reputation as one of last great wildlife refuges; desertification
Note:
landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

*Central African Republic, People

Population:
3,073,979 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.23% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
42.77 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
20.49 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
138.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
42.94 years
male:
41.46 years
female:
44.45 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.47 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Central African(s)
adjective:
Central African
Ethnic divisions:
Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum 4%, M'Baka 4%, Europeans
6,500 (including 3,600 French)
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim 15%,
other 11%
note:
animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian majority
Languages:
French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language), Arabic,
Hunsa, Swahili
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
27%
male:
33%
female:
15%
Labor force:
775,413 (1986 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 85%, commerce and services 9%, industry 3%, government 3%
note:
about 64,000 salaried workers; 55% of population of working age (1985)

*Central African Republic, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Central African Republic
conventional short form:
none
local long form:
Republique Centrafricaine
local short form:
none
former:
Central African Empire
Abbreviation:
CAR
Digraph:
CT
Type:
republic; one-party presidential regime since 1986
Capital:
Bangui
Administrative divisions:
14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture), 2 economic prefectures*, (prefectures
economiques, singular - prefecture economique), and 1
commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui** Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto,, Haute-Sangha,
Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere,
Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga, Independence:
13 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
21 November 1986
Legal system:
based on French law
National holiday:
National Day, 1 December (1958) (proclamation of the republic)
Political parties and leaders:
Central African Democratic Party (RDC), the government party, Laurent
GOMINA-PAMPALI; Council of Moderates Coalition includes; Union of the People
for Economic and Social Development (UPDS), Katossy SIMANI; Liberal
Republican Party (PARELI), Augustin M'BOE; Central African Socialist
Movement (MSCA), Michel BENGUE; Concerted Democratic Forces (CFD), a
coalition of 13 parties, including; Alliance for Democracy and Progress
(ADP), Francois PEHOUA; Central African Republican party (PRC), Ruth
ROLLAND; Social Democratic Party (PSD), Enoch DERANT-LAKOUE; Civic Forum
(FC), Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA; Liberal Democratic Party (PLD), Nestor
KOMBOT-NAGUEMON
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
President:
last held 25 October 1992; widespread irregularities at some polls led to
dismissal of results by Supreme Court; elections are rescheduled for 17
October 1993
National Assembly: last held 25 October 1992; widespread irregularities at some polls led to
dismissal of results by Supreme Court; elections are rescheduled for 17
October 1993
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

*Central African Republic, Government

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) advised by the Economic
and Regional Council (Conseil Economique et Regional); when they sit
together this is known as the Congress (Congres)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Andre-Dieudonne KOLINGBA (since 1 September 1981)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Enoch DERANT-LAKOUE (since 2 March 1993)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jean-Pierre SOHAHONG-KOMBET
chancery:
1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 483-7800 or 7801
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert E. GRIBBIN
embassy:
Avenue David Dacko, Bangui
mailing address:
B. P. 924, Bangui
telephone:
[236] 61-02-00, 61-25-78, 61-43-33, 61-02-10
FAX:
[236] 61-44-94
Flag:
four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and yellow with a
vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed star on the
hoist side of the blue band

*Central African Republic, Economy

Overview:
Subsistence agriculture, including forestry, is the backbone of the CAR
economy, with more than 70% of the population living in the countryside. In
1988 the agricultural sector generated about 40% of GDP. Agricultural
products accounted for about 60% of export earnings and the diamond industry
for 30%. Important constraints to economic development include the CAR's
landlocked position, a poor transportation system, and a weak human resource
base. Multilateral and bilateral development assistance, particularly from
France, plays a major role in providing capital for new investment.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.3 billion (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-3% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
$440 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-3% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
30% (1988 est.) in Bangui
Budget:
revenues $175 million; expenditures $312 million, including capital
expenditures of $122 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$138 million (1991 est.)
commodities:
diamonds, cotton, coffee, timber, tobacco
partners:
France, Belgium, Italy, Japan, US
Imports:
$205 million (1991 est.)
commodities:
food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical equipment, motor
vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, consumer goods, industrial products
partners:
France, other EC countries, Japan, Algeria
External debt:
$859 million (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4% (1990 est.); accounts for 14% of GDP
Electricity:
40,000 kW capacity; 95 million kWh produced, 30 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear, assembly of
bicycles and motorcycles
Agriculture:
accounts for 40% of GDP; self-sufficient in food production except for
grain; commercial crops - cotton, coffee, tobacco, timber; food crops -
manioc, yams, millet, corn, bananas
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $52 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-90), $1.6 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $6 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $38
million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988)

*Central African Republic, Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Central African Republic, Communications

Highways:
22,000 km total; 458 km bituminous, 10,542 km improved earth, 11,000
unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of shallow-draft dugouts;
Oubangui is the most important river
Airports:
total:
66
usable:
51
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
20
Telecommunications:
fair system; network relies primarily on radio relay links, with
low-capacity, low-powered radiocommunication also used; broadcast stations -
1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Central African Republic, Defense Forces

Branches:
Central African Army (including Republican Guard), Air Force, National
Gendarmerie, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 685,575; fit for military service 358,836 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $23 million, 1.8% of GDP (1989 est.)

*Chad, Geography

Location:
Central Africa, between the Central African Republic and Libya
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area: total area:
1.284 million km2
land area:
1,259,200 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than three times the size of California
Land boundaries:
total 5,968 km, Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya
1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
Libya claims and occupies the 100,000 km2 Aozou Strip in the far north;
demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has
led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification
by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria
Climate:
tropical in south, desert in north
Terrain:
broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest,
lowlands in south
Natural resources:
petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron, kaolin,
fish (Lake Chad)
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
36%
forest and woodland:
11%
other:
51%
Irrigated land:
100 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; drought and desertification
adversely affecting south; subject to plagues of locusts
Note:
landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel

*Chad, People

Population:
5,350,971 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.13% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
42.21 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate: 20.93 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
134 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
40.41 years
male:
39.36 years
female:
41.5 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.33 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Chadian(s)
adjective:
Chadian
Ethnic divisions:
north and center:
Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi,
Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba)
south:
non-Muslims (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa)
nonindigenous 150,000, of whom 1,000 are French
Religions:
Muslim 44%, Christian 33%, indigenous beliefs, animism 23%
Languages:
French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), Sango (in south),
more than 100 different languages and dialects are spoken
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic (1990)
total population:
30%
male:
42%
female:
18%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
agriculture 85% (engaged in unpaid subsistence farming, herding, and
fishing)

*Chad, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Chad
conventional short form:
Chad
local long form:
Republique du Tchad local short form:
Tchad
Digraph:
CD
Type:
republic
Capital:
N'Djamena
Administrative divisions:
14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine,
Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental,
Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile
Independence:
11 August 1960 (from France)

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