Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

October, 1993 [Etext #87]

Part 6 out of 42

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 3.9 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS,
MERCOSUR, NAM (observer), OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM II,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WHO, WFTU, WIPO,
WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Rubens RICUPERO
chancery:
3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 745-2700
consulates general:
Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, and New York
consulates:
Dallas, Houston, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard MELTON
embassy:
Avenida das Nacoes, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal
mailing address:
APO AA 34030
telephone:
[55] (61) 321-7272
FAX:
[55] (61) 225-9136
consulates general:
Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
consulates:
Porto Alegre, Recife
Flag:
green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial
globe with 23 white five-pointed stars (one for each state) arranged in the
same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial
band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

*Brazil, Economy

Overview:
The economy, with large agrarian, mining, and manufacturing sectors, entered
the 1990s with declining real growth, runaway inflation, an unserviceable
foreign debt of $122 billion, and a lack of policy direction. In addition,
the economy remained highly regulated, inward-looking, and protected by
substantial trade and investment barriers. Ownership of major industrial and
mining facilities is divided among private interests - including several
multinationals - and the government. Most large agricultural holdings are
private, with the government channeling financing to this sector. Conflicts
between large landholders and landless peasants have produced intermittent
violence. The COLLOR government, which assumed office in March 1990,
launched an ambitious reform program that sought to modernize and
reinvigorate the economy by stabilizing prices, deregulating the economy,
and opening it to increased foreign competition. The government also
obtained an IMF standby loan in January 1992 and reached agreements with
commercial bankers on the repayment of interest arrears and on the reduction
of debt and debt service payments. Galloping inflation - the rate doubled in
1992 - continues to undermine economic stability. Itamar FRANCO, who assumed
the presidency following President COLLOR'S resignation in December 1992,
has promised to support the basic premises of COLLOR'S reform program but
has yet to define clearly his economic policies. Brazil's natural resources
remain a major, long-term economic strength.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $369 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
-0.2% (1992)
National product per capita:
$2,350 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1,174% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
5.9% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $164.3 billion; expenditures $170.6 billion, including capital
expenditures of $32.9 billion (1990)
Exports:
$35.0 billion (1992)
commodities:
iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear, coffee, motor vehicle parts
partners:
EC 32.3%, US 20.3%, Latin America 11.6%, Japan 9% (1991)
Imports:
$20.0 billion (1992)
commodities:
crude oil, capital goods, chemical products, foodstuffs, coal
partners:
Middle East 12.4%, US 23.5%, EC 21.8%, Latin America 18.8%, Japan 6% (1991)
External debt:
$123.3 billion (December 1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate -3.8% (1992); accounts for 39% of GDP
Electricity:
63,765,000 kW capacity; 242,184 million kWh produced, 1,531 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
textiles and other consumer goods, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron
ore, steel, motor vehicles and auto parts, metalworking, capital goods, tin

*Brazil, Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for 11% of GDP; world's largest producer and exporter of coffee and
orange juice concentrate and second- largest exporter of soybeans; other
products - rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, beef; self-sufficient in food,
except for wheat
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and coca, mostly for domestic consumption;
government has a modest eradication program to control cannabis and coca
cultivation; important transshipment country for Bolivian and Colombian
cocaine headed for the US and Europe
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.5 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.2 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $284 million; former Communist countries (1970-89),
$1.3 billion
Currency:
1 cruzeiro (Cr$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
cruzeiros (Cr$) per US$1 - 13,827.06 (January 1993), 4,506.45 (1992), 406.61
(1991), 68.300 (1990), 2.834 (1989), 0.26238 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Brazil, Communications

Railroads:
28,828 km total; 24,864 km 1.000-meter gauge, 3,877 km 1.600-meter gauge, 74
km mixed 1.600-1.000-meter gauge, 13 km 0.760-meter gauge; 2,360 km
electrified
Highways:
1,448,000 km total; 48,000 km paved, 1,400,000 km gravel or earth
Inland waterways:
50,000 km navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,000 km; petroleum products 3,804 km; natural gas 1,095 km
Ports:
Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de
Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos
Merchant marine:
232 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,335,234 GRT/8,986,734 DWT; includes
5 passenger-cargo, 42 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 10 container, 11
roll-on/roll-off, 58 oil tanker, 15 chemical tanker, 12 combination ore/oil,
65 bulk, 2 combination bulk, 11 vehicle carrier; in addition, 1 naval tanker
is sometimes used commercially
Airports:
total:
3,613
usable: 3,031
with permanent-surface runways:
431
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
22
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
584
Telecommunications:
good system; extensive microwave radio relay facilities; 9.86 million
telephones; broadcast stations - 1,223 AM, no FM, 112 TV, 151 shortwave; 3
coaxial submarine cables, 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations and 64
domestic satellite earth stations

*Brazil, Defense Forces

Branches:
Brazilian Army, Navy of Brazil (including Marines), Brazilian Air Force,
Military Police (paramilitary)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 42,623,934; fit for military service 28,721,849; reach
military age (18) annually 1,655,918 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, 3% of GDP (1990)

*British Indian Ocean Territory, Header

Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

*British Indian Ocean Territory, Geography

Location:
in the Indian Ocean, south of India about halfway between Africa and
Indonesia
Map references:
Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
60 km2
land area:
60 km2
comparative area:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes the island of Diego Garcia
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline: 698 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
the entire Chagos Archipelago is claimed by Mauritius
Climate:
tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
flat and low (up to 4 meters in elevation)
Natural resources:
coconuts, fish
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
archipelago of 2,300 islands
Note:
Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost island, occupies strategic location
in central Indian Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility

*British Indian Ocean Territory, People

Population:
no indigenous inhabitants
note:
there are UK-US military personnel; civilian inhabitants, known as the
Ilois, evacuated to Mauritius before construction of UK-US military
facilities

*British Indian Ocean Territory, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
British Indian Ocean Territory
conventional short form:
none
Abbreviation:
BIOT
Digraph: IO
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
none
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Commissioner Mr. T. G. HARRIS (since NA); Administrator Mr. R. G. WELLS
(since NA 1991); note - both reside in the UK
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of UK)
Flag:
white with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and six blue
wavy horizontal stripes bearing a palm tree and yellow crown centered on the
outer half of the flag

*British Indian Ocean Territory, Economy

Overview:
All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of Diego Garcia,
where joint UK-US defense facilities are located. Construction projects and
various services needed to support the military installations are done by
military and contract employees from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and
the US. There are no industrial or agricultural activities on the islands.
Electricity:
provided by the US military

*British Indian Ocean Territory, Communications

Highways:
short stretch of paved road between port and airfield on Diego Garcia
Ports:
Diego Garcia
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
1 on Diego Garcia
with runways 2,439-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,229-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
minimal facilities; broadcast stations (operated by US Navy) - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1
TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*British Indian Ocean Territory, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

*British Virgin Islands, Header

Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

*British Virgin Islands, Geography

Location:
in the eastern Caribbean Sea, about 110 km east of Puerto Rico
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
total area:
150 km2
land area:
150 km2
comparative area:
about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC
note:
includes the island of Anegada
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
80 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
3 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land:
20%
permanent crops:
7%
meadows and pastures: 33%
forest and woodland:
7%
other:
33%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to hurricanes and tropical storms from July to October
Note:
strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

*British Virgin Islands, People

Population:
12,707 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.22% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
20.37 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.11 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
19.68 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.62 years
male:
70.77 years
female:
74.6 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.28 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
British Virgin Islander(s)
adjective:
British Virgin Islander
Ethnic divisions:
black 90%, white, Asian
Religions:
Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of God 7%, Seventh-Day
Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other 2%), Roman Catholic
6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)
Languages:
English (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
total population:
98%
male:
98% female:
98%
Labor force:
4,911 (1980)
by occupation:
NA

*British Virgin Islands, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
British Virgin Islands
Abbreviation:
BVI
Digraph:
VI
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Road Town
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
1 June 1977
Legal system:
English law
National holiday:
Territory Day, 1 July
Political parties and leaders:
United Party (UP), Conrad MADURO; Virgin Islands Party (VIP), H. Lavity
STOUTT; Independent Progressive Movement (IPM), Cyril B. ROMNEY
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Legislative Council:
last held 12 November 1990 (next to be held by November 1995); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (9 total) VIP 6, IPM 1, independents 2
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, chief minister, Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Council
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Peter
Alfred PENFOLD (since NA 1991)
Head of Government:
Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT (since NA 1986)
Member of: CARICOM (associate), CDB, ECLAC (associate), IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO
(associate)
Diplomatic representation in US:
none (dependent territory of UK)
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Virgin
Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of
arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a vertical column of six oil
lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

*British Virgin Islands, Economy

Overview:
The economy, one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean area, is highly
dependent on the tourist industry, which generates about 21% of the national
income. In 1985 the government offered offshore registration to companies
wishing to incorporate in the islands, and, in consequence, incorporation
fees generated about $2 million in 1987. The economy slowed in 1991 because
of the poor performances of the tourist sector and tight commercial bank
credit. Livestock raising is the most significant agricultural activity. The
islands' crops, limited by poor soils, are unable to meet food requirements.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $133 million (1991)
National product real growth rate:
2% (1991)
National product per capita:
$10,600 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.5% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NEGL% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $51 million; expenditures $88 million, including capital
expenditures of $38 million (1991)
Exports:
$2.7 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
rum, fresh fish, gravel, sand, fruits, animals
partners:
Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US
Imports:
$11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery
partners:
Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US
External debt:
$4.5 million (1985)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.0% (1985)
Electricity:
10,500 kW capacity; 43 million kWh produced, 3,510 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block, offshore
financial center
Agriculture:
livestock (including poultry), fish, fruit, vegetables
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
US currency is used
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*British Virgin Islands, Communications

Highways:
106 km motorable roads (1983)
Ports:
Road Town
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
3,000 telephones; worldwide external telephone service; submarine cable
communication links to Bermuda; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV

*British Virgin Islands, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Brunei, Geography

Location:
Southeast Asia, on the northern coast of Borneo almost completely surrounded
by Malaysia
Map references:
Asia, Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
5,770 km2 land area:
5,270 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Delaware
Land boundaries:
total 381 km, Malysia 381 km
Coastline:
161 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides the country; all of
the Spratly Islands are claimed by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them
are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an
exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa Reef, but has not publicly
claimed the island
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Terrain:
flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, timber
Land use:
arable land:
1%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
79%
other:
18%
Irrigated land:
10 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Note:
close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific
Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of
Malaysia

*Brunei, People

Population:
276,984 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.77% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
26.55 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate: 5.02 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
6.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
25.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.94 years
male:
69.27 years
female:
72.65 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.45 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bruneian(s)
adjective:
Bruneian
Ethnic divisions:
Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%
Religions:
Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs and
other 15% (1981)
Languages:
Malay (official), English, Chinese
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
total population:
77%
male:
85%
female:
69%
Labor force:
89,000 (includes members of the Army)
by occupation:
government 47.5%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction
41.9%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3.8% (1986)
note:
33% of labor force is foreign (1988)

*Brunei, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Negara Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form:
Brunei
Digraph:
BX
Type:
constitutional sultanate
Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan
Administrative divisions:
4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara,
Temburong, Tutong
Independence:
1 January 1984 (from UK)
Constitution:
29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency
since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)
Legal system:
based on Islamic law
National holiday:
23 February (1984)
Political parties and leaders:
Brunei United National Party (inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman; Brunei
National Democratic Party (the first legal political party and now banned),
leader NA
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
Legislative Council:
last held in March 1962; in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive
body by decree of the sultan and no elections are planned
Executive branch:
sultan, prime minister, Council of Cabinet Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Council (Majlis Masyuarat Megeri)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji
HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967)
Member of:
APEC, ASEAN, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, ICAO, IDB, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mohamed KASSIM bin Haji Mohamed Daud
chancery:
2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 3000, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:
(202) 342-0159
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Donald Burnham ENSENAT
embassy:
Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan

*Brunei, Government

mailing address:
American Embassy Box B, APO AP 96440
telephone: [673] (2) 229-670
FAX:
[673] (2) 225-293
Flag:
yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black
starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is
superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top
of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by
two upraised hands

*Brunei, Economy

Overview:
The economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship,
government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. It is
almost totally supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with
revenues from the petroleum sector accounting for more than 50% of GDP. Per
capita GDP of $8,800 is among the highest in the Third World, and
substantial income from overseas investment supplements domestic production.
The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and
housing.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $3.5 billion (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
1% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
$8,800 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.3% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
3.7% (1989)
Budget:
revenues $1.3 billion; expenditures $1.5 billion, including capital
expenditures of $255 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
$2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products
partners:
Japan 53%, UK 12%, South Korea 9%, Thailand 7%, Singapore 5% (1990)
Imports:
$1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
partners:
Singapore 35%, UK 26%, Switzerland 9%, US 9%, Japan 5% (1990)
External debt:
$0
Industrial production:
growth rate 12.9% (1987); accounts for 52.4% of GDP
Electricity:
310,000 kW capacity; 890 million kWh produced, 3,300 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction
Agriculture:
imports about 80% of its food needs; principal crops and livestock include
rice, cassava, bananas, buffaloes, and pigs
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $20.6 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $153 million
Currency:
1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1 - 1.6531 (January 1993), 1.6290 (1992),
1.7276 (1991), 1.8125 (1990), 1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988); note - the
Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Brunei, Communications

Railroads:
13 km 0.610-meter narrow-gauge private line
Highways:
1,090 km total; 370 km paved (bituminous treated) and another 52 km under
construction, 720 km gravel or unimproved
Inland waterways:
209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 meters
Pipelines:
crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 920 km
Ports:
Kuala Belait, Muara
Merchant marine:
7 liquefied gas carriers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635
DWT
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runway over 3,659 m:
1
with runway 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runway 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
service throughout country is adequate for present needs; international
service good to adjacent Malaysia; radiobroadcast coverage good; 33,000
telephones (1987); broadcast stations - 4 AM/FM, 1 TV; 74,000 radio
receivers (1987); satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1
Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

*Brunei, Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Force, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 77,407; fit for military service 45,112; reach military age
(18) annually 2,676 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $300 million, 9% of GDP (1990)

*Bulgaria, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey
Map references:
Africa, Arctic Region, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Middle East,
Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
110,910 km2
land area:
110,550 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
total 1,808 km, Greece 494 km, Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and
Montenegro 318 km (all with Serbia), Turkey 240 km
Coastline:
354 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Macedonia question with Greece and Macedonia
Climate:
temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain:
mostly mountains with lowlands in north and south
Natural resources:
bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Land use:
arable land:
34%
permanent crops:
3%
meadows and pastures:
18%
forest and woodland:
35%
other:
10%
Irrigated land:
10 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
subject to earthquakes, landslides; deforestation; air pollution
Note:
strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from
Europe to Middle East and Asia

*Bulgaria, People

Population:
8,831,168 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.39% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
11.69 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
11.54 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-4.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
12.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
72.82 years
male:
69.55 years
female:
76.26 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.71 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bulgarian(s)
adjective:
Bulgarian
Ethnic divisions:
Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%, Macedonian 2.5%, Armenian 0.3%,
Russian 0.2%, other 0.6%
Religions:
Bulgarian Orthodox 85%, Muslim 13%, Jewish 0.8%, Roman Catholic 0.5%, Uniate
Catholic 0.2%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 0.5%
Languages:
Bulgarian; secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
total population:
93%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
4.3 million by occupation:
industry 33%, agriculture 20%, other 47% (1987)

*Bulgaria, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Bulgaria
conventional short form:
Bulgaria
Digraph:
BU
Type:
emerging democracy
Capital:
Sofia
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Burgas, Grad Sofiya, Khaskovo,
Lovech, Mikhaylovgrad, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Sofiya, Varna
Independence:
22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)
Constitution:
adopted 12 July 1991
Legal system:
based on civil law system, with Soviet law influence; has accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
3 March (1878)
Political parties and leaders:
Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), Filip DIMITROV, chairman, an alliance of
approximately 20 pro-Democratic parties including United Democratic Center,
Democratic Party, Radical Democratic Party, Christian Democratic Union,
Alternative Social Liberal Party, Republican Party, Civic Initiative
Movement, Union of the Repressed, and about a dozen other groups; Movement
for Rights and Freedoms (ethnic Turkish party) (MRF), Ahmed DOGAN, chairman;
Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), Zhan VIDENOV, chairman
Other political or pressure groups:
Ecoglasnost; Podkrepa (Support) Labor Confederation; Fatherland Union;
Bulgarian Democratic Youth (formerly Communist Youth Union); Confederation
of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria (KNSB); Nationwide Committee for
Defense of National Interests; Peasant Youth League; Bulgarian Agrarian
National Union - United (BZNS); Bulgarian Democratic Center; "Nikola Petkov"
Bulgarian Agrarian National Union; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary
Organization - Union of Macedonian Societies (IMRO-UMS); numerous regional,
ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Elections:
President:
last held January 1992; results - Zhelyu ZHELEV was elected by popular vote
National Assembly:
last held 13 October 1991; results - UDF 34%, BSP 33%, MRF 7.5%; seats -
(240 total) UDF 110, BSP 106, Movement for Rights and Freedoms 24
Executive branch: president, chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister), three
deputy chairmen of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Narodno Sobranie)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Constitutional Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Zhelyu Mitev ZHELEV (since 1 August 1990); Vice President Blaga
Nikolova DIMITROVA (since NA)

*Bulgaria, Government

Head of Government:
Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) Lyuben Borisov BEROV
(since 30 December 1992); Deputy Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
(Deputy Prime Ministers) Valentin KARABASHEV, Neycho NEEV, and Evgeniy
MATINCHEV (since 30 December 1992)
Member of:
BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ognyan Raytchev PISHEV
chancery:
1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 387-7969
FAX:
(202) 234-7973
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Hugh Kenneth HILL
embassy:
1 Alexander Stamboliski Boulevard, Sofia, Unit 25402
mailing address:
APO AE 09213-5740
telephone:
[359] (2) 88-48-01 through 05
FAX:
[359] (2) 80-19-77
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the national
emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe has been removed - it
contained a rampant lion within a wreath of wheat ears below a red
five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first Bulgarian
state established) and 1944 (liberation from Nazi control)

*Bulgaria, Economy

Overview:
Growth in the lackluster Bulgarian economy fell to the 2% annual level in
the 1980s. By 1990, Sofia's foreign debt had skyrocketed to over $10 billion
- giving a debt-service ratio of more than 40% of hard currency earnings and
leading the regime to declare a moratorium on its hard currency payments.
The post-Communist government faces major problems of renovating an aging
industrial plant; keeping abreast of rapidly unfolding technological
developments; investing in additional energy capacity (the portion of
electric power from nuclear energy reached over one-third in 1990); and
motivating workers, in part by giving them a share in the earnings of their
enterprises. Political bickering in Sofia and the collapse of the DIMITROV
government in October 1992 have slowed the economic reform process. New
Prime Minister BEROV, however, has pledged to continue the reforms initiated
by the previous government. He has promised to continue cooperation with the
World Bank and IMF, advance negotiations on rescheduling commercial debt,
and push ahead with privatization. BEROV's government - whose main
parliamentary supporters are the former Communist Bulgarian Socialist Party
(BSP) - nonetheless appears likely to pursue more interventionist tactics in
overcoming the country's economic problems.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $34.1 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
-7.7% (1992)
National product per capita:
$3,800 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
80% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $8 billion; expenditures $5 billion, including capital expenditures
of $NA (1991 est.)
Exports:
$3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
machinery and equipment 30.6%; agricultural products 24%; manufactured
consumer goods 22.2%; fuels, minerals, raw materials, and metals 10.5%;
other 12.7% (1991)
partners:
former CEMA countries 57.7% (USSR 48.6%, Poland 2.1%, Czechoslovakia 0.9%);
developed countries 26.3% (Germany 4.8%, Greece 2.2%); less developed
countries 15.9% (Libya 2.1%, Iran 0.7%) (1991)
Imports:
$2.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
fuels, minerals, and raw materials 58.7%; machinery and equipment 15.8%;
manufactured consumer goods 4.4%; agricultural products 15.2%; other 5.9%
partners:
former CEMA countries 51.0% (former USSR 43.2%, Poland 3.7%); developed
countries 32.8% (Germany 7.0%, Austria 4.7%); less developed countries 16.2%
(Iran 2.8%, Libya 2.5%)
External debt:
$12 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate -21% (1992 est.); accounts for about 37% of GDP (1990)
Electricity: 11,500,000 kW capacity; 45,000 million kWh produced, 5,070 kWh per capita
(1992)

*Bulgaria, Economy

Industries:
machine building and metal working, food processing, chemicals, textiles,
building materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals
Agriculture:
accounts for 22% of GDP (1990); climate and soil conditions support
livestock raising and the growing of various grain crops, oilseeds,
vegetables, fruits, and tobacco; more than one-third of the arable land
devoted to grain; world's fourth-largest tobacco exporter; surplus food
producer
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route
Economic aid:
donor - $1.6 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed
countries (1956-89)
Currency:
1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki
Exchange rates:
leva (Lv) per US$1 - 24.56 (January 1993),17.18 (January 1992), 16.13 (March
1991), 0.7446 (November 1990), 0.84 (1989), 0.82 (1988), 0.90 (1987); note -
floating exchange rate since February 1991
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Bulgaria, Communications

Railroads:
4,300 km total, all government owned (1987); 4,055 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge, 245 km narrow gauge; 917 km double track; 2,640 km electrified
Highways:
36,908 km total; 33,535 km hard surface (including 242 km superhighways);
3,373 km earth roads (1987)
Inland waterways:
470 km (1987)
Pipelines:
crude oil 193 km; petroleum products 525 km; natural gas 1,400 km (1992)
Ports:
coastal - Burgas, Varna, Varna West; inland - Ruse, Vidin, and Lom on the
Danube
Merchant marine:
112 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 1,262,320 GRT/1,887,729 DWT;
includes 2 short-sea passenger, 30 cargo, 2 container, 1 passenger-cargo
training, 6 roll-on/roll-off, 15 oil tanker, 4 chemical carrier, 2 railcar
carrier, 50 bulk; Bulgaria owns 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,717
DWT operating under Liberian registry
Airports:
total:
380 usable:
380
with permanent-surface runways:
120
with runways over 3659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
20
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
20
Telecommunications:
extensive but antiquated transmission system of coaxial cable and mirowave
radio relay; 2.6 million telephones; direct dialing to 36 countries; phone
density is 29 phones per 100 persons (1992); almost two-thirds of the lines
are residential; 67% of Sofia households have phones (November 1988);
telephone service is available in most villages; broadcast stations - 20 AM,
15 FM, and 29 TV, with 1 Soviet TV repeater in Sofia; 2.1 million TV sets
(1990); 92% of country receives No. 1 television program (May 1990); 1
satellite ground station using Intersputnik; INTELSAT is used through a
Greek earth station

*Bulgaria, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Troops, Internal Troops
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,178,136; fit for military service 1,819,901; reach
military age (19) annually 69,495 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
5.77 billion leva, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense
expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce
misleading results

*Burkina, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, between Ghana and Mali
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
274,200 km2
land area:
273,800 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Colorado
Land boundaries:
total 3,192 km, Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Mali 1,000
km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none; landlocked
International disputes:
the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was submitted
to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983 and the ICJ
issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides agreed to accept;
Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the
tripoint with Niger
Climate:
tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terrain:
mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast
Natural resources:
manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony, copper,
nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
37%
forest and woodland:
26%
other:
27%
Irrigated land:
160 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
recent droughts and desertification severely affecting marginal agricultural
activities, population distribution, economy; overgrazing; deforestation
Note:
landlocked

*Burkina, People

Population:
9,852,529 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.83% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
48.8 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
18.19 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
119.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
47.47 years
male:
46.66 years
female:
48.3 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
7 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Burkinabe (singular and plural)
adjective:
Burkinabe
Ethnic divisions:
Mossi (about 2.5 million), Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 65%, Muslim 25%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) 10%
Languages:
French (official), tribal languages belong to Sudanic family, spoken by 90%
of the population
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
18%
male:
28%
female:
9%
Labor force:
3.3 million residents; 30,000 are wage earners
by occupation:
agriculture 82%, industry 13%, commerce, services, and government 5%
note:
20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for
seasonal employment (1984); 44% of population of working age (1985)

*Burkina, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Burkina Faso
conventional short form:
Burkina
former:
Upper Volta
Digraph:
UV
Type:
parliamentary
Capital:
Ouagadougou
Administrative divisions:
30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou,
Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga,
Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie,
Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo
Independence:
5 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
June 1991
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)
Political parties and leaders:
Organization for People's Democracy-Labor Movement (ODP-MT), ruling party,
Marc Christian Roch KABORE; National Convention of Progressive
Patriots-Social Democratic Party (CNPP-PSD), Pierre TAPSOBA; African
Democratic Assembly (RDA), Gerard Kango OUEDRAOGO; Alliance for Democracy
and Federation (ADF), Herman YAMEOGO
Other political or pressure groups:
committees for the defense of the revolution; watchdog/political action
groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
President:
last held December 1991
Assembly of People's Deputies:
last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (107 total), ODP-MT 78, CNPP-PSD 12, RDA 6, ADF 4, other 7
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
Assembly of People's Deputies
note:
the current law also provides for a second consultative chamber, which had
not been formally constituted as of 1 July 1992
Judicial branch:
Appeals Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)

*Burkina, Government

Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
chancery:
2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 332-5577 or 6895
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Edward P. BYRNN
embassy:
Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou
mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou
telephone:
[226] 30-67- 23 through 25
FAX:
[226] 31-23-68
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed
star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

*Burkina, Economy

Overview:
One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina has a high population
density, few natural resources, and relatively infertile soil. Economic
development is hindered by a poor communications network within a landlocked
country. Agriculture provides about 40% of GDP and is entirely of a
subsistence nature. Industry, dominated by unprofitable
government-controlled corporations, accounts for about 15% of GDP.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $3.3 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate:
1.3% (1990 est.)
National product per capita:
$350 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-1% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $495 million; expenditures $786 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1991)
Exports:
$304.8 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
cotton, gold, animal products
partners:
EC 45%, Taiwan 15%, Cote d'Ivoire 15% (1987)
Imports:
$593 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
machinery, food products, petroleum
partners:
EC 51%, Africa 25%, US 6% (1987)
External debt:
$865 million (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.7% (1990 est.), accounts for about 23% of GDP (1989)
Electricity:
120,000 kW capacity; 320 million kWh produced, 40 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles,
gold mining and extraction
Agriculture:
accounts for about 30% of GDP; cash crops - peanuts, shea nuts, sesame,
cotton; food crops - sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock; not
self-sufficient in food grains
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $294 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.9 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $113 million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January 1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11
(1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Burkina, Communications

Railroads:
620 km total; 520 km Ouagadougou to Cote d'Ivoire border and 100 km
Ouagadougou to Kaya; all 1.00-meter gauge and single track
Highways:
16,500 km total; 1,300 km paved, 7,400 km improved, 7,800 km unimproved
(1985)
Airports:
total:
48
usable:
38
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
2
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
8
Telecommunications:
all services only fair; microwave radio relay, wire, and radio communication
stations in use; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

*Burkina, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police, People's Militia
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,947,935; fit for military service 995,532 (1993 est.); no
conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Burma, Geography

Location:
Southeast Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand
Map references:
Asia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
678,500 km2
land area:
657,740 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
total 5,876 km, Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235
km, Thailand 1,800 km
Coastline:
1,930 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 nm or to the edge of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June
to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower
humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)
Terrain:
central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands
Natural resources:
petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some
marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
15%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
1%
forest and woodland:
49%
other:
34%
Irrigated land:
10,180 km2 (1989)
Environment:
subject to destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides
common during rainy season (June to September); deforestation
Note:
strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

*Burma, People

Population:
43,455,953 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.88% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
28.88 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
10.05 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
65.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
59.5 years
male:
57.5 years
female:
61.63 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.7 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Burmese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Burmese
Ethnic divisions:
Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%,
other 5%
Religions:
Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%,
animist beliefs 1%, other 2%
Languages:
Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
81%
male:
89%
female:
72%
Labor force:
16.007 million (1992)
by occupation:
agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade 10.1%, government 6.3%, other 4.1%
(FY89 est.)

*Burma, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Union of Burma
conventional short form:
Burma
local long form:
Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US Government as Union of
Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)
local short form:
Myanma Naingngandaw
former:
Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma
Digraph:
BM
Type:
military regime
Capital:
Rangoon (sometimes translated as Yangon)
Administrative divisions:
7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and 7 states (pyine-mya, singular -, pyine); Chin State,
Irrawaddy*, Kachin State, Karan State, Kayah State,, Magwe*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Pegu*, Rakhine,
State, Rangoon*, Sagaing*, Shan, State, Tenasserim*, Independence:
4 January 1948 (from UK)
Constitution:
3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988); National Convention
started on 9 January 1993 to draft chapter headings for a new constitution
Legal system:
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 January (1948)
Political parties and leaders:
National Unity Party (NUP; proregime), THA KYAW; National League for
Democracy (NLD), U AUNG SHWE; National Coalition of Union of Burma (NCGUB),
SEIN WIN (which consists of individuals legitimately elected to parliament,
but not recognized by military regime) fled to border area and joined with
insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel government
Other political or pressure groups:
Kachin Independence Army (KIA); United Wa State Army (UWSA); Karen National
Union (KNU - the only non-drug group); several Shan factions, including the
Mong Tai Army (MTA)
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
People's Assembly:
last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened; results - NLD 80%; seats
- (485 total) NLD 396, the regime-favored NUP 10, other 79
Executive branch:
chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council, State Law and Order
Restoration Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw) was dissolved after the coup
of 18 September 1988
Judicial branch: none; Council of People's Justices was abolished after the coup of 18
September 1988

*Burma, Government

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
Chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council Gen. THAN SHWE
(since 23 April 1992)
Member of:
AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador U THAUNG
chancery:
2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 332-9044 through 9046
consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission, Charge d'Affaires Franklin P. HUDDLE, Jr.
embassy:
581 Merchant Street, Rangoon
mailing address:
GPO Box 521, AMEMB Box B, APO AP 96546
telephone:
[95] (1) 82055, 82181
FAX:
[95] (1) 80409
Flag:
red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all in
white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of
rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions

*Burma, Economy

Overview:
Burma is a poor Asian country, with a per capita GDP of about $660. The
nation has been unable to achieve any substantial improvement in export
earnings because of falling prices for many of its major commodity exports.
For rice, traditionally the most important export, the drop in world prices
has been accompanied by shrinking markets and a smaller volume of sales. In
1985 teak replaced rice as the largest export and continues to hold this
position. The economy is heavily dependent on the agricultural sector, which
generates about 40% of GDP and provides employment for 65% of the work
force. Burma has been largely isolated from international economic forces
and has been trying to encourage foreign investment, so far with little
success.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $28 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
1.3% (1992)
National product per capita:
$660 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
50% (1992)
Unemployment rate:
9.6% (FY89 est.) in urban areas
Budget:
revenues $8.1 billion; expenditures $11.6 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$535.1 million (FY92)
commodities:
teak, rice, oilseed, metals, rubber, gems
partners:
China, India, Thailand, Singapore
Imports:
$907.0 million (FY92)
commodities:
machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, food products
partners:
Japan, China, Singapore
External debt:
$4 billion (1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.6% (FY90 est.); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
1,100,000 kW capacity; 2,800 million kWh produced, 65 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood products;
petroleum refining; mining of copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction
materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer
Agriculture:
accounts for 40% of GDP (including fish and forestry); self-sufficient in
food; principal crops - paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses;
world's largest stand of hardwood trees; rice and teak account for 55% of
export revenues
Illicit drugs:
world's largest illicit producer of opium poppy and minor producer of
cannabis for the international drug trade; opium production has nearly
doubled since the collapse of Rangoon's antinarcotic programs

*Burma, Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $158 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.9 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $424 million
Currency:
1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas
Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1 - 6.0963 (January 1992), 6.2837 (1991), 6.3386 (1990),
6.7049 (1989), 6.46 (1988), 6.6535 (1987); unofficial - 105
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Burma, Communications

Railroads:
3,991 km total, all government owned; 3,878 km 1.000-meter gauge, 113 km
narrow-gauge industrial lines; 362 km double track
Highways:
27,000 km total; 3,200 km bituminous, 17,700 km improved earth or gravel,
6,100 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km
Ports:
Rangoon, Moulmein, Bassein
Merchant marine:
62 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 940,264 GRT/1,315,156 DWT; includes 3
passenger-cargo, 18 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 4 vehicle carrier, 2
container, 2 oil tanker, 3 chemical, 1 combination ore/oil, 23 bulk, 1
combination bulk
Airports:
total:
83
usable:
78
with permanent-surface runways:
26
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
3
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
38
Telecommunications:
meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service for business and
government; international service is good; 53,000 telephones (1986);
radiobroadcast coverage is limited to the most populous areas; broadcast
stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (1985); 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Burma, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 11,004,419; females age 15-49 10,945,899; males fit for
military service 5,894,514; females fit for military service 5,847,958;
males reach military age (18) annually 435,030; females reach military age
(18) annually 420,487 (1993 est.); both sexes are liable for military
service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP (1992)

*Burundi, Geography

Location:
Central Africa, between Tanzania and Zaire
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
27,830 km2
land area:
25,650 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total 974 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km, Zaire 233 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; warm; occasional frost in uplands
Terrain:
mostly rolling to hilly highland; some plains
Natural resources:
nickel, uranium, rare earth oxide, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet
exploited), vanadium
Land use:
arable land:
43%
permanent crops:
8%
meadows and pastures:
35%
forest and woodland:
2%
other:
12%
Irrigated land:
720 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
soil exhaustion; soil erosion; deforestation
Note:
landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed

*Burundi, People

Population:
5,985,308 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.34% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
44.69 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
21.25 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
115.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
40.75 years
male:
38.79 years
female:
42.76 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.76 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Burundian(s)
adjective:
Burundi
Ethnic divisions:
Africans:
Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1% (other Africans
include about 70,000 refugees, mostly Rwandans and Zairians)
non-Africans:
Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
Religions:
Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 32%,
Muslim 1%
Languages:
Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in
the Bujumbura area)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
50%
male:
61%
female:
40%
Labor force:
1.9 million (1983 est.)
by occupation:
agriculture 93.0%, government 4.0%, industry and commerce 1.5%, services
1.5%
note:
52% of population of working age (1985)

*Burundi, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Burundi
conventional short form:
Burundi
local long form:
Republika y'u Burundi
local short form:
Burundi
Digraph:
BY
Type:
republic
Capital:
Bujumbura
Administrative divisions:
15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi,
Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi
Independence:
1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
Constitution:
13 March 1992 draft provides for establishment of plural political system
Legal system:
based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Political parties and leaders:
only party - National Party of Unity and Progress (UPRONA), Nicolas MAYUGI,
secretary general;
note:
although Burundi is still officially a one-party state, at least four
political parties were formed in 1991 and set the precedent for
constitutional reform in 1992 - Burundi Democratic Front (FRODEBU),
Organization of the People of Burundi (RPB), Socialist Party of Burundi
(PSB), Royalist Parliamentary Party (PRP) - the most significant opposition
party is FRODEBU, led by Melchior NDADAYE; the Party for the Liberation of
the Hutu People (PALIPEHUTU), formed in exile in the early 1980s, is an
ethnically based political party dedicated to majority rule; the government
has long accused PALIPEHUTU of practicing devisive ethnic politics and
fomenting violence against the state; PALIPEHUTU's exclusivist charter makes
it an unlikely candidate for legalization under the new constitution that
will require party membership open to all ethnic groups
Suffrage:
universal adult at age NA
Elections:
National Assembly:
note - The National Unity Charter outlining the principles for
constitutional government was adopted by a national referendum on 5 February
1991; new elections to the National Assembly are to take place 29 June 1993;
presidential elections are to take place 1 June 1993
Executive branch:
president; chairman of the Central Committee of the National Party of Unity
and Progress (UPRONA), prime minister

*Burundi, Government

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) was dissolved following
the coup of 3 September 1987; at an extraordinary party congress held from
27 to 29 December 1990, the Central Committee of the National Party of Unity
and Progress (UPRONA) replaced the Military Committee for National
Salvation, and became the supreme governing body during the transition to
constitutional government
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Major Pierre BUYOYA (since 9 September 1987)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Adrien SIBOMANA (since 26 October 1988)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Julien KAVAKURE
chancery:
Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 342-2574
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Cynthia Shepherd PERRY
embassy:
Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
mailing address:
B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
telephone:
[257] (223) 454
FAX:
[257] (222) 926
Flag:
divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green
panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at the
center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a
triangular design (one star above, two stars below)

*Burundi, Economy

Overview:
A landlocked, resource-poor country in an early stage of economic
development, Burundi is predominately agricultural with only a few basic
industries. Its economic health depends on the coffee crop, which accounts
for an average 90% of foreign exchange earnings each year. The ability to
pay for imports therefore continues to rest largely on the vagaries of the
climate and the international coffee market. As part of its economic reform
agenda, launched in February 1991 with IMF and World Bank support, Burundi
is trying to diversify its agricultural exports and attract foreign
investment in industry. Several state-owned coffee companies were privatized
via public auction in September 1991.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.23 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$205 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9% (1991 est.)

Book of the day:
Facebook Google Reddit StumbleUpon Twitter Pinterest