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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

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Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
112.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
51.31 years
male:
49.51 years
female:
53.16 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.86 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Beninese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Beninese
Ethnic divisions:
African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja, Yoruba,
Bariba), Europeans 5,500
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15%
Languages:
French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south), tribal
languages (at least six major ones in north)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
23%
male:
32%
female:
16%
Labor force:
1.9 million (1987)
by occupation:
agriculture 60%, transport, commerce, and public services 38%, industry less
than 2%
note:
49% of population of working age (1985)

*Benin, Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Benin
conventional short form:
Benin
local long form:
Republique Populaire du Benin
local short form:
Benin
former:
Dahomey
Digraph:
BN
Type:
republic under multiparty democratic rule dropped Marxism-Leninism December
1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition to multiparty
system completed 4 April 1991
Capital:
Porto-Novo
Administrative divisions:
6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Mono, Oueme, Zou
Independence:
1 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
2 December 1990
Legal system:
based on French civil law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 1 August (1990)
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance of the Democratic Union for the Forces of Progress (UDFP), Timothee
ADANLIN; Movement for Democracy and Social Progress (MDPS), Jean-Roger
AHOYO; Union for Liberty and Development (ULD), Marcellin DEGBE; Alliance of
the National Party for Democracy and Development (PNDD) and the Democratic
Renewal Party (PRD), Pascal Chabi KAO; Alliance of the Social Democratic
Party (PSD) and the National Union for Solidarity and Progress (UNSP), Bruno
AMOUSSOU; Our Common Cause (NCC), Albert TEVOEDJRE; National Rally for
Democracy (RND), Joseph KEKE; Alliance of the National Movement for
Democracy and Development (MNDD), leader NA; Movement for Solidarity, Union,
and Progress (MSUP), Adebo ADENIYI; Union for Democracy and National
Reconstruction (UDRN), Azaria FAKOREDE; Union for Democracy and National
Solidarity (UDS), Mama Amadou N'DIAYE; Assembly of Liberal Democrats for
National Reconstruction (RDL), Severin ADJOVI; Alliance of the Alliance for
Social Democracy (ASD), Robert DOSSOU; Bloc for Social Democracy (BSD),
Michel MAGNIDE; Alliance of the Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP),
Akindes ADEKPEDJOU; Democratic Union for Social Renewal (UDRS), Bio Gado
Seko N'GOYE; National Union for Democracy and Progress (UNDP), Robert
TAGNON; Party for Progress and Democracy, Theophile NATA; numerous other
small parties
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held 10 and 24 March 1991; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats
- (64 total) UDFP-MDPS-ULD 12, PNDD/PRD 9, PSD/UNSP 8, NCC 7, RND 7,
MNDD/MSUP/UDRN 6, UDS 5, RDL 4, ASD/BSD 3, ADP/UDRS 2, UNDP 1

*Benin, Government

President:
last held 10 and 24 March 1991; results - Nicephore SOGLO 68%, Mathieu
KEREKOU 32%
Executive branch:
president, cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Nicephore SOGLO (since 4 April 1991)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Candide AHOUANSOU
chancery:
2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 232-6656
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Ruth A. DAVIS
embassy:
Rue Caporal Anani Bernard, Cotonou
mailing address:
B. P. 2012, Cotonou
telephone:
[229] 30-06-50, 30-05-13, 30-17-92
FAX:
[229] 30-14-39 and 30-19-74
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a vertical green
band on the hoist side

*Benin, Economy

Overview:
Benin is one of the least developed countries in the world because of
limited natural resources and a poorly developed infrastructure. Agriculture
accounts for about 35% of GDP, employs about 60% of the labor force, and
generates a major share of foreign exchange earnings. The industrial sector
contributes only about 15% to GDP and employs 2% of the work force. Low
prices in recent years have kept down hard currency earnings from Benin's
major exports of agricultural products and crude oil.
National product: GDP - exchange rate conversion - $2 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1991)
National product per capita:
$410 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.4% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $194 million; expenditures $390 million, including capital
expenditures of $104 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$263.3 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
crude oil, cotton, palm products, cocoa
partners:
FRG 36%, France 16%, Spain 14%, Italy 8%, UK 4%
Imports:
$428 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products, intermediate goods,
capital goods, light consumer goods
partners:
France 34%, Netherlands 10%, Japan 7%, Italy 6%, US 4%
External debt:
$1 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -0.7% (1988); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
30,000 kW capacity; 25 million kWh produced, 5 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
textiles, cigarettes, construction materials, beverages, food production,
petroleum
Agriculture:
accounts for 35% of GDP; small farms produce 90% of agricultural output;
production is dominated by food crops - corn, sorghum, cassava, beans, rice;
cash crops include cotton, palm oil, peanuts; poultry and livestock output
has not kept up with consumption
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $46 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,300 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $101
million
Currency:
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 274.06 (January
1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988)

*Benin, Economy

Fiscal year: calendar year

*Benin, Communications

Railroads:
578 km, all 1.000-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
5,050 km total; 920 km paved, 2,600 laterite, 1,530 km improved earth
Inland waterways:
navigable along small sections, important only locally
Ports:
Cotonou
Airports:
total:
7
usable:
5
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,439-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
fair system of open wire, submarine cable, and radio relay microwave;
broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

*Benin, Defense Forces

Branches:
Armed Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,075,053; females age 15-49 1,170,693; males fit for
military service 550,645; females fit for military service 591,506; males
reach military age (18) annually 56,872; females reach military age (18)
annually 55,141 (1993 est.); both sexes are liable for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $29 million, 1.7% of GDP (1988 est.)

*Bermuda, Header

Affiliation:
(dependent territory of the UK)

*Bermuda, Geography

Location:
in the western North Atlantic Ocean, 1,050 km east of North Carolina
Map references:
North America
Area:
total area:
50 km2
land area:
50 km2
comparative area:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
103 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
Terrain:
low hills separated by fertile depressions
Natural resources:
limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
20%
other:
80%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; consists of about 360
small coral islands
Note:
some reclaimed land leased by US Government

*Bermuda, People

Population:
60,686 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.78% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
15.21 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
7.3 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
13.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
75.03 years
male:
73.36 years
female:
76.97 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.82 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bermudian(s)
adjective:
Bermudian
Ethnic divisions:
black 61%, white and other 39%
Religions:
Anglican 37%, Roman Catholic 14%, African Methodist Episcopal (Zion) 10%,
Methodist 6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, other 28%
Languages:
English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
total population:
98%
male:
98%
female:
99%
Labor force:
32,000
by occupation:
clerical 25%, services 22%, laborers 21%, professional and technical 13%,
administrative and managerial 10%, sales 7%, agriculture and fishing 2%
(1984)

*Bermuda, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Bermuda
Digraph:
BD
Type: dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Hamilton
Administrative divisions:
9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget,, Pembroke, Saint
George*, Saint Georges, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick, Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
8 June 1968
Legal system:
English law
National holiday:
Bermuda Day, 22 May
Political parties and leaders:
United Bermuda Party (UBP), John W. D. SWAN; Progressive Labor Party (PLP),
Frederick WADE; National Liberal Party (NLP), Gilbert DARRELL
Other political or pressure groups:
Bermuda Industrial Union (BIU), Ottiwell SIMMONS
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Assembly:
last held 9 February 1989 (next to be held by February 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (40 total) UBP 23, PLP 15, NLP 1, other
1
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, deputy governor, premier, deputy premier,
Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
or House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Lord
David WADDINGTON (since NA)
Head of Government:
Premier John William David SWAN (since NA January 1982)
Member of:
CARICOM (observer), CCC, ICFTU, INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC
Diplomatic representation in US:
as a dependent territory of the UK, Bermuda's interests in the US are
represented by the UK
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Consul General L. Ebersole GAINES
consulate general:
Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton

*Bermuda, Government

mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; PSC 1002, FPO AE 09727-1002
telephone:
(809) 295-1342
FAX:
(809) 295-1592
Flag:
red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion holding a
scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in
1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

*Bermuda, Economy

Overview:
Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, having
successfully exploited its location by providing luxury tourist facilities
and financial services. The tourist industry attracts more than 90% of its
business from North America. The industrial sector is small, and agriculture
is severely limited by a lack of suitable land. About 80% of food needs are
imported.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $1.3 billion (1991)
National product real growth rate:
-1.5% (1991)
National product per capita:
$22,000 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.4% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
6% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $327.5 million; expenditures $308.9 million, including capital
expenditures of $35.4 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$50 million (f.o.b., FY89)
commodities:
semitropical produce, light manufactures, re-exports of pharmaceuticals
partners:
US 55%, UK 32%, Canada 11%, other 2%
Imports:
527.2 million (f.o.b., FY89)
commodities:
fuel, foodstuffs, machinery
partners:
US 60%, UK 8%, Venezuela 7%, Canada 5%, Japan 5%, other 15%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
154,000 kW capacity; 504 million kWh produced, 8,370 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
tourism, finance, structural concrete products, paints, pharmaceuticals,
ship repairing
Agriculture:
accounts for less than 1% of GDP; most basic foods must be imported;
produces bananas, vegetables, citrus fruits, flowers, dairy products
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $34 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $277 million
Currency:
1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Bermuda, Communications

Highways:
210 km public roads, all paved (about 400 km of private roads)
Ports:
Freeport, Hamilton, Saint George
Merchant marine:
72 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,451.099 GRT/5,937,636 DWT; includes
5 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 5 container, 7 roll-on/roll-off, 21 oil
tanker, 13 liquefied gas, 16 bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
modern with fully automatic telephone system; 52,670 telephones; broadcast
stations - 5 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; 3 submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations

*Bermuda, Defense Forces

Branches:
Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

*Bhutan, Geography

Location:
South Asia, in the Himalayas, between China and India
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
47,000 km2
land area:
47,000 km2
comparative area:
slightly more than half the size of Indiana
Land boundaries:
total 1,075 km, China 470 km, India 605 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central
valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Terrain:
mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Natural resources:
timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide, tourism potential
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
5%
forest and woodland:
70%
other:
23%
Irrigated land:
340 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
violent storms coming down from the Himalayas were the source of the country
name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon
Note:
landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key
Himalayan mountain passes

*Bhutan, People

Population:
700,000 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.33% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
39.59 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
16.26 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
123.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
50.17 years
male:
50.74 years
female:
49.58 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.45 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bhutanese (singular and plural)
adjective:
Bhutanese
Ethnic divisions:
Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or migrant tribes 15%
Religions:
Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%
Languages:
Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects; Nepalese speak
various Nepalese dialects
Literacy:
total population:
NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
NA
by occupation:
agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
note:
massive lack of skilled labor

*Bhutan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Bhutan
conventional short form:
Bhutan
Digraph:
BT
Type:
monarchy; special treaty relationship with India
Capital:
Thimphu
Administrative divisions:
18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang,
Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi,
Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang
Independence:
8 August 1949 (from India)
Constitution:
no written constitution or bill of rights
Legal system:
based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 17 December (1907) (Ugyen Wangchuck became first hereditary
king)
Political parties and leaders:
no legal parties
Other political or pressure groups:
Buddhist clergy; Indian merchant community; ethnic Nepalese organizations
leading militant antigovernment campaign
Suffrage:
each family has one vote in village-level elections
Elections:
no national elections
Executive branch:
monarch, chairman of the Royal Advisory Council, Royal Advisory Council
(Lodoi Tsokde), chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers
(Lhengye Shungtsog)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Tshogdu)
Judicial branch:
High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)
Member of:
AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC, ITU,
NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
no formal diplomatic relations; the Bhutanese mission to the UN in New York
has consular jurisdiction in the US
US diplomatic representation:
no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained
between the Bhutanese and US Embassies in New Delhi (India)
Flag:
divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper triangle is
orange and the lower triangle is red; centered along the dividing line is a
large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side

*Bhutan, Economy

Overview:
The economy, one of the world's least developed, is based on agriculture and
forestry, which provide the main livelihood for 90% of the population and
account for about 50% of GDP. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make
the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The
economy is closely aligned with that of India through strong trade and
monetary links. The industrial sector is small and technologically backward,
with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development
projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's
hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are its most important
natural resources; however, the government limits the number of tourists to
3,000/year to minimize foreign influence.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $320 million (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3.1% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$200 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10% (FY91 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $112 million; expenditures $121 million, including capital
expenditures of $58 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$74 million (f.o.b., FY91 est.)
commodities:
cardamon, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, electricity (to India)
partners:
India 90%
Imports:
$106.4 million (c.i.f., FY91 est.)
commodities:
fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics
partners:
India 83%
External debt:
$120 million (June 91)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%; accounts for 18% of GDP; primarily cottage industry and
home based handicrafts
Electricity:
336,000 kW capacity; 1,542.2 million kWh produced, 2,203 kWh per capita
(25.8% is exported to India, leaving only 1,633 kWh per capita) (1990-91)
Industries:
cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium
carbide
Agriculture:
accounts for 45% of GDP; based on subsistence farming and animal husbandry;
self-sufficient in food except for foodgrains; other production - rice,
corn, root crops, citrus fruit, dairy products, eggs
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$115 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $11 million
Currency:
1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note - Indian currency is also legal tender

*Bhutan, Economy

Exchange rates:
ngultrum (Nu) per US$1 - 26.156 (January 1993), 25.918 (1992), 22.742
(1991), 17.504 (1990), 16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988); note - the Bhutanese
ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Bhutan, Communications

Highways:
2,165 km total; 1,703 km surfaced
Airports:
total:
2
usable:
2
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
2
Telecommunications:
domestic telephone service is very poor with very few telephones in use;
international telephone and telegraph service is by land line through India;
a satellite earth station was planned (1990); broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1
FM, no TV (1990)

*Bhutan, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 415,315; fit for military service 222,027; reach military
age (18) annually 17,344 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

*Bolivia, Geography

Location:
Central South America, between Brazil and Chile
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area: 1,098,580 km2
land area:
1,084,390 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Land boundaries:
total 6,743 km, Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay
750 km, Peru 900 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama
area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water
rights
Climate:
varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Terrain:
rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland
plains of the Amazon basin
Natural resources:
tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron ore,
lead, gold, timber
Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
25%
forest and woodland:
52%
other:
20%
Irrigated land:
1,650 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to efficient fuel combustion;
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Note:
landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake,
with Peru

*Bolivia, People

Population:
7,544,099 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.31% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
32.83 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
8.63 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
76.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
62.77 years
male:
60.34 years
female:
65.33 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.31 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bolivian(s)
adjective:
Bolivian
Ethnic divisions:
Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mixed 25-30%, European 5-15%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)
Languages:
Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
78%
male:
85%
female:
71%
Labor force:
1.7 million
by occupation:
agriculture 50%, services and utilities 26%, manufacturing 10%, mining 4%,
other 10% (1983)

*Bolivia, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Bolivia
conventional short form:
Bolivia
local long form:
Republica de Bolivia
local short form:
Bolivia
Digraph:
BL
Type:
republic
Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary)
Administrative divisions:
9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca,
Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Independence:
6 August 1825 (from Spain)
Constitution:
2 February 1967
Legal system:
based on Spanish law and Code Napoleon; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Political parties and leaders:
Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR), Jaime PAZ Zamora; Nationalist
Democratic Action (ADN), Hugo BANZER Suarez; Nationalist Revolutionary
Movement (MNR), Gonzalo SANCHEZ de Lozada; Civic Solidarity Union (UCS), Max
FERNANDEZ Rojas; Conscience of the Fatherland (CONDEPA), Carlos PALENQUE
Aviles; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Jorge AGREDO; Free Bolivia
Movement (MBL), Antonio ARANIBAR; United Left (IU), a coalition of leftist
parties that includes Patriotic National Convergency Axis (EJE-P), Walter
DELGADILLO and Bolivian Communist Party (PCB), Humberto RAMIREZ;
Revolutionary Vanguard - 9th of April (VR-9), Carlos SERRATE Reich
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory (married) 21 years of age;
universal and compulsory (single)
Elections:
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held 6 June 1993); results - percent of
vote by party NA; note - legislative and presidential candidates run on a
unified slate, so vote percentages are the same as in section on
presidential election results; seats - (130 total) MNR 40, ADN 35, MIR 33,
IU 10, CONDEPA 9, PDC 3
Chamber of Senators:
last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held 6 June 1993); results - percent of
vote by party NA; note - legislative and presidential candidates run on a
unified slate, so vote percentages are the same as in section on
presidential election results; seats - (27 total) MNR 9, ADN 7, MIR 8,
CONDEPA 2, PDC 1

*Bolivia, Government

President:
last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held 6 June 1993); results - Gonzalo
SANCHEZ de Lozada (MNR) 23%, Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN) 22%, Jaime PAZ Zamora
(MIR) 19%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote; Jaime PAZ
Zamora (MIR) formed a coalition with Hugo BANZER (ADN); with ADN support,
PAZ Zamora won the congressional runoff election on 4 August and was
inaugurated on 6 August 1989
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consists of an upper chamber
or Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber
of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Jaime PAZ Zamora (since 6 August 1989); Vice President Luis OSSIO
Sanjines (since 6 August 1989)
Member of:
AG, ECLAC, FAO, GATT, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM,
OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO,
WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Jorge CRESPO
chancery:
3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 483-4410 through 4412
consulates general:
Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Charles R. BOWERS
embassy:
Banco Popular del Peru Building, corner of Calles Mercado y Colon, La Paz
mailing address:
P. O. Box 425, La Paz, or APO AA 34032
telephone:
[591] (2) 350251 or 350120
FAX:
[591] (2) 359875
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat
of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana, which has
a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band

*Bolivia, Economy

Overview:
With its long history of semifeudalistic social controls, dependence on
volatile prices for its mineral exports, and bouts of hyperinflation,
Bolivia has remained one of the poorest and least developed Latin American
countries. Since August 1989, President PAZ Zamora, despite his Marxist
origins, has maintained a moderate policy of repressing domestic terrorism,
containing inflation, and achieving annual GDP growth of 3 to 4%. For many
farmers, who constitute half of the country's work force, the main cash crop
is coca, which is sold for cocaine processing.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $4.9 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
3.8% (1992)
National product per capita:
$670 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10.5% (December 1992)
Unemployment rate:
5% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $1.5 billion; expenditures $1.57 billion, including capital
expenditures of $627 million (1993 est.)
Exports:
$609 million (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities:
metals 46%, hydrocarbons 21%, other 33% (coffee, soybeans, sugar, cotton,
timber)
partners:
US 15%, Argentina
Imports:
1.185 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities:
food, petroleum, consumer goods, capital goods
partners:
US 22%
External debt:
$3.7 billion (December 1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7% (1992); accounts for almost 32% of GDP
Electricity:
865,000 kW capacity; 1,834 million kWh produced, 250 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverage, tobacco, handicrafts,
clothing; illicit drug industry reportedly produces 15% of its revenues
Agriculture:
accounts for about 21% of GDP (including forestry and fisheries); principal
commodities - coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, timber;
self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
world's second-largest producer of coca (after Peru) with an estimated
47,900 hectares under cultivation; voluntary and forced eradication program
unable to prevent production from rising to 82,000 metric tons in 1992 from
74,700 tons in 1989; government considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit;
intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia and
Brazil to the US and other international drug markets
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $990 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2,025 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $340 million

*Bolivia, Economy

Currency:
1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
bolivianos ($B) per US$1 - 3.9437 (August 1992), 3.85 (1992), 3.5806 (1991),
3.1727 (1990), 2.6917 (1989), 2.3502 (1988), 2.0549 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Bolivia, Communications

Railroads:
3,684 km total, all narrow gauge; 3,652 km 1.000-meter gauge and 32 km
0.760-meter gauge, all government owned, single track
Highways:
38,836 km total; 1,300 km paved, 6,700 km gravel, 30,836 km improved and
unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas 1,495 km
Ports:
none; maritime outlets are Arica and Antofagasta in Chile, Matarani and Ilo
in Peru
Merchant marine:
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 14,051 GRT/22,155 DWT
Airports:
total:
1,225
usable:
1,043
with permanent-surface runways:
9
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
7
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
161
Telecommunications:
microwave radio relay system being expanded; improved international
services; 144,300 telephones; broadcast stations - 129 AM, no FM, 43 TV, 68
shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Bolivia, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy includes Marines (Fuerza Navala), Air Force
(Fuerza Aereo de Bolivia), National Police Force (Boliviano Policia
Nacional)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,786,137; fit for military service 1,162,160; reach
military age (19) annually 78,125 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $80 million, 1.6% of GDP (1990 est.)

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, Header

Note:
Bosnia and Herzegovina is suffering from interethnic civil strife which
began in March 1992 after the Bosnian Government held a referendum on
independence. Bosnia's Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia - responded
with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines
and joining Serb held areas to a "greater Serbia". Since the onset of the
conflict, which has driven approximately half of the pre-war population of
4.4 million from their homes, both the Bosnian Serbs and the Bosnian Croats
have asserted control of more than three-quarters of the territory formerly
under the control of the Bosnian Government. The UN and the EC are
continuing to try to mediate a plan for peace.

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula, between Croatia and Serbia and
Montenegro
Map references:
Africa, Arctic Region, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard
Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
51,233 km2
land area:
51,233 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
total 1,369 km, Croatia (northwest) 751 km, Croatia (south) 91 km, Serbia
and Montenegro 527 km (312 km with Serbia; 215 km with Montenegro)
Coastline:
20 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
200 m depth
exclusive economic zone:
12 nm
exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Serbia and Montenegro and Croatia seek to cantonize Bosnia and Herzegovina;
Muslim majority being forced from many areas
Climate:
hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool
summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Terrain:
mountains and valleys
Natural resources:
coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, timber, wood products, copper, chromium,
lead, zinc
Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
25%
forest and woodland:
36%
other:
17%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
air pollution from metallurgical plants; water scarce; sites for disposing
of urban waste are limited; subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, People

Population:
4,618,804 (July 1993 est.)
note:
all data dealing with population is subject to considerable error because of
the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic cleansing
Population growth rate:
0.72% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
13.54 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.38 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
13.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
74.8 years
male:
72.11 years
female:
77.67 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.62 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective:
Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Ethnic divisions:
Muslim 44%, Serb 31%, Croat 17%, other 8%
Religions:
Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10%
Languages:
Serbo-Croatian 99%
Literacy:
total population: NA%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
1,026,254
by occupation:
agriculture 2%, industry, mining 45% (1991 est.)

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
conventional short form:
Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form:
Republika Bosna i Hercegovina
local short form:
Bosna i Hercegovina
Digraph:
BK
Type:
emerging democracy
Capital:
Sarajevo
Administrative divisions:
109 districts (opcine, singular - opcina) Banovici, Banja Luka, Bihac,
Bijeljina, Bileca, Bosanska Dubica, Bosanska Graaiskia, Bosanska Krupa,
Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Novi, Bosanski Petrovac, Bosanski Samac, Bosansko
Grahovo, Bratunac, Brcko, Breza, Bugojno, Busovaca, Cazin, Cajilice,
Capljina, Celinac, Citluk, Derventa, Duboj, Donji Vakuf, Foca, Fojnica,
Gacko, Glamoc, Gorazde Gornji Vakuf, Gracanica, Gradacac, Grude, Han Pijesak
Jablanica, Jajce, Kakanj, Kalesija, Kalinovik, Kiseljak, Kladanj, Kljuc,
Konjic, Kotor Varos, Kresevo, Kupres, Laktasi, Listica, Livno, Lopare,
Lukavac, Ljubinje, Ljubuski, Maglaj, Modrica, Mostar, Mrkonjic Grad, Neum,
Nevesinje, Odzak, Olovo, Orasje, Posusje, Prijedor, Prnjavor, Prozor,
(Pucarevo) Novi Travnik, Rogatica, Rudo, Sanski Most, Sarajevo-Centar,
Sarajevo-Hadzici, Sarajevo-Ilidza, Sarajevo-Ilijas, Sarajevo-Novi Grad,
Sarajevo-Novo, Sarajevo-Pale, Sarajevo-Stari Grad, Sarajevo-Trnovo,
Sarajevo-Vogosca, Skender Vakuf, Sokolac, Srbac, Srebrenica, Srebrenik,
Stoloc, Sekovici, Sipovo, Teslic, Tesanj, (Titov Drvar) Drvar, Duvno,
Travnik, Trebinje, Tuzla, Ugljevik, Vare, Velika Kladusa, Visoko, Visegrad,
Vitez Vlasenica, Zavidovici, Zenica, Zvornik, Zepce, Zivinice
note:
currently under negotiation with the assistance of international mediators
Independence:
NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)
Constitution:
NA
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday: NA
Political parties and leaders:
Party of Democratic Action (SDA), Mirsad CEMAN; Croatian Democratic Union of
Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZ BiH), Mate BOBAN; Serbian Democratic Party of
Bosnia and Herzegovina (SDS BiH), Radovan KARADZIC, president;
Muslim-Bosnian Organization (MBO), Adil ZULFIKARPASIC, president; Democratic
Party of Socialists (DSS), Nijaz DURAKOVIC, president; Party of Democratic
Changes, leader NA; Serbian Movement for Renewal (SPO), Milan TRIVUNCIC;
Alliance of Reform Forces of Yugoslavia for Bosnia and Herzegovina (SRSJ
BiH), Dr. Nenad KECMANOVIC, president; Democratic League of Greens (DSZ),
Drazen PETROVIC; Liberal Party (LS), Rasim KADIC, president
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Suffrage:
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, Government

Elections:
Chamber of Municipalities:
last held November-December 1990 (next to be held NA); seats - (110 total)
SDA 43, SDS BiH 38, HDZ BiH 23, Party of Democratic Changes 4, DSS 1, SPO 1
Chamber of Citizens:
last held NA 1990 (next to be held NA); seats - (130 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH
34, HDZ BiH 21, Party of Democratic Changes 15, SRSJ BiH 12, MBO 2, DSS 1,
DSZ 1, LS 1
Executive branch:
collective presidency, prime minister, deputy prime ministers, cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly consists of an upper house or Chamber of
Municipalities (Vijece Opeina) and a lower house or Chamber of Citizens
(Vijece Gradanstvo)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Constitutional Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since NA December 1990), other members of the
collective presidency: Ejup GANIC (since NA), Miro LASIC (since NA December
1992), Mirko PEJANOVIC (since NA), Tatjana LJUJIC-MIJATOVIC (since NA
December 1992), Fikret ABDIC
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Mile AKMADZIC (since NA October 1992); Deputy Prime Minister
Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA (since NA); Deputy Prime Minister Miodrag SIMOVIC (since
NA); Deputy Prime Minister Hadzo EFENDIC (since NA)
Member of:
CEI, CSCE, ECE, UN, UNCTAD, WHO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
NA
chancery:
NA
telephone:
NA
US diplomatic representation: the US maintains full diplomatic relations with Bosnia and
Herzegovina but
has not yet established an embassy in Serajevo
Flag:
white with a large blue shield; the shield contains white Roman crosses with
a white diagonal band running from the upper hoist corner to the lower fly
side

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, Economy

Overview:
Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to Macedonia as the poorest republic in
the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in
private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic
traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly
overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of Communist central planning
and management. Tito had pushed the development of military industries in
the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of
Yugoslavia's defense plants. As of March 1993, Bosnia and Herzegovina was
being torn apart by the continued bitter interethnic warfare that has caused
production to plummet, unemployment and inflation to soar, and human misery
to multiply. No reliable economic statistics for 1992 are available,
although output clearly fell below the already depressed 1991 level.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $14 billion (1991 est.)
National product real growth rate:
-37% (1991 est.)
National product per capita:
$3,200 (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
80% per month (1991)
Unemployment rate:
28% (February 1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$2,054 million (1990)
commodities:
manufactured goods 31%, machinery and transport equipment 20.8%, raw
materials 18%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 17.3%, chemicals 9.4%,
fuel and lubricants 1.4%, food and live animals 1.2%
partners:
principally the other former Yugoslav republics
Imports:
$1,891 million (1990)
commodities:
fuels and lubricants 32%, machinery and transport equipment 23.3%, other
manufactures 21.3%, chemicals 10%, raw materials 6.7%, food and live animals
5.5%, beverages and tobacco 1.9%
partners:
principally the other former Yugoslav republics
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%, but production is sharply down because of interethnic and
interrepublic warfare (1991-92)
Electricity:
3,800,000 kW capacity; 7,500 million kWh produced, 1,700 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
steel production, mining (coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, and
bauxite), manufacturing (vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products,
wooden furniture, 40% of former Yugoslavia's armaments including tank and
aircraft assembly, domestic appliances), oil refining

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, Economy

Agriculture:
accounted for 9.0% of GDP in 1989; regularly produces less than 50% of food
needs; the foothills of northern Bosnia support orchards, vineyards,
livestock, and some wheat and corn; long winters and heavy precipitation
leach soil fertility reducing agricultural output in the mountains; farms
are mostly privately held, small, and not very productive
Illicit drugs:
NA
Economic aid:
$NA
Currency:
Croatian dinar used in ethnic Croat areas, "Yugoslav" dinar used in all
other areas
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, Communications

Railroads:
NA km
Highways:
21,168 km total (1991); 11,436 km paved, 8,146 km gravel, 1,586 km earth;
note - highways now disrupted
Inland waterways:
NA km
Pipelines:
crude oil 174 km, natural gas 90 km (1992); note - pipelines now disrupted
Ports:
coastal - none; inland - Bosanski Brod on the Sava River
Airports:
total:
27
useable:
22
with permanent-surface runways:
8
with runways over 3659:
0 with runways 2440-3659 m:
4
with runways 1220-2439 m:
5
Telecommunications:
telephone and telegraph network is in need of modernization and expansion,
many urban areas being below average compared with services in other former
Yugoslav republics; 727,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 9 AM, 2 FM, 6
TV; 840,000 radios; 1,012,094 TVs; NA submarine coaxial cables; satellite
ground stations - none

*Bosnia and Herzegovina, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 1,283,576; fit for military service 1,045,512; reach
military age (19) annually 37,827 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

*Botswana, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
600,370 km2
land area:
585,370 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
total 4,013 km, Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
short section of boundary with Namibia is indefinite; disputed island with
Namibia in the Chobe River; quadripoint with Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe
is in disagreement; recent dispute with Namibia over uninhabited Sidudu
Island in Linyanti River
Climate:
semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrain:
predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Natural resources:
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
Land use: arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
75%
forest and woodland:
2%
other:
21%
Irrigated land:
20 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
overgrazing, desertification
Note:
landlocked

*Botswana, People

Population:
1,325,920 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.53% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
33.39 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
8.05 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
40.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
62.54 years
male:
59.52 years
female:
65.65 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.25 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective:
Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Ethnic divisions:
Batswana 95%, Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4%, white 1%
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%
Languages:
English (official), Setswana
Literacy:
age 15 and over able to read and write simple sentences (1990)
total population: 72%
male:
67%
female:
74%
Labor force:
400,000
by occupation:
198,500 formal sector employees, most others are engaged in cattle raising
and subsistence agriculture (1990 est.); 14,600 are employed in various
mines in South Africa (1990)

*Botswana, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Botswana
conventional short form:
Botswana
former:
Bechuanaland
Digraph:
BC
Type:
parliamentary republic
Capital:
Gaborone
Administrative divisions:
10 districts; Central, Chobe, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng,
Ngamiland, North-East, South-East, Southern; in addition, there are 4 town
councils - Francistown, Gaborone, Lobaste, Selebi-Phikwe
Independence:
30 September 1966 (from UK)
Constitution:
March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to
matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 30 September (1966)
Political parties and leaders:
Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Sir Ketumile MASIRE; Botswana National
Front (BNF), Kenneth KOMA; Boswana People's Party (BPP), Knight MARIPE;
Botswana Independence Party (BIP), Motsamai MPHO
Suffrage:
21 years of age; universal
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (38 total, 34 elected) BDP 35, BNF 3
President:
last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994); results - President
Sir Ketumile MASIRE was reelected by the National Assembly
Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly consists of an upper house or House of Chiefs
and a lower house or National Assembly
Judicial branch:
High Court, Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Sir Ketunile MASIRE (since 13 July 1980); Vice President Festus
MOGAE (since 9 March 1992 )
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Botsweletse Kingsley SEBELE
chancery:
Suite 7M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

*Botswana, Government

telephone:
(202) 244-4990 or 4991
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador David PASSAGE
embassy:
address NA, Gaborone
mailing address:
P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone:
[267] 353-982
FAX:
[267] 356-947
Flag:
light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

*Botswana, Economy

Overview:
The economy has historically been based on cattle raising and crops.
Agriculture today provides a livelihood for more than 80% of the population,
but produces only about 50% of food needs. The driving force behind the
rapid economic growth of the 1970s and 1980s has been the mining industry.
This sector, mostly on the strength of diamonds, has gone from generating
25% of GDP in 1980 to 50% in 1991. No other sector has experienced such
growth, especially not agriculture, which is plagued by erratic rainfall and
poor soils. The unemployment rate remains a problem at 25%. Although diamond
production was down slightly in 1992, substantial gains in coal output and
manufacturing helped boost the economy
National product: GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $3.6 billion (FY92 est.)
National product real growth rate:
5.8% (FY92 est.)
National product per capita:
$2,450 (FY92 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
16.5% (December 1992)
Unemployment rate:
25% (1989)
Budget:
revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $1.99 billion, including capital
expenditures of $652 million (FY94)
Exports:
$1.6 billion (f.o.b. 1991)
commodities:
diamonds 78%, copper and nickel 8%, meat 4%
partners:
Switzerland, UK, SACU (Southern African Customs Union)
Imports:
$1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment, textiles, petroleum products
partners:
Switzerland, SACU (Southern African Customs Union), UK, US
External debt:
$344 million (December 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6.9% (1991); accounts for about 53% of GDP, including mining
Electricity:
220,000 kW capacity; 1,123 million kWh produced, 846 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock
processing
Agriculture:
accounts for only 5% of GDP; subsistence farming predominates; cattle
raising supports 50% of the population; must import up to of 80% of food
needs
Economic aid:
US aid, $13 million (1992); US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $257
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $1,875 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $43 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $29 million; in 1992: Norway (largest donor)
$16 million, Sweden $15.5 million, Germany $3.6 million, EC/Lome-IV $3-6
million in grants, $28.7 million in long-term projects
Currency:
1 pula (P) = 100 thebe

*Botswana, Economy

Exchange rates:
pula (P) per US$1 - 2.31 (February 1993), 2.1327 (1992), 2.0173 (1991),
1.8601 (1990), 2.0125 (1989), 1.8159 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Botswana, Communications

Railroads:
712 km 1.067-meter gauge
Highways:
11,514 km total; 1,600 km paved; 1,700 km crushed stone or gravel, 5,177 km
improved earth, 3,037 km unimproved earth
Airports:
total:
100
usable:
87
with permanent-surface runways:
8
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
29
Telecommunications:
the small system is a combination of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay
links, and a few radio-communications stations; 26,000 telephones; broadcast
stations - 7 AM, 13 FM, no TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Botswana, Defense Forces

Branches:
Botswana Defense Force (including Army and Air Wing), Botswana National
Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 282,885; fit for military service 148,895; reach military
age (18) annually 14,868 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $196 million, 4.9% of GDP (FY93/94)

*Bouvet Island, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of Norway)

*Bouvet Island, Geography

Location:
in the south Atlantic Ocean, 2,575 km south-southwest of the Cape of Good
Hope (South Africa)
Map references: Antarctic Region
Area:
total area:
58 km2
land area:
58 km2
comparative area:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
29.6 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
4 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
antarctic
Terrain:
volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters; coast is mostly inaccessible
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (all ice)
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
covered by glacial ice
Note:
located in the South Atlantic Ocean

*Bouvet Island, People

Population:
uninhabited

*Bouvet Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form: Bouvet Island
Digraph:
BV
Type:
territory of Norway
Capital:
none; administered from Oslo, Norway
Independence:
none (territory of Norway)

*Bouvet Island, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

*Bouvet Island, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Telecommunications:
automatic meteorological station

*Bouvet Island, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Norway

*Brazil, Geography

Location:
Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Map references:
South America, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
8,511,965 km2
land area:
8,456,510 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than the US
note:
includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da
Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
Land boundaries:
total 14,691 km, Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km,
French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km,
Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km
Coastline: 7,491 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
short section of the boundary with Paraguay (just west of Guaira Falls on
the Rio Parana) is in dispute; two short sections of boundary with Uruguay
are in dispute - Arrio Invernada (Arroyo de la Invernada) area of the Rio
Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the islands at the confluence of the Rio Quarai
(Rio Cuareim) and the Uruguay
Climate:
mostly tropical, but temperate in south
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and
narrow coastal belt
Natural resources:
iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium, phosphates, tin, hydropower,
gold, platinum, petroleum, timber
Land use:
arable land:
7%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
19%
forest and woodland:
67%
other:
6%
Irrigated land:
27,000 km2 (1989 est.)

*Brazil, Geography

Environment:
recurrent droughts in northeast; floods and frost in south; deforestation in
Amazon basin; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and
several other large cities
Note:
largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South
American country except Chile and Ecuador

*Brazil, People

Population:
156,664,223 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.35% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
21.77 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
8.3 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
61.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
62.7 years
male:
58.28 years
female:
67.33 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.49 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Brazilian(s)
adjective:
Brazilian
Ethnic divisions:
Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, Amerindian, black 6%, white 55%,
mixed 38%, other 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic (nominal) 90%
Languages:
Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
81%
male:
82%
female:
80%
Labor force:
57 million (1989 est.)
by occupation:
services 42%, agriculture 31%, industry 27%

*Brazil, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form:
Brazil
local long form:
Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil
Digraph:
BR
Type:
federal republic
Capital:
Brasilia
Administrative divisions:
26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito, federal); Acre,
Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*,, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato
Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas
Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande
do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo,
Sergipe, Tocantins
Independence:
7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
Constitution:
5 October 1988
Legal system:
based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
Political parties and leaders:
National Reconstruction Party (PRN), Daniel TOURINHO, president; Brazilian
Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), Roberto ROLLEMBERG, president; Liberal
Front Party (PFL), Jose Mucio MONTEIRO, president; Workers' Party (PT), Luis
Ignacio (Lula) da SILVA, president; Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Luiz
GONZAGA de Paiva Muniz, president; Democratic Labor Party (PDT), Leonel
BRIZOLA, president; Democratic Social Party (PPS), Paulo MALUF, president;
Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Tasso JEREISSATI, president;
Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Roberto FREIRE, president; Communist Party of
Brazil (PCdoB), Joao AMAZONAS, secretary general; Christian Democratic Party
(PDC), Siqueira CAMPOS, president
Other political or pressure groups:
left wing of the Catholic Church and labor unions allied to leftist Worker's
Party are critical of government's social and economic policies
Suffrage:
voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and
under 70 years of age
Elections:
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held November 1994); results - PMDB
21%, PFL 17%, PDT 9%, PDS 8%, PRN 7.9%, PTB 7%, PT 7%, other 23.1%; seats -
(503 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 108, PFL 87, PDT 46, PDS 43, PRN 40,
PTB 35, PT 35, other 109
Federal Senate:
last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held November 1994); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (81 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 27, PFL
15, PSDB 10, PTB 8, PDT 5, other 16

*Brazil, Government

President:
last held 15 November 1989, with runoff on 17 December 1989 (next to be held
November 1994); results - Fernando COLLOR de Mello 53%, Luis Inacio da SILVA
47%; note - first free, direct presidential election since 1960
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congresso Nacional) consists of an upper
chamber or Federal Senate (Senado Federal) and a lower chamber or Chamber of
Deputies (Camara dos Deputados)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Federal Tribunal
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Itamar FRANCO (since 29 December 1992)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,

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