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October, 1993 [Etext #87]

Part 40 out of 42

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Habitat

Commission on Human Settlements

Hexagonal Group
see Central European Initiative (CEI)

high-income countries

another term for the industrialized
countries with high per capita GNPs/GDPs; see
developed countries (DCs)

industrial countries

another term for the developed countries; see developed
countries (DCs)

Inter-American DevelopmentBank (IADB)
note-also known as Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

established-8 April 1959

effective-30 December 1959

aim-to promote economic and social development in Latin
America

members-(44) Argentina, Austria, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Bolivia,
Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Nicaragua,
Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Spain, Suriname, Sweden,
Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia

Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development
(IGADD)

established-NA January 1986

aim-to promote cooperation on drought-related
matters

members-(6) Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

established-26 October 1956

effective-29 July 1957

aim-to promote peaceful uses of tomic energy

members-(115) Afghanistan, Albania,
Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh,
Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia,
Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland,
France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala,
Haiti, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,
Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait,
Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, alaysia, Mali, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,
Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand,
Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US,
Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yugoslavia, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

International Bank for conomic Cooperation (IBEC)

established in 22 October 1963;

aim was to promote economic cooperation and development;

members were Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East
Germany, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR,
Vietnam; now it is a Russian bank with a new charter

International Bank for econstruction and Development
(IBRD)

note-also known as the World Bank

established-22 July 1944

effective-27 December 1945

aim-UN specialized agency that initially
promoted economic rebuilding after World War II and now
provides economic development loans

members-(174) Afghanistan, Albania,
Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria,
Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote
d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji,
Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,
Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea,
Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi,
Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New
Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman,
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,
Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,
Solvenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo,
Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, ganda, Ukraine, UAE,
UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen,
Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)

established-NA 1919

aim-to promote free trade and private
enterprise and to represent business interests at
national and international levels

members-(58 national councils) Argentina,
Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Burkina,
Cameroon, Canada, Colombia, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus,
Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon,
Germany, Greece, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, South Korea,
Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco,
Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan,
Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

established-7 December 1944

effective-4 April 1947

aim-UN specialized agency to promote international
cooperation in civil aviation

members-(173) Afghanistan, Albania,
Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Armenia, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan,
Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria,
Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape
Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote
d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France,
Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati,
North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia,
Madagacar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall
Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States
of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,
Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,
Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San
Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa
(suspended), Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania,
Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,
Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia,
Zimbabwe

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)

established-NA 1863

aim-to provide humanitarian aid in wartime

members-(25 individuals) all Swiss nationals

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
(ICFTU)

established-NA December 1949

aim-to promote the trade union movement

members-(144 national organizations
in the following 104 areas) Antigua and Barbuda,
Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh,
Barbados, Basque Country, Belgium, Bermuda, Botswana,
Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Canada, Central African
Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Curacao,
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Falkland Islands,
Fiji, Finland, France, French Polynesia, The Gambia,
Germany, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Holy See,
Honduras, Hong Kong, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Israel,
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kiribati, South Korea, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi,
Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Montserrat, Morocco,
Netherlands, New Caledonia, NZ, Nicaragua, Norway,
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines,
Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Russia, Saint Helena,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
San Marino, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Spain,
Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand,
Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK, US, Venezuela,
Western Samoa

International Court of Justice (ICJ)

note-also known as the World Court

established-26 June 1945

effective-24 October 1945

aim-primary judicial organ of the UN

members-(15 judges) elected by the
General Assembly and Security Council to represent
all principal legal systems

International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL)

established-13 June 1956

aim-to promote international cooperation between criminal
police authorities

members-(159) Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana,
Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo,
Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland,
France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea,
Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall
Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco,
Mozambique, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands
Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway,
Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,
Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Slovakia, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

subbureaus-(5) American Samoa, Bermuda, Cayman Islands,
Gibraltar, Hong Kong

International Development Association
(IDA)

established-26 January 1960

effective-24 September 1960

aim-UN specialized agency and IBRD
affiliate that provides economic loans for low
income countries

members-(147) Part I-(23 more economically advanced countries) Australia,
Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, South Africa,
Sweden, Switzerland, UAE, UK, US

members-Part II-(124 less developed nations) Afghanistan,
Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bhutan,
Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape
Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo,
Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia,
Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,
Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique,
Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis,
Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain,
Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand,
Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda,
Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen,
Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

International Energy Agency (IEA)

established-15 November 1974

aim-established by the OECD to promote
cooperation on energy matters, especially emergency
oil sharing and relations between oil consumers and
oil producers

members-(21) Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Ireland,
Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway,
Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US

International Finance Corporation (IFC)

established-25 May 1955

effective-20 July 1956

aim-UN specialized agency and IBRD
affiliate that helps private enterprise sector in economic development

members-(149) Afghanistan, Albania,
Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil,
Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape
Verde, Central African Republic, Chile, China, Colombia,
Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji,
Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,
Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait,
Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall
Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia,
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,
Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saudi
Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa,
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK,
US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western
Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

established-NA November 1974

aim-UN specialized agency that promotes
agricultural development

members-(147) Category I-(21
industrialized aid contributors) Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ,
Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US

members-Category II-(12 petroleum-exporting
aid contributors) Algeria, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran,
Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,
UAE, Venezuela
members-Category III-(114 aid recipients) Afghanistan,
Albania, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bangladesh,
Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil,
Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,
Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia,
Fiji, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Israel,
Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Laos,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger,
Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Saint
Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand,
Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey,
Uganda, Uruguay, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen,
Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

International Investment Bank (IIB)

established on 7 July 1970;
to promote economic development; members were
Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Germany,
Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam;
now it is a Russian bank with a new charter

International Labor Organization (ILO)

established-11 April 1919 (affiliated
with the UN 14 December 1946)

aim-UN specialized agency concerned
with world labor issues

members-(158) Afghanistan, Algeria,
Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria,
Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil,
Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde,
Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote
d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt,
El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji,
Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras,
Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi,
Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama,
Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia,
San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,
Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

International Maritime Organization (IMO)

note-name changed from Intergovernmental
Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) on 22 May 1982

established-17 March 1958

aim-UN specialized agency concerned
with world maritime affairs

members-(138) Algeria, Angola, Antigua
and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin,
Bolivia, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burma, Cambodia,
Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia,
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon,
The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel,
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South
Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco,
Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Nigeria,
Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome
and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad
and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire
associate members-(2) Hong Kong, Macau

International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT)

established-3 September 1976

effective-26 July 1979

aim-to provide worldwide communications
for maritime and other applications

members-(66) Algeria, Argentina,
Australia, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil,
Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia,
Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland,
France, Gabon, Germany, Greece, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, South
Korea, Kuwait, Liberia, Malaysia, Malta, Monaco,
Mozambique, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Oman,
Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore,
Slovakia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland,
Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Yugoslavia

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

established-22 July 1944

effective-27 December 1945

aim-UN specialized agency concerned
with world monetary stability and economic development

members-(175) Afghanistan, Albania,
Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria,
Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote
d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji,
Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana,
Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,
Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea,
Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi,
Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands,
NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Solomon Islands,
Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE,
UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe
observers-(3) Holy See, North Korea, Monaco

International Olympic Committee (IOC)

established-23 June 1894

aim-to promote the Olympic ideals
and administer the Olympic games: 1992 Winter Olympics in
Albertville, France (8-23 February); 1992 Summer Olympics
in Barcelona, Spain (25 July-9 August); 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer;
Norway (12-27 February); 1996 Summer
Olympics in Atlanta, United States (20 July-4
August); 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan (date
NA)

members-(168) Afghanistan, Albania,
Algeria, American Samoa, Andorra, Angola, Antigua
and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan,
Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina,
Burma, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
China, Colombia, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica,Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus,
Czech Republic, Denmark,
Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland,
France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
Grenada, Guam, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,
Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia,
Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands
Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman,
Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar,
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Solomon
Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US,
Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands,
Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia,
Zimbabwe

International Organization for Migration (IOM)-established
as Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for the
Movement of Migrants from Europe; renamed
Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) on 15
November 1952; renamed Intergovernmental Committee for Migration (ICM) in
November 1980; current name adopted 14 November 1989

established-5 December 1951

aim-to facilitate orderly international
emigration and immigration

members-(46) Angola, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia,
Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Denmark,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras,
Hungary, Israel, Italy, Kenya, South Korea, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru,
Philippines, Portugal, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland,
Thailand, Uganda, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia
observers-(41) Albania, Belize, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cape Verde, Croatia,
Czech Republic, Federation of Ethnic Communities' Council of Australia Inc.,
Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Holy See, India, Indonesia, Japan, Japan International
Friendship and Welfare Foundation, Jordan, Latvia, Malta, Mexico, Morocco,
Namibia, NZ, Niwano Peace Foundation, Pakistan, Partnership with the Children
of the Third World, Poland, Presiding Bishop's Fund for World Relief/Episcopal
Church Refuge Council of Australia, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Sao Tome and
Principe, Senegal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, Turkey, UK, Vietnam,
Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

established-NA February 1947

aim-to promote the development of international standards

members-(73 national standards organizations)
Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria,
Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile,
China, Colombia, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,
Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia,
Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore,
Slovakia,South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland,
Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, UK,
US, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yugoslavia
correspondent members-(14) Bahrain, Barbados, Brunei, Guinea, Hong Kong,
Iceland, Jordan, Kuwait, Malawi, Mauritius, Oman, Senegal, UAE, Uruguay
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

established-NA 1928

aim-to promote worldwide humanitarian
aid through the International Committee of the Red
Cross (ICRC) in wartime, and League of Red Cross
and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS) in peacetime

members-(9) 2 representatives from
ICRC, 2 from LORCS, and 5 from national societies
elected by the international conference of the
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

established-9 December 1932

effective-1 January 1934 affiliated
with the UN-15 November 1947

aim-UN specialized agency concerned
with world telecommunications

members-(168) Afghanistan, Albania,
Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin,
Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria,
Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote
d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras,
Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya,
Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea,
Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi,
Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania,
Russia, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San
Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Solomon Islands,
Somalia, South Africa (suspended), Spain, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,
Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad
and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK,
US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western
Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
(INTELSAT)

established-20 August 1971

effective-12 February 1973

aim-to develop and operate a global
commercial telecommunications satellite system

members-(125) Afghanistan, Algeria,
Angola, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan,
The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Benin,
Bhutan, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany,
Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Iceland, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya,
Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco,
Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Qatar,
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Singapore, Slovakia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri
Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,
Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK,US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,
Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Islamic Development Bank (IDB)

established-15 December 1973

aim-to promote Islamic economic
aid and social development

members-(44 plus the Palestine Liberation
Organization) Afghanistan (suspended), Algeria,
Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei, Burkina,
Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The
Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,
Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi
Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Syria,
Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation
Organization

Latin American Economic System (LAES)

note-also known as Sistema
Economico Latinoamericana (SELA)

established-17 October 1975

aim-to promote economic and
social development through
regional cooperation

members-(26) Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El
Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico,
Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay,
Venezuela

Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)
note-also known as Asociacion
Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI)

established-12 August 1980

effective-18 March 1981

aim-to promote freer regional trade

members-(11) Argentina, Bolivia,
Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay,
Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela
observers-(16) Commission of the European Communities, Costa
Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,
Inter-American Development Bank, Italy, Nicaragua,
Organization of American States, Panama, Portugal,
Spain, United Nations Development Program, United
Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the
Caribbean

League of Arab States (LAS)
see Arab League (AL)

League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
(LORCS)

established-5 May 1919

aim-to provide humanitarian aid in peacetime

members-(148) Afghanistan, Albania,
Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium,
Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria,
Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,
Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, The Gambia,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,
Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea,
South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho,
Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco,
Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,
Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,
Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Slovakia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand,
Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK,
US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen,
Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe
associate members-(2) Equatorial Guinea, Gabon

least developed countries (LLDCs)
that subgroup of the less developed
countries (LDCs) initially identified by the UN
General Assembly in 1971 as having no significant
economic growth, per capita GNPs/GDPs normally less
than $500, and low literacy rates; also known as the
undeveloped countries. The 42 LLDCs are: Afghanistan,
Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Burkina, Burma,
Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad,
Comoros, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia,
The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kiribati, Laos, Lesotho,
Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda,
Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania,
Togo, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Yemen

less developed countries (LDCs)
the bottom group in the comprehensive
but mutually exclusive hierarchy of developed
countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former
USSR/EE), and less developed countries (LDCs);
mainly countries with low levels of output,
living standards, and technology; per capita GNPs/GDPs
are generally below $5,000 and often less than $1,000;
however, the group also includes a number of countries
with high per capita incomes, areas of advanced technology, and rapid rates of
growth; includes the advanced developing
countries, developing countries, Four Dragons (Four Tigers),
least developed countries (LLDCs), low-income countries, middle-income
countries, newly industrializing economies
(NIEs), the South, Third World, underdeveloped countries,
undeveloped countries; the 175 LDCs are: Afghanistan,
Algeria, American Samoa, Angola, Anguilla, Antigua and
Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, The Bahamas, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei,
Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde,
Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
China, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Colombia,
Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa
Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands,
Fiji, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia,
Gaza Strip, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greenland, Grenada,
Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, Guernsey, Guinea, Guinea-
Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jersey, Jordan, Kenya,
Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,
Isle of Man, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte,
Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Montserrat, Morocco,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands,
Oman, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), Pakistan, Panama, Papua
New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn
Islands, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Reunion, Rwanda, Saint
Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre
and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome
and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra
Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau,
Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, UAE,
Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands, Wallis
and Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara, Western Samoa,
Yemen, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

low-income countries
another term for those less
developed countries with below-average per capita
GNPs/GDPs; see less developed countries (LDCs)

London Suppliers Group
see Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

Mercado Comun del Cono Sur (MERCOSUR)
see Southern Cone Common Market

middle-income countries
another term for those less
developed countries with above-average per capita GNPs/GDPs;
see less developed countries (LDCs)

Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)

established-April 1987

aim-to arrest missile proliferation
by controlling the export of key missile technologies and
equipment

members-(24) Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway,
Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US

newly industrializing countries (NICs)
former term for the newly industrializing
economies; see newly industrializing economies (NIEs)

newly industrializing economies (NIEs)
that subgroup of the less developed
countries (LDCs) that has experienced particularly rapid
industrialization of their economies; formerly known as the
newly industrializing countries (NICs); also known as advanced developing
countries; usually includes the Four Dragons (Hong Kong, South Korea,
Singapore, Taiwan) plus Brazil and Mexico

Nonaligned Movement (NAM)

established-1-6 September 1961

aim-to establish political and military
cooperation apart from the traditional
East or West blocs

members-(102 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization)
Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon,
CapeVerde, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cote
d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia,
Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-
Bissau, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica,
Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia,
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru,
Qatar, Rawada, Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, UAE,
Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe,
Palestine Liberation Organization
observers-(19) African National Congress, Afro-Asian Solidarity Organization,
Antigua and Barbuda, Arab League, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Dominica, El
Salvador, Islamic Conference, Kanaka Socialist National Liberation Front (New
Caledonia), Mexico, Mongolia, Organization of African Unity, Pan Africanist
Congress of Azania, Philippines,
Socialist Party of Puerto Rico, UN, Uruguay
guests-(21) Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech
Republic, Dominican Republic, Finland, Germany,
Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland,
Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland

Nordic Council (NC)

established-16 March 1952

effective-12 February 1953

aim-to promote regional economic, cultural, and
environmental cooperation

members-(5) Denmark, Finland, Iceland,
Norway, Sweden; note-Denmark includes Faroe
Islands and Greenland

Nordic Investment Bank (NIB)

established-4 December 1975

effective-1 June 1976

aim-to promote economic cooperation and development

members-(5) Denmark, Finland, Iceland,
Norway, Sweden

North
a popular term for the rich
industrialized countries generally located in the
northern portion of the Northern Hemisphere; the
counterpart of the South; see developed countries
(DCs)

North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC)-an extension of NATO

established-8 November 1991

effective-20 December 1991

aim-to form a forum to discuss cooperation
concerning mutual political and security issues

members-(38) Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan,
Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Georgia,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
Italy, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova,
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia,
Slovakia, Spain, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine,
UK, US, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

established-17 September 1949

aim-to promote mutual defense and cooperation

members-(16) Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, UK, US

Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)

established-NA 1958

aim-associated with OECD, seeks
to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy

members-(23) Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US

Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
note-also known as the London Suppliers Group

established-1974

aim-to establish guidelines on exports
of enrichment and processing plant assistance and
nuclear exports to countries of proliferation concern
and regions of conflict and instability

members-(28) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US

Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas
Nucleares en la AmericaLatina y el Caribe (OPANAL)
see Agency for the Prohibition
of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the
Caribbean (OPANAL)

Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development (OECD)

established-14 December 1960, effective
30 September 1961

aim-to promote economic cooperation
and development

members-(24) Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US special members-(2) EC, Yugoslavia

Organization of African Unity (OAU)

established-25 May 1963

aim-to promote unity and cooperation among African states

members-(52) Algeria, Angola, Benin,
Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central
African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire,
Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia,
Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya,
Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria,
Rwanda, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Sao Tome and
Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia,
Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

Organization of American States (OAS)

established-30 April 1948

effective-13 December 1951

aim-to promote peace and security
as well as economic and social development

members-(35) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas,
Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba
(excluded from formal participation since 1962), Dominica, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica,
Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, US, Uruguay,
Venezuela
observers-(24) Algeria, Austria,
Belgium, Cyprus, EC, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Holy See, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Morocco, Netherlands,
Pakistan, Portugal, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Switzerland, ?

Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC)

established-9 January 1968

aim-to promote cooperation in the petroleum industry

members-(11) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt,
Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia
(withdrew from active membership in 1986),

UAE Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)

established-18 June 1981

effective-4 July 1981

aim-to promote political, economic, and defense cooperation

members-(7) Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
associate member-(1) British Virgin Islands

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

established-14 September 1960

aim-to coordinate petroleum policies

members-(12) Algeria, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait,
Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela

Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)

established-22-25 September 1969

aim-to promote Islamic solidarity
and cooperation in economic, social, cultural, and
political affairs

members-(47 plus the Palestine Liberation
Organization) Afghanistan (suspended), Albania, Algeria,
Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei, Burkina,
Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The
Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia,
Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria,
Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra
Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda,
UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization
observer-(1) Turkish-Cypriot administered area of Cyprus

Paris Club
see Group of 10

Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

established-NA 1899

aim-to facilitate the settlement
of international disputes

members-(78) Argentina, Australia,
Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria,
Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China,
Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras,
Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy,
Japan, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Luxembourg,
Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,
Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru,
Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Slovakia,
Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland,
Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay,
Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zimbabwe

Population Commission

established-3 October 1946

aim-Economic and Social Council organization dealing
with population matters of importance to the UN

members-(27) selected on a rotating
basis from all regions

Rio Group (RG)

established-NA 1988

aim-a consultation mechanism on regional Latin American issues
members-(11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico,
Paraguay, Peru (suspended), Uruguay, Venezuela; note-Panama was expelled in
1988; Peru was suspended after April 1992 coup

Second World another term for the traditionally Marxist-Leninist states with
authoritarian governments and command economies based on the Soviet model;
the term is fading from use; see centrally planned economies socialist
countries in general, countries in which the government owns and plans
the use of the major factors of production; note-the term is sometimes
used incorrectly as a synonym for Communist countries

South a popular term for the poorer, less industrialized
countries generally located south of the developed countries;
the counterpart of the North; see less developed countries (LDCs)

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

established-8 December 1985

aim-to promote economic, social, and cultural cooperation

members-(7) Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal,
Pakistan, Sri Lanka

South Pacific Commission (SPC)

established-6 February 1947

effective-29 July 1948

aim-to promote regional
cooperation n economic and social matters

members-(27) American Samoa, Australia,
Cook Islands, Fiji, France, French Polynesia,
Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States
of Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, NZ, Niue,
Northern Mariana Islands, Trust Territory
of the Pacific Islands (Palau), Papua New Guinea,
Pitcairn Islands, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga,
Tuvalu, UK, US, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna, Western Samoa

South Pacific Forum (SPF)

established-5 August 1971

aim-to promote regional cooperation
in political matters

members-(15) Australia, Cook Islands,
Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of
Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Solomon
Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Western Samoa
observer-(1) Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau)

South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement
(SPARTECA)

established-NA 1981

aim-to redress unequal trade relationship of Australia and New
Zealand with small island economies in Pacific region

members-(15) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands,
Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Papua New Guinea,
Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Western Samoa

Southern African Customs Union (SACU)

established-11 December 1969

aim-to promote free trade and cooperation
in customs matters

members-(9) Bophuthatswana, Botswana,
Ciskei, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Transkei, Venda

Southern African Development Community (SADC)

note-evolved from the Southern African Development Coordination
Conference (SADCC) established-17 August 1992

aim-to promote regional economic
development and integration

members-(10) Angola, Botswana, Lesotho,
Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Tanzania,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR)

established-26 March 1991

aim-regional economic cooperation

members-(4) Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay,
Uruguay

Statistical Commission

established-21 June 1946

aim-Economic and Social Council organization dealing
with development and standardization of national statistics of
interest to the UN

members-(25) selected on a rotating basis from all regions
Third World another term for the less developed
countries; the term is fading from use; see less developed
countries (LDCs)

underdeveloped countries
refers to those less developed
countries with the potential for above-average economic growth;
see less developed countries (LDCs)

undeveloped countries
refers to those extremely poor
less developed countries (LDCs) with little prospect for economic growth;
see least developed countries (LLDCs)

Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale
(UDEAC)
see Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)
United Nations (UN)

established-26 June 1945

effective-24 October 1945

aim-to maintain international peace
and security and to promote cooperation involving
economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems

members-(182 excluding Yugoslavia) Afghanistan, Albania,
Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma,
Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central
African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica,
Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,
Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon,
The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,
Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait,
Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,
Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua
New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi
Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South
Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland,
Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan,
Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan,
Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia,
Zimbabwe; note-all UN members are represented in the General Assembly
observers-(2 and the Palestine Liberation
Organization) Holy See, Switzerland, Palestine Liberation
Organization

United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM II)

note-successor to original UNAVEM

established-20 December 1988

aim-established by the UN Security
Council to verify the withdrawal of Cuban troops from
Angola

members-(25) Algeria, Argentina,
Brazil, Canada, Congo, Czech Republic, Egypt, Guinea-
Bissau, Hungary, India, Ireland, Jordan, Malaysia,
Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Senegal,
Singapore, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Yugoslavia,
Zimbabwe

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

note-acronym retained from the predecessor
organization UN International Children's Emergency
Fund established-11 December 1946

aim-to help establish child health and welfare services

members-(41) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
(UNCTAD)

established-30 December 1964

aim-to promote international trade

members-(186) all UN members plus Holy See, Switzerland, Tonga

United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

established-22 November 1965

aim-to provide technical assistance to stimulate economic and social
development

members-(48) selected on a rotating
basis from all regions

United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)

established-31 May 1974

aim-established by the UN Security Council to observe the 1973 Arab-Israeli
ceasefire

members-(4) Austria, Canada, Finland,Poland

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

established-16 November 1945

effective-4 November 1946

aim-to promote cooperation in education,
science, and culture

members-(172) Afghanistan, Albania,
Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas,
Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,
Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria,
Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,
China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa
Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon,
The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,
Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea,
Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco,
Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,
Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay,
Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint
Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino,
Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland,
Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine,
UAE, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia,
Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe
associate members-(3) Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Netherlands Antilles

United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)

established-15 December 1972

aim-to promote international cooperation
on all environmental matters

members-(58) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

United Nations Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)

established-4 March 1964

aim-established by the UN Security Council to serve as a
peacekeeping force beween Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in Cyprus

members-(7) Austria,Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, UK

United Nations General Assembly

established-26 June 1945

effective-24 October 1945

aim-primary deliberative organ in the UN

members-(183) all UN members are represented in the

General Assembly United Nations Industrial
Development Organization (UNIDO)

established-17 November 1966

effective-1 January 1967

aim-UN specialized agency that promotes
industrial development especially among the members

members-(160) Afghanistan, Albania,
Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia,
Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,
Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi,
Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African
Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros,
Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The
Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya,
North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,
Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar,
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,
Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,
Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)

established-19 March 1978

aim-established by the UN Security
Council to confirm the withdrawal of Israeli
forces, restore peace, and reestablish Lebanese
authority in southern Lebanon

members-(10) Fiji, Finland, France,
Ghana, Ireland, Italy, Nepal, Norway, Poland, Sweden

United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)

established-NA 1991

aim-established by the UN Security
Council to observe and monitor the demilitarized zone
established between Iraq and Kuwait

members-(34) Argentina, Austria,
Bangladesh, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Fiji, Finland,
France, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland,
Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland,
Romania, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay,
Venezuela

United Nations Military Observer Group in India
and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)

established-13 August 1948

aim-established by the UN Security Council to observe the 1949
India-Pakistan ceasefire

members-(8) Belgium, Chile, Denmark,
Finland, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Uruguay

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara
(MINURSO)

established-NA 1990

aim-established by the UN Security Council to supervise the
referendum in Western Sahara

members-(25) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, China, Egypt,
France, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria,
Pakistan, Peru, Poland, Russia, Switzerland, Tunisia, UK, US, Venezuela

United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL)

established-NA 1991

aim-established by the UN Security Council to verify ceasefire arrangments and
to monitor the maintenance of public order pending the organization of a new
National Civil Police

members-(9) Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, India, Ireland, Spain, Sweden,
Venezuela

United Nations Office of the High Commissioner
for Refugees (UNHCR)

established-3 December 1949

effective-1 January 1951

aim-to try to ensure the humanitarian treatment of refugees and find permanent
solutions to refugee problems
members-(46) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada,
China, Colombia,Denmark, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See,
Hungary, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Lesotho, Madagascar, Morocco,
Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines,
Somalia, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey,
Uganda,UK, US, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire

United Nations Operation in Mozambique (UNOMOZ)

established-NA 1992

aim-established by the UN Security Council to supervise the
ceasefire

members-(18) Argentina, Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Cape Verde,
Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Portugal, Spain,
Sweden,

Uruguay, Zambia United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM)

established-NA 1992

aim-established by the UN Security Council to facilitate an
immediate cessation of hostilities, to maintain a ceasefire to
promote a political settlement, and to provide urgent
humanitarian assistance

members-(17) Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic,
Egypt, Fiji, Finland, Indonesia, Jordan, Morocco, NZ, Norway, Pakistan,
Slovakia, Zimbabwe

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

note-acronym retained from predecessor
organization UN Fund for Population Activities

established-NA July 1967

aim-to promote assistance in dealing with population problems

members-(51) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR)

established-NA 1992

aim-established by the UN Security Council to create conditions for peace
and security required for the negotiation of an overall settlement of the
"Yugoslav" crisis

members-(31) Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium,
Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Egypt, Finland, France, Ghana, Ireland, Jordan,
Kenya, Luxembourg, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,
Nigeria, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden,
Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine, UK, Venezuela

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East
(UNRWA)

established-8 December 1949

aim-to provide assistance to Palestinian refugees

members-(10) Belgium, Egypt, France, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon,
Syria, Turkey, UK, US

United Nations Secretariat

established-26 June 1945

effective-24 October 1945

aim-primary administrative organ
of the UN

member-Secretary General appointed
for a five-year term by the General Assembly on the
recommendation of the Security Council

United Nations Security Council

established-26 June 1945

effective-24 October 1945

aim-to maintain international peace and security

permanent members-(5)
China, France, Russia, UK, US
nonpermanent members-(10)
elected for two-year terms by the UN General Assembly;
Austria (1991-92), Belgium (1991-92), Cape Verde (1992-
93), Ecuador (1991-92), Hungary (1992-93), India (1991-
92), Japan (1992-93), Morocco (1992-93), Venezuela (1992-
93), Zimbabwe (1991-92)

United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)

established-NA 1992

aim-established by the UN Security Council to contribute to the restoration
and maintenance of peace and to the holding of free elections

members-(31) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium,
Bulgaria, Cameroon,Canada, Chile, China, Congo, France, Germany, Ghana, India,
Indonesia, Ireland, Malaysia, Netherlands, NZ, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland,
Russia, Senegal, Thailand, Tunisia, UK, US, Uruguay

United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)

established-NA May 1948

aim-initially established by the UN Security Council to supervise the 1948
Arab-Israeli ceasefire and subsequently extended to work in the Sinai, Lebanon,
Jordan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan

members-(19) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada,
Chile, China, Denmark, Finland, France,
Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Russia, Sweden,
Switzerland, US

United Nations Trusteeship Council

established-26 June 1945

effective-24 October 1945

aim-to supervise the administration
of the UN trust territories; only one of the original 11
trusteeships remains-the Trust Territory of the Pacific
Islands (Palau)

members-(5) China, France, Russia, UK, US

Universal Postal Union (UPU)

established-9 October 1874, affiliated
with the UN 15 November 1947

effective-1 July 1948

aim-UN specialized agency that promotes
international postal cooperation

members-(178) Afghanistan, Albania,
Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria,
The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,
Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana,
Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African
Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo,
Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland,
France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,
Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia,
Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati,
North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,
Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ,
Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Overseas
Territories of the UK, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New
Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi
Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain,
Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden,
Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga,
Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda,
Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

Warsaw Pact (WP)

was established 14 May 1955 to promote mutual defense; members met 1 July 1991
to dissolve the alliance; member states at the time of dissolution were
Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the USSR; earlier
members included East Germany and Albania

West African Development Bank (WADB)
note-also known as Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD)

established-14 November 1973

aim-to promote economic development and integration

members-(7) Benin, Burkina, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo

West African Economic Community (CEAO)

note-acronym from Communaute Economique
de l'Afrique de l'Ouest

established-3 June 1972

aim-to promote regional economic development

members-(7) Benin, Burkina, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Mauritania,
Niger, Senegal
observers-(2) Guinea, Togo

Western European Union (WEU)

established-23 October 1954

effective-6 May 1955

aim-mutual defense and progressive political unification

members-(9) Belgium, France, Germany,
Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK
associate member-(1) Iceland
observer-(1) Greece

World Bank

see International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

World Bank Group
includes International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD),
International Development Association (IDA), and International Finance
Corporation (IFC)

World Confederation of Labor (WCL)

established-19 June 1920 as the
International Federation of Christian Trade Unions
(IFCTU), renamed 4 October 1968

aim-to promote the trade union movement

members-(94 national organizations)
Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba,
Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia,
Bonaire Island, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, Cameroon,
Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad,
Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba,
Curacao, Cyprus, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
El Salvador, France, French Guiana, Gabon, The Gambia,
Ghana, Grenada, Guadaloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana,
Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Italy, Jamaica,
Kenya, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar,
Malaysia, Mali, Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico,
Montserrat, Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger,
Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,
Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and
Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain,
Sri Lanka, Suriname, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand,
Togo, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zaire,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

World Court
see International Court of
Justice (ICJ)

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