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Bahrain
local long form: Dawlat al Bahrayn
local short form:
Al Bahrayn
Digraph:
BA
Type:
traditional monarchy
Capital:
Manama
Administrative divisions:
12 districts (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al
Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al
Muharraq, Ar Rifa'wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad,
Madinat 'Isa, Mintaqat Juzur Hawar, Sitrah
Independence:
15 August 1971 (from UK)
Constitution:
26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973
Legal system:
based on Islamic law and English common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 December
Political parties and leaders:
political parties prohibited; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic
fundamentalist groups are active
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
none
Executive branch:
amir, crown prince and heir apparent, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26 August 1975 and legislative
powers were assumed by the Cabinet; appointed Advisory Council established
16 December 1992
Judicial branch:
High Civil Appeals Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Amir 'ISA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 2 November 1961); Heir Apparent HAMAD
bin 'Isa Al Khalifa (son of Amir; born 28 January 1950)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 19 January 1970)
Member of:
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC,
OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador 'Abd al-Rahman Faris Al KHALIFA
chancery:
3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

*Bahrain, Government

telephone:
(202) 342-0741 or 342-0742
consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Dr. Charles W. HOSTLER
embassy:
Road No. 3119 (next to Alahli Sports Club), Zinj District, Manama
mailing address:
P. O. 26431, Manama, or FPO AE 09834-6210
telephone:
[973] 273-300
FAX:
(973) 272-594
Flag:
red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side

*Bahrain, Economy

Overview:
Petroleum production and processing account for about 80% of export
receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 31% of GDP. Economic conditions
have fluctuated with the changing fortunes of oil since 1985, for example,
during the Gulf crisis of 1990-91. Bahrain with its highly developed
communication and transport facilities is home to numerous multinational
firms with business in the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of
petroleum products made from imported crude.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $4.3 billion (1992 est.)
National product real growth rate:
3% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$7,800 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
8%-10% (1989)
Budget:
revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.32 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports:
$3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 80%, aluminum 7%
partners:
Japan 13%, UAE 12%, India 10%, Pakistan 8%
Imports:
$3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
nonoil 59%, crude oil 41%
partners:
Saudi Arabia 41%, US 14%, UK 7%, Japan 5%
External debt:
$1.8 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.8% (1988); accounts for 44% of GDP
Electricity:
1,600,000 kW capacity; 4,700 million kWh produced, 8,500 kWh per capita
(1992 est.)
Industries:
petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore banking, ship
repairing
Agriculture:
including fishing, accounts for less than 2% of GDP; not self-sufficient in
food production; heavily subsidized sector produces fruit, vegetables,
poultry, dairy products, shrimp, fish; fish catch 9,000 metric tons in 1987
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $24 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $45 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.8 billion
Currency:
1 Bahraini dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils
Exchange rates:
Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1 - 0.3760 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Bahrain, Communications

Highways:
200 km bituminous surfaced, including 25 km bridge-causeway to Saudi Arabia
opened in November 1986; NA km natural surface tracks
Pipelines:
crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32 km
Ports:
Mina' Salman, Manama, Sitrah
Merchant marine:
9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 186,331 GRT/249,490 DWT; includes 5
cargo, 2 container, 1 liquefied gas, 1 bulk
Airports:
total:
3
usable:
3
with permanent-surface runways:
2
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
0
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
1
Telecommunications:
modern system; good domestic services; 98,000 telephones (1 for every 6
persons); excellent international connections; tropospheric scatter to
Qatar, UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar,
UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT,
1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV

*Bahrain, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 194,770; fit for military service 107,696; reach military
age (15) annually 5,043 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $245 million, 6% of GDP (1990)

*Baker Island, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

*Baker Island, Geography

Location:
in the North Pacific Ocean, just north of the Equator, 2,575 km southwest of
Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii and Australia
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
1.4 km2
land area:
1.4 km2
comparative area:
about 2.3 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
4.8 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
12 nm
continental shelf:
200 m or depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Terrain: low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef
Natural resources:
guano (deposits worked until 1891)
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100%
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate
vines, and low growing shrubs; lacks fresh water; primarily a nesting,
roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife

*Baker Island, People

Population:
uninhabited; note - American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air
and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World
War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit
only and generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and
cemetery ruinsare located near the middle of the west coast

*Baker Island, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Baker Island
Digraph:
FQ
Type:
unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and Wildlife
Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National
Wildlife Refuge system
Capital:
none; administered from Washington, DC

*Baker Island, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

*Baker Island, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the middle of the
west coast
Airports:
1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m
Note:
there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

*Baker Island, Defense Forces

defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast
Guard

*Bangladesh, Geography

Location:
South Asia, at the head of the Bay of Bengal, almost completely surrounded
by India
Map references:
Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
144,000 km2
land area:
133,910 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries:
total 4,246 km, Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km
Coastline:
580 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
18 nm
continental shelf:
up to outer limits of continental margin
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
a portion of the boundary with India is in dispute; water-sharing problems
with upstream riparian India over the Ganges
Climate:
tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to
June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)
Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Natural resources:
natural gas, arable land, timber
Land use:
arable land:
67%
permanent crops:
2%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
16%
other:
11%
Irrigated land:
27,380 km2 (1989)
Environment:
vulnerable to droughts; much of country routinely flooded during summer
monsoon season; overpopulation; deforestation

*Bangladesh, People

Population:
122,254,849 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.35% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
35.41 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
11.94 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
109.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
54.7 years
male:
55 years
female:
54.38 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.55 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Bangladeshi(s)
adjective:
Bangladesh
Ethnic divisions:
Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, tribals less than 1 million
Religions:
Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, Buddhist, Christian, other
Languages:
Bangla (official), English
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
total population:
35%
male:
47%
female:
22%
Labor force:
35.1 million
by occupation:
agriculture 74%, services 15%, industry and commerce 11% (FY86)
note:
extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Oman (1991)

*Bangladesh, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
People's Republic of Bangladesh
conventional short form:
Bangladesh
former:
East Pakistan
Digraph:
BG
Type:
republic
Capital:
Dhaka
Administrative divisions:
64 districts (zillagulo, singular - zilla); Bagerhat, Bandarban, Barguna,
Barisal, Bhola, Bogra, Brahmanbaria, Chandpur, Chapai Nawabganj, Chattagram,
Chuadanga, Comilla, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka, Dinajpur, Faridpur, Feni, Gaibandha,
Gazipur, Gopalganj, Habiganj, Jaipurhat, Jamalpur, Jessore, Jhalakati,
Jhenaidah, Khagrachari, Khulna, Kishorganj, Kurigram, Kushtia, Laksmipur,
Lalmonirhat, Madaripur, Magura, Manikganj, Meherpur, Moulavibazar,
Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Naogaon, Narail, Narayanganj, Narsingdi, Nator,
Netrakona, Nilphamari, Noakhali, Pabna, Panchagar, Parbattya Chattagram,
Patuakhali, Pirojpur, Rajbari, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Satkhira, Shariyatpur,
Sherpur, Sirajganj, Sunamganj, Sylhet, Tangail, Thakurgaon
Independence:
16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)
Constitution:
4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24
March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended NA March 1991
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 26 March (1971)
Political parties and leaders:
Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), Khaleda ZIAur Rahman; Awami League (AL),
Sheikh Hasina WAJED; Jatiyo Party (JP), Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD (in jail);
Jamaat-E-Islami (JI), Ali KHAN; Bangladesh Communist Party (BCP), Saifuddin
Ahmed MANIK; National Awami Party (Muzaffar); Workers Party, leader NA;
Jatiyo Samajtantik Dal (JSD), Serajul ALAM KHAN; Ganotantri Party, leader
NA; Islami Oikya Jote, leader NA; National Democratic Party (NDP), leader
NA; Muslim League, Khan A. SABUR; Democratic League, Khondakar MUSHTAQUE
Ahmed; Democratic League, Khondakar MUSHTAQUE Ahmed; United People's Party,
Kazi ZAFAR Ahmed
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
National Parliament:
last held 27 February 1991 (next to be held NA February 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (330 total, 300 elected and 30 seats
reserved for women) BNP 168, AL 93, JP 35, JI 20, BCP 5, National Awami
Party (Muzaffar) 1, Workers Party 1, JSD 1, Ganotantri Party 1, Islami Oikya
Jote 1, NDP 1, independents 3
President:
last held 8 October 1991 (next to be held by NA October 1996); results -
Abdur Rahman BISWAS received 52.1% of parliamentary vote
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad)

*Bangladesh, Government

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Abdur Rahman BISWAS (since 8 October 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Khaleda ZIAur Rahman (since 20 March 1991)
Member of:
AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
MINURSO, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM,
UNTAC, UNPROFOR, UPU, WHO, WFTU, WIPO, WCL, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Abul AHSAN
chancery:
2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:
(202) 342-8372 through 8376
consulate general:
New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador William B. MILAM
embassy:
Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka
mailing address:
G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1212
telephone: [880] (2) 884700-22
FAX:
[880] (2) 883648
Flag:
green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center; green is
the traditional color of Islam

*Bangladesh, Economy

Overview:
Bangladesh is one of the world's poorest, most densely populated, and least
developed nations. Its economy is overwhelmingly agricultural. Major
impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, government
interference with the economy, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be
absorbed by agriculture, a low level of industrialization, failure to fully
exploit energy resources (natural gas), and inefficient and inadequate power
supplies. An excellent rice crop and expansion of the export garment
industry helped growth in FY91/92. Policy reforms intended to reduce
government regulation of private industry and promote public-sector
efficiency have been announced but are being implemented only slowly.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $23.8 billion (FY92)
National product real growth rate:
3.8% (FY92)
National product per capita:
$200 (FY92)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.09% (FY92)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $2.5 billion; expenditures $3.7 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY92)
Exports:
$2.0 billion (FY92)
commodities:
garments, jute and jute goods, leather, shrimp
partners:
US 28%, Western Europe 39% (FY91)
Imports:
$3.4 billion (FY91/92)
commodities:
capital goods, petroleum, food, textiles
partners:
Japan 10.0%, Western Europe 17%, US 5.0% (FY91)
External debt:
$11.8 billion (FY92 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.0% (FY92 est.); accounts for less than 10% of GDP
Electricity:
2,400,000 kW capacity; 9,000 million kWh produced, 75 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
jute manufacturing, cotton textiles, food processing, steel, fertilizer
Agriculture: accounts for about 40% of GDP, 60% of employment, and one-fifth of exports;
imports 10% of food grain requirements; world's largest exporter of jute;
commercial products - jute, rice, wheat, tea, sugarcane, potatoes, beef,
milk, poultry; shortages include wheat, vegetable oils, cotton; fish catch
778,000 metric tons in 1986
Illicit drugs:
transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.4 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $11.65 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $6.52 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.5
billion
Currency:
1 taka (Tk) = 100 paise

*Bangladesh, Economy

Exchange rates:
taka (Tk) per US$1 - 39.000 (January 1993), 38.951 (1992), 36.596 (1991),
34.569 (1990), 32.270 (1989), 31.733 (1988)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

*Bangladesh, Communications

Railroads:
2,892 km total (1986); 1,914 km 1.000 meter gauge, 978 km 1.676 meter broad
gauge
Highways:
7,240 km total (1985); 3,840 km paved, 3,400 km unpaved
Inland waterways:
5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes 2,575-3,058 km main cargo
routes)
Pipelines:
natural gas 1,220 km
Ports:
Chittagong, Chalna
Merchant marine:
42 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 314,228 GRT/461,607 DWT; includes 34
cargo, 2 oil tanker, 3 refrigerated cargo, 3 bulk
Airports:
total:
16
usable:
12
with permanent-surface runways:
12
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
4
with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 6
Telecommunications:
adequate international radio communications and landline service; fair
domestic wire and microwave service; fair broadcast service; 241,250
telephones; broadcast stations - 9 AM, 6 FM, 11 TV; 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT
satellite earth stations

*Bangladesh, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force
paramilitary forces:
Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Armed Police Reserve, Defense Parties,
National Cadet Corps
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 30,909,597; fit for military service 18,348,702 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $355 million, 1.5% of GDP (FY92/93)

*Barbados, Geography

Location:
in the extreme eastern Caribbean Sea, about 375 km northeast of Venezuela
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
430 km2
land area:
430 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
97 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (June to October)
Terrain:
relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region
Natural resources:
petroleum, fishing, natural gas
Land use:
arable land: 77%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
9%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
14%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
subject to hurricanes (especially June to October)
Note:
easternmost Caribbean island

*Barbados, People

Population:
255,338 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.18% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
15.78 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
8.53 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-5.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
21.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73.49 years
male:
70.75 years
female:
76.46 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.77 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Barbadian(s)
adjective:
Barbadian
Ethnic divisions:
African 80%, mixed 16%, European 4%
Religions:
Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, other 12%),
Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, unknown 3%, other 9% (1980)
Languages:
English
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population: 99%
male:
99%
female:
99%
Labor force:
120,900 (1991)
by occupation:
services and government 37%, commerce 22%, manufacturing and construction
22%, transportation, storage, communications, and financial institutions 9%,
agriculture 8%, utilities 2% (1985 est.)

*Barbados, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Barbados
Digraph:
BB
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Bridgetown
Administrative divisions:
11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint James, Saint
John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip,
Saint Thomas
note:
the new city of Bridgetown may be given parish status
Independence:
30 November 1966 (from UK)
Constitution:
30 November 1966
Legal system:
English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts
National holiday:
Independence Day, 30 November (1966)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Labor Party (DLP), Erskine SANDIFORD; Barbados Labor Party (BLP),
Henry FORDE; National Democratic Party (NDP), Richie HAYNES
Other political or pressure groups:
Barbados Workers Union, Leroy TROTMAN; People's Progressive Movement, Eric
SEALY; Workers' Party of Barbados, Dr. George BELLE; Clement Payne Labor
Union, David COMMISSIONG
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
House of Assembly:
last held 22 January 1991 (next to be held by January 1996); results - DLP
49.8%; seats - (28 total) DLP 18, BLP 10
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house
or House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Judicature
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Dame Nita BARROW (since 6 June 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Lloyd Erskine SANDIFORD (since 2 June 1987)
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES,
LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Dr. Rudi WEBSTER

*Barbados, Government

chancery:
2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 939-9200 through 9202
consulate general:
New York
consulate:
Los Angeles
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador G. Philip HUGHES
embassy:
Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street, Bridgetown
mailing address:
P. O. Box 302, Box B, FPO AA 34054
telephone:
(809) 436-4950 through 4957
FAX:
(809) 429-5246
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and blue with the
head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the trident head
represents independence and a break with the past (the colonial coat of arms
contained a complete trident)

*Barbados, Economy

Overview:
A per capita income of $7,000 gives Barbados one of the highest standards of
living of all the small island states of the eastern Caribbean.
Historically, the economy was based on the cultivation of sugarcane and
related activities. In recent years, however, the economy has diversified
into manufacturing and tourism. The tourist industry is now a major employer
of the labor force and a primary source of foreign exchange. The economy
slowed in 1990-91, however, and Bridgetown's declining hard currency
reserves and inability to finance its deficits have caused it to adopt an
austere economic reform program.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $1.8 billion ( 1991)
National product real growth rate:
-4% (1991)
National product per capita:
$7,000 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.1% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
23% (1992)
Budget:
revenues $547 million; expenditures $620 million (FY92-93), including
capital expenditures of $60 million
Exports:
$205.8 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
sugar and molasses, chemicals, electrical components, clothing, rum,
machinery and transport equipment
partners:
CARICOM 31%, US 16%, UK 13%
Imports:
$697 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
foodstuffs, consumer durables, raw materials, machinery, crude oil,
construction materials, chemicals
partners:
US 34%, CARICOM 16%, UK 11%, Canada 6%
External debt:
$750 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1.3% (1991); accounts for 10% of GDP
Electricity:
152,100 kW capacity; 540 million kWh produced, 2,118 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export,
petroleum
Agriculture:
accounts for 8% of GDP; major cash crop is sugarcane; other crops -
vegetables, cotton; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $15 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $171 million
Currency:
1 Barbadian dollar (Bds$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1 - 2.0113 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Barbados, Communications

Highways:
1,570 km total; 1,475 km paved, 95 km gravel and earth
Ports:
Bridgetown
Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 48,710 GRT79,263 DWT; includes 1 cargo,
2 oil tanker
Airports:
total:
1
usable:
1
with permanent-surface runways:
1
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
0
Telecommunications:
islandwide automatic telephone system with 89,000 telephones; tropospheric
scatter link to Trinidad and Saint Lucia; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 2 FM, 2
(1 is pay) TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

*Barbados, Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Barbados Defense Force, including the Ground Forces and Coast Guard,
Royal Barbados Police Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 70,254; fit for military service 49,096 (1993 est.); no
conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $10 million, 0.7% of GDP (1989)

*Bassas da India, Header

Affiliation:
(possession of France)

*Bassas da India, Geography

Location:
Southern Africa, in the southern Mozambique Channel about halfway between
Madagascar and Mozambique
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total area:
NA km2
land area:
NA km2
comparative area:
NA
Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
35.2 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
claimed by Madagascar
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
a volcanic rock 2.4 meters high
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land:
0%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
100% (all rock)
Irrigated land:
0 km2
Environment:
surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones
Note:
navigational hazard since it is usually under water during high tide

*Bassas da India, People

Population:
uninhabited

*Bassas da India, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Bassas da India
Digraph:
BS
Type:
French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic Jacques
DEWATRE (since July 1991), resident in Reunion
Capital:
none; administered by France from Reunion
Independence:
none (possession of France)

*Bassas da India, Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

*Bassas da India, Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only

*Bassas da India, Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

*Belarus, Geography

Location:
Eastern Europe, between Poland and Russia
Map references:
Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - European States, Europe, Standard
Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
207,600 km2
land area:
207,600 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Kansas
Land boundaries: total 3,098 km, Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 605 km, Russia 959
km, Ukraine 891 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
none
Climate:
mild and moist; transitional between continental and maritime
Terrain:
generally flat and contains much marshland
Natural resources:
forest land, peat deposits
Land use:
arable land:
29%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
15%
forest and woodland:
0%
other:
56%
Irrigated land:
1,490 km2 (1990)
Environment:
southern part of Belarus highly contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear
reactor accident at Chornobyl'
Note:
landlocked

*Belarus, People

Population:
10,370,269 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.34% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
13.28 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
11.1 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
19.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
70.73 years
male:
66.04 years
female:
75.66 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.89 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Belarusian(s)
adjective:
Belarusian
Ethnic divisions:
Belarusian 77.9%, Russian 13.2%, Polish 4.1%, Ukrainian 2.9%, other 1.9%
Religions:
Eastern Orthodox NA%, other NA%
Languages:
Byelorussian, Russian, other
Literacy:
age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
total population:
100%
male:
100%
female:
100%
Labor force:
5.418 million
by occupation:
industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 20%, other 38%
(1990)

*Belarus, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Belarus
conventional short form:
Belarus
local long form:
Respublika Belarus
local short form:
none
former:
Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic
Digraph:
BO
Type:
republic
Capital:
Minsk
Administrative divisions:
6 oblasts (voblastsi, singular - voblasts') and one municipality* (harady,, singular - horad);
Brestskaya, Homyel'skaya, Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya,, Mahilyowskaya, Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya
note:
each voblasts' has the same name as its administrative center
Independence:
25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
adopted NA April 1978
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
24 August (1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Belarusian Popular Front (BPF), Zenon PAZNYAK, chairman; United Democratic
Party of Belarus (UDPB), Aleksandr DOBROVOLSKIY, chairman; Social Democratic
Party of Belarus (SDBP), Mikhail TKACHEV, chairman; Belarus Workers Union,
Mikhail SOBOL, Chairman; Belarus Peasants Party; Party of People's Unity,
Gennadiy KARPENKO; Communist Party of Belarus
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Supreme Soviet:
last held 4 April 1990 (next to be held NA); results - Communists 87%; seats
- (360 total) number of seats by party NA; note - 50 seats are for public
bodies; the Communist Party obtained an overwhelming majority
Executive branch:
chairman of the Supreme Soviet, chairman of the Council of Ministers; note -
Belarus has approved a directly elected presidency but so far no elections
have been scheduled
Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme Soviet
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Stanislav S. SHUSHKEVICH (since 18 September
1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Vyacheslav F. KEBICH (since NA April 1990), First Deputy
Prime Minister Mikhail MYASNIKOVICH (since NA 1991)

*Belarus, Government

Member of:
CBSS (observer), CIS, CSCE, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ILO, IMF, INMARSAT, IOC, ITU,
NACC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Designate Sergey Nikolayevich MARTYNOV
chancery:
1511 K Street NW, Suite 619, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:
(202) 638-2954
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador David H. SWARTZ
embassy:
Starovilenskaya #46, Minsk
mailing address:
APO AE 09862 telephone:
7-0172-34-65-37
Flag:
three horizontal bands of white (top), red, and white

*Belarus, Economy

Overview:
In many ways Belarus resembles the three Baltic states, for example, in its
industrial competence, its higher-than-average standard of living, and its
critical dependence on the other former Soviet states for fuels and raw
materials. Belarus ranks fourth in gross output among the former Soviet
republics, having produced 4% of the total GDP and employing 4% of the labor
force in the old USSR. Once a mainly agricultural area, it now supplies
important producer and consumer goods - sometimes as the sole producer - to
the other states. Belarus had a significant share of the machine-building
capacity of the former USSR. It is especially noted for production of
tractors, large trucks, machine tools, and automation equipment. The soil in
Belarus is not as fertile as the black earth of Ukraine, but by emphasizing
favorable crops and livestock (especially pigs and chickens), Belarus has
become a net exporter to the other former republics of meat, milk, eggs,
flour, and potatoes. Belarus produces only small amounts of oil and gas and
receives most of its fuel from Russia through the Druzhba oil pipeline and
the Northern Lights gas pipeline. These pipelines transit Belarus en route
to Eastern Europe. Belarus produces petrochemicals, plastics, synthetic
fibers (nearly 30% of former Soviet output), and fertilizer (20% of former
Soviet output). Raw material resources are limited to potash and peat
deposits. The peat (more than one-third of the total for the former Soviet
Union) is used in domestic heating, as boiler fuel for electric power
stations, and in the production of chemicals. The potash supports fertilizer
production. In 1992 GDP fell an estimated 13%, largely because the country
is highly dependent on the ailing Russian economy for raw materials and
parts.
National product:
GDP $NA
National product real growth rate:
-13% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
30% per month (first quarter 1993)
Unemployment rate:
0.5% of officially registered unemployed; large numbers of underemployed
workers
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$1.1 billion to outside of the successor states of the former USSR (f.o.b.,
1992)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners:
NA
Imports: $751 million from outside the successor states of the former USSR (c.i.f.,
1992)
commodities:
machinery, chemicals, textiles
partners:
NA
External debt:
$2.6 billion (end of 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate -9.6%; accounts for about 50% of GDP (1992)

*Belarus, Economy

Electricity:
8,025,000 kW capacity; 37,600 million kWh produced, 3,626 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
employ about 27% of labor force and produce a wide variety of products
essential to the other states; products include (in percent share of total
output of former Soviet Union): tractors (12%); metal-cutting machine tools
(11%); off-highway dump trucks up to 110-metric-ton load capacity (100%);
wheel-type earthmovers for construction and mining (100%); eight-
wheel-drive, high-flotation trucks with cargo capacity of 25 metric tons for
use in tundra and roadless areas (100%); equipment for animal husbandry and
livestock feeding (25%); motorcycles (21.3%); television sets (11%);
chemical fibers (28%); fertilizer (18%); linen fabric (11%); wool fabric
(7%); radios; refrigerators; and other consumer goods
Agriculture:
accounts for almost 25% of GDP and 5.7% of total agricultural output of
former Soviet Union; employs 20% of the labor force; in 1988 produced the
following (in percent of total Soviet production): grain (3.6%), potatoes
(12.2%), vegetables (3.0%), meat (6.0%), milk (7.0%); net exporter of meat,
milk, eggs, flour, potatoes
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of opium and cannabis; mostly for the domestic market;
transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
1 rubel (abbreviation NA) = 10 Russian rubles
note:
the rubel circulates with the Russian ruble; certain purchase are made only
with rubels; government has established a different, and varying, exchange
rate for trade between Belarus and Russia
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Belarus, Communications

Railroads: 5,570 km; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
98,200 km total; 66,100 km hard surfaced, 32,100 km earth (1990)
Inland waterways:
NA km
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,470 km, refined products 1,100 km, natural gas 1,980 km (1992)
Ports:
none; landlocked
Merchant marine:
claims 5% of former Soviet fleet
Airports:
total:
124
useable:
55
with permanent-surface runways:
31
with runways over 3,659 m:
1
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
28
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
20
Telecommunications:
construction of NMT-450 analog cellular network proceeding in Minsk, in
addition to installation of some 300 km of fiber optic cable in the city
network; telephone network has 1.7 million lines, 15% of which are switched
automatically; Minsk has 450,000 lines; telephone density is approximately
17 per 100 persons; as of 1 December 1991, 721,000 applications from
households for telephones were still unsatisfied; international connections
to other former Soviet republics are by landline or microwave and to other
countries by leased connection through the Moscow international gateway
switch; Belarus has not constructed ground stations for international
telecommunications via satellite to date

*Belarus, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Forces, Air Defense Forces, Security Forces (internal and border
troops)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,491,039; fit for military service 1,964,577; reach
military age (18) annually 71,875 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
56.5 billion rubles, NA% of GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion of the
military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results

*Belgium, Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering on the North Sea, between France and the
Netherlands
Map references:
Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
30,510 km2
land area:
30,230 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total 1,385 km, France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
Netherlands 450 km
Coastline:
64 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
equidistant line with neighbors
exclusive fishing zone:
equidistant line with neighbors (extends about 68 km from coast)
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy
Terrain:
flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged mountains of
Ardennes Forest in southeast
Natural resources:
coal, natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
24%
permanent crops:
1%
meadows and pastures:
20%
forest and woodland:
21%
other:
34%
Irrigated land:
10 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
air and water pollution
Note:
crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals within
1,000 km of Brussels which is the seat of the EC

*Belgium, People

Population: 10,040,939 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.23% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
11.94 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
10.32 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
76.72 years
male:
73.41 years
female:
80.21 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.62 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Belgian(s)
adjective:
Belgian
Ethnic divisions:
Fleming 55%, Walloon 33%, mixed or other 12%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%
Languages:
Flemish (Dutch) 56%, French 32%, German 1%, legally bilingual 11% divided
along ethnic lines
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
total population:
99%
male:
NA%
female:
NA%
Labor force:
4.126 million
by occupation:
services 63.6%, industry 28%, construction 6.1%, agriculture 2.3% (1988)

*Belgium, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Kingdom of Belgium
conventional short form:
Belgium
local long form:
Royaume de Belgique local short form:
Belgique
Digraph:
BE
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Brussels
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces (French: provinces, singular - province; Flemish: provincien,
singular - provincie); Antwerpen, Brabant, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg,
Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen, West-Vlaanderen
Independence:
4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)
Constitution:
7 February 1831, last revised 8-9 August 1980; the government is in the
process of revising the Constitution with the aim of federalizing the
Belgian state
Legal system:
civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory; judicial
review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
National Day, 21 July (ascension of King Leopold to the throne in 1831)
Political parties and leaders:
Flemish Social Christian (CVP), Herman VAN ROMPUY, president; Walloon Social
Christian (PSC) , Melchior WATHELET, president; Flemish Socialist (SP),
Frank VANDENBROUCKE, president; Walloon Socialist (PS), Guy SPITAELS;
Flemish Liberals and Democrats (VLD), Guy VERHOFSTADT, president; Walloon
Liberal (PRL), Antoine DUQUESNE, president; Francophone Democratic Front
(FDF), Georges CLERFAYT, president; Volksunie (VU), Jaak GABRIELS,
president; Communist Party (PCB), Louis VAN GEYT, president; Vlaams Blok
(VB), Karel VAN DILLEN, chairman; ROSSEM, Jean Pierre VAN ROSSEM; National
Front (FN), Werner van STEEN; Live Differently (AGALEV; Flemish Green
party), Leo COX; Ecologist (ECOLO; Francophone Green party), NA; other minor
parties
Other political or pressure groups:
Christian and Socialist Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries;
numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers,
middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various
organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia;
various peace groups such as the Flemish Action Committee Against Nuclear
Weapons and Pax Christi
Suffrage:
18 years of age, universal and compulsory
Elections:
Senate:
last held 24 November 1991 (next to be held by November 1996); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (184 total; of which 106 are directly
elected) CVP 20, SP 14, PVV (now VLD) 13, VU 5, AGALEV 5, VB 5, ROSSEN 1, PS
18, PRL 9, PSC 9, ECOLO 6, FDF 1

*Belgium, Government

Chamber of Representatives:
last held 24 November 1991 (next to be held by November 1996); results - CVP
16.7%, PS 13.6%, SP 12.0%, PVV (now VLD) 11.9%, PRL 8.2%, PSC 7.8%, VB 6.6%,
VU 5.9%, ECOLO 5.1%, AGALEV 4.9%, FDF 2.6%, ROSSEM 3.2%, FN 1.5%; seats -
(212 total) CVP 39, PS 35, SP 28, PVV (now VLD) 26, PRL 20, PSC 18, FB 12,
VU 10, ECOLO 10, AGALEV 7, FDF 3, ROSSEM 3, FN 1
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Flemish -
Senaat, French - Senat) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Representatives
(Flemish - Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers, French - Chambre des
Representants)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Flemish - Hof van Cassatie, French - Cour de
Cassation)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King BAUDOUIN I (since 17 July 1951); Heir Apparent Prince ALBERT of Liege
(brother of the King; born 6 June 1934)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Jean-Luc DEHAENE (since 6 March 1992)
Member of:
AG (observer), ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australian Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE,
CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-9, G-10, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG,
OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP,
UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNRWA, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO,
ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Juan CASSIERS
chancery:
3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 333-6900
FAX:
(202) 333-3079
consulates general:
Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Bruce S. GELB
embassy:
27 Boulevard du Regent, Brussels
mailing address:
B-1000 Brussels, PSC 82, Box 002, APO AE 09724
telephone:
[32] (2) 513-3830
FAX:
[32] (2) 511-2725
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red; the
design was based on the flag of France

*Belgium, Economy

Overview:
This small private enterprise economy has capitalized on its central
geographic location, highly developed transport network, and diversified
industrial and commercial base. Industry is concentrated mainly in the
populous Flemish area in the north, although the government is encouraging
reinvestment in the southern region of Walloon. With few natural resources
Belgium must import essential raw materials, making its economy closely
dependent on the state of world markets. Over 70% of trade is with other EC
countries. The economy grew at a strong 4% pace during the period 1988-90,
but economic growth slowed to a 1% pace in 1991-92. The economy is expected
to turn in another sluggish 1% performance in 1993. Belgium's public debt
remains high at 120% of GDP and the government is trying to control its
expenditures to bring the figure more into line with other industrialized
countries.
National product:
GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $177.9 billion (1992)
National product real growth rate:
0.8% (1992)
National product per capita:
$17,800 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.6% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
9.8% (end 1992)
Budget:
revenues $97.8 billion; expenditures $109.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports:
$118 billion (f.o.b., 1991) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union
commodities:
iron and steel, transportation equipment, tractors, diamonds, petroleum
products
partners:
EC 75.5%, US 3.7%, former Communist countries 1.4% (1991)
Imports:
$121 billion (c.i.f., 1991) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union
commodities:
fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners:
EC 73%, US 4.8%, oil-exporting less developed countries 4%, former Communist
countries 1.8% (1991)
External debt:
$31.3 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.6% (1992 est.)
Electricity:
17,500,000 kW capacity; 68,000 million kWh produced, 6,790 kWh per capita
(1992)
Industries:
engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, processed food and
beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum, coal
Agriculture: accounts for 2.3% of GDP; emphasis on livestock production - beef, veal,
pork, milk; major crops are sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain,
tobacco; net importer of farm products
Illicit drugs:
source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors;
increasingly important gateway country for cocaine entering the European
market

*Belgium, Economy

Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $5.8 billion
Currency:
1 Belgian franc (BF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Belgian francs (BF) per US$1 - 33.256 (January 1993), 32.150 (1992), 34.148
(1991), 33.418 (1990), 39.404 (1989), 36.768 (1988)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Belgium, Communications

Railroads:
Belgian National Railways (SNCB) operates 3,568 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge, government owned; 2,563 km double track; 2,207 km electrified
Highways:
103,396 km total; 1,317 km limited access, divided autoroute; 11,717 km
national highway; 1,362 km provincial road; about 38,000 km paved and 51,000
km unpaved rural roads
Inland waterways:
2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)
Pipelines:
petroleum products 1,167 km; crude oil 161 km; natural gas 3,300 km
Ports:
Antwerp, Brugge, Gent, Oostende, Zeebrugge
Merchant marine:
23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 96,949 GRT/133,658 DWT; includes 10
cargo, 5 oil tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 5 chemical tanker, 1 bulk
Airports:
total:
42
usable:
42
with permanent-surface runways:
24
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
14
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
3
Telecommunications: highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated
domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities; extensive
cable network; limited microwave radio relay network; 4,720,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 3 AM, 39 FM, 32 TV; 5 submarine cables; 2 satellite
earth stations - Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and EUTELSAT systems; nationwide
mobile phone system

*Belgium, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 2,556,189; fit for military service 2,133,051; reach
military age (19) annually 63,532 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $4 billion, 2% of GDP (1992)

*Belize, Geography

Location:
Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea between Guatemala and Mexico
Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean, North America, Standard Time Zones of the
World
Area:
total area:
22,960 km2
land area:
22,800 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
total 516 km, Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km
Coastline:
386 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south
note:
from the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Caye, Belize's territorial
sea is 3 miles; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the purpose
of this limitation is to provide a framework for
the negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences with
Guatemala
International disputes:
border with Guatemala in dispute; negotiations to resolve the dispute have
begun
Climate:
tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)
Terrain:
flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south
Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish
Land use:
arable land:
2%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
2%
forest and woodland:
44%
other:
52%
Irrigated land:
20 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
frequent devastating hurricanes (September to December) and coastal flooding
(especially in south); deforestation
Note:
national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize City to Belmopan because of
hurricanes; only country in Central America without a coastline on the North
Pacific Ocean

*Belize, People

Population:
203,957 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.42% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
35.75 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
6.15 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Net migration rate:
-5.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
36.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.85 years
male:
65.91 years
female:
69.88 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.53 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
Belizean(s)
adjective:
Belizean
Ethnic divisions:
Mestizo 44%, Creole 30%, Maya 11%, Garifuna 7%, other 8%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%, Methodist 6%, Mennonite
4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal 2%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1%, other
2%), none 2%, other 6% (1980)
Languages:
English (official), Spanish, Maya, Garifuna (Carib)
Literacy:
age 15 and over having ever attended school (1970)
total population:
91%
male:
91%
female:
91%
Labor force:
51,500
by occupation:
agriculture 30%, services 16%, government 15.4%, commerce 11.2%,
manufacturing 10.3%
note:
shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel (1985)

*Belize, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
none
conventional short form:
Belize
former:
British Honduras
Digraph:
BH
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Belmopan
Administrative divisions:
6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo
Independence:
21 September 1981 (from UK)
Constitution:
21 September 1981
Legal system:
English law
National holiday:
Independence Day, 21 September
Political parties and leaders:
People's United Party (PUP), George PRICE, Florencio MARIN, Said MUSA;
United Democratic Party (UDP), Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean LINDO, Dean BARROW;
National Alliance for Belizean Rights, leader NA
Other political or pressure groups:
Society for the Promotion of Education and Research (SPEAR), Assad SHOMAN;
United Workers Front, leader NA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held 4 September 1989 (next to be held September 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) PUP 15, UDP 13; note - in
January 1990 one member expelled from UDP joined PUP, making the seat count
PUP 16, UDP 12
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower
house or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Dame Minita Elmira GORDON (since 21 September 1981)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister George Cadle PRICE (since 4 September 1989)
Member of:
ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAS, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador James V. HYDE

*Belize, Government

chancery:
2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
(202) 332-9636
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Eugene L. SCASSA
embassy:
Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City
mailing address:
P. O. Box 286, Belize City
telephone:
[501] (2) 77161 through 77163
FAX:
[501] (2) 30802
Flag:
blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges; centered
is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of arms features a
shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany tree with the related
motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom,
all encircled by a green garland

*Belize, Economy

Overview:
The economy is based primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry, and
merchandising, with tourism and construction assuming increasing importance.
Agriculture accounts for about 30% of GDP and provides 75% of export
earnings, while sugar, the chief crop, accounts for almost 40% of hard
currency earnings. The US, Belize's main trading partner, is assisting in
efforts to reduce dependency on sugar with an agricultural diversification
program.
National product:
GDP - exchange rate conversion - $373 million (1990 est.)
National product real growth rate:
10% (1990)
National product per capita:
$1,635 (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.5% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
12% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $126.8 million; expenditures $123.1 million, including capital
expenditures of $44.8 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$95.6 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
sugar, citrus, clothing, bananas, fish products, molasses
partners:
US 49%, UK, EC, Mexico (1991)
Imports:
$194 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, food, manufactured goods, fuels,
chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners:
US 60%, UK, EC, Mexico (1991)
External debt:
$143.7 million (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.7% (1990); accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity:
34,532 kW capacity; 90 million kWh produced, 393 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
garment production, citrus concentrates, sugar refining, rum, beverages,
tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 22% of GDP (including fish and forestry); commercial crops
include sugarcane, bananas, coca, citrus fruits; expanding output of lumber
and cultured shrimp; net importer of basic foods
Illicit drugs:
an illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade;
eradication program cut marijuana production from 200 metric tons in 1987 to
about 50 metric tons in 1991; transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $104 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $215 million
Currency:
1 Belizean dollar (Bz$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1 - 2.00 (fixed rate)

*Belize, Economy

Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

*Belize, Communications

Highways:
2,710 km total; 500 km paved, 1,600 km gravel, 300 km improved earth, and
310 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft; seasonally navigable
Ports:
Belize City; additional ports for shallow draught craft include Corozol,
Punta Gorda, Big Creek
Merchant marine:
4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,768 GRT/12,721 DWT; includes 3 cargo,
1 roll-on/roll-off
Airports:
total:
42
usable:
32
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
1
with runways 1,229-2,439 mr:
2
Telecommunications:
8,650 telephones; above-average system based on microwave radio relay;
broadcast stations - 6 AM, 5 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

*Belize, Defense Forces

Branches:
British Forces Belize, Belize Defense Force (including Army, Navy, Air
Force, and Volunteer Guard), Belize National Police
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 47,135; fit for military service 28,070; reach military age
(18) annually 2,066 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $5.4 million, 2% of GDP (1992)

*Benin, Geography

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean between Nigeria and Togo
Map references:
Africa, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
112,620 km2
land area:
110,620 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
total 1,989 km, Burkina 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644 km
Coastline:
121 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
200 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain:
mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains
Natural resources:
small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble, timber
Land use:
arable land:
12%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures:
4%
forest and woodland:
35%
other:
45%
Irrigated land:
60 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in winter; deforestation;
desertification
Note:
recent droughts have severely affected marginal agriculture in north; no
natural harbors

*Benin, People

Population:
5,166,735 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.33% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
48.09 births/1,000 population (1993 est.)
Death rate:
14.8 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.)

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